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1

Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.  

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Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, ma...

Delemarre-van Waal, H. A.

1993-01-01

2

Differentiated thyroid cancer: Growth factors, oncogenes and environmental influences  

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The present data of growth factors, oncogenes, tumor-suppressor-genes and environmental factors can be summarized in thus: thyrotropin, growth factors and other hormones do increase thyrocyte growth and specific mutations of growth factor receptors (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], alpha subunit of hetero-trimeric transducer protein [GSP]) cause autonomously functioning thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In the thyroid, as in other organs, genes that are found to be differentia...

Paunovi? Ivan R.

2003-01-01

3

An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

2013-01-01

4

Can Performance of Indigenous Factors Influence Growth and Globalization?  

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This paper employs a total of thirty four openness factors and indigenous factors to construct two indicators for 62 world economies for the period 1998-2002. While most globalization studies concentrated on openness factors, regression estimates and simulation studies show that sound performance in indigenous factors are crucial to an economy’s growth and globalization. Empirical evidence shows that an optimal performance in indigenous factors can be identified, and that successful glo...

Li, Kui-wai; Pang, Iris A. J.; Ng, Michael C. M.

2007-01-01

5

Growth factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Humoral regulation of somatic and hematopoietic cell growth has been intensely investigated during the past decade. Growth hormone is unique because it regulates the size of the person within the constraints of the genetic program. The somatomedins and insulin growth factors are low molecular weight polypeptides believed to mediate some functions of growth hormone. Epithelial growth factor and nerve growth factor are well-characterized polypeptides that influence the growth and differentiation of epithelial and neural tissues and interact with specific cell surface receptors. The hematopoietins are a family of polypeptide hormones that specifically regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells giving rise to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. Platelet-derived growth factor modulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro and may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis and myelofibrosis. New knowledge on the biochemistry and physiology of growth factors will probably have a substantial impact on our understanding of human diseases involving abnormal cell growth.

Golde, D.W.; Herschman, H.R.; Lusis, A.J.; Groopman, J.E.

1980-05-01

6

A Multiple Regression Analysis on Influencing Factors of Urban Services Growth in China  

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Full Text Available The indicator of urban success is the success of its urban services. Although much research on services have been made, there is major gap with regard to the regional services, especially on urban services within a country. As for urban ser-vices, there are few research on factors influencing urban services and its effect on regional growth. In reaction to this, the government intend to accelerate the development of urban services and regional economy in the present Twelfth Five-Year Plan 2011-2015.Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence urban servic-es growth from demand , supply, institutional environment and spatial agglomeration side. By using cross-section mul-tiple regression analysis, the study examine the factors influencing urban services growth in China .The model indicated that except for urbanization, division of labor , other independent variables have contributed positively towards urban services growth in China.

ABDUL Razak bin Chik

2013-01-01

7

????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? (growth factors) - ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????  

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The most exciting recent advances in skeletal growth factor biology have emerged from genetic and transgenic approaches, and these have greatly enhanced our understanding of the role played by growth factors in the developing and adult skeleton. A more coherent picture of the interplay between different hormones, growth factors, and cytokines during the development of cartilage and bone is emerging. With the advent of inducible and tissue specific knockout and transgenic animal models, invest...

??????????????, ??????

2005-01-01

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Influence of growth-promoting factors on activity of nitric metabolism enzymes in maize  

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Full Text Available The influence of growth stimulators «Appin-extra», «Vympel» and «Agat» on the activity of aminotransferases inthe seedlings of early-mid ripening hybrids of maize has been studied. It has been established that growth-stimulating processing causes the rise of aspartat aminotransferaseand alaninaminotransferase activities and accumulation of easily soluble proteins at the early stages of growth. Against the background of clear tendency of the aminotransferases activities increase under the influence of growth-promoting factors the cultivar-specific reactions have been revealed. It has been registered the existence of a correlation (r = 0.88–0.99 between enzymatic activity of aminotransferases and growth stimulation in the maize seedlings.

?. S. Rossikhina

2011-03-01

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Individual Factors Influencing Career Growth Prospects in Contexts of Radical Organizational Changes  

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Full Text Available This study examined the influence of individual factors (demographic variables, self-efficacy beliefs and personal growth initiative on career growth prospects within the context of radical organizational changes such as downsizing, mergers and acquisition. Data were collected using the questionnaire method from 199 employees in branches of a commercial bank located in a major city in South-Western Nigeria. Results of the simple multiple regression analysis showed that educational attainment (? = -.15, p < .05, tenure in the banking sector (? = -.41, p < .01, basic monthly income (? = .46, p < .001 and job status (? = .34, p < .01 are significant demographic factors in career growth prospects. The analysis of covariance which controlled for covariates revealed significant differences in the career growth prospects of employees with low levels of self-efficacy and those with high levels – in favor of the latter. In contrast, high or low levels of personal growth initiative resulted in comparable levels of career growth prospects. Self-efficacy beliefs and personal growth initiative interacted significantly to affect career growth prospect such that greater levels of career growth prospect was expressed irrespective of whether an employee is high or low on personal growth initiative when self-efficacy belief is high. Implications of findings are discussed.

David E. Okurame

2014-09-01

10

Genetic and Environmental Factors Influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) Variation in Two Populations  

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Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has bee...

Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa; Aversano, Mario; Husemoen, Lotte; Linneberg, Allan; Bourgain, Catherine; Leutenegger, Anne-louise; Ciullo, Marina

2012-01-01

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Factors influencing the growth hormone peak and plasma insulin-like growth factor I in young adults with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome  

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Abstract Background The diagnostic criteria for growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adolescents and young adults are not yet clearly established. We evaluated the factors influencing the GH peak and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I in order to determine the cut-off limits for the diagnosis of GHD during the transition period. Methods 21 patients treated for GHD due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome at 5.7 ± 4.1 years were reevaluated ...

Brauner Raja; Souberbielle Jean-Claude; Trivin Christine; Marcu Mariana

2008-01-01

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Influence of external factors on growth and development of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L)  

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Several trials on the quantitative influence of photophase, chilling (vernalization) and high temperature (devernalization) on bolting of sugar-beet were analysed on the basis of a simple physiological model, in which bolting is considered as the final event of dynamic, momentary and quantitative processes in the plant. Trials in the field and in growth chambers examined factors in chilling and in light response. The inhibitory effect on bolting of high temperatures and the role of photophase...

Smit, A. L.

1983-01-01

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Factors influencing crystal growth rates from undercooled liquids of pharmaceutical compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amorphous forms of drugs are increasingly being used to deliver poorly water-soluble compounds. Therefore, understanding the magnitude and origin of differences in crystallization kinetics is highly important. The goal of this study was to better understand the factors that influence crystal growth rates from pharmaceutically relevant undercooled liquids and to evaluate the range of growth rates observed. The crystal growth rates of 31 drugs were determined using an optical microscope in the temperature region between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm). Thermodynamic parameters such as Tm, melting enthalpy, and Tg were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Selected viscosity values for the undercooled liquid were taken from the literature. The growth rates of the different compounds were found to be very different from each other with a variation of about 5 orders of magnitude between the fastest growing compounds and the slowest growing compounds. A comparison of the physicochemical properties showed that compounds that had fast crystal growth rates had smaller molecular weights, higher melting temperatures, lower melt entropies, lower melt viscosities, and higher crystal densities. Variations in the growth rates of the compounds could be rationalized to a large extent by considering the thermodynamic driving force for crystallization, the viscosity, and the entropy difference between the melt and undercooled liquid. This study therefore provides important insight into factors that may compromise the stability of amorphous pharmaceuticals. PMID:25076138

Trasi, Niraj S; Baird, Jared A; Kestur, Umesh S; Taylor, Lynne S

2014-08-21

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Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 influences pancreatic cancer cell growth  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the functional significance of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5 overexpression in pancreatic cancer (PaC.METHODS: The effects of IGFBP-5 on cell growth were assessed by stable transfection of BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cell lines and measuring cell number and DNA synthesis. Alterations in the cell cycle were assessed by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. Changes in cell survival and signal transduction were evaluated after mitogen activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor treatment.RESULTS: After serum deprivation, IGFBP-5 expression increased both cell number and DNA synthesis in BxPC-3 cells, but reduced cell number in PANC-1 cells. Consistent with this observation, cell cycle analysis of IGFBP-5-expressing cells revealed accelerated cell cycle progression in BxPC-3 and G2/M arrest of PANC-1 cells. Signal transduction analysis revealed that Akt activation was increased in BxPC-3, but reduced in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2 activation in BxPC-3, but enhanced ERK1/2 activation in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. When MEK1/2 was blocked, Akt activation remained elevated in IGFBP-5 expressing PaC cells; however, inhibition of PI3K or MEK1/2 abrogated IGFBP-5-mediated cell survival.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that IGFBP-5 expression affects the cell cycle and survival signal pathways and thus it may be an important mediator of PaC cell growth.

Sarah K Johnson, Randy S Haun

2009-07-01

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Size variation of 0-group plaice: Are earlier influences on growth potential a contributing factor?  

Science.gov (United States)

Over a decade of sampling has shown that there are consistent differences in the sizes of 0-group plaice by late summer comparing 21 nursery sites on the Scottish west coast. However, when young fish were collected from two sites which produce particularly small and large fish and reared using a common garden design, growth rates between fish from the two sites were indistinguishable. Either there is little selection for fast or slow growth up to a few weeks post-settlement, or such effects do not persist sufficiently strongly to influence later growth. There were also no significant correlations between the time-series of fish size comparing sites, although within some sites there was evidence of inter-annual density-dependent effects. Any influences of offshore regional-scale factors, such as sea temperature or pelagic primary productivity on growth thus appear to be heavily modified by local conditions on the nursery grounds. The field observations combined with the experimental results lead us to conclude that the size 0-group plaice attain in late summer is mainly controlled by post-settlement habitat quality.

Fox, Clive J.; Targett, Timothy E.; Ciotti, Benjamin J.; de Kroon, Kasper; Hortsmeyer, Lena; Burrows, Michael T.

2014-04-01

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A Multiple Regression Analysis on Influencing Factors of Urban Services Growth in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The indicator of urban success is the success of its urban services. Although much research on services have been made, there is major gap with regard to the regional services, especially on urban services within a country. As for urban ser-vices, there are few research on factors influencing urban services and its effect on regional growth. In reaction to this, the government intend to accelerate the development of urban services and regional economy in the present Twelfth Five-Year Plan 201...

Abdul, Razak Bin Chik; Yuan Gao

2013-01-01

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Identification of growth phases and influencing factors in cultivations with AGE1.HN cells using set-based methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-)validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN). We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell growth and metabolism under conditions of uncertainty. PMID:23936299

Borchers, Steffen; Freund, Susann; Rath, Alexander; Streif, Stefan; Reichl, Udo; Findeisen, Rolf

2013-01-01

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Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality  

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Full Text Available This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with structured and unstructured questions. The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing the growth of women entrepreneurship in Kitale and specifically to determine, the women’s level of education, skills and technology they employ, the social/cultural environmental conditions within which they operate and their financial capacity. The 70 respondents represented the target population which was within Kitale Municipality, selected by stratified random sampling procedures. Details in this project include the introduction, problem statement, the purpose, main and specific objectives of the study, research questions and the scope. A discussion of the available literature on women owned micro and small enterprises, included the enterprises’ start- up, undertakings and growth, the missing middle, the social, cultural and environmental conditions , the entrepreneur’s education level, skills technology and financing they access. The interventional efforts and growth models were also discussed. The literature review wound up with a critique, a conclusion and the missing gap. The methodology used in conducting the study was explained in details that included descriptive research design, the population, target population, sample size, sampling technique and procedure, the instruments, data collection procedure, processing and analysis. A questionnaire was administered orally to 70 women in MSE within the municipality in order to gather data. The research findings analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences(SPSS, were discussed using a triangulation style along with tables and figures the major factors affecting growth were found to be lack of training, finance, and multiple roles. The rate of growth was found to be between low and moderate. The whole research process was summarized concisely, concluded and relevant recommendations outlined. This study has made some contribution to research and added to knowledge in the existing literature all of which have been pinpointed in the summary and conclusion. The appendix included the research instrument, some tables, figures, introduction letters, a budget and a work plan. The research findings have helped unravel the problem by answering the research questions outlined and may therefore significantly play the role of assisting the stakeholders in addressing the problem of women in the MSE sector. The stakeholders include the government organs, NGOs, financial institutions, women proponents, the women entrepreneur’s, professionals and the society at large. It is hoped that the recommendation made shall be adopted by the concerned party to improve the growth of women owned MSEs in Kitale municipality and the nation at large.

Ruth Niva Ongachi

2013-10-01

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Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies suggest that the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. However, only a few studies have investigated serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression, or the possible association between genetic variants within the VEGF gene and depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression vs. control individuals, and associations between genetic markers located within VEGF and depression. In addition, determinants of the serum VEGF levels were identified. One-hundred and fifty-five depressed subjects and 280 controls were included in the study. All individuals returned a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms were successfully analysed. VEGF levels were measured in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The genetic marker rs10434 was significantly associated with depression after correction for multiple testing, but not with the serum VEGF level. Our final model included depression and BMI as predictors of serum VEGF levels. Our study suggests a role for circulating serum VEGF in depression. Furthermore, our data also demonstrate that other factors than a diagnosis of depression influence the serum VEGF level. The importance of these factors should be emphasized when studies are compared. PMID:24636631

Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Foldager, Leslie; Poulsen, Pia H P; Grynderup, Matias B; Hansen, Åse M; Kolstad, Henrik A; Kaerlev, Linda; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Børglum, Anders D; Wegener, Gregers; Mors, Ole

2014-09-01

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Factors influencing stable isotopes and growth of algae in oil sands aquatic reclamation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies reported (15)N enrichment of biota in reclamation wetlands that contain oil sands processed material (e.g., processed water and tailings); however, there is little information on the factors controlling (15)N enrichment in these systems. In this microcosm study, the aim was to examine stable C and N isotopes and growth (chlorophyll a [chl a] and dry weight) of algae as a function of exposure to different sources and concentrations of water-soluble fractions (WSF) derived from tailings. Two sources of tailings including mature fine tailings (MFT) and consolidated tailings (CT) and peat-mineral overburden were utilized to generate separate WSF that differed in water quality. In general, there was (15)N enrichment of filamentous algae along the increasing gradient of WSF/nutrient concentrations in both CT and peat microcosms, and among the different sources, algae were more (15)N enriched in CT WSF than in peat WSF. Growth of filamentous algae was inhibited at higher WSF concentrations, possibly due to reduced light availability at elevated levels of fine clay particles in MFT microcosms and colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in peat microcosms. Filamentous algae displayed lower biomass and (15)N depletion in 100% peat WSF. This study indicated that both the quality (source) and quantity of WSF affected algal growth and directly and/or indirectly influenced ?(15)N of algae. The distinct (15)N enrichment of primary producers derived from tailings suggest that stable N isotopes might be useful to trace exposure to oil sands processed material in biota that utilize these resources in reclaimed systems constructed with tailings or natural systems that receive tailings dyke seepage. PMID:25506635

Boutsivongsakd, Monique; Farwell, Andrea J; Chen, Hao; Dixon, D George

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent proangiogenic factor. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene with influence on VEGF expression have been described. In multiple myeloma, VEGF stimulates angiogenesis which is correlated with disease progression and prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the association between genetic variations in the VEGF gene in patients with multiple myeloma and time to treatment failure (TTF) after high-dose melphalan and stem cell support (HDT), overall survival (OS) and efficacy of the anti-angiogenic drug thalidomide. Retrospectively, the SNPs -2,578C>A (rs699947), -460C>T (rs833061), +405G>C (rs2010963) and +936C>T (rs3025039) in the VEGF gene were examined in 348 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma initially treated with HDT, where 176 patients were treated with thalidomide at relapse. None of the examined geno- or haplotypes was associated with differences in TTF after initial therapy or OS. A possible relation between the haplotype -2,578A/-460C/+405G (ACG) and effect of thalidomide was seen. Patients with no copies of the haplotype ACG had a longer time to next treatment than patients with one or two copies of the haplotype ACG, median 13.7 months vs. 9.2 months, p = 0.007. In conclusion, the haplotype ACG in the VEGF gene may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma. Further analyses are needed to confirm these findings and get insight into the functional effect of these polymorphisms, so in the future we may be able to select multiple myeloma patients who especially will benefit from treatment with thalidomide.

Andersen, Niels Frost; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

2012-01-01

22

Factors influencing the growth hormone peak and plasma insulin-like growth factor I in young adults with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnostic criteria for growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD in adolescents and young adults are not yet clearly established. We evaluated the factors influencing the GH peak and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF I in order to determine the cut-off limits for the diagnosis of GHD during the transition period. Methods 21 patients treated for GHD due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome at 5.7 ± 4.1 years were reevaluated at 16.0 ± 1.8 years, 0.6 ± 0.6 years after the end of GH treatment. Group 1 had isolated GHD (n = 9 and group 2 had multiple pituitary deficiencies (n = 12, including deficiencies of thyroid stimulating (n = 12, adrenocorticotropin (n = 8 and gonadotropin (n = 9 hormones. Results At diagnosis, group 1 had a greater pituitary height (2.8 ± 1.2 vs 1.6 ± 1.1 mm, P = 0.03 and GH peak (3.8 ± 1.9 vs 1.6 ± 1.5 ng/ml, P At last evaluation, group 1 had greater GH peak (3.9 ± 1.9 vs 0.2 ± 0.4 ng/ml, P = 0.0001 and plasma IGF I (211 ± 88 vs 78 ± 69 ng/ml, P The GH peak decreased between diagnosis and last evaluation only in group 2 (P Conclusion The GH peak response to pharmacological stimulation and the plasma IGF I concentration in young adults with GHD of childhood onset depend on the presence of additional pituitary deficiencies, reflecting a more severe defect of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The sex steroids cannot increase the IGF I if the GH secretion is zero.

Brauner Raja

2008-07-01

23

Influence of topical human epidermal growth factor on postkeratoplasty re-epithelialisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To test the efficacy and safety of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) on corneal re-epithelialisation following penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS: A prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study was carried out in which patients were matched for diagnosis and received either hEGF ophthalmic solution (30 micrograms/ml or 100 micrograms/ml) or placebo in a double masked fashion. Matched pairs of patients rec...

Dellaert, M. M.; Casey, T. A.; Wiffen, S.; Gordon, J.; Johnson, P.; Geerards, A. J.; Rijneveld, W. J.; Remeijer, L.; Beekhuis, W. H.; Mulder, P. G. H.

1997-01-01

24

Differential effects of dexamethasone on the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells: Influence of microenvironment, tissue origin and growth factor  

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Full Text Available nchymal stromal cells (MSCs, which reside within various tissues, are utilized in the engineering of cartilage tissue. Dexamethasone (DEX – a synthetic glucocorticoid – is almost invariably applied to potentiate the growth-factor-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro, albeit that this effect has been experimentally demonstrated only for transforming-growth-factor-beta (TGF-?-stimulated bone-marrow-derived MSCs. Clinically, systemic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with untoward side effects (e.g., bone loss and increased susceptibility to infection. Hence, the use of these agents should be avoided or limited. We hypothesize that the influence of DEX on the chondrogenesis of MSCs depends upon their tissue origin and microenvironment [absence or presence of an extracellular matrix (ECM], as well as upon the nature of the growth factor. We investigated its effects upon the TGF-?1- and bone-morphogenetic-protein 2 (BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs as a function of tissue source (bone marrow vs. synovium and microenvironment [cell aggregates (no ECM vs. explants (presence of a natural ECM]. In aggregates of bone-marrow-derived MSCs, DEX enhanced TGF-?1-induced chondrogenesis by an up-regulation of cartilaginous genes, but had little influence on the BMP-2-induced response. In aggregates of synovial MSCs, DEX exerted no remarkable effect on either TGF-?1- or BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis. In synovial explants, DEX inhibited BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis almost completely, but had little impact on the TGF-?1-induced response. Our data reveal that steroids are not indispensable for the chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro. Their influence is context dependent (tissue source of the MSCs, their microenvironment and the nature of the growth-factor. This finding has important implications for MSC based approaches to cartilage repair.

N Shintani

2011-11-01

25

Influence of several factors on the growth of selenium nanowires induced by silver nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a study on the crystallization and growth mechanism of selenium nanowires induced by silver nanoparticles at ambient conditions with special reference to the effects of factors such as the shapes and size of silver nanoparticles, the induced reaction time, and the molar ratio of Ag0 to SeO32- ions. The synthesis approach is conducted with no need of any stabilizers, and with no sonochemical process and/or templates. It is found that whether silver spherical particles or colloids can lead to the formation of nanowires with average diameter of 25 nm and lengths up to a few micrometers, and silver nanoplates lead to the formation of flat Se nanostructures. In particular, Au, Cu, Pt, and Pd particles cannot induce the growth of selenium nanowires in aqueous solution at room temperature. The results indicate that silver particles play a critical role in determining the growth of selenium nanowires. The lattice match between hexagonal-Se and orthorhombic- or trigonal-Ag2Se particles is the major driving force in the growth of such nanostructures. The findings would be useful for design and construction of heterogeneous nanostructures with similar lattice parameter(s)

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Influence of farnesyl transferase inhibitor treatment on epidermal growth factor receptor status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiolabelled growth factor [123/125I] I-hEGF is evaluated in vitro and in vivo to monitor the acute effects on the EGFR of R115777, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI). Upregulation of the EGFR after incubation with R115777 correlated linearly with FTI induced acute growth inhibition. Receptor mediated [125I] I-hEGF internalization decreased following R115777 treatment. Preliminary data suggest that the net in vivo effect is a decrease of [123I] I-hEGF uptake in the tumour. These findings suggest the possible use of radioiodinated hEGF as a radiodiagnosticum to investigate EGFR status changes as a predictor for eventual FTI chemotherapy outcome in vivo

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Ram Sperm Motility Parameters under The Influence of Epidermal Growth Factor  

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Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the important cytokines that play a role in fertility. It is known that EGF affects both male and female reproduction, but its effect on sperm parameters is not fully understood. Up to the present, the effect of EGF on ram sperm motility parameters has not been published. We analyzed motility parameters of ejaculates after 24, 48, and 72 hours from the EGF addition. EGF was added to chilled ram sperm at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, and 400?ng·ml?...

Norbert Luká?; Eliška Špaleková; Makarevich, Alexander V.

2011-01-01

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Non-genetic and genetic factors influencing growth performance in Murrah Buffalos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Live weight data from 590 Murrah buffalo calves (140 male and 450 female calves) maintained at the Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India, born in the period between 1990 and 2004 were used for this study. Data were analysed using least-squares procedures. The adjusted birth weigh [...] ts of male and female calves were 33.0 ± 0.49 and 31.9 ± 0.27 kg, respectively, with an overall value of 32.4 ± 0.30 kg. The mean body weight at three, six, nine and 12 months of age pooled over periods, season and sex were 62.0 ± 0.65, 87.9 ± 0.95, 112.4 ± 1.23 and 134.16 ± 1.41 kg, respectively. Period of calving influenced the weight significantly at birth, three and six months of ages only. The effect of dam parity on body weight at different ages was highly significant. The calves born during the dam's second parity were generally heavier than those born in other parities. Generally, males had a higher body weight than females at all age groups. All the growth traits showed medium heritability (direct) estimates, which ranged between 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.22 ± 0.16. The genetic correlations were all medium to high and positive. The genetic parameter estimates indicated that the six months weight can be used as a selection tool for genetic improvement of growth traits considering its high heritability and positive genetic correlations with succeeding growth traits.

A.K., Thiruvenkadan; S., Panneerselvam; R., Rajendran.

29

Factors affecting bone growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone growth and development are products of the complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Longitudinal bone growth depends on the growth plate. The growth plate has 5 different zones-each with a different functional role-and is the final target organ for longitudinal growth. Bone length is affected by several systemic, local, and mechanical factors. All these regulation systems control the final length of bones in a complicated way. Despite its significance to bone stability, bone growth in width has not been studied as extensively as longitudinal bone growth. Bone growth in width is also controlled by genetic factors, but mechanical loading regulates periosteal apposition. In this article, we review the most recent data regarding bone growth from the embryonic age and analyze the factors that control bone growth. An understanding of this complex system is important in identifying metabolic and developmental bone diseases and fracture risk. PMID:25658073

Gkiatas, Ioannis; Lykissas, Marios; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Korompilias, Anastasios; Batistatou, Anna; Beris, Alexandros

2015-02-01

30

Inflation, factor substitution and growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent empirical studies on the inflation-growth-relationship underline that inflation has negative growth effects already under relatively modest rates. Most contributions to monetary growth theory, however, have difficulties in explaining such a pattern. It is shown in this paper that this problem can be overcome by establishing a link between monetary instability and the aggregate elasticity of factor substitution. Several microeconomic justifications can be found for a negative influence ...

Klump, Rainer

2003-01-01

31

The Influence of Adnectin Binding on the Extracellular Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor  

Science.gov (United States)

The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.

Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.

2014-12-01

32

Influence of Environmental Factors and Medium Composition on Vibrio gazogenes Growth and Prodigiosin Production  

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Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 29988 growth and prodigiosin synthesis were studied in batch culture on complex and defined media and in chemostat cultures on defined medium. In batch culture on complex medium, a maximum growth rate of 0.75 h?1 and a maximum prodigiosin concentration of 80 ng of prodigiosin · mg of cell protein?1 were observed. In batch culture on defined medium, maximum growth rates were lower (maximum growth rate, 0.40 h?1), and maximum prodigiosin concentrations were higher (...

Allen, Garry R.; Reichelt, John L.; Gray, Peter P.

1983-01-01

33

Factors that influence the oxidation of the manganese in a growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, R J  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetic behavior of the oxidation of the manganese in the growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, Sepetiba Bay, R J, have been studied through the incubation with the radiotracer Mn-54. We have observed the great influence of the factors that interferes in the rate oxidation with the mangrove state in the moment of the sampling. We applied statistical multivariate to verify the correlation with the tide height and the physical-chemical parameters. With the program Statistical Analysis System, SAS, the samples were classified by hierarchical conglomerate methods and Factor Analysis. Water samples were collected in the entrance of the tide channel in five campaigns in the months of August, September, November and December of 98, and January of 99, in several tide heights. As a conclusion, by the multivariate statistical analysis where variables correlations are presented in each group or cluster in a population. Therefore the variables that we are measuring as reflecting the influence the oxidation manganese in the mangroves. Although the variable tide height did not influence in the classification groups. We suppose that will need more sampling in different tide height cycle. (author)

34

New thrombopoietic growth factors  

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Although development of first-generation thrombopoietic growth factors (recombinant human thrombopoietin [TPO] and pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor [PEG-rHuMGDF]) was stopped due to development of antibodies to PEG-rHuMGDF, nonimmunogenic second-generation thrombopoietic growth factors with unique pharmacologic properties have been developed. TPO peptide mimetics contain TPO receptor-activating peptides inserted into complementarity-determining regions o...

Kuter, David J.

2007-01-01

35

Influence of platelet-derived growth factor-AB on tissue development in autologous platelet-rich plasma gels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibrin-based scaffolds are widely used in tissue engineering. We postulated that the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in contrast to platelet-poor plasma and pure fibrinogen as the basic material leads to an increased release of autologous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB, which may have a consequent positive effect on tissue development. Therefore, we evaluated the release of PDGF-AB during the production process and the course of PDGF release during cultivation of plasma gels with and w/o platelets. The influence of PDGF-AB on the proliferation rate of human umbilical cord artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) was studied using XTT assay. The synthesis of extracellular matrix by HUASMCs in plasma- and fibrin gels was measured using hydroxyproline assay. The use of PRP led to an increase in autologous PDGF-AB release. Further, the platelet-containing plasma gels showed a prolonged release of growth factor during cultivation. Both PRP and platelet-poor plasma gels had a positive effect on the production of collagen. However, PDGF-AB as a supplement in medium and in pure fibrin gel had neither an effect on cell proliferation nor on the collagen synthesis rate. This observation may be due to an absence of PDGF receptors in HUASMCs as determined by flow cytometry. In conclusion, although the prolonged autologous production of PDGF-AB in PRP gels is possible, the enhanced tissue development by HUASMCs within such gels is not PDGF related. PMID:21413900

Wirz, Simone; Dietrich, Maren; Flanagan, Thomas C; Bokermann, Gudrun; Wagner, Wolfgang; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Jockenhoevel, Stefan

2011-07-01

36

Influence of environmental and nutritional factors on growth, toxicity, and toxin profile of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum T1 was isolated from southern Taiwan in February 1996, grown under various environmental and nutritional conditions, and then examined for growth, toxicity, and toxin profile. It was found that the optimal environmental conditions for cell growth and toxin production of A. minutum T1 was as follows: temperature 25 degrees C, pH 7.5, light strength 120 microEm(-2) s(-1), and salinity 15 ppt. The optimal level of nutrients supplemented in the 50% natural seawater medium was as follows: phosphate 0.002%, nitrate 0.01%, cupric ion 5.0 ppb, ferric ion 270 ppb and humic acid free. Both cell toxicity and total toxicity reached the maximum level at the post-stationary growth phase and decreased quickly. The toxic components of A. minutum T1 were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, and found to be gonyautoxin (GTX) 1-4 only. Among these four toxin components, toxins GTX 1 and 4 were the predominant components throughout the growth curve when the cells were grown in the optimal environmental and nutritional conditions. But toxins GTX 2 and 3 increased when the cells were cultured in high salinity medium. PMID:10775750

Hwang, D F; Lu, Y H

2000-11-01

37

Influence of magnitude and location of tropospheric growth factors for the transformation of cyclones to severe storms over the North Atlantic  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of European surface wind storms out of normal mid-latitude cyclones is substantially influenced by upstream tropospheric growth factors over the Northern Atlantic. The main factors include divergence and vorticity advection in the upper troposphere, latent heat release and the presence of instabilities of baroclinic waves of suitable wave lengths. In this study we examine a subset of these potential growth factors and their related influences on the transformation of extra-tropical cyclones into severe damage prone surface storm systems. Previous studies have shown links between specific growth factors and surface wind storms related to extreme cyclones. In our study we investigate in further detail the relevant processes, spatial coherence and temporal variability between surface developments and upstream growth factors at different vertical levels of the troposphere. The analyses will primarily comprise of the three growth factors baroclinicity, latent heat release and upper tropospheric divergence. Firstly we will examine the relation of the magnitude of an upstream growth factor anomaly to the strength of the storm system. Secondly we will analyse the influence and variability of the positions of these anomalies and their relation to the location of a surface storm event. We thus address the question whether the link between storm intensity and related growth factor anomalies taking into account their spatial variability can be quantified. Using ERA Interim Reanalysis from 1979-2012 for an extended winter season (October to March), results for baroclinicity show a zonally elongated enhancement of baroclinic instability over the mid North Atlantic. While our findings suggest that baroclinicity increases up to more than double of the long term mean previously to the occurrence of a wind storm, a clear relation between its magnitude and resulting cyclone intensity has yet to be established. Factors steering these anomalies are investigated including the link to hemispheric anomaly patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation.

Wild, Simon; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

2014-05-01

38

Physical capacity influences the response of insulin-like growth factor and its binding proteins to training  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The influence of initial training status on the response of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and its binding proteins (IGFBP) to prolonged physical training was studied in young men. It was hypothesized that highly standardized training would result in more extensive changes in the circulating IGF system in untrained subjects because of lower fitness level. Seven untrained (UT) and 12 well-trained (WT) individuals performed 11 wk of intense physical training (2-4 h daily). Fasting serum samples were analyzed for total and free IGF-I and -II, for IGFBP-1 to -4, as well as for IGFBP-3 proteolysis. Eleven weeks of physical training resulted in decreased levels of total IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGFBP-4 in both the UT and WT groups. In the UT group, IGFBP-2 increased, IGFBP-3 decreased [from 4,255 +/- 410 (baseline) to 3,896 +/- 465 (SD) microg/l (week 4); P <0.05], and IGFBP-3 proteolysis increased [from 28 +/- 8% (baseline) to 37 +/- 7% (week 4) and 39 +/- 12% (week 11); P <0.05], whereas no significant changes were found in the WT group. In conclusion, intense physical training results in a marked influence on the IGF system and its binding proteins with generally more extensive changes seen in the untrained individuals. Also, prolonged physical training resulted in increased IGFBP-3 proteolysis in previously untrained individuals only, indicating that intense physical training affects trained and untrained individuals differently.

Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning

2002-01-01

39

Influence of basic fibroblast growth factor on the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT in epidermal cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT in epidermal cells and the influence on basic fibroblasts growth factor(bFGF.Methods The precursor epithelial stem cells(ESCs were derived by in vitro bFGF-induced dedifferentiation of human keratinocytes(HEK cells.The phenotypic changes of derived ESCs were detected by immunocytochemical staining,and the hTERT expression was detected by flow cytometry,immunofluorescence staining and TRAP-silver staining.HEK without bFGF treatment were used as control,and ESCs simultaneously isolated from human epidermis were used as positive control.Results Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression of ?1-integrin,CK19 and CK14 in derived ESCs was significantly up-regulated,while the CK10 expression was significantly down-regulated.Flow cytometry revealed that the percentage of hTERT+ cell subsets in experimental group(derived ESCs,control group and positive control group was 98.41%,0.77% and 99.76%,respectively.TRAP-silver staining analysis indicated that the telomerase activity was significantly up-regulated in experimental group compared with that in control group,while there was no significantly difference between experimental group and positive control group.Furthermore,immunofluorescence assay revealed that there was difference in subcellular localization of hTERT between experimental group(derived ESCs and positive control group(ESCs.Conclusion Basic fibroblast growth factor may induce epidermal cells to dedifferentiate and regain the phenotype of ESCs,which leads to the changes in hTERT expression and activity,and induces its subcellular shift of the locus.

Xiao-yan SUN

2011-06-01

40

FGF growth factor analogs  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

2012-07-24

 
 
 
 
41

Growth factors and stroke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current options for the treatment of stroke are extremely limited, partly because of the rapidity with which brain cells die when deprived of their blood supply. Several recent studies suggest that growth factors can produce improvement in animal models of stroke, even when administered at postischemic intervals of many hours to days, when conventional neuroprotective approaches are typically futile. Several growth factors can access the brain after systemic administration, making them more a...

Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

2006-01-01

42

Haemopoietic growth factors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haemopoietic growth factors are involved in the production of the various blood cells from progenitors in the bone marrow, making them useful in a range of clinical situations. The genes for several of them have been cloned and their production engineered by recombinant technology, making them widely available. Myeloid growth factors are used to support patients in the aftermath of chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation and have potential application in the treatment of infectious disea...

Khwaja, A.; Goldstone, A. H.

1997-01-01

43

RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION  

Science.gov (United States)

ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression. ...

44

New microbial growth factor  

Science.gov (United States)

A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

1977-01-01

45

Growth factors in tumor microenvironment  

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Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. Components in the microenvironment can modulate the growth of tumor cells, their ability to progress and metastasize. A major venue of communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment is through polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. This article discusses three major classes of growth-stimulatory polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. It also d...

Zhang, Xuejing; Nie, Daotai; Chakrabarty, Subhas

2010-01-01

46

Mammalian epidermal growth factor promotes plant growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Application of mouse submaxillary gland epidermal growth factor to young sorghum seedlings at low concentrations (?0.4-4 ?M) increased shoot growth significantly over 3- and 6-day periods. The effects were dose dependent.

Dyer, Melvin I.

1980-01-01

47

Factors influencing the growth of cracks from defects in CDFR specification 316 stainless steel thermal shock specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of cracks from spark machined slits and gouged grooves has been studied in a CDFR specification cast of 316 stainless steel under thermal shock conditions using sodium as the heat transfer medium. Comparative uniaxial creep fatigue tests have also been performed in servohydraulic machines under isothermal conditions. The cycles used for the thermal shock tests consisted of step increases in temperatures of between 75 and 300 C followed by tensile holds at 600 C of duration 0.05 to 24 hours, and finally slow cooling to the initial temperature ready for the next cycle. The results are presented showing the influence on crack growth of strain range, hold time, number of cycles, types of defect and ferrite stringer direction. (author)

48

MATERNAL FACTORS OF THREAT AND AN INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

MATERNAL FACTORS OF THREAT AND AN INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION. This paper is a part of a research which aims to compare the level of foetuses growth according to the influence of maternal factors of threat.

Cies?lik, Krystyna

1996-01-01

49

Growth of new firms: Which factors influence post-entry performance? : An empirical analysis based on Swiss firm data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to shed light on the factors which determine the post-entry performance of new firms. It is often argued that new firms are the driving force of structural changes and sometimes they are even characterized as an engine of economic growth. Nevertheless, the empirical evidence is mixed. Taking into account the high exit rate of new firms, a specific founding cohort does not contribute substantially to new jobs. In this paper, we analyse the contribution of new firms con...

Marmet, David

2004-01-01

50

Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...

Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta

2013-01-01

51

Binding between Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-binding Protein 3 Is Not Influenced by Glucose or 2-Deoxy-d-glucose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recent report (Zhong, D., Xiong, L., Liu, T., Liu, X., Liu, X., Chen, J., Sun, S. Y., Khuri, F. R., Zong, Y., Zhou, Q., and Zhou, W. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 23225–23233) details that 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a well known inhibitor of glycolysis and a candidate antineoplastic agent, also induces insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling through the inhibition of insulin-like growth factor 1-insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGF-1-IGFBP-3) complex formation. Z...

Mireuta, Matei; Hancock, Mark A.; Pollak, Michael

2011-01-01

52

Growth factors and new periodontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

Paknejad M

1999-06-01

53

Factors influencing resuscitation and growth of heat injured Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in sous vide cooked beef.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth of Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in vacuum-packed, minced beef was investigated as a function of degree of heat injury (including no injury i.e. uncooked beef), growth phase (logarithmic and late stationary phase), pH (5.6 and 6.2), and storage temperature (3, 10 and 20 degrees C) during a storage period of 30 days. Late logarithmic and late stationary phase cultures of L. monocytogenes 13-249 showed similar growth in refrigerated, vacuum-packed, raw minced beef with a high pH (6.2). In normal pH (5.6) beef there was no growth at 3 degrees C while growth at 10 and 20 degrees C was only observed for logarithmic phase cultures. Heat injured late stationary phase cultures with 95-99.9% injured cells in the surviving population (as measured by differential plating on enriched vs. selective media after sous vide cooking) did not grow or repair sublethal injuries in sous vide cooked beef at 3 degrees C while repair and growth took place at 10 as well as at 20 degrees C. In logarithmic phase cultures heat injury occurred very rapidly and > or = 99.9% heat injury was observed in all trials in spite of much lower pasteurization values and fewer log10 reductions compared with late stationary phase cultures. Regardless of growth phase, all cultures where a high degree of heat injury (> or = 99.9%) was observed, did not subsequently grow in the beef product at 3 or 10 degrees C within 30 days. Growth of heat injured cultures preexposed to heat shock (46 degrees C, 30 min) or slowly rising temperatures (0.3 degrees C min(-1)) before heat injury was also investigated. Heat shocked or heat adapted cultures generally responded in the same manner as non-stressed cultures (no growth at 3 degrees C) except that a longer lag phase was observed in beef processed at slowly rising temperatures and in normal pH beef at 10 degrees C. Although processing at slowly rising temperatures may slightly increase the survival of L. monocytogenes 13-249 in cooked beef, there seem to be no indication of an increase in subsequent growth potential of the surviving cells. PMID:11205945

Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

2001-01-22

54

Novel studies on influence of gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor-I on growth of cumulus oophorus in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the final developmental stage of a Graafian follicle, there are two functionally distinct types of granulosa cells: the cumulus cells (CCs) and the mural granulosa cells (MGCs). Previous studies focused on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) interactions in MGCs. Our goal was to study these interactions in CC proliferation. Immature rats received in vivo treatments of either saline, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) with high FSH activity, an IGF-I analog (LR3-IGF-I) with poor binding to IGF-I binding proteins, or a combination of both hormones. CCs from each in vivo treatment were then cultured and treated in vitro with either saline, FSH, or IGF-I. CCs proliferation were assessed by measurement of 3H-thymidine incorporation. Prior in vivo treatment with eCG resulted in the highest proliferative activity of CCs when combined with FSH in vitro treatment. In vivo treatment with LR3-IGF-I had no effect on CC replication. CC replication was higher in FSH in vitro treatment than of IGF-I. The combination of eCG and LR3-IGF-I was the only in vivo treatment to stimulate higher CC proliferation with IGF-I in vitro treatment. This study suggests that FSH does not act through IGF-I, a mechanism previously proposed. PMID:10855689

Khamsi, F; Roberge, S

2000-02-01

55

Endorsement of Growth Factors in Experiential Training Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify student growth factors during a semester long Master's level group counseling class. Results indicated that 12 growth factors accounted for 86% of the total number of critical incidents that participants reported as influencing their personal growth and awareness during the group experience. Two other…

Kiweewa, John; Gilbride, Dennis; Luke, Melissa; Seward, Derek

2013-01-01

56

Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P?P?=?0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P?=?0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

Guo You-feng

2012-06-01

57

Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Cornice'. II. Influence of growth inhibition on the anatomical structure of the stem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Differentiation of the particular tissues in shoots inhibited in growth by chlormequat occurs differently than in vigorously growing ones. After the end of elongation growth, in the subapical part of shoots sprayed with chlormequat the cortex extends and secondary xylem develops less intensively, this leading to an increased participation of parenchymatous tissue in the stem.

Franciszka Jaumie?

1983-12-01

58

Growth inhibition by vaccinia virus growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccinia virus growth factor (VGF), a highly glycosylated 77-residue epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like polypeptide encoded in vaccinia poxvirus, is reported to play an important role in stimulating growth of uninfected cells to facilitate virus infection. We have chemically synthesized the unglycosylated forms of VGF and VGF19-69, a shortened VGF analog consisting of 51 residues and comprising the EGF-homologous region (position 19-69) of VGF. Both synthetic forms of VGFs were purified to homogeneity and vigorously characterized by various criteria, including the Cf-252 ion fission fragment mass spectrometry, amino acid sequencing, and enzymatic digestion to confirm the disulfide linkages. Synthetic VGFs exhibited high affinity binding to the EGF receptors in A431, NRK 49F, NRK clone 3, and NIH 3T3 cells, but, unlike the glycosylated form, showed contrasting mitogenic activities in various cells in vitro. Synthetic VGFs showed low levels of mitogenic and colonogenic activities in NRK clone 49F cells and NIH 3T3 cells, full agonist activities in human keratinocytes and Swiss 3T3 cells, and partial agonist activities in NRK clone 3 cells. Our results suggest that the unglycosylated form of VGF is an EGF antagonist to selected cells and that the production of unglycosylated form of VGF by the cytolytic vaccinia virus may serve as a mechanism whereby inhibition of growth and metabolism of selected host cells may be used to facilitate the propagation of the virus infection. PMID:2229050

Lin, Y Z; Ke, X H; Tam, J P

1990-11-01

59

Factores que influyen en el crecimiento endocondral: experimentos y modelos / Facteurs influençant la croissance de l'os endochondral: expériences et modèles. Une révision / Factors influencing on the endochondral growth: experiments and models. A review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan los principales factores que influyen durante el desarrollo endocondral a nivel pre y postnatal. Los factores más importantes del desarrollo de los huesos largos se pueden clasificar en moleculares y mecánicos, los cuales a su vez se clasifican como intrínsecos y extrínsecos. En este ar [...] tículo se presentan los principales avances en el conocimiento del desarrollo endocondral para lo cual se hace una revisión del estado del arte sobre los modelos experimentales, animales y algunos computacionales del conjunto de todos los factores que influyen en el crecimiento de un hueso largo. La última parte del artículo hace referencia a la aparición y desarrollo de los centros secundarios de osificación y como la mecánica y los factores moleculares, se encuentran íntimamente regulados para controlar la total formación de un hueso. Abstract in english The main factors influencing on the endochondral development at the pre- and postnatal level are presented. The most important factors of the development of the long bones may be classified into molecular and mechanical, which at the same time, may be defined as intrinsic and extrinsic. In this pape [...] r, the fundamental advances attained in the knowledge of the endochondral development are presented, for which a review of the state of the art regarding the experimental, animal and some computer models of the set of all the factors influencing on the growth of a long bone is made. The last part of the article refers to the appearance and development of the secondary centres of ossification and to how mechanics and the molecular factors are closely regulated to control total bone formation.

Diego Alexander, Garzón Alvarado; Máximo Alejandro, Roa Garzón; Angélica María, Ramírez Martínez.

2008-06-01

60

Growth factors and new periodontology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth subs...

Paknejad M; Ranjbar R

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Cultural Factors Influencing Children's Pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political and legal, economic, educational factors was used as framework for the analysis.Results: Religious and philosophical factors, kinship and social factors, cultural values and lifeways, political and legalfactors, and economical and educational factors were found to be related to children's pain. The relation was focused onboth acute, recurrent and chronic pain.Discussion and conclusions: In a global view, there are several cultural factors that are related to children's pain indifferent settings. Many of these factors are culturally valued and could be difficult to modify. More research is neededto understand specific cultural influences that maintain traditions and practices leading to children's suffering from pain.Implications for practice: Nurses should be aware of cultural factors that may have influence on children's pain. Byproviding information to children and their parents some of these traditions and cultural factors might be modified.

Anna-Maija Pietilä

2009-01-01

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Growth factors in orthopedic surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The author...

Zaharia, C.; Niculescu, M.; Despa, N.; Simionescu, M.; Jinga, V.; Fleseriu, I.

2010-01-01

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The Influencing Factors of Coal Reservoir Permeability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The permeability of coal reservoir is the most important influencing factor for choosing favorable area and production of coalbed methane, this article takes a detailed analysis of coal rank, thickness of coal seam, coal structure, construct curvature, effective stress, Klingberg effect and matrix shrinkage effect on reservoir permeability with comprehensive information consulting, literature review methods. The results show that coal reservoir is dual pore structure; the degree of development of fracture directly influences the size of the coal seam permeability. The growth of natural fracture density and lithotype band or negatively correlate to the layer thickness.

LIU Jun-shan

2014-03-01

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Growth Factor Regulation of Growth Factors in Articular Chondrocytes*S?  

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Several lines of evidence indicate that polypeptide growth factors are important in articular cartilage homeostasis and repair. It is not yet clear how these growth factors are regulated. We tested the hypothesis that the growth factors responsible for regulating cartilage are themselves regulated by growth factors. We delivered insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and/or transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) to adult bovine arti...

Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J.; Trippel, Stephen B.

2009-01-01

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The influence of genotype on vascular endothelial growth factor and regulation of myocardial collateral blood flow in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that mutations in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene are associated with plasma concentration of VEGF and subsequently the ability to influence coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Blood samples from patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (n=53) and acute coronary syndrome (n=61) were analysed. Coronary collaterals were scored from diagnostic biplane coronary angiograms. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of VEGF was increased in patients with acute compared to chronic CHD (p=0.01). The genotype frequencies differed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in three of 15 examined loci. Four new mutations in addition to the already described were identified. The VEGF haplotype did not seem to predict plasma VEGF concentration (p=0.5). There was an association between the genotype in locus VEGF-1154 and coronary collateral size (p=0.03) and a significant association between the VEGF plasma concentration and the collateral size (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: VEGF plasma concentration seems related to coronary collateral function in patients with CHD. The results did not support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the untranslated region of the VEGF gene were associated with the concentration of circulating VEGF. Increased understanding of VEGF in the regulation of myocardial collateral flow may lead to new therapies in CHD Udgivelsesdato: 2009

Ripa, R.S.; Jorgensen, E.

2009-01-01

66

The placental growth factor (PGF)--a positional and functional candidate gene influencing calving ease and stillbirth in German dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bovine placental growth factor-encoding gene (PGF) was analysed as a positional and functional candidate gene for the maternal effect on stillbirth and calving ease in first parity. Prominent levels of PGF expression have been reported for the whole human placenta and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Modulation of angiogenesis, vessel remodelling and vascular permeability during implantation and placentation suggest an influence on trophoblast function during pregnancy. Changes of expression or protein function may therefore be crucial to pregnancy and parturition. By comparative sequencing of bulls with extreme approximate daughter yield deviations for calving traits, we identified 37 SNPs and two insertions/deletions within the PGF gene. Seventeen of the identified polymorphisms were genotyped in 368 selected bulls and tested for association with approximate daughter yield deviations for calving traits. In a single marker analysis, all SNPs were significantly associated with maternal stillbirth and calving ease first parity. The allele substitutions of the significant SNPs explain 8% to 14% and 8% to 15% of the additive genetic variance for maternal stillbirth and maternal calving ease first parity, respectively. There is no evidence that any of the polymorphisms identified within this study could be the causal mutation underlying the QTL, which is likely to be a regulatory mutation. In summary, we report polymorphisms in the bovine PGF gene significantly associated with the maternal effect on stillbirth and calving ease in animals under selection. These results should be confirmed and extended in further studies to identify the causal mutation underlying the QTL analysed. PMID:20477802

Seidenspinner, T; Tetens, J; Habier, D; Bennewitz, J; Thaller, G

2011-02-01

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INFLUENCE OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEINS (IGFBP)-1 AND IGFBP-3 ON BONE HEALTH: RESULTS FROM THE EUROPEAN MALE AGEING STUDY (EMAS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3, and IGF-1 on calcaneal ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men aged 40 to 79 years were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Subjects were invited by letter to complete a postal questionnaire and to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus and a fasting blood sample from which serum levels of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, IGF-1, oestradiol (E2) and SHBG were assayed. The questionnaires included the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and questions about smoking and alcohol consumption. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) was derived as a function of the QUS parameters, speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Height and weight were measured in all subjects. 3057 men, mean age 59.7 years (standard deviation [SD]=11.0) were included in the analysis. After adjusting for age, centre and BMI, higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with lower eBMD. Higher levels of both IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were associated with higher eBMD. After further adjustment for PASE score, current smoking, alcohol consumption, free E2 and SHBG, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1, though not IGFBP-1, remained significantly associated with eBMD. IGFBP-1 was associated with bone health though the effect could be explained by other factors. IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were independent determinants of bone health in middle aged and elderly European men. PMID:21503646

Pye, Stephen R; Almusalam, Bader; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Borghs, Herman; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael EJ; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick CW; O’Neill, Terence W

2014-01-01

68

The influence of fractionated radiation therapy on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in dogs with spontaneous tumors and its impact on outcome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Back ground and purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific pro-angiogenic factor is proposed to be involved in cancer progression and resistance to radiation therapy by promoting angiogenesis and by protecting endothelial cells from radiation induced apoptosis. The aim of this study, was first to assess the influence of ionizing radiation on plasma VEGF concentration in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy with curative or palliative intent and second to analyze plasma VEGF concentration as predictor for treatment outcome. Patients and methods: For plasma VEGF analysis a human VEGF enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used. Sixty dogs with various tumor types were included in this study. Dogs were irradiated with either low dose per fx (3-3.5 Gy per fraction, total dose: 42-49 Gy, group A: curative intent) or high dose per fx (6-8 Gy per fraction, total dose: 24-30 Gy, group B: palliative intent). Blood samples were taken before and after dose application at certain time points during therapy. Follow-up evaluation was performed for analysis of time to treatment failure and survival. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed no increase of plasma VEGF in dogs treated with fractionated radiation therapy (group A and B). Dichotomizing baseline plasma VEGF into two groups with high and low plasma VEGF, resulted in shorter time to treatment failure in dogs with high plasma VEGF levels (TTF, group A: P=0.038, group B: P=0.041s (TTF, group A: P=0.038, group B: P=0.041). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that dogs with a plasma VEGF level higher than 5 pg/ml had a poorer outcome after radiation therapy. It is therefore, suggested, to use plasma VEGF as predictor for treatment outcome in radiation therapy

69

What factors influence mitigative capacity?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors - income, abatement cost and opportunity cost - that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation. (author)

Winkler, H. [University of Cape Town (South Africa). Energy Research Centre; Baumert, K. [World Resources Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Blanchard, O. [Laboratoire d' Economie de la Prodution et de l' Integration Internationale-Energie et Politiques de l' Environnement, Grenoble (France); Burch, S.; Robinson, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

2007-01-15

70

What factors influence mitigative capacity?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly rk force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

71

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Placenta Growth Factor in Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Fetuses and Neonates  

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The angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PlGF) are respectively up- and downregulated by hypoxia. We aimed to study circulating levels of the above factors in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to correlate their levels with the customized centiles of the infants. The study included 25 IUGR and 25 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) full-term, singleton infants and their mothers. Maternal (MS), fetal (UC), and ...

Malamitsi-puchner, Ariadne; Boutsikou, Theodora; Economou, Emmanuel; Sarandakou, Angeliki; Makrakis, Evangelos; Hassiakos, Dimitrios; Creatsas, George

2005-01-01

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Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping  

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Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.

Sri Astuti Pratminingsih

2013-06-01

73

Growth factors in orthopedic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions. PMID:20302195

Zaharia, Comeliu; Niculescu, Marius; Despa, Nicoleta; Simionescu, Maya; Jinga, Victor; Fleseriu, Irina

2010-01-01

74

EDUCATION - AN ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTOR  

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Education is a strategic area of development. As part of the education system, higher education is themechanism that can give to a society the resources necessary for its correlation with social and economic developmentsat global level.The truth that education is a factor of economic growth is not a new thing. During time, it was proved thatinvestment in education, research and development, and health insurance is undoubtedly more profitable than the otherinputs.The future of every nation dep...

Na?stase, Carmen

2010-01-01

75

Curvas de crescimento de ovinos Bergamácia criados no Distrito Federal / Parameters for three growth curves and factors that influence them for Bergamasca sheep in the Brasilia Region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A análise de um banco de dados de crescimento em ovinos Bergamácia (pesos até dois anos de idade de 1982 a 1996) foi feita usando-se métodos não-lineares para determinar parâmetros de três curvas (Brody, Richards e Logística) de crescimento. Os parâmetros das curvas foram analisados pelo Statistical [...] Analysis System (SAS) usando o procedimento GLM e CORR para determinar fatores que influenciaram os parâmetros e as correlações entre os parâmetros e pesos dos animais. O sistema de manejo foi semi-extensivo com os ovinos ao pasto durante o dia e presos à noite para proteger dos predadores. Os fatores fixos incluídos foram ordem do parto, sexo do cordeiro, tipo de nascimento, mês e ano. As médias dos parâmetros das curvas foram: Richards - A = 50,024, B = 0,647, k = 0,003, M = 17,771 e R² = 0,838; Brody - A= 52,763, B=0,885, k =0,003, R²= 0,842; Logístico - A=47,894, B=-3,895, k=0,007 e R²= 0,840. O meio ambiente influenciou o crescimento e a reprodução de ovinos na região de Brasília. A correlação negativa entre k e A indica que animais que amadurecem mais cedo têm menos probabilidade de atingir pesos adultos mais altos que animais que amadurecem tardiamente. A curva Logística estimou o peso adulto dos animais com média inferior às das outras curvas. Os pesos atuais estão, contudo, mais bem correlacionados com os estimados pela Logística. Não houve diferença entre os três tipos de curvas em termos de R². O quadrado médio do resíduo foi maior para a curva de Richards. A curva recomendada para ajustar dados de crescimento de ovinos da raça Bergamácia é Logística. Abstract in english Fifteen years of data from a flock of Bergamasca sheep weighed every two weeks was analyzed using non-linear methods to determine parameters of three growth curves (Brody , Richards and Logistic). The curve parameters were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) procedures GLM and CORR to d [...] etermine factors which influenced them and correlations between the parameters and weights at determined ages. Fixed effects in the model included lambing number, sex of lamb, type of birth and month and age of lambing. The management system is semi-extensive, with the sheep at pasture during the day and imprisoned at night to protect them against predators. Means of the parameters were: Richards; A = 50.024, B = 0.647, k = 0.003, M = 17.771 and R²= 0.838; Brody; A= 52.763, B=0.885, k=0.003, R²= 0.842; Logistic; A =47.894, B=-3.895, k=0.007 and R²= 0.840. The environment influenced the growth of sheep in the region of Brasilia. The Logistic curve estimated adult weights lower than the other curves but the actual weights were better correlated with those estimated by this curve. There was no difference between the curves in terms of R², and the error mean square was higher for the Richards curve. The negative correlation between A and k indicates that early maturing animals were less likely to reach high mature weights, compared with late maturing ones. The recommended curve for adjusting growth curves in Bergamasca sheep is the Logistic curve.

Concepta, McManus; Cibele, Evangelista; Luiz Augusto Costa, Fernandes; Roberto Meirelles de, Miranda; Francisco Ernesto, Moreno-Bernal; Natalia Ribeiro dos, Santos.

1207-12-01

76

Biomechanical factors as triggers of vascular growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemodynamic factors influence all forms of vascular growth (vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis). Because of its prominent role in atherosclerosis, shear stress has gained particular attention, but other factors such as circumferential stretch are equally important to maintain the integrity and to (re)model the vascular network. While these haemodynamic forces are crucial determinants of the appearance and the structure of the vasculature, they are in turn subjected to structural changes in the blood vessels, such as an increased arterial stiffness in chronic arterial hypertension and ageing. This results in an interplay between the various forces (biomechanical forces) and the involved vascular elements. Although many molecular mediators of biomechanical forces still need to be identified, there is plenty of evidence for the causal role of these forces in vascular growth processes, which will be summarized in this review. In addition, we will discuss the effects of concomitant diseases and disorders on these processes by altering either the biomechanics or their transduction into biological signals. Particularly endothelial dysfunction, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, and age affect mechanosensing and -transduction of flow signals, thereby underpinning their influence on cardiovascular health. Finally, current approaches to modify biomechanical forces to therapeutically modulate vascular growth in humans will be described. PMID:23580605

Hoefer, Imo E; den Adel, Brigit; Daemen, Mat J A P

2013-07-15

77

Interaction of ATP with fibroblast growth factor 2: biochemical characterization and consequence for growth factor stability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor 2, a well-characterized heparin-binding growth factor, is involved in many biological processes like embryogenesis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. However, this growth factor is very unstable and shows rapid degradation in aqueous solution. Beside the well-known stabilization of FGF2 by heparin or heparan sulphate, the recently discovered binding to ATP also shows a stabilizing and protective effect on this growth factor. Results Here we determined the dissociation constant of ATP on FGF2 by equilibrium microdialysis (KD: 59.8 ?M and analyzed the impact of this binding on secondary structure by CD-spectroscopy. ATP-binding to FGF2 significantly changed the secondary structure of this growth factor with a shift to random coil structure elements. We also analyzed the influence of this binding on the stability of FGF2 in aqueous solution over a period of 2 h. While the amount of untreated FGF2 is reduced drastically over this period of time, ATP-binding reduces the degradation considerably. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggest an important role of ATP in FGF2-stabilization beside the well known-role of heparin and heparan sulphate.

Rose Karsten

2011-03-01

78

A study of factors influencing advanced puberty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

Yong Jun Park

2010-02-01

79

Epidermal growth factor and growth in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a dose-dependent thickening of the epidermis in suckling mice. The cellular mechanisms underlying this thickening were analyzed by measuring the effect of EGF on the cell-cycle. Neonatal mice were given daily injections of either 2ug EGF/g body weight/day or an equivalent volume of saline, and on the seventh day received a single injection of 3H-thymidine. At various times the mice were perfused with fixative; 1um sections of skin were stained with a modification of Harris' hematoxylin and were autoradiographed. The sections were analyzed using three methods based on the dependence on time after injection of 3H-thymidine of: frequency of labelled mitoses, labelling index, and reciprocal grains/nucleus. It was found that EGF caused a two-fold increase in the cell production rate. The effect of exogenous EGF on the morphology of gastric mucosa and incisors of suckling mice was also studied. The gastric mucosa appeared thicker in EGF-treated animals, but the effect was not statistically significant. In contrast to its effect on epidermis and gastric mucosa, EGF caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the size of the incisors. Because the mouse submandibular salivary gland is the major source of EGF the effect of sialoadenectomy on female reproductive functions was examined. Ablation of the submandibular gland had no effect on: length of estrus cycle, ability of the female to produce litters, length of thhe female to produce litters, length of the gestation period, litter size, and weight of the litter at birth. There was also no effect on survival of the offspring or on age at which the eyelids separated

80

Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Relative influence of c-Kit expression and epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification on survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

c-Kit and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have critical roles in cell proliferation and differentiation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of c-Kit and/or EGFR expression in tumor tissue samples from 146 patients with NSCLC. c-Kit expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and the expression of EGFR was assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Univariate and multivariate analyses identifie...

Xiao, Hui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Yanan; Li, Li

2014-01-01

82

The in vitro influences of epidermal growth factor and heregulin-?1 on the efficacy of trastuzumab used in Her-2 positive breast adenocarcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2) is over expressed in approximately 25-30% of all primary breast tumors resulting in a distinctive breast cancer subtype associated with a poor prognosis and a decrease in overall survival. Trastuzumab (Herceptin®), an anti-Her-2 monoclonal antibody, has dramatically altered the prognosis of Her-2 positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab is, however, associated with primary and acquired resistance. AIM AND METHODS: To investigate t...

Hurrell, Tracey; Outhoff, Kim

2013-01-01

83

Influence of Subtherapeutic Chlortetracycline and Dietary Protein on Circulating Concentration of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Growing Beef Steers  

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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral administration of a subtherapeutic amount of chlortetracycline (CTC) on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in bovine receiving two levels of dietary protein. Thirty-two beef steers, weighing 286 ? 3 kg, were allotted randomly by weight to a factorial arrangement of treatments consisting of diets containing either marginal (10%) or adequate (13%) amounts of crude protein supplemented with a cor...

Kahl, S.; Elsasser, T. H.; Rumsey, T. S.; Baldwin, R. L.; Mcleod, K. R.; Streeter, M. N.

2003-01-01

84

Factors influencing pacing in triathlon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

Wu SSX

2014-09-01

85

The genome of Shope fibroma virus, a tumorigenic poxvirus, contains a growth factor gene with sequence similarity to those encoding epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Degenerate oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a highly conserved region common to epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, and vaccinia growth factor were used to identify a novel growth factor gene in the Shope fibroma virus genome. Sequence analysis indicates that the Shope fibroma growth factor is a distinct new member of this family of growth factors.

Chang, W.; Upton, C.; Hu, S. L.; Purchio, A. F.; Mcfadden, G.

1987-01-01

86

The influence of environmental factors on growth and interactions between Embellisia allii and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolated from garlic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embellisia allii results in the formation of a bulb canker and black soot on the surface of different alliums and it has been frequently detected on garlic bulbs together with the spoilage fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae, which causes bulb basal plate rot. In this study, the influence of water activity (a(w)) and temperature on mycelial growth of E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae, conidial size and sporulation of E. allii, interactions between E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae, Index of Dominance (I(D)), and in situ virulence on garlic were examined. Mycelial growth of E. allii was optimal (5.97 mm/day) at 0.995 a(w) and 25 degrees C, slower at 30 degrees C. However, almost no growth occurred at 0.937 a(w)/30 degrees C. F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae grew faster than E. allii, (6.3-7.4mm/day) at 30 degrees C. Interactions between E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae were influenced by a(w) and temperature. Sporulation of E. allii was more abundant on PDA than on MEA, especially at high a(w) (0.995) and low temperature (20 degrees C), but almost no sporulation occurred at 30 degrees C regardless of nutritional medium or a(w) level. The spore length of E. allii was longer on PDA than MEA, and was significantly influenced by water availability. F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was competitive against E. allii and had a higher I(D) value in comparison with E. allii especially at a higher temperature (30 degrees C). In situ virulence tests showed that E. allii was weakly virulent on the garlic bulb cloves while that of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was highly dependent on a(w). PMID:20153538

Lee, Hyang Burm; Magan, Naresh

2010-04-15

87

The influence of environmental factors on growth and interactions between Embellisia allii and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolated from garlic  

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Embellisia allii results in the formation of a bulb canker and black soot on the surface of different alliums and it has been frequently detected on garlic bulbs together with the spoilage fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae, which causes bulb basal plate rot. In this study, the influence of water activity (aw) and temperature on mycelial growth of E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae, conidial size and sporulation of E. allii, interactions between E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae...

Lee, Hyang Burm; Magan, Naresh

2010-01-01

88

Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis  

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Full Text Available Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, insulin-like growth factor (IGF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF, and transforming growth factor (TGF in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

Debashis Nandy

2011-02-01

89

Epidermal growth factor inhibits cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of the duodenal ulcerogen cysteamine on secretion of epidermal growth factor from Brunner's gland pouches was studied in the rat. Total output of immunoreactive epidermal growth factor was reduced to approximately 55%, compared with controls, 5 h after administration of cysteamine (300 mg/kg, s.c.). Furthermore, measurements on tissue extracts of the pouches revealed that 5 h after cysteamine treatment, Brunner's glands were depleted of epidermal growth factor. The effect on ulcer development of intraduodenally applied exogenous epidermal growth factor (1 micrograms/kg . h) also was studied. Luminal epidermal growth factor significantly inhibited the formation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer, compared with controls receiving saline. The effect was not due to inhibition of gastric acid secretion or stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion since the dose of epidermal growth factor used, when tested on chronic fistula rats, had no effect on acid secretion and did not influence bicarbonate secretion from Brunner's gland pouches. These results demonstrate that epidermal growth factor has a cytoprotective effect on the duodenal mucosa, and it is suggested that inhibition of synthesis and secretion of endogenous epidermal growth factor may be a pathogenetic factor in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer.

Poulsen, Steen Seier

1983-01-01

90

Growth factor conjugation: Strategies and applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth factors, first known for their essential role in the initiation of mitosis, are required for a variety of cellular processes and their localized delivery is considered as a rational approach in their therapeutic application to assure a safe and effective treatment while avoiding unwanted adverse effects. Noncovalent immobilization of growth factors as well as their covalent conjugation is amongst the most common strategies for localized delivery of growth factors. Today, immobilized and covalently conjugated growth factors are considered as a promising drug design and are widely used for protein reformulation and material design to cover the unwanted characteristics of growth factors as well as improving their functions. Selection of a suitable conjugation technique depends on the substrate chemistry and the availability of functional reactive groups in the structure of growth factor, the position of reactive groups in growth factor molecules and its relation with the receptor binding area, and the intention of creating either patterned or unpatterned conjugation. Various approaches for growth factor reformulation have been reported. This review provides an overview on chemical conjugation of growth factors and covers the relevant studies accomplished for bioconjugation of growth factors and their related application. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A:, 2014. PMID:24733811

Hajimiri, Mirhamed; Shahverdi, Sheida; Kamalinia, Golnaz; Dinarvand, Rassoul

2014-04-15

91

Neuronal outgrowth of PC-12 cells after combined treatment with nerve growth factor and a magnetic field: influence of the induced electric field strength.  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of possible therapeutic applications of magnetic fields, the effect of an enhancement of neuronal outgrowth at higher figures of flux density and induced field strength was investigated. On the average sinusoidal magnetic field treatment at 100 microTrms/50 Hz did not change nerve growth factor (NGF) induced neurite outgrowth to a statistically significant extent. These results suggest that further increasing the induced field strength by using either higher flux densities and/or more sophisticated wave forms might be necessary to cause the neuronal response of PC-12 cells, as seen in other experiments. PMID:15605400

Schimmelpfeng, J; Weibezahn, K-F; Dertinger, H

2005-01-01

92

Growth Factors in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy  

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Many growth factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Alteration of growth factors and their receptors in diabetes has been shown in both experimental and clinical studies. Sustained hyperglycemia resulting from long-standing diabetes leads to several biochemical abnormalities that consequently result in retinal hypoxia. Retinal oxygenation state regulates various growth factors that promote angiogenesis in order to meet the oxyg...

Khan, Zia Ali; Chakrabarti, Subrata

2003-01-01

93

Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage ?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible ? lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of ? lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

Dennehy John J

2011-08-01

94

The Influence of Education on Economic Growth  

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Full Text Available In transition countries affected by uncertainty, the educational system usually suffers from lack of funds from the government and it is affected by various reforms. It is important to see how education influences economic growth and how this growth can be improved by investing in education. In this article, after a literature and econometric models review, the influence of primary, secondary and tertiary education over the GDP growth will be analyzed for Bulgaria, Czech Republic and the Netherlands, using regressions models, with the aid of computer software tool EViews. The models will be tested in order to obtain a good and reliable model.

?TEFAN CRISTIAN CIUCU

2014-05-01

95

Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer  

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Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

Ioan Pastor

2011-05-01

96

Growth factor parametrization and modified gravity  

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The growth rate of matter perturbation and the expansion rate of the Universe can be used to distinguish modified gravity and dark energy models in explaining the cosmic acceleration. The growth rate is parametrized by the growth index $\\gamma$. We discuss the dependence of $\\gamma$ on the matter energy density $\\Omega$ and its current value $\\Omega_0$ for a more accurate approximation of the growth factor. The observational data, including the data of the growth rate, are u...

Gong, Yungui

2008-01-01

97

Influence of gain-of-function mutation (Ser252Trp in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene on long bone development  

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Full Text Available Objective?To observe the early postnatal long bone development in Fgfr2+/S252W mutant mice and littermate wild-type (WT mice, and explore the effect of continued function enhancement of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 gene on endochondral ossification. Methods?A mouse model of Fgfr2+/S252W simulated human Apert syndrome was reproduced by knock-in technique, and then the gain-of-function mutation Fgfr2+/S252W mice and littermate WT mice were obtained after breeding and identification. Three Fgfr2+/S252W and same number of WT mice were sacrificed at 7, 10, 14 and 28 postnatal days respectively, and the morphology of long bone was examined with X-ray and Micro CT, the structure of bone and cartilage was observed by HE staining, and the expression of gene in growth plate was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results?Fgfr2+/S252W mouse model exhibited typical craniosynostosis and brachycephalium of Apert syndrome, accompanied by short stature, growth retardation of long bone, delayed appearance of secondary ossification center, decrease of bone density and trabecula number. HE staining showed noticeable shortened zones of proliferation and hypertrophic chondrocytes, irregularity of cell arrangement, and small hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the mutant mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of genes related to chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation was decreased in mutant mice. Conclusions?Gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2 may lead to abnormal development of long bone in mice. FGFR2 may have the function of regulating the development both of osteoblast and chondrocyte lineages, and play an important role in the process of skeletal development.

Peng CHEN

2013-07-01

98

Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C ve humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)

99

Extracellular matrix and growth factors during heart growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of growth factors on tissue remodeling and cell differentiation depend on the nature of the extracellular matrix, the type and organization of integrins, the activation of metalloproteinases and the presence of secreted proteins associated to the matrix. These interactions are actually poorly known in the cardiovascular system. We describe here: 1) the main components of extracellular matrix within the cardiovascular system; 2) the role of integrins in the transmission of growth signals; 3) the shift in the expression of the components of the extracellular matrix (fibronectin and collagens) and the stimulation of the synthesis of metalloproteinases during normal and hypertrophic growth of the myocardium; 4) the effects of growth factors, such as Angiotensin II, Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGF), Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta), on the synthesis of proteins of the extracellular matrix in the heart. PMID:16228139

Corda, S; Samuel, J L; Rappaport, L

2000-06-01

100

Genistein-mediated inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which corrects storage in cells of patients suffering from mucopolysaccharidoses, acts by influencing an epidermal growth factor-dependent pathway  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are inherited metabolic disorders caused by mutations leading to dysfunction of one of enzymes involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Due to their impaired degradation, GAGs accumulate in cells of patients, which results in dysfunction of tissues and organs. Substrate reduction therapy is one of potential treatment of these diseases. It was demonstrated previously that genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone inhibits synthesis and reduces levels of GAGs in cultures of fibroblasts of MPS patients. Recent pilot clinical study indicated that such a therapy may be effective in MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome. Methods To learn on details of the molecular mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis, efficiency of this process was studied by measuring of incorporation of labeled sulfate, storage of GAGs in lysosomes was estimated by using electron microscopic techniques, and efficiency of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor was determined by using an ELISA-based assay with fluorogenic substrates. Results Effects of genistein on inhibition of GAG synthesis and accumulation in fibroblasts from patients suffering from various MPS types were abolished in the presence of an excess of EGF, and were partially reversed by an increased concentration of genistein. No such effects were observed when an excess of 17?-estradiol was used instead of EGF. Moreover, EGF-mediated stimulation of phsophorylation of the EGF receptor was impaired in the presence of genistein in both wild-type and MPS fibroblasts. Conclusion The results presented in this report indicate that the mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis operates through epidermal growth factor (EGF-dependent pathway.

Bara?ska Sylwia

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

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Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nat...

Yanxia Sang

2010-01-01

102

Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

Vandenburgh, Herman H.

1993-01-01

103

Influence of acidic fibroblast growth factor on bone regeneration in experimental cranial defects using spongostan and Bio-Oss as protein carriers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to valuate 2 substances as potential carriers of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) in a rat craniectomy model: gelatin sponge (Spongostan; Ferrosan A/S, Søborg, Denmark) and natural bone mineral (Bio-Oss; Geistlich Biomaterials, Wolhusen, Switzerland).Forty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. A 5-mm-diameter circular craniectomy was performed in the left parietal bone. Animals were divided into 6 experimental groups of 8 rats, each group receiving a different treatment: control (no substance added), Spongostan, Bio-Oss, FGF, FGF + Spongostan, and FGF + Bio-Oss. Animals were killed 12 weeks after surgery.Descriptive histology and stereology were used, the latter to measure the volumes of regenerated bone and Bio-Oss remaining in the defect. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in bone regeneration between groups, and Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the volume of remaining Bio-Oss particles.Histologically, the control defects behaved like critical size defects, showing incomplete bone regeneration. Only the FGF + Spongostan group achieved nearly complete bone regeneration. Bio-Oss particles seemed to reduce centripetal bone regeneration. Spongostan by itself did not interfere with spontaneous bone healing.Stereologic measurements of the volume of new bone growth, measured in cubic millimeter, were as follows: control group, 3.86 ± 1.03; Bio-Oss, 2.26 ± 1.06; Spongostan, 3.00 ± 0.81; FGF, 3.99 ± 1.85; FGF + Bio-Oss, 3.02 ± 1.88; and FGF + Spongostan, 8.93 ± 1.28. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference between the FGF + Spongostan group and the other groups (P Spongostan carrier has shown great efficacy for bone regeneration in cranial critical size defects in rats. Bio-Oss did not produce a regenerative effect, either alone or with FGF-1. PMID:24036716

Arias-Gallo, Javier; Chamorro-Pons, Manuel; Avendaño, Carlos; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

2013-09-01

104

Change in the terpenoid profile and secondary growth in declining stands of Pinus sylvestris L. under mediterranean influence as a response to local factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The terpenoid profile could give information about the water status in Scots pine, especially for trees growing in the same geographical area but under contrasting local environmental conditions. Terpenes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in needles, twigs and wood of ten affected and ten unaffected Scots pines in the southern “Sistema Ibérico” range (Teruel, Spain, where forest decline has been recently reported. Soil depth and secondary growth was also studied in both types of trees. Needles and twigs total resin acids were significantly higher in affected trees. The pimarane type resin acids were also higher in the twigs of affected trees. Secondary growth was lower in affected trees and it showed higher climate sensitivity. The use of the terpenoid profile may be used as an additional tool for the estimation of the water status, especially for situations inducing moderate but relatively prolonged stress conditions.El perfil terpénico podría dar información sobre el estado hídrico en el pino albar, especialmente cuando se comparen especímenes de una zona geográfica concreta afectados por factores ambientales locales. Los terpenos de acículas, brotes del año y madera fueron analizados en diez ejemplares afectados y otros tantos no afectados por el decaimiento mediante cromatografía de masas acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La serie de crecimiento secundario en ambos tipos de ejemplares fue también estudiada. La concentración total de ácidos resínicos aumentó de modo significativo en los árboles afectados tanto en brotes del año como en acículas. La cantidad de ácidos de tipo pimarano también aumentó en los brotes de los árboles afectados. La profundidad del suelo y el crecimiento secundario era menor en este tipo de ejemplares, que muestran una mayor sensibilidad en términos dendrocronológicos. El perfíl terpénico podría utilizarse como una herramienta adicional a la estimación del estado hídrico, especialmente cuando el árbol está afectado por condiciones de estrés moderadas pero prolongadas en el tiempo.

Sanz, M. A.

2014-12-01

105

Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. PMID:24814689

McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

2014-12-01

106

Milk Epidermal Growth Factor and Gut Protection  

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Maternal milk is a complex fluid with multifunctional roles within the developing gastrointestinal tract. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) are members of the family of EGF-related peptides. Biological actions of these growth factors are mediated via interaction with the EGF-receptor (EGF-R). In the early postnatal period, breast milk is the major source of EGF for the developing intestinal mucosa. HB-EGF is also detected in breast milk, but in ...

Dvorak, Bohuslav

2010-01-01

107

Factors Influencing Web Search Strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the influence of question-related variables (closed/open and predictable/unpredictable) on a Web user's choice of search strategy in the initial stage of a search. Search strategies considered include direct address, subject directory, and search engine. Objectives were to determine the adaptiveness of Web users in choosing an…

White, Marilyn Domas; Iivonen, Mirja

108

Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promotes Vascular Repair  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravascular injury to arteries can result in thickening of the intimal smooth muscle layer adjacent to the lumen by migration and proliferation of cells from the underlying medial smooth muscle layer accompanied by deposition of extracellular matrix. This pathological response, which decreases lumen diameter, might, in part, be the result of the access of smooth muscle cells to plasma and platelet-derived growth factors as a consequence of denudation of the overlying confluent monolayer of vascular endothelial cells. Injured rat carotid arteries were treated by i.v. administration of acidic fibroblast growth factor, a heparin-binding protein that is chemotactic and mitogenic for vascular endothelial cells. The growth factor treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of intimal thickening with parallel promotion of endothelial regeneration over the injured area. Therefore, acidic fibroblast growth factor might be efficacious in the prevention of restenosis caused by intimal thickening following angioplasty in humans.

Bjornsson, Thorir D.; Dryjski, Maciej; Tluczek, John; Mennie, Robert; Ronan, John; Mellin, Theodore N.; Thomas, Kenneth A.

1991-10-01

109

Cultural Factors Influencing Children's Pain  

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Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political a...

Anna-Maija Pietilä; Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen; Päivi Kankkunen; Merja Nikkonen

2009-01-01

110

Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the myostatin and myogenic factor 5 muscle growth-related genes on the performance traits of Marchigiana beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Marchigiana is famous for its large body size and favorable dressing percentage. A myostatin (MSTN) gene mutation (a G to T transversion) was identified in the breed. The homozygote "GG" yields a "normal" phenotype, the homozygote "TT" yields a double muscled body shape but sometimes causes survival problems, and the heterozygote genotype produces an extremely muscled body without defects. In practice, Marchigiana "TT" homozygotes are culled from reproduction, but the heterozygotes are chosen as sires. The objective of this study was to assess genes involved in Marchigiana muscle development to improve selection procedures. The effects of the MSTN and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) genes on the growth and muscle traits in the Marchigiana breed were assessed. The effects of MSTN together with the genotype of the causative mutation (g.874G > T) and the effects of the two SNP in the promoter were studied (g.-371T > A and g.-805G > C). The SNP effects were evaluated in a comparison between the means of the several genotypes or for the average gene substitution and dominance effect. Two hundred forty-nine bullocks were evaluated using a performance test. At the beginning and end of the trial, the animals were weighed and their bodies were measured every 21 d up to 12 mo of age. In addition to these observations, morphological scores and the BLUP indices were estimated at the end of the performance test. The obtained results suggested that the MSTN g.874G > T and MYF5 SNP could be considered in the selection program of the Marchigiana breed. A MSTN g.874G > T genotyping service for the breeders could help to avoid the "TT" genotype and to select for the "GT" genotype. The "AA" MYF5 SNP genotype could also be selected for even if good muscle development yields a certain size reduction. PMID:25023801

Sarti, F M; Lasagna, E; Ceccobelli, S; Di Lorenzo, P; Filippini, F; Sbarra, F; Giontella, A; Pieramati, C; Panella, F

2014-09-01

111

Factors that determine the evolution of high-growth businesses  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and management practices; in 2013, they were re-analyzed to investigate the factors that contributed to continued growth for certain companies. Contributions: Through diverse statistical techniques, business policies related to quality, innovation, internationalization and finance were shown to influence business growth and sustainability over time. Limitations of the Research: This study focuses on industrial businesses at least ten years old in Catalonia; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations and economic sectors, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical Implications: Because growth is a measure of business success, identifying variables that contribute to high growth and its sustainability is helpful for businesses that seek to adopt effective policies. Social Implications: Generating employment is one of the primary contributions by high-growth businesses. For years with high unemployment, authorities may be interested in corporate policies that strengthen high-growth businesses. Originality/Added Value: High-growth businesses have been studied throughout the world, but this is the first study to investigate the evolution of businesses after a high-growth phase.

Oriol Amat

2013-09-01

112

Transforming growth factor-? and smooth muscle differentiation  

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Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family members are multifunctional cytokines regulating diverse cellular functions such as growth, adhesion, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. TGF-?s elicit their effects via specific type?I?and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. Knockout mouse models for the different components of the TGF-? signaling pathway have revealed their critical roles in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. G...

Guo, Xia; Chen, Shi-you

2012-01-01

113

Design and Synthesis of Binding Growth Factors  

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Growth factors play important roles in tissue regeneration. However, because of their instability and diffusible nature, improvements in their performance would be desirable for therapeutic applications. Conferring binding affinities would be one way to improve their applicability. Here we review techniques for conjugating growth factors to polypeptides with particular affinities. Conjugation has been designed at the level of gene fusion and of polypeptide ligation. We summarize and discuss t...

Yoshihiro Ito; Takashi Kitajima; Seiichi Tada

2012-01-01

114

Thymic output: influence factors and molecular mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines, sphingosine1-phosphate (S1P), transcription factors such as Foxj1, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output. PMID:17092431

Jin, Rong; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Weifeng

2006-10-01

115

Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility  

Science.gov (United States)

... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

116

Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

1999-01-01

117

Insulin-like 3-induced rat preantral follicular growth is mediated by growth differentiation factor 9.  

Science.gov (United States)

The communication of somatic cells and oocytes by intrafollicular paracrine factors is essential for follicular growth in the ovary. Insulin-like 3 (INSL3) is a theca cell-secreted paracrine factor. Androgens and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), an oocyte-derived growth factor, are essential for follicular development. Using a rat preantral follicle culture model, we examined in the present study the influence of INSL3 on preantral follicular growth and the molecular mechanisms involved. We have observed that the receptor for INSL3, relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), was exclusively expressed in oocytes. Recombinant INSL3 stimulated Gdf9 expression, preantral follicular growth, and testosterone synthesis in vitro. Inhibition of the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway (with cAMP antagonist, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer) attenuated INSL3-induced Gdf9 expression and preantral follicular growth. Moreover, knocking down Gdf9 expression (with small interfering RNA) or inhibiting GDF9 signaling (with SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase receptor 5 inhibitor, or specific inhibitor of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3) or androgen action (with flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist) suppressed INSL3-induced preantral follicular growth. In addition, LH and DHT regulated the expression of Insl3 mRNA in preantral follicles. These observations suggest that INSL3 is a key theca cell-derived growth factor for preantral follicle and that its action is mediated by GDF9. PMID:24169563

Xue, Kai; Kim, Ji Young; Liu, Jia-yin; Tsang, Benjamin K

2014-01-01

118

Factors influencing school connectedness: Chinese adolescents' perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explored the concept of school connectedness and the factors that may influence its development with a sample of Chinese adolescents. Six focus groups involving 52 high school students were conducted using a set of predetermined discussion topics. Results indicated that the students fully understood the notion of school connectedness and could identify a number of key influences affecting its development. These factors could be grouped under several domains including teacher care, ...

Yuen, M.; Lau, Psy; Lee, Qay; Gysbers, Nc; Chan, Rmc; Fong, Rw; Chung, Yb; Shea, Pmk

2011-01-01

119

Factors Influencing Household Food Security Status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, impaired physical and mental development and reduced productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the Influencing factors on the household food insecurity status. This cross-sectional study conducted on 2500 households selected from Qaresoo region in the northwest of Iran. Household food security status measured by a validated short questionnaire including six questions and other required data (influencing factors) obtained alongsid...

Sharafkhani Rahim; Dastgiri Saeed; Gharaaghaji Asl Rasool; Ghavamzadeh Saeed

2011-01-01

120

ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

Zizi GOSCHIN

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Growth factor parametrization in curved space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth rate of matter perturbation and the expansion rate of the Universe can be used to distinguish modified gravity and dark energy models in explaining cosmic acceleration. We explore here the inclusion of spatial curvature into the growth factor. We expand previous results using the approximation ?m? and then suggest a new form, fa=?m?+(?-4/7)?k, as an approximation for the growth factor when the curvature ?k is not negligible, and where the growth index ? is usually model dependent. The expression recovers the standard results for the curved and flat ?CDM and Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Using the best fit values of ?m0 and ?k0 to the expansion/distance measurements from Type Ia SNe, baryon acoustic oscillation, WMAP5, and H(z) data, we fit the growth index parameter to current growth factor data and obtain ??(?k?0)=0.65-0.15+0.17 and ?DGP(?k?0)=0.53-0.12+0.14. For the ?CDM model, the 1-? observational bounds are found consistent with theoretical value, unlike the case for the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. We also find that the current data we used is not enough to put significant constraints when the 3 parameters in fa are fit simultaneously. Importantly, we find that, in the presence of curvature, the analytical expression proposed for fssion proposed for fa provides a better fit to the growth factor than other forms and should be useful for future high precision missions and studies.

122

Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…

Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur

2011-01-01

123

The influence of fluid composition on barite growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Depending on the fluid composition, the mechanism of interaction of a fluid with a mineral surface will involve transport of ions either to or from a mineral surface. The principal control on the growth of barite, BaSO4, has been shown to be the dehydration of the Ba2+ ion at the mineral-fluid interface (Piana et al., 2006). This is also likely to be the case for other ions that could be incorporated into a growing surface. It follows that any chemical influence on the dehydration kinetics will determine the redistribution of ions between solid and fluid phases. Earlier work has shown that the influence of background electrolytes, apart from the constituent ions in the barite structure, have a significant effect on barite growth, and it was hypothesized that this was due to changing the dynamics of the water structure (Kowacz and Putnis, 2008). Here using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we show that barite growth is influenced by the pH of the solution. Previous research does not indicate any pH dependence on the growth of barite, as speciation predictions do not vary significantly with pH. However atomic-scale observations show that at low and high pH, growth rates change compared to pH values 4 - 9. In order to test the influence of pH on barite growth, influencing factors need to be held constant apart from the factor (pH) being tested. AFM observations of barite growth under conditions of constant supersaturation, temperature, Ba/SO4 ratio and ionic strength but changing growth solution pH have been studied. In natural systems, the presence of other ions, apart from Ba2+ and SO42- growth building units, must be considered. We also investigate the influence of ionic strength on the growth process. Direct observations of barite growth at the nano-scale afford the possibility of directly seeing the growth process. Barite scale formation is one of the main problems in many industrial processes (such as, paper-making, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, off-shore oil extraction, geothermal energy production). It is especially problematic (and costly) in oilfields due to its low solubility and hardness resulting in solid layers of barite that can block pipes completely, reducing the production of an oil-well. Barite scale in oilfields is caused by mixing of the injected seawater (high in SO4) to increase the oil extraction maintaining the inner pressure in the reservoir, with formation water (high in Ba2+) in the reservoir. The partitioning of trace amounts of radium (Ra2+) into the barite also leads to the problem that the scale becomes radioactive. The reactions that lead to BaSO4 scale formation and the methods that could reduce or prevent it are poorly quantified. To be able to control crystal growth, we first need to understand how barite grows, the conditions for optimal growth, as well as any factors that inhibit or reduce this growth to a minimum. Refs.: Piana S., Jones F., Gale JD. Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 128, 13568 (2006) Kowacz M and Putnis A. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 4476 (2008) Acknowledgement: C.R-A. acknowledges a Marie Curie Fellowship: EU ITN MINSC (Mineral Scale Formation, PITN-GA-2011-290040)

Ruiz Agudo, Cristina; Putnis, Christine V.; Putnis Putnis, Andrew

2013-04-01

124

Growth factor release following femoral nailing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether growth factors essential for fracture healing are substantially increased in the immediate aftermath following reaming of the intramedullary cavity for stabilisation of femoral shaft fractures. Consecutive adult patients whose femoral shaft fractures stabilised with either reamed (10 patients) or unreamed (10 patients) intramedullary nailing were studied. Peripheral blood samples and samples from the femoral canal before and after reaming and nail insertion were collected. Serum was extracted and using Elisa colorimetric assays the concentration of Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BetaBeta (PDGF), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) was measured. The mean age of the twenty patients who participated in the study was 38 years (range 20-63). Reaming substantially increased all studied growth factors (p<0.05) locally in the femoral canal. VEGF and PDGF were increased after reaming by 111.2% and 115.6% respectively. IGF-I was increased by 31.5% and TGF-beta1 was increased by 54.2%. In the unreamed group the levels of PDGF-BB, VEGF, TGF-beta1 remained unchanged while the levels of IGF-I decreased by 10%. The levels of these mediators in the peripheral circulation were not altered irrespectively of the nail insertion technique used. BMP-2 levels during all time points were below the detection limit of the immunoassay. This study indicates that reaming of the intramedullary cavity is associated with increased liberation of growth factors. The osteogenic effect of reaming could be secondary not only to grafting debris but also to the increased liberation of these molecules. PMID:18243089

Giannoudis, Peter V; Pountos, Ippokratis; Morley, John; Perry, Sarah; Tarkin, Hans Ivan; Pape, Hans-Christoph

2008-04-01

125

Factores de crecimiento III: factores transformadores del crecimiento (TGF) Growth factors III part: transforming growth factors (TGF)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se presenta una revisión de los conceptos básicos sobre los factores transformadores del crecimiento, tanto alfa como beta, incluyendo los siguientes aspectos: consideraciones generales, estructura bioquímica, concentraciones, proteínas transportadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos. A review is presented on the basic concepts of Transforming Growth Factors both a and p; it includes general considerations, biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, ...

Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño; Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.

1996-01-01

126

Growth factors III part: transforming growth factors (TGF) Factores de crecimiento III: factores transformadores del crecimiento (TGF)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A review is presented on the basic concepts of Transforming Growth Factors both a and p; it includes general considerations, biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, and biological effects. Se presenta una revisión de los conceptos básicos sobre los factores transformadores del crecimiento, tanto alfa como beta, incluyendo los siguientes aspectos: consideraciones generales, estructura bioquímica, concentraciones, proteínas transportadoras, ...

Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño; Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.

1996-01-01

127

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

DANA-CODRU?A DUD?-D?IANU

2012-05-01

128

Keratinocyte growth inhibition by high-dose epidermal growth factor is mediated by transforming growth factor beta autoinduction: a negative feedback mechanism for keratinocyte growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands initiate a major signaling pathway that regulates keratinocyte growth in an autocrine manner. It is well known that high doses of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands inhibit keratinocyte growth. Recently, signal transducers and activators of transcription 1-dependent p21Waf1/Cip1 induction were reported to be involved in high-dose epidermal growth factor-dependent cell growth arrest in the A431 squamous cell carcinoma cell line; however, transfection of dominant-negative signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 adenovirus vector did not block epidermal growth factor-induced growth inhibition in normal human keratinocytes. As transforming growth factor beta is a potent inhibitor of keratinocyte proliferation, we hypothesized that transforming growth factor beta contributes to epidermal growth factor-mediated keratinocyte growth inhibition. Epidermal growth factor concentrations of 10 ng per ml enhanced transforming growth factor beta1 mRNA expression from 3 to 6 h poststimulation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis detected 150 pg per ml of transforming growth factor beta1 in the culture medium of keratinocytes incubated with 10 and 100 ng per ml epidermal growth factor, whereas 0.1 and 1.0 ng per ml epidermal growth factor slightly enhance transforming growth factor beta1 production. Epidermal growth factor (100 ng per ml) upregulated luciferase activity of p3TP-lux, which contains three tandem transforming growth factor beta-Smad signaling responsive elements, 6-fold compared with unstimulated cells. The epidermal growth factor-dependent induction of p3TP-lux luciferase activity was disrupted by transfection of the dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta type I receptor adenovirus vector (AxdnALK5), which suggests that epidermal growth factor-induced transforming growth factor beta acts in an autocrine manner in keratinocytes. Moreover, transfection of AxdnALK5 completely blocked the growth inhibition induced by 100 ng per ml of epidermal growth factor in normal keratinocytes. These data demonstrate that an autocrine transforming growth factor beta1-ALK5 pathway is a negative feedback mechanism for epidermal growth factor-induced normal human keratinocyte growth. PMID:12787131

Yamasaki, Kenshi; Toriu, Nobuko; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Gamou, Shinobu; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Fujii, Makiko; Miyazono, Kohei; Hashimoto, Koji

2003-06-01

129

Change in the terpenoid profile and secondary growth in declining stands of Pinus sylvestris L. under mediterranean influence as a response to local factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The terpenoid profile could give information about the water status in Scots pine, especially for trees growing in the same geographical area but under contrasting local environmental conditions. Terpenes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in needles, twigs and wood of ten affected and ten unaffected Scots pines in the southern “Sistema Ibérico” range (Teruel, Spain), where forest decline has been recently reported. Soil depth and secondary growth was also studied in b...

Sanz, M. A.; Sa?nchez, J.; Camarero, J. J.; Peguero-pina, J. J.; Sancho-knapik, D.; Gil-pelegri?n, E.

2014-01-01

130

Environmental influences on human growth and development: historical review and case study of contemporary influences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 100 years, the study of environmental influences on human physical growth and development has focused on the influences of social and economic factors; family and household characteristics; urbanization/modernization; nutrition; and features of the physical environment such as altitude, temperature and climate. Continuing in this tradition are current investigations into the roles of pollutants and other aspects of the human-made environment in affecting patterns of human growth and development, specifically the timing of sexual maturation and the development of obesity. Some of the methodological problems in conducting such studies are presented, as are results from an ongoing investigation among one Native American community that show relationships of pollutants to sexual maturation, overweight/obesity and thyroid system function which can impact growth and maturation. PMID:19626483

Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia

2009-01-01

131

Fibroblast Growth Factor Control of Cartilage Homeostasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative disc disease (DDD) are similar diseases involving the breakdown of cartilage tissue, and a better understanding of the underlying biochemical processes involved in cartilage degeneration may allow for the development of novel biologic therapies aimed at slowing the disease process. Three members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, FGF-2, FGF-18, and FGF-8, have been implicated as contributing factors in cartilage homeostasis. The role of FGF-2 is...

Ellman, M. B.; Yan, D.; Ahmadinia, K.; Chen, D.; An, H. S.; Im, H. J.

2013-01-01

132

Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

Bollenrath, F

1941-01-01

133

Factors influencing first intercourse for teenage men.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analyses of a nationally representative survey of 1,880 15- to 19-year-old men were conducted to examine factors associated with (a) the age when first sexual intercourse occurred and (b) whether a condom or other contraceptive method was used at first intercourse. Discrete time-event history models assessed factors influencing their age until first intercourse. Black males began sexual activity significantly earlier than white or Hispanic males. Males who had been held back in school also be...

Ku, L.; Sonenstein, F. L.; Pleck, J. H.

1993-01-01

134

Influence of semi-volatile species on particle hygroscopic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles are often related to their content of soluble material, on the basis of the Kohler theory. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that the role of aerosol particle semi-volatile fraction properties has been underestimated. In this study, we use a novel method based on a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA system combining particle volatilization and humidification conditioning (VH-TDMA to test the effect of the gentle volatilization of a small fraction of the atmospheric particles on the particle hygroscopic growth in several environments (urban to remote. Results show that the particle hygroscopic properties can either be enhanced or decreased after thermal conditioning of the particle at moderate temperatures (50 to 110°C. The hygroscopic growth factor changes induced by volatilization indicate that some volatile compounds, although present at low concentrations, drastically influence the hygroscopic growth of particles in the way that can not be predicted by the Kohler theory at equilibrium.

P. Villani

2009-01-01

135

A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

Naser Azad

136

An overview of preharvest factors influencing mango fruit growth, quality and postharvest behaviour / Uma revisão dos fatores pré-colheita que influenciam o crescimento, qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de manga  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Manga, um fruto tropical de grande importância, é geralmente colhido verde e comercializado após um período de armazenamento. Infelizmente, a qualidade final da manga na prateleira é altamente heterogênea, em termos de tamanho do fruto, qualidade do paladar e comportamento pós-colheita. Tem-se obtid [...] o uma quantidade expressiva de informações sobre os efeitos do estádio de maturação e condições pós-colheita sobre a qualidade final da manga. Contudo, tem-se dado atenção consideravelmente menor à influência dos fatores ambientes sobre o crescimento da manga, características de qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita. Neste artigo, faz-se uma revisão dos estudos sobre manga, evidenciando-se como fatores ambientes afetam o acúmulo de água e de matéria seca estrutural e não-estrutural nos frutos durante o seu desenvolvimento. Discutem-se essas alterações com relação à evolução de atributos de qualidade dos frutos ainda nas plantas e após a colheita. Os fatores de pré-colheita abordados são luz, temperatura, disponibilidades de água e de carbono, raleio de frutos e manejo da irrigação. Discutem-se também recentes avanços sobre modelagem associada à função do fruto na planta, conforme as condições ambientes que, combinados com estudos experimentais, pode melhorar a nossa compreensão sobre como as condições de pré-colheita afetam o crescimento e a qualidade da manga. Abstract in english Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance, is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous, in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of [...] knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits, and postharvest behaviour. In this paper, we provide a review of studies on mango showing how environmental factors influence the accumulation of water, structural and non-structural dry matter in the fruit during its development. These changes are discussed with respect to the evolution of quality attributes on the tree and after harvest. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities, which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. We also discuss recent advances in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that, combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality.

Mathieu, Léchaudel; Jacques, Joas.

2007-12-01

137

An overview of preharvest factors influencing mango fruit growth, quality and postharvest behaviour Uma revisão dos fatores pré-colheita que influenciam o crescimento, qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de manga  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance, is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous, in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits, and postharvest behaviour. In this paper, we provide a review of studies on mango showing how environmental factors influence the accumulation of water, structural and non-structural dry matter in the fruit during its development. These changes are discussed with respect to the evolution of quality attributes on the tree and after harvest. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities, which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. We also discuss recent advances in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that, combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality.Manga, um fruto tropical de grande importância, é geralmente colhido verde e comercializado após um período de armazenamento. Infelizmente, a qualidade final da manga na prateleira é altamente heterogênea, em termos de tamanho do fruto, qualidade do paladar e comportamento pós-colheita. Tem-se obtido uma quantidade expressiva de informações sobre os efeitos do estádio de maturação e condições pós-colheita sobre a qualidade final da manga. Contudo, tem-se dado atenção consideravelmente menor à influência dos fatores ambientes sobre o crescimento da manga, características de qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita. Neste artigo, faz-se uma revisão dos estudos sobre manga, evidenciando-se como fatores ambientes afetam o acúmulo de água e de matéria seca estrutural e não-estrutural nos frutos durante o seu desenvolvimento. Discutem-se essas alterações com relação à evolução de atributos de qualidade dos frutos ainda nas plantas e após a colheita. Os fatores de pré-colheita abordados são luz, temperatura, disponibilidades de água e de carbono, raleio de frutos e manejo da irrigação. Discutem-se também recentes avanços sobre modelagem associada à função do fruto na planta, conforme as condições ambientes que, combinados com estudos experimentais, pode melhorar a nossa compreensão sobre como as condições de pré-colheita afetam o crescimento e a qualidade da manga.

Mathieu Léchaudel

2007-12-01

138

Growth factor impact on wound healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty thousand to 118,000 lower extremity amputations are performed each year in the United States. The combination of peripheral vascular disease and diabetes mellitus accounts for most cases, with diabetic patients representing 45% to 70% of all nontraumatic, lower extremity amputations. The 3-year survival rate after amputation is only 50%. As podiatric physicians, we are directly involved in limb preservation. Progress has occurred in both the diagnosis and treatment of lower extremity, chronic, nonhealing ulcers. An aggressive, comprehensive amputation intervention program is critical to those patients with refractory wounds to prevent the emotional, functional, and economic costs of limb loss. Recent developments in recombinant growth factors are making it possible to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with defective angiogenesis, fibroblastic proliferation, collagen remodeling, and epithelial regeneration. Widespread use of growth factors will first occur in topical applications. Absorbable sutures, as well as impregnated bandages, are a likely method of delivering the growth factors to the wound site. Biotechnology companies are developing a stable formulation for bFGF topical application. Clinical trials have begun at various teaching hospitals across the United States for treatment of venous stasis ulcers. U.S. and European firms are collaborating to conduct the clinical studies required to obtain regulatory approvals leading to the sale of topical recombinant bFGF. Although U.S. approval is pending, European use of EFG in the healing of corneal incisions began several years ago. In the future, use of recombinant EGF topically with burn patients may permit earlier reharvesting of healed donor sites as well as coverage of larger graft areas. As some growth factors affect specific processes of healing and cell types, it may be necessary to combine growth factors for complex wounds. PDGF application in combination with other growth factors to incisional wounds may decrease postoperative complications with wound dehiscence while mediating inflammation and repair. In vivo experimental findings suggest that combinations of PDGF and insulin applied topically to wounds may increase the rate of wound repair in diabetics. It is also possible that even the normal healing process may be accelerated, thereby shortening postsurgical convalescence. Approval for internal administration of growth factors will require additional research and thorough clinical trials. The ability of TGF-beta to promote collagen formation may also relate to a metabolic condition such as osteoporosis, in which inadequate formation of collagen or other components of the bone matrix may contribute to pathogenesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1933739

Servold, S A

1991-10-01

139

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from ano...

?ilda Pe?ari?; Miroslav Tu?man

2010-01-01

140

Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

 
 
 
 
141

Factors that influence retirement self-actualisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on an investigation of factors that influence self-actualisation during retirement. Opsomming In hierdie artikel word verslag gedoen oor ‘n ondersoek na faktore wat self-aktualisering gedurende aftrede beïnvloed. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Kerr, Pam P.; Salomé Schulze

2004-01-01

142

Growth factors in lung development and disease: friends or foe?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Growth factors mediate tissue interactions and regulate a variety of cellular functions that are critical for normal lung development and homeostasis. Besides their involvement in lung pattern formation, growth and cell differentiation during organogenesis, these factors have been also implicated in modulating injury-repair responses of the adult lung. Altered expression of growth factors, such as transforming growth factor ?1, vascular endothelial growth factor and...

Cardoso Wellington; Desai Tushar

2001-01-01

143

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

?ilda Pe?ari?

2010-06-01

144

Serum platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

New biological markers with predictive or prognostic value are highly warranted in the treatment of ovarian cancer. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system are important components in tumor growth and angiogenesis.

Madsen, Christine Vestergaard; Steffensen, Karina Dahl

2012-01-01

145

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor gene transcription  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have studied in vitro transcription of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor proto-oncogene using nuclear extracts of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, which overproduce the EGF receptor. With the in vitro system we found that Sp1 and other trans-acting factors bound to the EGF receptor promoter regions and are required for maximal expression. Fractionation showed that a DEAE-Sepharose fraction (BA) contained a novel factor, which specifically stimulated EGF receptor transcription 5- to 10-fold. The molecular mass of the native form of the factor is about 270-kDa based on its migration on Sephacryl S-300. This factor may activate transcription of the proto-oncogene through a weak or indirect interaction with the DNA template

146

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor gene transcription  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have studied in vitro transcription of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor proto-oncogene using nuclear extracts of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, which overproduce the EGF receptor. With the in vitro system we found that Sp1 and other trans-acting factors bound to the EGF receptor promoter regions and are required for maximal expression. Fractionation showed that a DEAE-Sepharose fraction (BA) contained a novel factor, which specifically stimulated EGF receptor transcription 5- to 10-fold. The molecular mass of the native form of the factor is about 270-kDa based on its migration on Sephacryl S-300. This factor may activate transcription of the proto-oncogene through a weak or indirect interaction with the DNA template.

Kageyama, R.; Merlino, G.T.; Pastan, I.

1988-05-05

147

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? in human milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-? was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-? was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-? and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-? was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-?. Although the physiological role of TGF-? in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants

148

Epidermal Growth Factor Modulates Fetal Thymocyte Growth and Differentiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, we used the fetal organ culture (FTOC) technique in order to study a putative effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the thymus ontogeny. Functional EGF receptors and more recently the EGF molecule itself, respectively, on the membrane of epithelial components of thymic stroma and on a few thymocytes in adult thymus, had been reported in the literature. We could observe a dose-dependent decrease in cellularity and a progressive retention of thymocytes ...

Freitas, Claudia S.; Dalmau, Sergio R.; Karla Kovary; Wilson Savino

1998-01-01

149

Binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in human myometrium and leiomyomata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of uterine myometrium and leiomyoma from 11 women were analyzed for the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors. In addition, the content of soluble insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-BP/PP12) was measured in the tissue cytosols. Cell membrane preparations of myoma tissue bound significantly more insulin-like growth factor I than did those of adjacent normal myometrium, whereas myoma tissue bound less epidermal growth factor than did the normal myometrium. The differences in both insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor binding were due to changes in receptor concentration rather than to alterations in receptor affinity. Neither myoma nor myometrial tissue contained detectable levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. The changes in epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I binding to the myometrium may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomata.

Tommola, P.; Pekonen, F.; Rutanen, E.M. (Minerva Institute for Medical Research, Kauniainen (Finland))

1989-10-01

150

Binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in human myometrium and leiomyomata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of uterine myometrium and leiomyoma from 11 women were analyzed for the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors. In addition, the content of soluble insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-BP/PP12) was measured in the tissue cytosols. Cell membrane preparations of myoma tissue bound significantly more insulin-like growth factor I than did those of adjacent normal myometrium, whereas myoma tissue bound less epidermal growth factor than did the normal myometrium. The differences in both insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor binding were due to changes in receptor concentration rather than to alterations in receptor affinity. Neither myoma nor myometrial tissue contained detectable levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. The changes in epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I binding to the myometrium may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomata

151

Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by 125I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biologicalate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes

152

Differential expression of the angiogenesis growth factors in psoriasis vulgaris  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Angiogenesis has been reported to be one of the contributory factors to the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. This study aims to compare the expression of different angiogenesis growth factors namely (1) the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) subfamily: A, B, C, D and placenta growth factor (PlGF); (2) nerve growth factor (NGF) and (3) von Willebrand factor (vWFr) in the skins of patients with psoriasis vulgaris and non-psoriatic volunteers. <...

Liew Siaw-Cheok; Das-Gupta Esha; Chakravarthi Srikumar; Wong Shew-Fung; Lee Nagarajah; Safdar Najeeb; Jamil Adawiyah

2012-01-01

153

Preferential tendon stem cell response to growth factor supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tendon injuries are increasingly prevalent around the world, accounting for more than 100 000 new clinical cases/year in the USA alone. Cell-based therapies have been proposed as a therapeutic strategy, with recent data advocating the use of tendon stem cells (TSCs) as a potential cell source with clinical relevance for tendon regeneration. However, their in vitro expansion is problematic, as they lose their multipotency and change their protein expression profile in culture. Herein, we ventured to assess the influence of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF?1) supplementation in TSC culture. IGF-1 preserved multipotency for up to 28?days. Upregulation of decorin and scleraxis expression was observed as compared to freshly isolated cells. GDF-5 treated cells exhibited reduced differentiation along adipogenic and chondrogenic pathways after 28?days, and decorin, scleraxis and collagen type I expression was increased. After 28?days, TGF?1 supplementation led to increased scleraxis, osteonectin and collagen type II expression. The varied responses to each growth factor may reflect their role in tendon repair, suggesting that: GDF-5 promotes the transition of tendon stem cells towards tenocytes; TGF?1 induces differentiation along several pathways, including a phenotype indicative of fibrocartilage or calcified tendon, common problems in tendon healing; and IGF-1 promotes proliferation and maintenance of TSC phenotypes, thereby creating a population sufficient to have a beneficial effect. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24474722

Holladay, Carolyn; Abbah, Sunny-Akogwu; O'Dowd, Colm; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

2014-01-29

154

Fatores determinantes do crescimento infantil Determinant factors of infant growth  

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Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation in genetic potential manifestations. Because of the complex nature of infant growth, several studies have been developed aiming at relating biological, socio-economic, maternal, environmental, cultural, demographic and nutritional determinants among others, with the etiology, development and maintenance of growth. This review reinforces the value of permanent investigation on infant growth, especially concerning the long term impact on infant health.

Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani

2004-03-01

155

Influence of organizational factors on safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

1990-01-01

156

Influence of organizational factors on safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

157

Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

2002-01-01

158

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer  

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Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Ajith K. Siriwardena

2011-03-01

159

Influence of semi-volatile species on particle hygroscopic growth  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we use a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA) system combining particle volatilization and humidification conditioning (VH-TDMA) to test the effect of the gentle volatilization of a small fraction of the atmospheric particles on the particle hygroscopic growth in several environments (urban to remote). We first give an overview of the Hygroscopic Growth Factors (HGF) in these various environments, showing that in most of them, aerosol particles are externally mixed. We then show that the particle hygroscopicity can either be increased or decreased after thermal conditioning of the particle at moderate temperatures (50-110 °C). The hygroscopic growth factor changes induced by volatilization indicate that some volatile compounds, although present at low concentrations, can significantly influence the hygroscopic growth of particles in a way that can most of time be theoretically explained if simplified assumptions are used. However, simplified assumptions occasionally fail over several hours to explain hygroscopic changes, kinetic/surface effects observed at remote environments are suspected to be important.

Villani, Paolo; Sellegri, Karine; Monier, Marie; Laj, Paolo

2013-11-01

160

Inhibition of 125I-epidermal growth factor binding to cultured keratinocytes by antiproliferative molecules gamma interferon, cyclosporin A, and transforming growth factor-beta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of cultured human keratinocytes (KC) is inhibited by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), cyclosporin A and transforming growth factor-beta, but not by tumor necrosis factor. When these antiproliferative molecules were added to KC they induced a concentration and time-dependent inhibition of 125I-epidermal growth factor (I-EGF) binding. These anti-proliferative molecules primarily reduced the number of binding sites by approximately 25%-50% without affecting the binding affinity. Tumor necrosis factor did not influence the ligand binding by I-EGF. In parallel with the ability of the antiproliferative molecules to inhibit I-EGF binding, there was an increase in transforming growth factor-alpha production. These results suggest that several different antiproliferative molecules may share a common mechanism to inhibit cell growth by reducing I-EGF binding to KC

 
 
 
 
161

Keratinocyte growth factor and coeliac disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND—Coeliac disease is characterised by increased epithelial renewal associated with a mucosal T cell response to gliadin. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is produced by cytokine activated gut stromal cells and may be a link between mucosal T cell activation in untreated coeliac disease and epithelial hyperplasia.?AIMS—To characterise expression of KGF in coeliac disease.?METHODS—KGF transcripts in coeliac disease were measured by quantitative competitive reverse transcripti...

Salvati, V.; Bajaj-elliott, M.; Poulsom, R.; Mazzarella, G.; Lundin, K.; Nilsen, E.; Troncone, R.; Macdonald, T.

2001-01-01

162

Ranking different factors influencing flight delay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

Meysam Kazemi Asfe

2014-07-01

163

Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we have performed experiments to determine whether mechanical stimulation of cultured avian muscle cells alters their response to anabolic steroids or glucocorticoids. In static cultures, testosterone had no effect on muscle cell growth, but 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and the synthetic steroid stanozolol increased cell growth by up to 18% and 30%, respectively, after a three day exposure. We completed development of a new IBM-based mechanical cell stimulator system to provide greater flexibility in operating and monitoring our experiments. Our previous long term studies on myofiber growth were designed around a perfusion system of our own design. We have recently changed to performing these studies using a modified CELLCO cartridge bioreactor system Z since it has been certified as the ground-based model for the Shuttle's Space Tissue Loss (STL) F= Cell Culture Module. The current goals of this aspect of the project are three fold: 1) to design a Z cell culture system for studying avian skeletal myofiber atrophy on the Shuttle and Space Station; 0 2) to expand the use of bioreactors to cells which do not grow in either suspension or attached to the hollow fibers; and 3) to combine the bioreactor system with our computerized mechanical cell stimulator to have a better in vitro model to study tension/gravity/stretch regulation of skeletal muscle size. Preliminary studies also reported on involved : (1) how release of tension can induce rapid atrophy of tissues cultured avian skeletal muscle cells, and (2) a mechanism to transfer and maintain avian skeletal muscle organoids in modified cartridges in the Space Tissue Loss Module.

Vandenburgh, Herman H.

1994-01-01

164

Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

Nagarkoti, Bishal

2014-01-01

165

INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHATE CORROSION CONTROL COMPOUNDS ON BACTERIAL GROWTH  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of two phosphate corrosion compounds on the growth and survival of coliform and other heterotrophic bacteria was investigated in laboratory, field, and model system studies. Growth of Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was not sign...

166

Environmental Factors Influence on Mobile Learning Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, there has been growing interest in m-learning consequently emerging m-learning technology is promising technological and educational business. Nevertheless, m-learning is a new business and the different actors are still trialing by ways of a diversity of business models to overcome in able to achieve a sustainable and profitable place in this market. Numbers of m-learning products providers do not succeed in supplying m-learning products. In this situation not only a suitable business model is vital but also environmental and external factors have impact on mobile learning business model. Overall objective of this study was to survey the business model framework of m-learning with effect of external and environmental factors. Approach: Methodical approach was based on a classification of m-learning actors and its environmental factors. Based on this, we analyzed case studies description and developed main environmental factors that constitute the m-learning environment. Factors were summarized in morphological boxes and then through out its three steps result came up. Results: The results indicated technology, market and regulation are three major environmental factors which were forcing m-learning business model and business model should react to changes of these three factors to keep sustainable business. The research further argued the external factors of m-learning environment in order to understanding and developing the m-learning business and the ways these factors influence the business model of m-learning as well. Conclusion/Recommendations: M-learning business is based on many factors such as technology, changes in society, educational drivers, demand for flexible learning and the new learning paradigm but only three major drivers(technology, market and regulation had considerable effect on m-learning business model and should be taken into account as a result if they change business model should be changed.

Alireza Nasiri

2009-01-01

167

CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

Toth Jozsef

2012-12-01

168

Influência de fatores ambientais sobre o crescimento in vitro de Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta) / The influence of environmental factors on in vitro growth of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamourox (Hypneaceae, Gigartinales) é uma fonte importante para o Brasil de um agente ficocolóide geleificante (carragenano) usado na indústria. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de investigar a influência da temperatura (20 e 25 ºC), do enriquecimento água do mar com a soluç [...] ão de Provasoli e aeração sobre o desenvolvimento desta espécie in vitro. Os talos de H. musciformis foram coletados na Prainha, Arraial do Cabo (RJ) em duas diferentes épocas do ano de 2000 (abril e julho). No laboratório, fragmentos apicais pesando 0,2 g (15 mm de comprimento) foram excisados do talo e preparados para as incubações em diferentes combinações de fatores. Em ordem decrescente, a análise de variância multifatorial mostrou que os fatores de maior influência sobre o crescimento dos fragmentos apicais dos talos de H. musciformis foram: enriquecimento, aeração, a temperatura e o período do ano. Todos os fragmentos tiveram aumento de biomassa mostrando plasticidade fenotípica durante o período experimental. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos em culturas com meio de enriquecimento, com aeração e a 25 ºC (biomassa de 17 g e taxa específica de crescimento de 20,79 %.dia-1). Por outro lado, H. musciformis não respondeu bem em culturas não enriquecidas, ausência de aeração e a 25 ºC (biomassa de 0,7 e taxa de crescimento de 0,07 %.dia-1). As plantas cultivadas nas duas épocas do ano não demonstraram diferenças significativas. Concluí-se que a partir dos fragmentos apicais de H. musciformis cultivados, obteve-se bons resultados que fornecerão uma base para futuras aplicações. Abstract in english Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux (Hypneaceae, Gigartinales) is an important carrageenan resource of Brazil used in the industry of phycocolloid gelling agent. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of temperature (20 ºC and 25 ºC), enriched seawater with Provasoli's soluti [...] on and aeration on the in vitro development of this species. Thalli of H. musciformis were collected from Prainha, Arraial do Cabo (RJ) in two different seasons of the year 2000 (April and July). In the laboratory, apical fragments weighing 0.2 g (15 mm long) were excised from the thalli and prepared for incubations at different abiotic factors. In decreasing order, multifactorial analysis of variance showed that the factors of higher influence on the growth of fragments were: water nutrient enrichment, aeration, temperature and season. All fragments increased in biomass and showed high phenotypic plasticity. The best results were obtained in nutrient enriched medium, aeration and at 25 ºC (biomass of 17 g and specific growth rate of 20.79 %.day-1). On the other hand, H. musciformis did not respond well in non nutrient enriched medium, absence of aeration and at 25 ºC (biomass of 0.7 g and specific growth rate of 0.07 %.day-1). The thalli collected in different seasons of the year did not demonstrate any sharp differences. We concluded that cultivation of apical fragments of H. musciformis produces good results that can provide a basis for future applications.

ISOLDA C., BRAVIN; YOCIE, YONESHIGUE-VALENTIN.

2002-12-01

169

Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Is a Potent Neurotrophic Factor for PC12 Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the epidermal growth factor family that is expressed in many cell types. We have previously reported the effects of HB-EGF on intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells after exposure to ischemia/reperfusion in vivo or anoxia/reoxygenation injury in vitro. However, the effect of HB-EGF on neuronal cells is largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the effect of HB-EGF on neurite outgrowth in phe...

Zhou, Yu; Besner, Gail E.

2010-01-01

170

Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD, wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%, notably Trichuris trichiura (12% and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%, and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13% were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches sobre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2, desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%, notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12% e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5% e protozoário Giardia duodenalis (13% foram os mais comuns; < 1% tinha ancilostomíase e Cryptosporidium sp.; 25% apresentaram protozoários cistos não patogênicos. Meninos de famílias muito pobres tiveram menor crescimento e maior risco de helmintose. A desparasitação pode ser considerada uma alternativa para a redução da prevalência de parasitoses intestinais nesse grupo etário.

Rebecca L. Lander

2012-11-01

171

Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata) seedling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugiyarto, Wardani PK, Setyono P, Mahajoeno E, Sunarto. 2013. Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata) seedling. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 57-62. The purpose of this research was to find out the influence of mycorrhiza, organic fertilizer and their combination to the growth of seedlings matoa. The reseach was arranged on Completely Randomized design with two treatments factor; i.e. giving mycorrhiza (0 g, 5 g, 10 g/polybag) and giving organic ferti...

EDWI MAHAJOENO; SUNARTO; PRABANG SETYONO; PUTRI KUSUMA WARDANI; SUGIYARTO

2013-01-01

172

Effects of Epidermal Growth Factor, Platelet Derived Growth Factor and Growth Hormone on Cultured Rat Keratinocytes Cells in vitro  

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Some growth factors, such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Growth Hormone (GH) and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) have beneficial effects on keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Although the mechanism of these factors is unclear. In response to injury, growth factors are secreted by kinds of cutaneous cells. The goal of this project is to investigate the factors that could cause proliferate of the keratinocyte cells in vitro. The keratinocytes were removed from rat pup...

Manouchehr Safari; Laya Ghahari; Babak Hossein Zadeh Zoroufchi, M. D.

2014-01-01

173

Endothelial cell protein C receptor opposes mesothelioma growth driven by tissue factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The procoagulant protein tissue factor (F3) is a powerful growth promoter in many tumors, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. More generally, it is unknown whether hemostatic factors expressed on tumor cells influence tissue factor-mediated effects on cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the influence of tissue factor, endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR, PROCR), and protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1, F2R) on the growth of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), using human MPM cells that lack or express tissue factor, EPCR or PAR1, and an orthotopic nude mouse model of MPM. Intrapleural administration of MPM cells expressing tissue factor and PAR1 but lacking EPCR and PAR2 (F2RL1) generated large tumors in the pleural cavity. Suppression of tissue factor or PAR1 expression in these cells markedly reduced tumor growth. In contrast, tissue factor overexpression in nonaggressive MPM cells that expressed EPCR and PAR1 with minimal levels of tissue factor did not increase their limited tumorigenicity. More importantly, ectopic expression of EPCR in aggressive MPM cells attenuated their growth potential, whereas EPCR silencing in nonaggressive MPM cells engineered to overexpress tissue factor increased their tumorigenicity. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that EPCR expression in tumor cells reduced tumor cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Overall, our results enlighten the mechanism by which tissue factor promotes tumor growth through PAR1, and they show how EPCR can attenuate the growth of tissue factor-expressing tumor cells. PMID:23539451

Keshava, Shiva; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Tucker, Torry A; Idell, Steven; Rao, L Vijaya Mohan; Pendurthi, Usha R

2013-07-01

174

Two independent mechanisms for escaping epidermal growth factor- mediated growth inhibition in epidermal growth factor receptor- hyperproducing human tumor cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines often possess increased levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. The growth of these EGF receptor-hyperproducing cells is usually inhibited by EGF. To investigate the mechanism of EGF-mediated inhibition of cell growth, variants displaying alternate responses to EGF were isolated from two squamous cell carcinoma lines, NA and Ca9-22; these cell lines possess high numbers of the EGF receptor and an amplified EGF receptor (EGFR) gene. The varian...

1988-01-01

175

Angiogenic growth factors: potential new treatment for acute myocardial infarction?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In models of hind-limb ischemia and progressive coronary artery occlusion, angiogenic growth factor proteins and genes expressing growth factors have been shown to induce the development of collateral vessels and remodeling of existing collaterals. The therapeutic potential of growth factors in the setting of acute myocardial infarction may be related to non-angiogenic properties of growth factors as well, and is the focus of this review.

Gonc?alves, L.

2000-01-01

176

Control of Growth Factor Networks by Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans  

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Growth factor binding to transmembrane protein receptors is generally understood to initiate cell signaling. Receptor binding of heparin-binding growth factors (HB-GFs), such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), is regulated by interactions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans. While there is some specificity for binding to heparan sulfate, overlap in sites for different growth factors may allow for cross regulation. Here we demonstrate, using experiments and computer simulations, that the HB...

Forsten-williams, Kimberly; Chu, Chia Lin; Fannon, Michael; Buczek-thomas, Jo Ann; Nugent, Matthew A.

2008-01-01

177

Effects of growth factors on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation  

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EFFECTS OF GROWTH FACTORS ON CHONDROCYTE PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION Caroline Edwall-Arvidsson Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Medical Nobel Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm and Division of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden Longitudinal bone growth is regulated at the level of growth plate chondrocytes by circulating or locally produced hormones and growth factors. Present investigation ...

Edwall-arvidsson, Caroline

1996-01-01

178

Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

179

Growth factor in f(T) gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We derive the evolution equation of growth factor for the matter over-dense perturbation in f(T) gravity. For instance, we investigate its behavior in power law model at small redshift and compare it to the prediction of ?CDM and dark energy with the same equation of state in the framework of Einstein general relativity. We find that the perturbation in f(T) gravity grows slower than that in Einstein general relativity if ?f/?T > 0 due to the effectively weakened gravity

180

Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15

Arkun, Alp

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

Jovanovi? Snežana T.

2004-01-01

182

Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

McCourt, M

2012-02-03

183

Nerve growth factor-induced alteration in the response of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells to epidermal growth factor  

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PC12 cells, which differentiate morphologically and biochemically into sympathetic neruonlike cells in response to nerve growth fact, also respond to epidermal growth factor. The response to epidermal growth factor is similar in certain respects to the response to nerve growth fact. Both peptides produce rapid increases in cellular adhesion and 2-deoxyglucose uptake and both induce ornithine decarboxylase. But nerve growth factor causes a decreased cell proliferation and a marked hypertrophy ...

Huff, K.; End, D.; Guroff, G.

1981-01-01

184

Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study is to identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. A follow-up study was performed on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated form 1984-1998. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. The conclusion is that biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatis carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatment splits in radiation therapy. (R.P.)

185

Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variabl...

Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M.; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A.; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H.

2010-01-01

186

Regulation of cartilage growth by growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have important regulatory roles for skeletal growth. However, it has been a matter of controversy whether GH acts directly on cells in the growth plate or if the growth-promoting effects of GH are mediated by liver-derived (endocrine-acting) IGF-I. With the recognition that GH regulates the production of IGF-I in multiple extra-hepatic tissues, autocrine and paracrine functions of IGF-I have been suggested as important components of GH action. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms by which GH promotes longitudinal bone growth and the inter-relationship between GH and IGF-I in the growth plate. PMID:1911121

Isaksson, O G; Ohlsson, C; Nilsson, A; Isgaard, J; Lindahl, A

1991-07-01

187

Factores de crecimiento IV: Factor de crecimiento epidérmico,Factores estimuladores de colonias, Neurotropinas Growth factors: epidermal growth factor, colony stimulating factors and neurotropins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En esta cuarta entrega sobre los factores de crecimiento se revisan el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGF, los factores estimuladores de colonias (CSF y las neurotropinas. Como se ha venido presentando en las anteriores entregas, se hace referencia a su estructura bioquímica, su mecanismo de acción, sus efectos biológicos y sus interacciones. Las neurotropinas y el EGF, por tratarse de factores que actúan predominantemente en el microambiente tisular, no pueden manejarse en el contexto de concentraciones circulantes, situación que sí es factible para los CSF. De otro lado, se revisan los mecanismos de las neurotropinas en el sistema nervioso. In this fourth review of growth factors we summarize, as in previous papers, topics related to biochemical structure, mechanisms of action, biological effects and cross-interactions for epidermal growth factor (EGF, colony stimulating factors (CSF and neurotropins. Since the effects of EGF and neurotropins are exerted predominantly at the microenvironment level, they can not be evaluated by means of its circulating levels, a fact that could be possible for CSFs.

Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

1999-02-01

188

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor suppresses experimental liver fibrosis in mice  

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Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a cytoprotective agent in several organ systems but its roles in liver fibrosis are unclear. We studied the roles of HB-EGF in experimental liver fibrosis in mice and during hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. Thioacetamide (TAA; 100mg/kg) was administered by intra-peritoneal injection three times a week for 4 weeks to wild-type HB-EGF+/+ or HB-EGF-null (HB-EGF?/?) male mice. Livers were examined for histology and ...

Huang, Guangcun; Besner, Gail E.; Brigstock, David R.

2012-01-01

189

Antibodies to the epidermal growth factor receptor block the biological activities of sarcoma growth factor.  

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The role of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor system in mediating the biological activities of sarcoma growth factor (SGF) has been assessed by using specific anti-EGF receptor antibodies. There are two classes of anti-EGF receptor antibodies, those that block binding of 125I-labeled EGF (125I-EGF) and those that do not block binding but do interact with a portion of the EGF receptor on the surface of intact cells. Antisera of both types have been assayed for their capacity to affect...

Carpenter, G.; Stoscheck, C. M.; Preston, Y. A.; Delarco, J. E.

1983-01-01

190

Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

191

Insulin-like growth factors act synergistically with basic fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor to promote chromaffin cell proliferation.  

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We have investigated the effects of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) on DNA synthesis in cultured chromaffin cells from fetal, neonatal, and adult rats by using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) pulse labeling for 24 or 48 h and immunocytochemical staining of cell nuclei. After 6 days in culture in the absence of growth factors, nuclear BrdUrd incorporation was detected in 30% of fetal chromaffin cells, 1...

Fro?din, M.; Gammeltoft, S.

1994-01-01

192

Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor receptors in meningioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were localized and characterized in eight samples of human meningioma (four fibrous, two meningothelial, and two angioblastic types), using quantitative autoradiographic techniques. Effects of both growth factors on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in the cultured meningioma cells were examined. High numbers of specific binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF were homogeneously present in tissue sections derived from fibrous and meningothelial types of meningiomas, whereas binding sites for these growth factors were not detectable in adjacent leptomeninges. While relatively large numbers of IGF-I binding sites were located in the wall of the intratumoral vasculature, the number of binding sites in the stromal component was lower in angioblastic-type meningiomas, including a low number of EGF binding sites detected only in the stromal portion. Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF in the meningiomas examined (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.6 to 2.9 nM, and the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) = 16 to 80 fmol/mg for IGF-I; and Kd = 0.6 to 4.0 nM, Bmax = 3 to 39 fmol/mg for EGF). Both growth factors increased the synthesis of DNA, in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The combination of IGF-I and EGF synergistically stimulated the synthesis of DNA, and the effects seen withynthesis of DNA, and the effects seen with 10% fetal bovine serum could be reproduced at a concentration of 10(-10) M. These observations can be interpreted to mean that both IGF-I and EGF may be involved in the growth modulation of meningiomas, possibly through paracrine or autocrine mechanisms

193

Factors influencing model use in occupational therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english STUDY AIM: To determine which models are used by occupational therapists who attended a workshop on the Kawa Model, in their practice, the demographic factors related to the use of these models and the reasons why they use various models in their practice. METHOD: A descriptive, single case study me [...] thod was used with embedded units. The research instrument consisted of a survey questionnaire with closed and some semi-structured questions. RESULTS: The characteristics of therapists influenced their use of models. This was determined by their educational background, their level of experience and exposure in the clinical field and their work setting. Time constraints and the nature of the presenting clients also played a role. The clinicians' overall attitude towards new theory and their habituated ways were highlighted as constant factors influencing model use. The use of models provides structure and assists occupational therapists to produce proper, profession-specific, scientifically-based intervention. Models taught during undergraduate studies need to be relevant to address clients' needs in their specific context.

Antonette, Owen; Fasloen, Adams; Denise, Franszen.

2014-01-01

194

Human epidermal growth factor receptor residue covalently cross-linked to epidermal growth factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor monoclonal antibody (mAb), mAb LA22, was used to analyze the covalent coupling of human EGF receptors to mouse EGF by the amine-reactive cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate. A soluble Mr 105,000 truncated form of the receptor secreted by A-431 epidermoid carcinoma cells and consisting of the ligand-binding extracellular domain was cross-linked to 125I-labeled EGF. Digestion of this complex with an endoproteinase that specifically cleaves at the COOH side of glutamyl residue released a single radiolabeled glycosylated fragment of Mr18,000 that reacted with mAb LA22. The receptor residue(s) involved in the covalent coupling of rat 125I-labeled transforming growth factor ? was similarly localized to this region of the receptor. This receptor interval, which included two glycosylated asparaginyl residues at positions 328 and 337, contained but three amino acid residues that were potentially reactive with disuccinimidyl suberate: Lys-332, Lys-333, and Lys-336. These results indicated that disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked the NH2 group of EGF residue Asn-1 to the human EGF receptor residue Lys-336. The results further suggest that EGF and transforming growth factor ?, two members of the EGF family of peptide growth factors, interact with closely apposed or identical features of the receptor

195

Factors Influencing Household Food Security Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, impaired physical and mental development and reduced productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the Influencing factors on the household food insecurity status. This cross-sectional study conducted on 2500 households selected from Qaresoo region in the northwest of Iran. Household food security status measured by a validated short questionnaire including six questions and other required data (influencing factors obtained alongside the validated questionnaire. Chisquare and logistic regression used for data analysis using SPSS software. Forty Percent of households suffered from low food insecurity and twenty percent had experienced very low food insecurity. Severity of household food insecurity increased with increasing distance from the city (Exp (B = 1.05, 95% C.I = 1.03-1.07. It decreased with increasing centers that provides food (Exp (B = 0.97, 95% C.I = 0.97-0.98 Residential infrastructure (Exp (B = 0.99, 95% C.I = 0.98-0.99 Family size (Exp (B = 0.92, 95% C.I = 0.87-0.98 and the presence of both parents in comparison the presence of single parent at home (Exp (B = 0.46, 95% C.I = 0.32-0.66. Spearman correlation test also showed that mean per capita income had a significant inverse correlation with household food insecurity status. (Correlation coefficient = –0.3, P < 0.05. Socioeconomic factors were affecting the household food insecurity status. More studies seem to be essential in order to provide practical solutions to reduce the severity of food insecurity.

Sharafkhani Rahim

2011-01-01

196

Factors influencing successful radioiodine therapy of thyroid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13, operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1, the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS, and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05 influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.

Popadi? Silvija M.

2003-01-01

197

Temperature influences on growth of aquatic organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Temperature profoundly affects the growth rates of aquatic organisms, and its control is essential for effective aquaculture. Characteristically, both low and high temperatures produce slow growth rates and inefficient food conversion, while intermediate temperature ranges provide rapid growth and efficient food conversion. Distinct, species-specific optimum temperatures and upper and lower temperatures of zero growth can often be defined. Thermal effects can be greatly modified by amounts and quality of food. These data not only provide the basis for criteria which maintain growth of wild organisms but also for effectively using waste heat to create optimal conditions of temperature and food ration for growing aquatic organisms commercially

198

Growth factors II: insuline-like growth binging proteins (GFBPs) Factores de crecimiento II: factores insulinoides de crecimiento  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review summarizes recent knowledge concerning Insulin.like growth factors I and II, with emphasis on their biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, biological effects, and alterations of their concentrations in biological fluids. Se revisan los Factores Insulinoides de Crecimiento, también denominados ";Factores de Crecimiento Similares a la Insulina";, sobre los cuales se dispone de abundante información. Se sintetizan conocimientos rec...

Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño; Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.

1996-01-01

199

Influence of organizational factors on performance reliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the first volume of a two-volume report. Volume 2 will be published at a later date. This report presents the results of a research project conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the project was to develop a general methodology to be use in the assessment of the organizational factors which affect performance reliability (safety) in a nuclear power plant. The research described in this report includes the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (GNOMIC). This concept characterizes the organizational factors that impact safety performance in a nuclear power plant and identifies some methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on safety performance. This report is divided into two parts; Part 1 presents an overview of the development of the methodology, while Part 2 provides more details and a technical analysis of the methodological development. Specifically, the results of two demonstration studies, the feasibility of the methodology, and a specific applications for which the methodology was developed are presented

200

A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

Mahmood Modiri

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine...

Ya Hlukha, H.

2014-01-01

202

"Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

2002-01-01

203

Aldosterone as a renal growth factor.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Aldosterone regulates blood pressure through its effects on the cardiovascular system and kidney. Aldosterone can also contribute to the development of hypertension that leads to chronic pathologies such as nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Aldosterone directly modulates renal cell proliferation and differentiation as part of normal kidney development. The stimulation of rapidly activated protein kinase cascades is one facet of how aldosterone regulates renal cell growth. These cascades may also contribute to myofibroblastic transformation and cell proliferation observed in pathological conditions of the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that is accelerated by hypertension. EGFR-dependent proliferation of the renal epithelium is a factor in cyst development and trans-activation of EGFR is a key feature in initiating aldosterone-induced signalling cascades. Delineating the components of aldosterone-induced signalling cascades may identify novel therapeutic targets for proliferative diseases of the kidney.

Thomas, Warren

2011-04-05

204

Angiogenic growth factors in rheumatoid arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated whether the angiogenic profile, which is based on the local expression and systemic levels of angiogenic growth factors (VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2, and the corresponding receptors), differs between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We determined the expression of VEGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2 together with its receptors (VEGFR-1/-2 and Tie2) in synovium tissue (ST) and muscular tissue (MT) from patients with RA and OA using quantitative PCR. Tissue samples were obtained from 15 RA and 19 OA patients during total knee arthroplasty. Control MT samples (n = 10) were obtained during spinal surgery. Results are correlated to VEGF and angiopoietin serum levels via ELISA measurements. The VEGF expressions in ST and serum levels were significantly higher in RA patients than in OA patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 expression in ST from RA patients were significantly higher than in OA patients (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05). The relative concentration of angiopoietins (Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio) was significantly increased in RA (P < 0.01). Serum levels for Ang-2 showed no significant differences. Statistical analysis showed a significant higher level of Tie2 in RA patients (P < 0.001). Analysis of local levels of VEGF, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie2 in the muscular tissue showed no significant difference between RA and OA patients. These results underline the importance of pro-angiogenic growth factor levels for RA corroborating the assumption that VEGF and angiopoietins play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:22068355

Schroeder, Malte; Viezens, Lennart; Fuhrhop, Ina; Rüther, Wolfgang; Schaefer, Christian; Schwarzloh, Britta; Algenstaedt, Petra; Fink, Bernd; Hansen-Algenstaedt, Nils

2013-02-01

205

A Prospective Study of Factors Influencing Wound Dehiscence after Midline Laparotomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To evaluate the factors influencing fascial wound dehiscence after midline laparotomy in the patients of perforation peritonitis with an emphasis on measurement of “intra-abdominal” pressure (IAP) and fascial transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Methods: Hundred eligible adult patients with the ...

Kusum Meena; Shadan Ali; Awneet Singh Chawla; Lalit Aggarwal; Suhani Suhani; Sanjay Kumar; Rehan Nabi Khan

2013-01-01

206

THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE BIRTH RATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.

SAVU MIHAELA

2013-02-01

207

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

S ARMAN

2003-03-01

208

Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.As florestas tropicais secas representam cerca da metade das florestas tropicais do mundo e são ecossistemas que estão sofrendo uma grande deterioração pelas atividades humanas. Neste artigo realizamos uma revisão de literatura sobre a dinâmica da regeneração das florestas tropicais secas enfocando principalmente nos fatores abióticos que influenciam esta regeneração, tais como, o clima estacional, a fertilidade e umidade do solo e as perturbações naturais e antrópicas. O principal objetivo é compreender um aspecto muito importante da dinâmica sucessional das florestas tropicais secas.

Eliane Ceccon

2006-03-01

209

Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes may need to be considered if groundwater composition is found to change with time. (author, shortened). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

210

[Growth Hormone-Insulin Growth Factor I (GH-IGF-I) axis and growth].  

Science.gov (United States)

Normal human linear growth results from an evolutionary process expressing the sum effect of multiple genes. The growth hormone (GH) - insulin like growth factor (IGF)-I axis is one of the main actors in the growth process. Defects in this axis can be responsible for short or tall stature. Short stature is defined as smaller than - 2 standard deviations (SD). It is a very common reason for consultation in pediatrics; indeed, 2.5 % of children are concerned. Multiple causes make diagnosis difficult. In this article, we detail the most common constitutional causes of small size, including those related to a defect in the GH-IGF-I axis. Then, we report, the first results of the clinical and genetic study conducted on 213 patients with gigantism. Tall stature is defined by a height superior to 2 SD. Finally, recent work linking epigenetics and growth - via signaling pathways of GH-IGF-I axis - will be presented. PMID:24356290

Castell, A-L; Sadoul, J-L; Bouvattier, C

2013-10-01

211

Empirical estimates of the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the global surface temperature  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of different natural (solar and volcanic activity) and anthropogenic (carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere) factors on the growth of the Earth’s global surface temperature (GST) is analyzed on observational evidence by the estimation of Granger causality and a new method proposed for evaluating the long-term effect. The statistically significant influence of all three factors on GST is revealed in the analysis of sequences of data. The contribution of the anthropogenic factor is most important, whereas the influence of solar and volcanic activity is weaker by an order of magnitude.

Mokhov, I. I.; Smirnov, D. A.

2009-07-01

212

Push Vs Pull: Factors Influence Student Retention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Student retention becomes one of the most significant issues that administrators of colleges and universities must deal with in today?s highly competitive market. Approach: In fact retaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out its mission. A high rate of attrition is not only a fiscal problem for schools, but a symbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose. Results: There are many ways to keep students retain at the same college until graduation, some easier than people may think but great changes will have to be made in order for schools to complete these transformations. This study is a descriptive study about the factors that influence student retention rate at a higher educational institution. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the previous studies of the similar topic and a random sample survey, this study identifies the possible push and pull factors that promote student leave from a specific college and transfer to other colleges to continue their college studies, it probes the implementable solutions to help the college to maintain and increase the student retention rate.

Matthew Leone

2009-01-01

213

Growth factors II: insuline-like growth binging proteins (GFBPs Factores de crecimiento II: factores insulinoides de crecimiento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review summarizes recent knowledge concerning Insulin.like growth factors I and II, with emphasis on their biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, biological effects, and alterations of their concentrations in biological fluids. Se revisan los Factores Insulinoides de Crecimiento, también denominados ";Factores de Crecimiento Similares a la Insulina";, sobre los cuales se dispone de abundante información. Se sintetizan conocimientos recientes sobre dichos factores con énfasis en los siguientes aspectos: estructura bioquímica, concentraciones y sus cambios en los líquidos biológicos, proteínas fijadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos.

Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

1996-03-01

214

Factors Influencing Efficacy of Bilayered Cell Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that fail to heal with standard care should be treated with advanced wound care products. Efficacy of advanced therapies is dependent on many factors. A secondary analysis of pivotal trial data for a bilayered cellular construct used in the treatment of DFU was undertaken to determine if glycemic control and other factors had an effect on time to healing. Approach: We analyzed the effect of age, gender, diabetes type, insulin usage, body mass index, smoking, initial and ending glycohemoglobin (HgbA1c), Charcot deformity, and wound area, duration, and location on likelihood of healing for wounds treated with bilayered cellular construct (BLCC). Results: In those treated with BLCC, initial wound area (cm(2)), age, and history of Charcot deformity were found to significantly affect healing. Neither initial HgbA1c nor change in HgbA1c was associated with healing. The bilayered product was found to be equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels (p-values 0.94 and 0.44, respectively). In the control group, initial HgbA1c, insulin usage, female gender, and wound location at the toes significantly influenced healing. Innovation: BLCC subgroup analysis to elucidate selection criteria allowing for targeted use of advanced products on those more likely to respond as well as direct further research into prognostic indicators for BLCC-treated patients. Conclusion: The bilayered cellular construct product remains equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels. Further specific research into the effect of glucose control and other factors on the effectiveness of different advanced DFU treatment products is recommended. PMID:24940555

Allam, Reynald C; Van Driessche, Freya; Zhu, Yiliang

2014-06-01

215

The Optimal Level and Impact of Internal Factors on Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper empirically uses data from the world economy to show that performance of domestic factors are equally important to external factors when comes to growth. Various external and domestic factors are used to construct two separate indices and the principal component method is applied in the analysis. The empiri- cal results show that given a different level of performance in the economy’s external factors, a higher per- formance in the internal factors will produce a higher growth ra...

Kui-Wai Li

2011-01-01

216

Hepatotropic growth factors protect hepatocytes during inflammation by upregulation of antioxidative systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate effects of hepatotropic growth factors on radical production in rat hepatocytes during sepsis. METHODS: Rat hepatocytes, isolated by collagenase perfusion, were incubated with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS-containing cytokine mixture of interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? to simulate sepsis and either co-incubated or pre-incubated with hepatotropic growth factors, e.g. hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor and/or transforming growth factor-?. Cells were analyzed for glutathione levels. Culture supernatants were assayed for production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs as well as NO2-, NO3- and S-nitrosothiols. To determine cellular damage, release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST into the culture medium was analyzed. Activation of nuclear factor (NF-?B was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: Rat hepatocytes treated with the LPS-containing cytokine mixture showed a significant increase in ROI and nitrogen oxide intermediate formation. AST leakage was not significantly increased in cells treated with the LPS-containing cytokine mixture, independent of growth-factor co-stimulation. However, pretreatment with growth factors significantly reduced AST leakage and ROI formation while increasing cellular glutathione. Application of growth factors did not result in increased NF-?B activation. Pretreatment with growth factors further increased formation of NO2-, NO3- and S-nitrosothiols in hepatocytes stimulated with LPS-containing cytokine mixture. Thus, we propose that, together with an increase in glutathione increased NO2-, NO3- formation might shift their metabolism towards non-toxic products. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that hepatotropic growth factors positively influence sepsis-induced hepatocellular injury by reducing cytotoxic ROI formation via induction of the cellular protective antioxidative systems.

Daniel Seehofer

2011-01-01

217

Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxi...

McLoughlin Paul; Costello Christine M; Howell Katherine; Sands Michelle

2011-01-01

218

Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

Cristina, Romeo T.

2007-12-01

219

A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela Victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

2007-01-01

220

Targeting of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Growth Factor Complexes to Fibrillin*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Both latent transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)-binding proteins fibrillins are components of microfibril networks, and both interact with members of the TGF-? family of growth factors. Interactions between latent TGF-?-binding protein-1 and TGF-? and between fibrillin-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) are mediated by the prodomain of growth factor complexes. To extend this information, investigations were performed to test whether stable complexes are formed by additional sele...

Sengle, Gerhard; Charbonneau, Noe L.; Ono, Robert N.; Sasaki, Takako; Alvarez, Jennifer; Keene, Douglas R.; Ba?chinger, Hans Peter; Sakai, Lynn Y.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Tunable dual growth factor delivery from polyelectrolyte multilayer films  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A promising strategy to accelerate joint implant integration and reduce recovery time and failure rates is to deliver a combination of certain growth factors to the integration site. There is a need to control the quantity of growth factors delivered at different times during the healing process to maximize efficacy. Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films, built using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, are attractive for releasing controlled amounts of potent growth factors over a sustained ...

Shah, Nisarg J.; Macdonald, Mara L.; Beben, Yvette M.; Padera, Robert F.; Samuel, Raymond E.; Hammond, Paula T.

2011-01-01

222

Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effec...

Laurie Drozdowski, Alan Br Thomson

2009-01-01

223

Characterization of Glycosylation Sites of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The epidermal growth factor receptor is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates the cellular responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). In this study of the human EGF receptor naturally expressed in A431 cells, the glycosylation sites of the full-length, membrane-bound receptor and of a secreted form of the receptor were characterized by mass spectrometry. Our data show that the naturally expressed human EGF receptor is fully glycosylated on eigh...

Zhen, Yuejun; Caprioli, Richard M.; Staros, James V.

2003-01-01

224

Basic fibroblast growth factor induced angiogenesis and prefabricated flap survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prefabrication of a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was performed in adult male Landrace pigs. Gelfoam sponges were used as a delivery system for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) at the muscle-subcutaneous tissue interface. Skin survival and angiogenesis were augmented in the growth-factor-treated animals. These data support the use of basic fibroblast growth factor to enhance flap prefabrication. PMID:11316283

Haws, M J; Erdman, D; Bayati, S; Brown, R E; Russell, R C

2001-01-01

225

Human transforming growth factor ?-?2-macroglobulin complex is a latent form of transforming growth factor ?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human platelet-derived transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) has been shown to be present as a high molecular weight latent form in human serum. Appearance of transforming growth factor activity, along with the change from high molecular weight form to low molecular weight form, was observed following treatment of the latent form of TGF? with acid or urea, suggesting that the latent form of TGF? is a complex of TGF? and a high molecular weight binding protein. Human ?2-M has been found to be a plasma binding protein for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in serum or plasma. TGF? and PDGF share similar properties. They, therefore, investigated the interaction between 125I-TGF? and ?2M. 125I-TGF? and purified human ?2M formed a complex as demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Most of the 125I-TGF?-?2M complex could be dissociated by acid or urea treatment. These results suggest that ?2M is a binding protein for TGF? and that TGF?-?2M complex may be the latent form of TGF? in serum

226

Vibrational circular dichroism studies of epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) studies are reported for two unrelated recombinant growth factor proteins: epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). NMR, electronic CD, and bFGF X-ray studies indicate that these two proteins are primarily composed of beta-sheet and loop secondary structure elements with no detectable alpha-helices. Two reports on solution conformation of these proteins using FTIR absorption spectroscopy with subsequent resolution enhancement confirmed the presence of a large fraction of a beta-sheet conformation but in addition indicated the presence of large absorption bands in the 1650-1656 cm-1 region, which are typically assigned to alpha-helices. The VCD spectra of both proteins have band shapes that strongly resemble those of other high beta-sheet fraction proteins, such as the trypsin family of proteins. Quantitative analysis of the VCD spectra also indicates that these proteins are predominantly in beta-sheet and extended ("other") conformations with very little alpha-helix fraction. These results agree with the CD interpretation and affirm that the FTIR peaks in the region 1650-1656 cm-1 can be assigned to loops. This study provides an example of the limitations of using FTIR frequencies alone for examination of protein secondary structure. PMID:1416996

Dukor, R K; Pancoska, P; Keiderling, T A; Prestrelski, S J; Arakawa, T

1992-11-01

227

Fibroblast growth factor control of cartilage homeostasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative disc disease (DDD) are similar diseases involving the breakdown of cartilage tissue, and a better understanding of the underlying biochemical processes involved in cartilage degeneration may allow for the development of novel biologic therapies aimed at slowing the disease process. Three members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, FGF-2, FGF-18, and FGF-8, have been implicated as contributing factors in cartilage homeostasis. The role of FGF-2 is controversial in both articular and intervertebral disc (IVD) cartilage as it has been associated with species- and age-dependent anabolic or catabolic events. Recent evidence suggests that FGF-2 selectively activates FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) to exert catabolic effects in human articular chondrocytes and IVD tissue via upregulation of matrix-degrading enzyme production, inhibition of extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and proteoglycan synthesis, and clustering of cells characteristic of arthritic states. FGF-18, on the other hand, most likely exerts anabolic effects in human articular chondrocytes by activating the FGFR3 pathway, inducing ECM formation and chondrogenic cell differentiation, and inhibiting cell proliferation. These changes result in dispersed chondrocytes or disc cells surrounded by abundant matrix. The role of FGF-8 has recently been identified as a catabolic mediator in rat and rabbit articular cartilage, but its precise biological impact on human adult articular cartilage or IVD tissue remains unknown. The available evidence reveals the promise of FGF-2/FGFR1 antagonists, FGF-18/FGFR3 agonists, and FGF-8 antagonists (i.e., anti-FGF-8 antibody) as potential therapies to prevent cartilage degeneration and/or promote cartilage regeneration and repair in the future. PMID:23060229

Ellman, M B; Yan, D; Ahmadinia, K; Chen, D; An, H S; Im, H J

2013-04-01

228

Novel Drosophila receptor that binds multiple growth factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have recently reported the identification of a novel growth factor receptor from Drosophila cell cultures that has dual binding specificity for both insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This 100 kDa protein is also antigenically related to the cytoplasmic region of the mammalian EGF receptor-tyrosine kinase. They now report that this protein binds to mammalian nerve growth factor and human transforming growth factor alpha as well as insulin and EGF with apparent dissociation constants ranging from 10-6 to 10-8 M. The 100 kDa protein can be affinity-labeled with these 125I-labeled growth factors after immunoprecipitation with anti-EGF receptor antiserum. These four growth factors appear to share a common binding site, as evidenced by their ability to block affinity labelling by 125I-insulin. No significant binding to the 100 kDa protein was observed with platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, or glucagon. The 100 kDa Drosophila protein has a unique ligand-binding spectrum with no direct counterpart in mammalian cells and may represent an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian receptors for these growth factors

229

Clonal variation in growth factor production by human carcinoma cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent research has indicated that growth factors play an important role in normal and malignant cell growth. Previous work in this laboratory established that RPMI-2650, a cell line derived from a human carcinoma, produces growth factors including TGF-a, TGF- 3 and an autocrine factor. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether growth factor production is a property of all cells, or of a sub-population of cells. If high-producer clones were available it would greatly facilitate pr...

Godfrey, Anne

1988-01-01

230

Tissue Engineering Using Transfected Growth-Factor Genes  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of growing bioengineered tissues includes, as a major component, the use of mammalian cells that have been transfected with genes for secretion of regulator and growth-factor substances. In a typical application, one either seeds the cells onto an artificial matrix made of a synthetic or natural biocompatible material, or else one cultures the cells until they secrete a desired amount of an extracellular matrix. If such a bioengineered tissue construct is to be used for surgical replacement of injured tissue, then the cells should preferably be the patient s own cells or, if not, at least cells matched to the patient s cells according to a human-leucocyteantigen (HLA) test. The bioengineered tissue construct is typically implanted in the patient's injured natural tissue, wherein the growth-factor genes enhance metabolic functions that promote the in vitro development of functional tissue constructs and their integration with native tissues. If the matrix is biodegradable, then one of the results of metabolism could be absorption of the matrix and replacement of the matrix with tissue formed at least partly by the transfected cells. The method was developed for articular chondrocytes but can (at least in principle) be extended to a variety of cell types and biocompatible matrix materials, including ones that have been exploited in prior tissue-engineering methods. Examples of cell types include chondrocytes, hepatocytes, islet cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, other organ cells, bone- and cartilage-forming cells, epithelial and endothelial cells, connective- tissue stem cells, mesodermal stem cells, and cells of the liver and the pancreas. Cells can be obtained from cell-line cultures, biopsies, and tissue banks. Genes, molecules, or nucleic acids that secrete factors that influence the growth of cells, the production of extracellular matrix material, and other cell functions can be inserted in cells by any of a variety of standard transfection techniques.

Madry, Henning; Langer, Robert S.; Freed, Lisa E.; Trippel, Stephen; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2005-01-01

231

Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine exogenous and endogenous factors have been analyzed; - reflexive and elastic economic growth factors have been determined; - economic policy was given the role of reflective element within the system to ensure economic growth. The system of factors should be considered within the system that ensures economic growth. It comprises two important elements which enlist the economic growth factors system, economic growth rates system and two reflexive elements – the state economic policy and economic growth models system. While analyzing the economic growth factors, their quality and impact upon the economy should be considered. Economic growth depends on the factors, consideration of which is one of the most important aspects of the economic growth theory. Economic growth reasons are the factors that cause this growth. These are phenomena and processes that can increase the production output, improve efficiency and quality. Factors classification completeness and their diversity do not necessarily mean the dead end of the study. Any classification has the sense only if it fulfills the certain function. If we take into account economic growth modeling, factors diversification and their characteristics classification it implies that models are becoming more complex, the range of their parameters expands, however it does not necessarily lead to more accurate prognosis. All the factors have different impact upon the economic development. Their first type is elastic ones. These factors directly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand. For instance, net export means the increasing foreign demand for our national products; favorable weather conditions lead to the agricultural produce growing supply without any significant change in the economy. These factors rates can be measured and their impact upon economic growth can be easily determined. Another group of factors that indirectly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand are the reflexive factors. They function through structural changes, distribution and motivation system, insignificant restrictions and stimulus. These factors can only be characterized by indirect rates (human development index to measure human capital and their impact upon economic growth, supply and demand is minor in the long run. This group enlists institutional and social factors that become more and more important in post industrial economy. Taking into account economic growth factors impact upon the supply and demand, we can sate that analysis that has been carried out provides good grounds to improve the research methodology in the field of economic growth modeling. We cannot definitely say if there are certain economic growth factors that are entirely independent from the state regulation. Firstly, government itself indirectly impacts the economic growth, by adopting new laws, for instance. Secondly, the main function of the state is to administratively regulate the economic system. This processit can lead to a significant development. Consequently the state plays one of the major roles in the economic factors development. Conclusions and directions of further researches. To ensure Ukraine’s constant economic development and to establish corresponding strategies to reach that goal it is of utmost importance to classify the economic growth factors and to study carefully their impact on the economic processes as the whole.

H.Ya. Hlukha

2014-03-01

232

Placental growth factor and placental perfusion  

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Full Text Available Placental Growth Factor (PlGF is a very important angiogenic protein secreted by the placenta, necessary for the proper functioning of the endothelial cells during pregnancy. In normal pregnancies, PlGF plasma circulating levels increase up to the 32nd week of pregnancy, and then decrease until the end of pregnancy. Low PlGF plasma levels are a marker of preeclampsia and of placental function deficiency. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether a deficiency of placenta function, diagnosed through the PlGF assay, could be a cause of preterm delivery without known causes. The PlGF levels were measured in plasma samples collected by 250 pregnant women (20-35 weeks of pregnancy. In our study, PlGF levels were significantly lower than cut off values in all women with preterm delivery without known causes. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

Sara Francesca Deiana

2014-06-01

233

Autocrine nerve growth factor in human keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologically active nerve growth factor (NGF) is synthesised and released by proliferating normal human keratinocytes. NGF up-regulates the expression of NGF mRNA in keratinocytes. Keratinocytes express both the low (p75)- and the high-affinity (TrkA) NGF-receptors, which are located in the basal layer of the epidermis. K252, a specific inhibitor of trk phosphorylation, blocks NGF-induced keratinocyte proliferation, in absence of exogenous NGF. Normal keratinocytes over-expressing TrkA proliferate better than control transfectants, while the NGF mimicking anti-Trk antibody induces an increased keratinocyte proliferation in Trk over-expressing cells as compared to mock transfected keratinocytes. In addition, NGF over-expressing keratinocytes proliferate better than mock transfected cells. K252, by blocking TrkA phosphorylation, induces apoptosis in normal keratinocytes, but not in keratinocytes over-expressing bcl-2. Furthermore, NGF transfected keratinocytes are protected from UV-B-induced keratinocyte apoptosis, by maintaining constant levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL . Taken together these results support the concept of an autocrine survival system sustained by NGF and its high-affinity receptor in human keratinocytes. Because NGF and Trk levels are highly expressed in psoriasis. one could speculate that NGF autocrine system plays a role in the mechanisms associated with this and other hyperproliferative skin conditions, including cancer. PMID:10674819

Pincelli, C; Marconi, A

2000-02-01

234

[Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. PMID:25433777

Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

2014-11-26

235

Radiotherapy and receptor of epidermal growth factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The expression level of the receptor of the epidermal growth factor is in correlation with the tumor cells radiosensitivity. An overexpression of the E.G.F.R. is often present in the bronchi cancer, epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere, esophagus, uterine cervix, and anal duct but also in the rectum cancers and glioblastomas. At the clinical level, the E.G.F.R. expression is in correlation with an unfavourable prognosis after radiotherapy in numerous tumoral localizations. In the rectum cancers it is an independent prognosis factor found in multifactorial analysis: increase of the rate of nodes and local recurrence when the E.G.F.R. is over expressed. In the uterine cervix cancers, the survival is is negatively affected in multifactorial analysis by the E.G.F.R. membranes expression level. At the therapy level, the development of anti E.G.F.R. targeted therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies) opens a new therapy field at radio-sensitivity potentiality. The irradiation makes an activation of the E.G.F.R. way that would be partially responsible of the post irradiation tumoral repopulation. This activation leads the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase ways and M.A.P. kinase ones, then the Akt protein one that acts an apoptotic modulator part. It has been shown that blocking the E.G.F.R. way acts on three levels: accumulation of ells in phase G1, reduction of the cell repair and increasing of apoptosis. he inhibition of post irradiation action he inhibition of post irradiation action of the E.G.F.R. signal way is a factor explaining the ionizing radiation - anti E.G.F.R. synergy. The preclinical data suggest that the E.G.F.R. blocking by the monoclonal antibodies is more important than the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A first positive randomized study with the cetuximab, published in 2006 in the epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere lead to its authorization on the market with the radiotherapy for this localization. The use of cetuximab in other indication with or in chemoradiotherapy association is for the moment kept to the clinical research. Several tests are running in France: the cetuxicol test concerning the locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas with pelvis irradiation associated to cisplatin, the anal duct cancers in chemoradiotherapy association, rectum cancers in preoperative situation or O.R.L. carcinomas in chemoradiotherapy association from the oncology group of head and neck radiotherapy. Among the expected data of these tests, besides the elements of tumor response, the data on sane tissues toxicity will be key elements. (N.C.)

236

Basic science for the clinician 57: transforming growth factor ?.  

Science.gov (United States)

As is so often the case, a molecule gets named for its first identified activity or apparent role and then that initial name sticks, even as new and perhaps fundamentally different activities emerge from later studies. It is the special power of evolution that takes a certain activity and then uses it over and over again in pursuit of apparently disparate goals in a maturing or mature organism. In general terms, transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) is intimately involved in a variety of differentiation and growth inhibition processes, in apoptosis, and in deposition of the extracellular matrix. Initially identified in its role in oncogenesis, TGF-? is now implicated in a number of vascular and rheumatologic disorders, perhaps most notably the scleroderma. TGF-? has been identified as a powerful influence in angiogenesis, wound healing, joint inflammation, tumor growth and metastasis, and, of course, immunoregulation. So "what is in a name?" A rose by any other name would smell as sweet and would still be immunologically active, even if the name is "misleading." PMID:22832292

Sigal, Leonard H

2012-08-01

237

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

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Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01. Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01. Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01 influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01. The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

238

FACTORS INFLUENCING PAYMENT OF IRRIGATION SERVICE FEES  

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Full Text Available This article attempts to identify factors affecting participation in payment of irrigation service fees. There are five variables comprising demographic and economic of land variables were tested to find the variables that influenced the participation significantly. The five variables tested consisted of age and formal education as demographic variables; land productivity, land size, and land tenure as the economic of land variables. The results showed that formal education (demographic variable had positive relationship and land size (economic of land variable had negative relationship with the participation. Positive relationship between formal education and participation in payment of irrigation service fees meant that the participation increased as farmers’ education increased. Meanwhile, negative relationship between land size and the participation in payment of irrigation service fees showed that the farmers’ participation wouldincrease as the land size owned by farmers decreased. In other words, participation in payment of irrigation service fees was higher among farmers with small lands rather than that among farmers with large lands.

Gelar Satya Budhi

2006-06-01

239

Factors influencing codon usage bias in genomes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O código genético é degenerado, isto é, o mesmo amino ácido pode ser codificado por vários codons. Apesar de codificarem o mesmo amino ácido, estes codons sinônimos não são utilizados da mesma forma em genomas diferentes, e mesmo em um único genoma o padrão de uso dos codons sinônimos pode variar mu [...] ito entre os genes, ou ainda ao longo de um único gene. Com a recente introdução de seqüências genômicas completas as razões destes desvios no uso de codons estão começando a ser entendidas. Neste artigo nós vamos apresentar alguns dos fatores propostos para as variações no uso de codons sinônimos e as forças seletivas que podem influenciar tais variações. Abstract in english The genetic code is degenerate, i.e. some amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. Although coding for the same amino acid, synonymous codons are not equally used in different genomes, and even in a single genome the synonymous codon usage can vary widely among genes, or even along the gene [...] sequences. With the recent advent of full genome sequences we are starting to unravel the reasons for these deviations. In this review we will cover some of the proposed factors that might cause different codon usage bias and the selective forces influencing it.

Hannah M. W., Salim; Andre R. O., Cavalcanti.

240

Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length  

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Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

Miyoshi,Ko

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Factors influencing creep model equation selection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of {epsilon}(t,T,{sigma}) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets.

Holdsworth, S.R. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: stuart.holdsworth@empa.ch; Askins, M. [RWE, Swindon (United Kingdom); Baker, A. [British Energy Generation Ltd., Barnwood (United Kingdom); Gariboldi, E. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Holmstroem, S. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Klenk, A.; Ringel, M. [MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Merckling, G. [ISB, Milan (Italy); Sandstrom, R. [KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Schwienheer, M. [IfW, Darmstadt (Germany); Spigarelli, S. [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

2008-01-15

242

Factors influencing creep model equation selection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of ?(t,T,?) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets

243

Retinal and preretinal localisation of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, and their receptor in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.  

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A number of growth factors have been implicated in the development and perpetuation of preretinal fibrovascular membranes in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), and their receptor (EGF-R) in PDR development. Immunostaining for EGF, TGF-alpha, and EGF-R was compared between normal retina, PDR retina, and PDR preretinal membranes. Weak sta...

Patel, B.; Hiscott, P.; Charteris, D.; Mather, J.; Mcleod, D.; Boulton, M.

1994-01-01

244

Clinical application of growth factors and cytokines in wound healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of nonhealing wounds (e.g., pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted an online search of Medline/PubMed and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies, and future research possibilities. In this review, we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. PMID:24942811

Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

2014-01-01

245

On vascular endothelial growth factor B and platelet-derived growth factor C : two members of the VEGF/PDGF family of growth factors  

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Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors are important for normal development. They have also been implicated in many pathological conditions. VEGFs have been shown to play an important role in the development of both blood and lymphatic vessels. PDGFs on the other hand, are important regulators of the connective tissue cells of both the vascular network and other organs systems. The focus of the work presen...

Aase, Karin

2001-01-01

246

Growth Factor-Mediated Induction of HDM2 Positively Regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1? Expression  

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The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcriptional complex is regulated by cellular oxygen levels and growth factors. The phosphoinosotide 3-kinase (PI-3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway has been shown to regulate HIF-1 activity in response to oncogenic signals and growth factors. We assessed whether the HDM2 oncoprotein, a direct target of Akt/PKB, could regulate HIF-1? expression and HIF-1 activity under normoxic conditions. We found that growth factor stimulation, overexpression o...

Ba?rdos, Julia I.; Chau, Noan-minh; Ashcroft, Margaret

2004-01-01

247

Determination of vascular endothelial- and fibroblast- growth factor receptors in a mouse fibrosarcoma tumor model following photodynamic therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of angiogenic molecules, like vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in tumor angio genesis was well confirmed. Photodynamic therapy action is, to very high degree, based on tumor vasculature damage. Therefore, it seemed to be important to evaluate growth factor receptors after photodynamic therapy. The extent of receptor expression was studied by immuno-histochemical method. In this study, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor have been evaluated at different time points after photodynamic therapy of tumor- bearing BALB/c mice. Two sensitizer: hematoporphyrin derivative and 21, 23-dithia porphyrin were given intraperitoneally in doses: 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg followed by light irradiation at total doses: 50 and 100 J/sq.cm 24 hours later. The number of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor and fibroblast growth factor in control samples did not exceed 40 per one vessel, whereas after photodynamic therapy, a significant decrease in the number of both receptors was observed. No differences between hematoporphyrin derivative and dithia porphyrin- photodynamic therapy in anti- receptor activities were observed (p<0.001 for vascular endothelial growth factor and p<0.002 for receptor and fibroblast growth factor ). The observed decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor and fibroblast growth factor amount confirms that after photodynamic therapy, some proteins are inacttodynamic therapy, some proteins are inactivated and such a decrease may influence photodynamic therapy effectiveness

248

Transforming Growth Factor Beta, Bioenergetics and Mitochondria in Renal Disease  

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The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-? ) family is comprised of over 30 family members that are structurally related secreted dimeric cytokines, including TGF-?, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)/growth and differentiation factors (GDFs). TGF-? are pluripotent regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion of many different cell types. TGF-? pathways are highly evolutionarily conserved and control embryogenesis, tissue repair, and ...

Gabriella, Casalena; Ilse, Daehn; Erwin, Bottinger

2012-01-01

249

Tumor epidermal growth factor receptor molecular imaging research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the importance of epidermal growth factor signaling pathway in oncogenesis, maintenance, and progression of different types of tumors, there are great significance that non-invasive monitoring of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the diagnosis and the judge of therapeutic efficacy. The studys of radioactive tracers for EGFR have provided a good basis for the molecular imaging of EGFR. (authors)

250

Control of growth factor networks by heparan sulfate proteoglycans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth factor binding to transmembrane protein receptors is generally understood to initiate cell signaling. Receptor binding of heparin-binding growth factors (HB-GFs), such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), is regulated by interactions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans. While there is some specificity for binding to heparan sulfate, overlap in sites for different growth factors may allow for cross regulation. Here we demonstrate, using experiments and computer simulations, that the HB-GFs FGF-2 and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) can cross regulate receptor binding of the other despite having unique receptors. The ability of HSPG to stabilize HB-GF receptor binding is critical for competing growth factors to modulate receptor binding with both enhanced and reduced binding possible depending on this stabilization process. HSPG density and affinity for HB-GF are also critical factors for HB-GF cross regulation. Simulations further reveal that HB-GF can regulate receptor binding of non-HB-GFs such as EGF even when the two proteins share no binding sites when other HB-GF are present within the network. Proliferation studies demonstrate potentiation of HB-EGF-induced growth by FGF-2 indicating that competition networks can alter biological response. Exogenous manipulation of cellular responses to growth factors in complex living systems will require understanding the HSPG-controlled network. PMID:18839312

Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Chu, Chia Lin; Fannon, Michael; Buczek-Thomas, Jo Ann; Nugent, Matthew A

2008-12-01

251

Influence of thyroid in nervous system growth.  

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Nervous system growth and differentiation are closely correlated with the presence of iodine and thyroid hormones in initial development stages. In the human species, encephalon maturation during the first quarter of pregnancy is affected according to recent studies by the transplacenta passage of maternal thyroid hormones while it depends on initial iodiothyronin secretion by the foetal gland after the 12th week of pregnancy. Thyroid hormone deficiency during nervous system development cause...

Silvestro, Leandra; Zambelli, Maria Cristina

2001-01-01

252

A nonmitogenic analogue of epidermal growth factor induces early responses mediated by epidermal growth factor  

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Cyanogen bromide-cleaved epidermal growth factor (CNBr-EGF) binds to EGF receptors with reduced affinity compared to the native hormone but fails to induce DNA synthesis. However, at similar receptor occupancy, CNBr-EGF is as potent as EGF in activating early cell responses to the hormone. The phosphorylation of membrane proteins, the stimulation of Na+-K+-ATPase as reflected by the ouabain-sensitive uptake of 86Rb of fibroblasts, changes in the organization of microfilaments and in cell- mor...

1982-01-01

253

Human epidermal growth factor receptor residue covalently cross-linked to epidermal growth factor.  

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An epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor monoclonal antibody (mAb), mAb LA22, was used to analyze the covalent coupling of human EGF receptors to mouse EGF by the amine-reactive cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate. A soluble Mr 105,000 truncated form of the receptor secreted by A-431 epidermoid carcinoma cells and consisting of the ligand-binding extracellular domain was cross-linked to 125I-labeled EGF. Digestion of this complex with an endoproteinase that specifically cleaves at th...

Wu, D. G.; Wang, L. H.; Chi, Y.; Sato, G. H.; Sato, J. D.

1990-01-01

254

Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2 or hypoxia (10% O2 for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.

McLoughlin Paul

2011-01-01

255

Growth trajectory influences temperature preference in fish through an effect on metabolic rate  

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Most animals experience temperature variations as they move through the environment. For ectotherms in particular, temperature has a strong influence on habitat choice. While well-studied at the species level, less is known about factors affecting the preferred temperature of individuals. Especially lacking is information on how physiological traits are linked to thermal preference and whether such relationships are affected by factors such feeding history and growth trajectory. Th...

Killen, Shaun S.

2014-01-01

256

Antidepressant drugs modulate growth factors in cultured cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Different classes of antidepressant drugs are used as a treatment for depression by activating the catecholinergic system. In addition, depression has been associated with decrease of growth factors, which causes insufficient axonal sprouting and reduced neuronal damage repair. In this study, antidepressant treatments are analyzed in a cell culture system, to study the modulation of growth factors. Results We quantified the transcription of several growth factors in three cell lines after application of antidepressant drugs by real time polymerase chain reaction. Antidepressant drugs counteracted against phorbolester-induced deregulation of growth factors in PMA-differentiated neuronal SY5Y cells. We also found indications in a pilot experiment that magnetic stimulation could possibly modify BDNF in the cell culture system. Conclusion The antidepressant effects antidepressant drugs might be explained by selective modulation of growth factors, which subsequently affects neuronal plasticity.

Maler Juan M

2008-03-01

257

Enhancement of epidermal regeneration by biosynthetic epidermal growth factor  

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Epidermal regeneration depends on mitosis and migration of keratinocytes. Epidermal growth factor is known to stimulate growth of keratinocytes in vitro, thus it might be expected to promote wound healing. The results of this study show that topical application of biosynthetic human epidermal growth factor accelerates epidermal regeneration in split-thickness wounds and partial-thickness burns. The significant enhancement of epidermal regeneration suggests the potential for clinical use of ep...

1986-01-01

258

Chapter 6. Radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value. Chapter consistsof next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of plants; (2) Radioactive contamination of plants; (3) Factors influencing radioactivity of biological chain soil - plant; (4) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of agricultural and food products

259

Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation  

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Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.

I. Hruzina

2010-09-01

260

TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)  

Science.gov (United States)

TITLE: TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

 
 
 
 
261

Regulation of growth differentiation factor 15 expression by intracellular iron.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and has been identified in different contexts as a hypoxia-inducible gene product and as a molecule involved in hepcidin regulation. The biology of iron and oxygen is closely related, and known regulatory pathways involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) are responsive to both these stimuli. We therefore sought to characterize the regulation of ...

Lakhal, S.; Talbot, Np; Crosby, A.; Stoepker, C.; Townsend, Ar; Robbins, PA; Pugh, Cw; Ratcliffe, Pj; Mole, Dr

2009-01-01

262

Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.

K. R. Sowmya

2011-01-01

263

Effect of nerve growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor on wound healing of the sinus mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The healing of the sinuses after sinus surgery is often compromised by the development of adhesions. The aim of this study was to determine whether nerve growth factor (NGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) aid epithelial and fibroblast wound healing after surgery. Two in vitro models were used to compare their effect on wound closure rates and expression of cell adhesion (E-cadherin), tight junction formation (zona occludens-1), cell proliferation (proliferative cell nuclear antigen and Ki67), and ciliogenesis (Foxj1 and beta tubulin IVb) genes by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Epithelial cells from sinonasal tissue were seeded in collagen-coated Transwells, creating an air-liquid interface, and a submergent model was used for fibroblasts. In epithelial cells, NGF (20-50 ng/mL) significantly decreased wound areas to <40% compared with controls that were still 70% of their original sizes by 24 hours (p<0.05). E-cadherin and zona occludens-1 expression were up-regulated by 20- and 2.5-fold, respectively, relative to controls. KGF (5-100 ng/mL) slowed fibroblast proliferation by reducing (0.8-fold) and Ki67 (0.25-fold) expression. NGF (10 ng/mL) slowed Ki67 expression by 0.5-fold. NGF accelerated in vitro epithelial wound closure while NGF and KGF reduced fibroblast proliferation. PMID:18086292

Tan, Lorwai; Hatzirodos, Nick; Wormald, Peter-John

2008-01-01

264

Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected with a monoclonal mouse antibody and EGF with polyclonal rabbit antiserum. Thirty-five of the tumours were positive for TGF-alpha and 26 of the tumours for EGF. None of the poorly differentiated tumours was positive for EGF, but they all were for TGF-alpha. In sections including normal differentiated oral mucosa, the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus paralleling the situation observed in the normal differentiated oral mucosa. In four cases, material was available from both a primary tumour and a metastasis. Three of these were positive for TGF-alpha and EGF with the same staining pattern as that of the primary tumours. This investigation together with our previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases.

Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

1993-01-01

265

INTERCULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Translation is a complex process, involving linguistic, cultural and personal factors. This article seeks to show how intercultural factors constitute one of the main sources of translation difficultties. The author suggests that a systematic discussion of these factors would be useful in establishing effective strategies for avoiding pitfalls in translation between English and Chinese.

Dai Xiaoqian

2005-01-01

266

Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

Masud, E. [ed.

1977-01-01

267

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 Up-regulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in L6 Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Overexpression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) has been associated with increased angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis in tumors. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) acts as an oncogene in several tumor types, including multiple myeloma, bladder cancer and cervical cancer. Our previous studies have shown that inhibition of FGFR3 caused down regulation of VEGF in multiple myeloma. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism of FGFR3 and VEGF, L6 cells lackin...

Lijun Zhu; Yun Yen; Jimin Shao; Qi, Christina H.; Christina Yen; Jianhong Luo; Bingsen Zhou

2006-01-01

268

Influence of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I on Maturation and Fertilization Rate of Immature Oocyte and Embryo Development in NMRI Mouse with TCM199 and ?-MEM Medium  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes and subsequent, in vitro fertilization (IVF) for the generation of embryos in the laboratory has important values. Growth factors are a component of a complex system of autocrine and paracrine factors that have a regulatory role in ovarian function and affect oocyte maturation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of IGF-I on IVM and IVF of mice oocytes during culture with ?-MEM and TCM199 medium. Materials and Methods: Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and denuded oocyte were obtained from 4-6 week old NMRI mice and underwent in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization in presence or absence of IGF-I with ?-MEM and TCM199. Result: Maturation rate (79.6%), fertilization rate (87.2%), two cells development rate (79.5%) and blastocyst rate(43.2%) was higher in COCs cultured in ?-MEM with IGF-I, while lower maturation rate (50.6%) fertilization rate (61%), two cells development rate (48.8%) and blastocyst rate(14.6%) were seen in cultured denuded oocytes (DOs) in TCM199 without growth factor. As well as, maturation fertilization, two cells development and blastocyst rates in COCs were higher than DOs. Conclusion: Our findings have shown that IGF-I is involved in the oocyte biology and improve the oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development to blastocyst competence in vitro. In addition, it has also shown that cumulus cells are vital for oocyte development when IGF-1 added to the mediums.

Mosavi, Esmaeil; Nikseresht, Mohsen; Barmak, Mehrzad Jafari; Mahmoudi, Reza

2014-01-01

269

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

Gupta, N.; Fischer, A. R. H.; Lans, I. A.; Frewer, L. J.

2012-01-01

270

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

2012-01-01

271

Influence of nutrition and various substrates on spruce seedling growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K) on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of s...

?uki? Matilda; ?unisijevi? Danijela; Grbi? Mihailo; Sko?aji? Dragana

2004-01-01

272

Upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor in human periapical lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basic fibroblast growth factor is one of a class of heparin-binding growth factors that stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in chronic periapical lesions of endodontic origin. Ten chronic inflammatory periapical lesions were examined using immunohistochemical staining. The experimental control group consisted of four specimens of uninflamed periodontal ligament tissue. Two independent observers graded the staining intensity for basic fibroblast growth factor. An immunopositive, cytoplasmic, and nuclear reaction for basic fibroblast growth factor, with varying degrees of upregulation was observed in all 10 chronic periapical lesions. We speculate that the formation of granulation tissue and the activation of epithelial cell rests in chronical apical lesions might be associated with a local rise in the tissue level of basic fibroblast growth factor. Therefore, this growth factor could play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic apical periodontitis and periapical cysts. PMID:16631837

Moldauer, Ivan; Velez, Ines; Kuttler, Sergio

2006-05-01

273

Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ?. Whereas transforming growth factor ? reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult ski medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated

274

Transforming growth factor-? in graft vessels: histology and immunohistochemistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The biological functions of transforming growth factor-? signaling that involves Smad proteins have not been previously investigated with respect to coronary artery bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to observe the immunostaining of proteins that are related to this signalin [...] g pathway. METHODS: Fifteen remnants of coronary artery bypass grafts, including nine saphenous veins, three radial arteries and three mammary arteries, were collected from 12 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 were performed. RESULTS: The saphenous veins showed more severe intimal degeneration, more severe smooth muscle cell proliferation and more collagen deposition than the arterial grafts, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that the majority of the transforming growth factor-?1 signaling cytokines were primarily localized in the cytoplasm in the medial layers of all three types of grafts, whereas ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the interstices were observed particularly in the saphenous vein and radial arterial grafts. CONCLUSION: Enhanced transforming growth factor-?1 signal transduction with medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, the presence of the type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the extracellular matrix may provide primary evidence for early or late graft failure.

Shi-Min, Yuan; Yan-Qing, Wang; Yi, Shen; Hua, Jing.

275

Transforming growth factor-beta complexes with thrombospondin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thrombospondin (TSP) was demonstrated to inhibit the growth of bovine aortic endothelial cells, an activity that was not neutralized by antibodies to TSP or by other agents that block TSP-cell interactions but that partially was reversed by a neutralizing antibody to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Similar to TGF-beta, TSP supported the growth of NRK-49F colonies in soft agar in a dose-dependent manner, which required epidermal growth factor and was neutralized by anti-TGF-beta an...

Murphy-ullrich, J. E.; Schultz-cherry, S.; Ho?o?k, M.

1992-01-01

276

Regulation of transferrin receptor expression at the cell surface by insulin-like growth factors, epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (rIGF-I) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) to BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts causes a marked increase in the binding of [125I] diferric transferrin to cell surface receptors. This effect is very rapid and is complete within 5 minutes. The effect is transient with [125I] diferric transferrin binding returning to control values within 25 minutes. In contrast, PDGF and rIGF-I cause a prolonged stimulation of [125I] diferric transferrin binding that could be observed up to 2 hours. The increase in the binding of [125I] diferric transferrin caused by growth factors was investigated by analysis of the binding isotherm. EGF, PDGF and rIGF-I were found to increase the cell surface expression of transferrin receptors rather than to alter the affinity of the transferrin receptors. Furthermore, PDGF and rIGF-I stimulated the sustained uptake of [59Fe] diferric transferrin by BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts. Thus, the effect of these growth factors to increase the cell surface expression of the transferrin receptor appears to have an important physiological consequence

277

Exogenous factors influencing voice prosthetic biofilm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lifetime of a voice prosthesis is dependent on the amount and composition of the biofilm on the prosthesis (and also on the type of prosthesis). This biofilm formation is a multifactorial process which is difficult to study in an in vivo situation due to the multitude of influential factors. In a retrospective multifactorial analysis no factors could be found to have a significant effect on the lifetime of these devices. Therefore in this thesis, the effects of single factors on biofil...

Free, Rolina Henderika

2004-01-01

278

Factors influencing emigration out of South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study was to construct a questionnaire to determine what factors affect emigration. The questionnaire consisted out of 51 items and was administered to 150 respondents who were South African citizens either living in South Africa or who have emigrated to another country. Factor analyses were applied to the 51 items and four factors were identified; these were social and political situation, work experience, victim of crime and job satisfaction. It was found during the ANOVA...

Chasenski, Azaria

2012-01-01

279

Stimulation of tumour growth by wound-derived growth factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this work was to determine the molecular basis for the induction of tumour vascularization and progression by injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated that administration of wound fluid derived from cutaneous injuries in pigs reduced the lag for vascularization and initiation of growth of C6 glioma spheroids, implanted in nude mice, and accelerated tumour doubling time. The former effect can be attributed to the angiogenic capacity of wound fluid as detected i...

Abramovitch, R.; Marikovsky, M.; Meir, G.; Neeman, M.

1999-01-01

280

Financial influence factors on innovative activity ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the financial factors affecting innovation, and examined the structure of industries industrial complex of Ukraine on technological structure of production.? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????, ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????.

Marchenko Olga I.

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)

2012-04-24

282

Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.

Laurie Drozdowski, Alan BR Thomson

2009-01-01

283

Epidermal growth factor receptor targeted molecularly therapies of cancers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been known to be a significant factor in the development and growth of many types of cancers. It is now accepted that the EGFR signal transduction net work plays an important role in multiple tumorigenic processes, contributing to cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as protection from apoptosis. Recently, EGFR monoclonal antibodies (McAb) and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors have been validated as new treatment approach for those EGFR-positive cancers and have shown activity aginst advanced, chemofractory cancers in clinical trials. This article focuses on three EGFR targeted molecularly therapies of cancers. (authors)

284

Immunomodulatory effects of transforming growth factor-? in the liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) family are potent regulatory cytokines that affect multiple cell types of the immune system mediating pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses. In the liver, TGF-? is produced by a multitude of non-parenchymal liver cells including hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), Kupffer cells (KCs), and dendritic cells (DCs) as well as natural killer (NK) T cells among other hepatic lymphocytes. The effect of TGF-? on other cells is highly versatile. In concert with other soluble factors, it controls the maturation, differentiation and activity of various T cell subsets that either prevent or actuate infections, graft-versus-host reactions, immune diseases, and cancer formation. During the last decades, it became evident that some TGFB1 polymorphisms are associated with the pathogenesis of hepatic disease and that plasma TGF-? is a suitable biomarker to detect liver lesions. Moreover, since TGF-? has capacity to influence the quantity and quality of T cell subsets as well as their activity, it is obvious that a well-balanced TGF-? activity is essential for liver homeostasis. In the present review, we highlight some pivotal functions of TGF-? in hepatic immunobiology. We discuss its regulatory function on adaptive immunity, the impact on differentiation of various T cell subsets, its crosstalk with Toll like receptor signaling, and its contribution to functional impairment of the liver. PMID:25568862

Schon, Hans-Theo; Weiskirchen, Ralf

2014-12-01

285

Tunisian Financial System: A Growth Factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth were the subject of many recent theoretical and empirical works. These works generally focused on link between finance and growth according to the maturity of financial systems. The Tunisian economy knew a long period of financial repression before starting several phases of liberalization. The aim of the paper is to determinate the impact of the development of the Tunisian financial system on economic growth. We identified economic and financial development indicators of Tunisian economy. The empirical study on Tunisia is based on causality tests within B-VAR framework. Reciprocal relationships are only finding between the ratio of investment on GDP and the loans granted to private and public sectors. The economic role of government is highlighted, over the pre-reforms period as well as during the recent time.

Imène Ben Fredj

2010-10-01

286

Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1) in physiology and pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review describes precisely the consequence of TGF?1 prevalence in the organism, and its significant influence on physiological and pathophysiological processes. Organ and tissue distinctiveness hinder unambiguous characterisation of the cytokine. However, there are constant functions of TGF?1 inducing no controversy: it participates in foetal development, control of cell growth and differentiation, induces fibrosis and scar formation (the process of 'wound healing'), causes the suppression of immune response, is involved in angiogenesis, the development of tumours, and inflammatory processes. Thus, TGF?1 is a multifunctional cytokine. There are three fundamental directions of its activities: I. TGF?1 regulates cell proliferation, growth, differentiation and cells movement. II. TGF?1 has immunomodulatory effects. III. TGF?1 has profibrogenic effects. TGF?1 action can be local and systemic. This review describes TGF?1 in pathology: colitis ulcerosa, Crohn's disease, coeliac disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic foot, pulmonary hypertension, and Alzheimer's disease. TGF?1 and its receptors are also of interest to endocrinologists. Lack of TGF?1-dependent growth control may result in oncogenesis: papillary, follicular and anaplastic thyroid cancers, prostate, breast and uterine cervical cancer, oesophagus, gastric, colorectal and liver cancers, NSCLC, and malignant melanoma. Excessive TGF?1 activity is an integral part of the fibrotic processes occurring in the response to injury. An increased TGF?1 expression has been observed in patients with pulmonary, kidney, and liver fibrosis. In chronic hepatitis, the prolonged stimulation of hepatic stellate cells being the result of chronic damage to hepatocytes results in the release of profibrogenic abundant factors such as TGF?1 and leads to the development of liver cirrhosis. The results of experimental procedures and treatment known as anti-TGF?1 strategy acting against the fibrosis in various tissues leads to hope regarding the use of anti-TGF?1 strategy in clinical practice. PMID:24186596

Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Marek, Bogdan; Borgiel-Marek, Halina; Kos-Kud?a, Beata

2013-01-01

287

Progesterone-dependent expression of keratinocyte growth factor mRNA in stromal cells of the primate endometrium: keratinocyte growth factor as a progestomedin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In vitro studies have shown that keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, also known as FGF-7) is secreted by fibroblasts and is mitogenic specifically for epithelial cells. Therefore, KGF may be an important paracrine mediator of epithelial cell proliferation in vivo. Because stromal cells are thought to influence glandular proliferation in the primate endometrium, we investigated the hormonal regulation and cellular localization of KGF mRNA expression in the rhesus monkey uterus. Tissues were obtai...

1994-01-01

288

Organizational Creativity: A Substantial Factor to Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea...

Malikeh Beheshtifar; Fateme-Begom Kamani-Fard

2013-01-01

289

Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-?) Signaling in Paravertebral Muscles in Juvenile and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most researchers agree that idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a multifactorial disease influenced by complex genetic and environmental factors. The onset of the spinal deformity that determines the natural course of the disease, usually occurs in the juvenile or adolescent period. Transforming growth factors ? (TGF-?s) and their receptors, TGFBRs, may be considered as candidate genes related to IS susceptibility and natural history. This study explores the transcriptional profile of TGF-?s, TGF...

Roman Nowak; Magdalena Kwiecien; Magdalena Tkacz; Urszula Mazurek

2014-01-01

290

Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits  

Science.gov (United States)

This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

Cole, Bryan

2012-01-01

291

Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.

Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni

2013-01-01

292

Empirical Research of the Capital Structure Influencing Factors of Electric Power Listed Companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we selected 25 electric power listed companies in the electric power industry as the samples to study the influences of micro factors on the capital structure of listed companies, and the sample period was from 2002 to 2007, and these micro factors mainly included company scale, profitability, growth, non-debt tax shields, fluidity and capital structure. The research results showed that the company scale, non-debt tax shields and assets structure were not significantly correl...

Yuanxin Liu; Xiangbo Ning

2009-01-01

293

Factors that Influence Financial Leverage of Small Business Firms in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence financial leverage of small business firms in India. This study also seeks to extend the findings of Michaelas et al. (1999. Small business owners from Punjab area of India were surveyed in order to gather information. Subjects were asked about their perceptions, beliefs, and feelings regarding the factors that influence financial leverage of their firms. This study utilized survey research (a non-experimental field study design. The findings of this paper show that small business growth, small business performance, total assets, sales, tax, and family have positive influence on the financial leverage of small business firms in India. This study contributes to the literature on the factors that influence financial leverage of small business firms. The findings may be useful for the financial managers, investors, and financial management consultants.

Amarjit Singh Gill

2012-02-01

294

Total factor productivity (TFP) growth agriculture in pakistan: trends in different time horizons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study estimated total factor productivity (TFP) growth of agriculture sector of Pakistan for the period 1971-2006 by employing Tornqvist-Theil (T-T) index number methodology. Most of the conventional inputs were used in constructing the input index. The output index includes major crops, minor crops, important fruits and vegetables and four categories of livestock products. The study estimated TFP growth rates for different decades. The results showed that TFP growth rate was lowest during the decade of 70s (0.96 percent) and highest during the last six years of the study period (2.86 percent). The decade of 80s and 90s registered TFP growth rate of 2.24 percent and 2.46 percent, respectively. The results also explained that TFP growth contributed about 33 percent to total agricultural output growth during the decade of 70s and this contribution increased up to 83 percent during the last six years of the study period. The contribution of TFP growth to total agricultural output growth was 53 and 81 percent during the decades of 80s and 90s, respectively. The study observed that macro level government policies, institutional factors and weather conditions are the major key factors that influenced TFP growth. (author)

295

ROLE OF STATISTICS IN RESEARCH FOR DATA ANALYSIS: FOCUS ON CORRELATION OF VARIABLES, INFLUENCING THE GROWTH OF POPULATION: CASE STUDY IN AHMEDNAGAR DISTRICT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth of population is influenced by the number of factors in a particular region. The important factors such as the demographic, economic, social and physical factors have great bearing upon the growth of population. Now a day, Geography is not merely descriptive subject.

Narke Sunil Yuvaraj

2014-01-01

296

ROLE OF STATISTICS IN RESEARCH FOR DATA ANALYSIS: FOCUS ON CORRELATION OF VARIABLES, INFLUENCING THE GROWTH OF POPULATION: CASE STUDY IN AHMEDNAGAR DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of population is influenced by the number of factors in a particular region. The important factors such as the demographic, economic, social and physical factors have great bearing upon the growth of population. Now a day, Geography is not merely descriptive subject.

Narke Sunil Yuvaraj

2014-05-01

297

Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, and transforming growth factor-alpha in human hyperplastic prostate tissue: expression and cellular localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely accepted that polypeptide growth factors are involved in the growth and development of normal and neoplastic human prostate. It has been previously reported that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present in the human hyperplastic prostate tissue (BPH). To add information on the mechanism of action of EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha), a peptide correlated to EGF, and the EGF receptor (EGF-R) in the human prostate, we studied the expression and cellular localization of messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) encoding EGF, EGF-R, and TGF alpha in BPH tissue. Reverse transcriptase-PCR of total RNA extracted from BPH tissues documented the presence of specific transcripts for EGF, EGF-R, and TGF alpha. In situ hybridization with specific RNA probes synthesized from the respective complementary DNA demonstrated that EGF, EGF-R, and TGF alpha messenger RNAs were mainly localized in the epithelial cells. Immunprecipitation and Western blot analysis showed that BPH tissue contained the corresponding proteins, EGF and TGF alpha. Our findings provide additional support for the idea that EGF and TGF alpha may be considered specialized symbols in the language of cell-cell interactions and for the hypothesis that in the human prostate they seem to act in an autocrine fashion. PMID:8923874

De Bellis, A; Ghiandi, P; Comerci, A; Fiorelli, G; Grappone, C; Milani, S; Salerno, R; Marra, F; Serio, M

1996-11-01

298

Growth factors. Basic considerations and potential therapeutics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Los factores de crecimiento forman un grupo de macromoléculas polipeptí- dicas, que presentan acciones específicas y potentes sobre la regulación de la proliferación, la muerte, la motilidad y la diferenciación de células competentes. Desde la perspectiva de la fisiología celular, los factores de crecimiento son primeros mensajeros que interactúan sobre receptores glicoproteicos de membrana que transducen la señal generando una cascada de reacciones que termina en la regulación de ...

Barbeito, Claudio Gustavo; Andre?s Laube, P. F.

2005-01-01

299

Progress in Relevant Growth Factors Promoting the Growth of Hair Follicle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hair is a protective appendage on the body that is considered accessory structure of the integument. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. The morphological changes of the hair cycle have been very clear that hair morphogenesis and epidermal development are orchestrated by an array of growth factors. In this review, we summarize the major growth factors involved in promoting growth of hair follicles

Wang, J. M.; Zhang, J. T.

2012-01-01

300

Circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin - like growth factor - I (IGF-I) in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin - like growth factor - I (EGF-I) were estimated in 58 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and were correlated with clinically and biochemically important prognosticators. EGF-I levels were significantly low in patients as compared to controls. The relation of growth factors with clinically important prognosticators was non - significant. Moreover, the levels of EGF and IGF - I in ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- groups and in the low and high EGFR + tumors did not differ significantly. Patients with EGF1.0 ng/ml. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Factors influencing the implementation of electronic data interchange (EDI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic Data Interchange (EDI implementation is viewed as an important tool for transmission of business data. Yet, its implementation has not reached the predicted level whereby the implementation is often stalled at infancy stage. Many factors were pinpointed as inhibitors or barriers for success of EDI implementation. This study examines key EDI influencing factors and their relationship with implementation level, firm size and type of users. Mail surveys on 108 manufacturers were the main data collection method. Findings indicate that implementation level differs based on influencing factors, while these factors differ based on type of users and do not differ based on firm size. Relatively, internal factors were found to be more significant than external factors. This study also recommends future research to further examine influences of users’ type with different EDI aspects.

Gengeswari K.

2008-06-01

302

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-?, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15) mRNA and protein are influenced by photoperiod-induced ovarian regression and recrudescence in Siberian hamster ovaries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod (SD) inhibits ovarian function, including folliculogenesis, whereas function is restored with their transfer to long photoperiods (LD). To investigate the mechanism of photo-stimulated recrudescence, we assessed key folliculogenic factors-anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-?, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15)-across the estrus cycle and in photo-regressed and recrudescing ovaries. Adult hamsters were exposed to either LD or SD for 14 weeks, which respectively represent functional and regressed ovaries. Select regressed hamsters were transferred back to LD for 2 (post-transfer week 2; PTw2) or 8 weeks (PTw8). Ovaries were collected and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemistry or frozen in liquid nitrogen for real-time PCR. AMH, inhibin-?, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA and protein were detected in all stages of the estrus cycle. Fourteen weeks of SD exposure increased (P?GDF9, and BMP15, but not inhibin-? mRNA levels as compared to LD. Transfer of regressed hamsters to stimulatory long photoperiod for 8 weeks returned AMH and GDF9 mRNA levels to LD-treated levels, and further increased mRNA levels for inhibin-? and BMP15. Immunostaining for AMH, inhibin-?, GDF9, and BMP15 proteins was most intense in preantral/antral follicles and oocytes. The overall immunostaining extent for AMH and inhibin-? generally mirrored the mRNA data, though no changes were observed for GDF9 or BMP15 immunostaining. Shifts in mRNA and protein levels across photoperiod conditions suggest possible syncretic roles for these folliculogenic factors in photo-stimulated recrudescence via potential regulation of follicle recruitment, preservation, and development. PMID:23877969

Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

2013-11-01

303

High-growth-factor implosions (HEP4)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the kinetic energy of an ablating, inward-driven, solid spherical shell is used to compressionally heat the low-density fuel inside. For a given drive, the maximum achievable compressed fuel density and temperature - and hence the maximum neutron production rate depend on the degree of shell isentropy and integrity maintained during the compression. Shell integrity will be degraded by hydrodynamic instability growth of areal density imperfections in the capsule. Surface imperfections on the shell grow as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities when the shell is accelerated by the ablating lower-density plasma. Perturbations at the outer capsule surface are transferred hydrodynamically to the inner surface, where deceleration of the shell by the lower-density fuel gives rise to further RT growth at the pusher-fuel interface.

Landen, O.L.; Keane, C.J.; Hammel, B.A. [and others

1996-06-01

304

Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patien...

Riva Uda; Idjradinata, Ponpon S.; Julistio Tb Djaisdepartment Of Child Health, Faculty Of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran Dr Hasan Sadikin Hospital

2011-01-01

305

Factor Prices and Productivity Growth During the British Industrial Revolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents new estimates of total factor productivity growth in Britain for the period 1770–1860. We use the dual technique and argue that the estimates we derive from factor prices are of similar quality to quantity-based calculations. Our results provide further evidence, calculated on the basis of an independent set of sources, that productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution was relatively slow. The Crafts–Harley view of the Industrial Revolution is thus rein...

Antras, Pol; Voth, Hans-joachim

2003-01-01

306

Antidepressant drugs modulate growth factors in cultured cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Different classes of antidepressant drugs are used as a treatment for depression by activating the catecholinergic system. In addition, depression has been associated with decrease of growth factors, which causes insufficient axonal sprouting and reduced neuronal damage repair. In this study, antidepressant treatments are analyzed in a cell culture system, to study the modulation of growth factors. Results We quantified the transcription of s...

Maler Juan M; Bönsch Dominikus; Reichardt Cornelia; Reulbach Udo; Rotter Andrea; Sperling Wolfgang; Henkel Andreas W; Kornhuber Johannes; Wiltfang Jens

2008-01-01

307

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is required for postnatal thymic regeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family that mediates epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation in a variety of tissues, including the thymus. We studied the role of KGF in T-cell development with KGF-/- mice and demonstrated that thymic cellularity and the distribution of thymocyte subsets among KGF-/-, wildtype (WT), and KGF+/- mice were similar. However, KGF-/- mice are more vulnerable to sublethal irradiation (450 cGy), and a significant...

Alpdogan, O?nder; Hubbard, Vanessa M.; Smith, Odette M.; Patel, Neel; Lu, Sydney; Goldberg, Gabrielle L.; Gray, Daniel H.; Feinman, Jared; Kochman, Adam A.; Eng, Jeffrey M.; Suh, David; Muriglan, Stephanie J.; Boyd, Richard L.; Den Brink, Marcel R. M.

2006-01-01

308

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor -2 in Breast Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigations over the last decade have established the essential role of growth factors and their receptors during angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) family in mammals contains three members, VEGFR-1 (Flt-1), VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) and VEGFR-3 (Flt-4), which are transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors that regulate the formation of blood and lymphatic vessels. In the early 1990s, the above VEGFR were structurally characterized by cDNA cloni...

Guo, Shanchun; Colbert, Laronna S.; Fuller, Miles; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gonzalez-perez, Ruben R.

2010-01-01

309

CRITICAL FACTORS CONTROLLING VEGETATION GROWTH ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies some of the critical factors that affect tree and shrub growth on reclaimed sanitary landfill sites and determines which woody species are adaptable to the adverse growth conditions of such sites. Trees planted at the Edgeboro Landfill, East Brunswick, New J...

310

Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) is a polypeptide with well-characterized growth promoting properties. The effects are exerted through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF receptor), which is present on many different kinds of cells. The growth factor was initially shown to induce anchorage-independent growth of normal cells and was, therefore, considered as an "oncogenic" growth factor. Later, its immunohistochemical presence in normal human cells as well as its biological effects in normal human tissues have been demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical immunoreactivity. TGF-alpha was found to be widely distributed in cells of normal human tissues derived from all three germ layers, most often in differentiated cells. In epithelial cells, three different kinds of staining patterns were observed, either diffuse cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic in the basal parts of the cells, or distinctly localized adjacent to the nucleus, usually on the luminal aspect, corresponding to the localization of the Golgi complex. The latter staining pattern was seen predominantly in secretory epithelial cells. The present study thus confirms previous studies and elaborates new localizations of TGF-alpha in normal human tissues by investigating a broad spectrum of tissues in detail.

Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

1996-01-01

311

THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/to...

Lacatus Viorel-Dorin; Vaidean Viorela-Ligia; Cuceu Ionut-Constantin

2013-01-01

312

Periodontal regeneration: focus on growth and differentiation factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several growth and differentiation factors have shown potential as therapeutic agents to support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, although optimal dosage, release kinetics, and suitable delivery systems are still unknown. Experimental variables, including delivery systems, dose, and the common use of poorly characterized preclinical models, make it difficult to discern the genuine efficacy of each of these factors. Only a few growth and differentiation factors have reached clinical evaluation. It appears that well-defined discriminating preclinical models followed by well-designed clinical trials are needed to further investigate the true potential of these and other candidate factors. Thus, current research is focused on finding relevant growth and differentiation factors, optimal dosages, and the best approaches for delivery to develop clinically meaningful therapies in patient-centered settings.

Lee, Jaebum; Stavropoulos, Andreas

2010-01-01

313

Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China. - Highlights: ? We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions. ? Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. ? These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. ? Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO2 emission is different. ? Improvingission is different. ? Improving technology level is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China.

314

Influence of geometry on control of cell growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The assembled evidence suggests that geometry plays an important role in regulation of cell growth, at least at two levels: (1) For non-transformed individual cells in culture, there may be a continuous range of shapes, from spherical all the way to extremely flat or extended, which correlates with increasing proliferative capacity or increasing ability to respond to serum growth factors. In other words, sensitivity to a variety of mitotic stimulators and growth factors may be modulated by cell conformation. Fully transformed cells appear to lose the modulating effect of shape, and thus are able to proliferate even when spherical. (2) For transformed cells which can grow in three-dimensional populations, the shape of the population itself eventually limits growth. The most likely mechanism is based upon the limiting effects of diffusion gradients of nutrients, oxygen and catabolites which build up across the surface of a three-dimensional population of cells. Tumor cells which are able to make tumour angiogenesis factor (TAF), induce new capillary blood vessels from the host. These vessels penetrate the tumor and permit further rapid growth. In this sense, tumor angiogenesis is a mechanism by which "successful" tumors escape the growth restriction imposed upon three-dimensional cell population by geometry [49]. PMID:766836

Folkman, J; Greenspan, H P

1975-12-31

315

Differential responsiveness of myc- and ras-transfected cells to growth factors: selective stimulation of myc-transfected cells by epidermal growth factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To identify functional relationships between oncogenes and growth factors, we compared the effects of transfected myc and ras oncogenes on the responsiveness of Fischer rat 3T3 cells to three growth factors: epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Control cells did not grow in soft agar under any conditions. ras-Transfected cells grew in soft agar under all conditions tested and were insensitive to the stimulatory e...

Stern, D. F.; Roberts, A. B.; Roche, N. S.; Sporn, M. B.; Weinberg, R. A.

1986-01-01

316

Factors that could influence the ethical behaviour of tax professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an attempt to enhance the core professional values of tax practitioners in South Africa, the South African Revenue Service has proposed the regulation of tax practitioners’ services. It is arguable whether or not this would be the only factor to influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. A literature review was conducted to identify factors that could influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. Numerous possibilities emerged. It is therefore recommended that if regul...

Nienaber, S. G.

2010-01-01

317

Influencing Factors of Science Olympiad Students’ Success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and student’s self efficacy.

M. Kür?ad Özlen

2013-01-01

318

Evaluation Of Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf- And Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr Expression In OralSquamous Cell Carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the pattern of expression of transforming growth factor & (TGF-& and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and to correlate their expression with tumor grading. Methods:' ('*!+#,,Results:For both markers, positive staining reaction was characterized by cytoplasmic or cytoplasmic and membranous staining. EGFR was expre- './- & '01! -2 'particularly strong at the margin of invading cords and nests of tumour cells and poorly differentiated malignant cells. The expression of both markers was significantly correlated with histological grading; while the staining intensity showed no correlation with tumor grading. Conclusion: This study showed that OSCC express both EGFR and TGF-& and their expression indicated that these markers may have a potential diagnostic value in histologic examination. In addition their increased expression in high tumour grades suggest that they may be used as indicators of tumor aggressiveness. Key words: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma, epidermal growth factor receptor, transforming growth factor-& and immunohistochemistry.

Effat A. Abbas, **Wafaa E. Abdel-Aal And ***Aml A. Samy

2002-09-01

319

Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We have used rats with epidermal growth factor (EGF) autoantibodies to study the role of EGF deficiency during perinatal development. The study was focused on organs known to contain EGF or its receptor. Compared with controls, the offspring of autoimmune rats had a higher perinatal mortality and a lower birth weight. The weight of the lungs was particularly low in the offspring of EGF-immunized rats, and morphologically the lungs from the surviving pups seemed atelectatic and had alveolar duct dilatation, which indicates mild respiratory distress syndrome. Judged from immunohistochemical studies, the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio was lower in pups from EGF-immunized rats. This difference was, however, not significant (p = 0.07), but flow cytometric analyses showed a significantly lower proportion of the liver cells from newborn EGF-deficient pups to be in S-phase and indicated that these cells were larger than liver cells from controls. To study possible alterations in EGF binding, 125I-EGF was injected i.v. in newborn rats. 125I-EGF bound in all the organs investigated. The binding is listed in decreasing order: liver, gut, skin, kidney, and lungs. In the pups from EGF-immunized rats, the lungs and the skin bound a significantly higher amount than the controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Raaberg, Lasse; NexØ, Ebba

1995-01-01

320

Value of epidermal growth factor receptor status compared with growth fraction and other factors for prognosis in early breast cancer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein whose expression is important in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. The relationship between EGFR status (determined by an immunocytochemical assay) and various prognostic factors was investigated in 164 primary breast cancers. Overall 56% of tumours were EGFR-positive and the expression of EGFR was unrelated to axillary node status, tumour size and histological grade; and it was poorly associated with the t...

Gasparini, G.; Bevilacqua, P.; Pozza, F.; Meli, S.; Boracchi, P.; Marubini, E.; Sainsbury, J. R.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Patterns of expressions of transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor in squamous cell lesions of the urinary bladder.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To investigate the patterns of expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in squamous metaplasia and squamous cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder with and without schistosomiasis. METHODS: Immunohistochemical study of the expression of TGF-alpha and EGFR in squamous metaplasias (n = 12) and various grades of squamous cell carcinomas (n = 21) of the bladder with and without schistosomiasis. RESULTS: Focal cytoplasmic and membr...

Tungekar, M. F.; Linehan, J.

1998-01-01

322

Characterization of Growth-Differentiation Factor 15, a Transforming Growth Factor ? Superfamily Member Induced following Liver Injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have identified a new murine transforming growth factor ? superfamily member, growth-differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15), that is expressed at highest levels in adult liver. As determined by Northern analysis, the expression of Gdf15 in liver was rapidly and dramatically up-regulated following various surgical and chemical treatments that cause acute liver injury and regeneration. In situ hybridization analysis revealed distinct patterns of Gdf15 mRNA localization that appeared to reflect t...

Hsiao, Edward C.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers-koniaris, Teresa; Sebald, Suzanne M.; Huynh, Thanh V.; Lee, Se-jin

2000-01-01

323

Insulin growth factor-1 and insulin growth factor binding protein-3 in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: The liver is the major source of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its main binding protein, insulin growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which modify its bioavailability, and their concentrations might reflect liver synthetic capacity. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with chronic hepatitis C and their potential use as a marker of hepatic synthetic capacity. Material and methods: Thirty patients with chronic hepatitis C ...

Hala Mohamed Raslan; Wafaa Mohamed Ezzat; Mohamed Mahmoud Ahmed; Enas Abdel Rasheed

2007-01-01

324

Evaluation Of Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf- ) And Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Expression In OralSquamous Cell Carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the pattern of expression of transforming growth factor & (TGF-&) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate their expression with tumor grading. Methods:' (')*!+#,,)))Results:For both markers, positive staining reaction was characterized by cytoplasmic or cytoplasmic and membranous staining. EGFR was expre- './- & '01! -2 ))'particularly strong at the margin of invading cords and nests ...

Effat A Abbas, Wafaa E. Abdel-aal And Aml A. Samy

2002-01-01

325

Detection of high levels of heparin binding growth factor-1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor) in inflammatory arthritic joints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The synovium from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and LEW/N rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis, an experimental model resembling RA, is characterized by massive proliferation of synovial connective tissues and invasive destruction of periarticular bone and cartilage. Since heparin binding growth factor (HBGF)-1, the precursor of acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), is a potent angiogenic polypeptide and mitogen for mesenchymal cells, we sought evidence that it was inv...

1990-01-01

326

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor plus Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Dual Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Synergy or Antagonism?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There has been an intensive effort to develop novel therapies for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies panitumumab and cetuximab and the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab have demonstrated clinical efficacy and acceptable toxicity in the treatment of mCRC as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have explored the efficacy and s...

Marshall, John L.

2009-01-01

327

Growth factors: first part Factores de crecimiento I  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Los factores de crecimiento tienen como función activar o inhibir la transcripción génica; es así como la cascada enzimática que se inicia con la activación de los receptores de la membrana citoplasmática, ya sean de tipo segundo mensajero o catalíticos, tiene como efecto final la fosforilación de proteínas, las cuales pueden ser: 1) enzimas que intervienen en las vías metabólicas; 2) proteínas prom...

Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño; Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.

1996-01-01

328

Organizational Creativity: A Substantial Factor to Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea sources, and evidence of the creative planning process; and organizational creativity is as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The creative climate encourages people to generate new ideas and helps the organization to grow and increase its efficiency and at the same time it enables members to generate and implement creative ideas more effectively.

Malikeh Beheshtifar

2013-03-01

329

Nerve Growth Factor and Diabetic Neuropathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neuropathy is one of the most debilitating complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with estimates of prevalence between 50–90% depending on the means of detection. Diabetic neuropathies are heterogeneous and there is variable involvement of large myelinated fibers and small, thinly myelinated fibers. Many of the neuronal abnormalities in diabetes can be duplicated by experimental depletion of specific neurotrophic factors, their receptors or their binding p...

Pittenger, Gary; Vinik, Aaron

2003-01-01

330

A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

Lawlor Peadar G

2007-06-01

331

Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

2012-01-01

332

Factors Influencing Mortality in Pediatric Trauma Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: In our study, we aimed to research the factors we thought might be affect mortality in a pediatric age group (0-15 y) with multiple trauma.Materials and Methods: In our study of 1658 pediatric patients suffering from falling events, burns, cutting and perforating instrument injuries, gunshot injuries and vehicle accidents admitted to Dicle University. hospital ED between March 2003 and December 2006 were analyzed and included to the study consecutively. The patients were divided i...

Mahmut Ta?; Cahfer Gülo?lu; Murat Orak; Mehmet Üstünda?; Mustafa Aldemir

2012-01-01

333

Maternal clinical factors influencing HIV-1 transmission.  

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The complex puzzle of maternal factors involved in mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is being put together. The risk of perinatal infection increases with mother's disease progression, but it remains stable in women seroconverting to HIV-1 during pregnancy and in consecutive pregnancies. Thus, transmission correlates with the HIV-1 progression rather than the duration of infection in the mother. Nutritional alterations such as vitamin A deficiency may al...

Tovo, Pier Angelo

1997-01-01

334

CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets), the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our ass...

Toth Jozsef; Toth Kristof

2012-01-01

335

Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

Riva Uda

2011-03-01

336

The influence of different production functions on modeling resource extraction and economic growth  

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In this paper we discuss the influence of using different production functions on modeling the resource extraction rates and economic growth. The focus is set on the modeling of the production sector, which requires either non-renewable resources, renewable resources or a combination of both resources for production. There are great differences between the possible assumptions when modeling the substitution process between the different input factors. It is shown that the existence of an opti...

Voosholz, Frauke

2014-01-01

337

Renal origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been investigated. Unilateral nephrectomy decreased the concentration, total output of EGF and EGF/creatinine ratio by approximately 50%, while the output of creatinine was unchanged. Removal of the submandibular glands and duodenal Brunner's glands, organs known to produce EGF, had no influence on the output of EGF in urine. Renal clearance of EGF exceeded that of creatinine, and after bilateral nephrectomy or bilateral ligation of the ureters, the concentration of creatinine in serum increased, while the concentration of EGF was below the detection limit of the assay. Renal production of EGF was confirmed by immunohistochemistry demonstrating EGF immunoreactivity in the afferent arteriole of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. EGF in the submandibular glands and in urine was found to differ with chromatofocusing and reverse-phase HPLC. At isoelectric focusing the pI of submandibular EGF was 4.8 and 5.4 while that of urinary EGF was 5.3 and 6.4. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that urinary EGF mainly originates from the kidneys and is localized to the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus.

NexØ, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

1984-01-01

338

Total Factor Productivity Growth when Factors of Production Generate Environmental Externalities  

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Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) has been traditionally associated with technological change. We show that when a factor of production, such as energy, generates an environmental externality in the form of CO2 emissions which is not internalized because of lack of environmental policy, then TFPG estimates could be biased. This is because the contribution of environment as a factor of production is not accounted for in the growth accounting framework. Empirical estimates confirm this hy...

Vouvaki, Dimitra; Xepapadeas, Anastasios

2008-01-01

339

Gallium Arsenide Czokhralski Crystal Growth with High Oscillatory Influences  

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Full Text Available The influence of ultrasound introduced into the melt during the growth of single crystals of gallium arsenide. Ultrasonic vibrations had a frequency of 820 kHz and amplitude of 0.1-0.2 micrometer. Found an increase in the homogeneity of impurity distribution of the bands growth without change of the dislocation structure of single crystals. In the simulation result of the ultrasonic wave interaction with the melt in the crucible on the basis of the theory of formation of phases is established that nucleation rate associated with the frequency and amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration acting on the melt.

V.G. Kosushkin

2014-07-01

340

Host and environmental factors influencing respiratory secretion of pro-wheezing biomarkers in preterm children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytokines are actively secreted by the respiratory mucosa of preterm children and participate in the pathogenesis of wheezing. This study aimed to identify the factors that could potentially influence respiratory secretion of cytokines in these children. A nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) was collected from 77 preterm children 1?yr after birth. NPAs from 14 healthy, 1-yr-old term children were collected in parallel. 27 cytokines were measured in the NPAs using a multiplex assay. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis with Bonferroni correction evidenced that the variable [daycare attendance] was associated with higher levels of [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), IL-1?, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?]; [male sex] with higher levels of (MCP-1, VEGF, and IL-1?); [smokers at home] was associated with higher levels of MCP-1 (p?growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor-bb, VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-basic, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor), Th1 (IL12, interferon-?), Th2 (IL-9, IL-13), Th17 (IL-6, IL-17) cytokines, and immunomodulatory mediators (IL1RA and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) than term children. In conclusion, we have identified for the first time a group of individual and environmental factors influencing respiratory secretion of cytokines in preterm children at the long term after birth. To know these factors could help to prevent the instauration of conditions linked to the appearance of chronic respiratory diseases such as wheezing or asthma. PMID:22554061

Matías, Vanesa; San Feliciano, Laura; Fernández, Jose E; Lapeña, Santiago; Garrido, Estibaliz; Ardura, Julio; Soga, Maria José; Aragón, María Paz; Remesal, Ana; Benito, Francisca; Andrés, Jesús; Centeno, Fernando; Marugán, Victor; Bachiller, Rosario; Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity by insulin and growth factors is mediated by amino acids.  

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The polypeptide growth factors, nerve growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor, as well as insulin do not induce ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) unless a minimal concentration of an ornithine decarboxylase-inducing amino acid, such as asparagine, is present in the medium. The effects of the growth factors were studied in appropriately responsive cell lines: pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells for nerve and epidermal growth factors, ...

1985-01-01

342

Effects of eight growth factors on the differentiation of cells derived from human embryonic stem cells  

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Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of in vitro fertilized human blastocysts. We examined the potential of eight growth factors [basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), activin-A, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP-4), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), ? nerve growth factor (?NGF), and retinoic acid] to direct the differentiation of human ES-deriv...

Schuldiner, Maya; Yanuka, Ofra; Itskovitz-eldor, Joseph; Melton, Douglas A.; Benvenisty, Nissim

2000-01-01

343

Influence of nutrition and various substrates on spruce seedling growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.

?uki? Matilda

2004-01-01

344

Factors Influencing the Night Market Traders’ Performance in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the night market traders’ sales performance. Thefactors examined were the financial resources, consumers’ tastes and preferences, product demands, business lifespan, and number of employees. This study tested seven hypotheses identified as the seven predictive factorsinfluencing the performance of the night market traders’ sales. The major factors influencing the salesperformance of the night market tr...

Fauzilah Salleh; Noryati Yaakub; Kamariah Yunus; Mazuri Abd. Ghani; Wan Kuntom Wan Sulong

2012-01-01

345

Human B lymphoma cell line producing B cell growth factor.  

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Namalva, a human B cell lymphoma line, produced a factor with a molecular weight of approximately 60,000 which enhanced the proliferation of normal activated human B lymphocytes. The factor also enhanced the proliferation of certain B cell lines. It can be distinguished physiologically and biochemically from other lymphokines known to enhance B cell proliferation, namely, interleukin (IL) 1, IL 2, and interferon. The production of B cell growth factor by B cell tumor lines may contribute to t...

Ambrus, J. L.; Fauci, A. S.

1985-01-01

346

Hepatocyte growth factor, a biomarker of macroangiopathy in diabetes mellitus  

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Atherosclerotic involvements are an essential causal element of prospect in diabetes mellitus (DM), with carotid atherosclerosis (CA) being a common risk-factor for prospective crisis of coronary artery diseases (CAD) and/or cerebral infarction (CI) in DM subjects. From another point of view, several reports have supplied augmenting proof that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a physiopathological part in DM involvements. HGF has been a mesenchymal-derived polyphenic factor which modulates d...

Konya, Hiroyuki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Satani, Kahori; Matsutani, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Taku; Yano, Yuzo; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Hamaguchi, Tomoya; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

2014-01-01

347

Epidermal growth factor induces rapid, reversible aggregation of the purified epidermal growth factor receptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor from A-431 cells was purified by affinity chromatography with monoclonal anti-receptor antibodies. The purified radiolabeled receptor was incubated with EGF and then analyzed by gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions. In these gels, the EGF receptor migrates in two forms: a fast-migrating (low) form and an EGF-induced slow-migrating (high) form. On the basis of the various control and calibration experiments described, it is concluded that the low form represents the monomeric 170-kilodalton EGF receptor and the high form represents an EGF receptor dimer. The binding of EGF causes a rapid, temperature-sensitive dimerization of the EGF receptor. Receptor dimerization is fully reversible and involves saturable, noncovalent interactions that are stable at neutral pH and in nonionic detergents. Both the monomeric and dimeric forms of the receptor bind EGF and undergo self-phosphorylation. The dimeric form of the receptor may possess higher ligand binding affinity, and it seems to be phosphorylated earlier than the monomeric form following the addition of EGF and [?-32P]ATP. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that receptor oligomerization is an intrinsic property of the occupied EGF receptor and that it may play a role in the activation of the kinase function and the subsequent transmembrane signaling process

348

Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

Unsia HABIB

2014-01-01

349

An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. Using simple regression analysis, the study has detected that all mentioned factors influence organizational change, positively. In addition, Freedman test indicates that partnership maintains the highest impact followed by believe in change, communication, organizational commitment and training.

Abbas Saleh Ardestani

2014-06-01

350

Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.  

Science.gov (United States)

In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

2014-01-01

351

Esophageal Cancer and the Importance of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is one of the most frequent malignancies, worldwide. It is important to find out what prognostic factors can facilitate diagnosis, optimize therapeutic decisions, and improve the survival of these patients. Despite improvements in surgical techniques combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, the novel therapies such as small molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (TKIs and humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are very much needed. On the other hand, neoadjuvant chemotherapy which may improve the outcome is accompanied by toxicity by destruction of normal cells. Side effects may be avoided by developing therapies that specifically target molecular characteristics of tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is one of tyrosine kinases receptors widely distributed in human epithelial cell membrane. Genetic polymorphisms in EGFR genes influence cell cycle progression, angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis. EGFR mutations are mostly observed in lung tumors; curiously they are more prevalent in Asian women diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Also, esophageal SCC shows a relatively high incidence of EGFR (33% and/or HER2 (31% overexpression. Patients who carry these mutations in EGFR have been founded tending to have a better response to gefitinib, an EGFR-TKI, whereas patients with the wild-type genotype show a better response to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, finding clinical characteristics and environmental interactions with EGFR can affect on investigations about novel anti-cancer therapies like monoclonal antibodies and gene therapy and studies which identify patients who may benefit from EGFR targeted therapies. Hence, it may be effective on the improvement of prognosis in these patients.

Kazem Anvari

2014-04-01

352

Thrombin-mediated impairment of fibroblast growth factor-2 activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin generation increases in several pathological conditions, including cancer, thromboembolism, diabetes and myeloproliferative syndromes. During tumor development, thrombin levels increase along with several other molecules, including cytokines and angiogenic factors. Under such conditions, it is reasonable to predict that thrombin may recognize new low-affinity substrates that usually are not recognized under low-expression levels conditions. In the present study, we hypothesized that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 may be cleaved by thrombin and that such action may lead to an impairment of its biological activity. The evidence collected in the present study indicates that FGF-2-induced proliferation and chemotaxis/invasion of SK-MEL-110 human melanoma cells were significantly reduced when FGF-2 was pre-incubated with active thrombin. The inhibition of proliferation was not influenced by heparin. Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethyl ketone, a specific inhibitor of the enzymatic activity of thrombin, abolished the thrombin-induced observed effects. Accordingly, both FGF-2-binding to cell membranes as well as FGF-2-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation were decreased in the presence of thrombin. Finally, HPLC analyses demonstrated that FGF-2 is cleaved by thrombin at the peptide bond between residues Arg42 and Ile43 of the mature human FGF-2 sequence. The apparent k(cat)/K(m) of FGF-2 hydrolysis was 1.1 x 10(4) M(-1) x s(-1), which is comparable to other known low-affinity thrombin substrates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that thrombin digests FGF-2 at the site Arg42-Ile43 and impairs FGF-2 activity in vitro, indicating that FGF-2 is a novel thrombin substrate. PMID:19438723

Totta, Pierangela; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Giampietri, Claudia; Aguzzi, Maria S; Faraone, Debora; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

2009-06-01

353

Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)

354

Factors influencing the reliability of oral contraceptives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors associated with unplanned pregnancies among oral contraceptive (OC) users were investigated in the 8058 women admitted to University Hospital (Copenhagen, Denmark) during 1986-91 for induced abortion. 70 (0.87%) of these women had been consistent OC users; women with a history of missing 1 or more days of pill use and users of gestagen-only pills were excluded. The largest subgroup (41.4%) of these women used triphasic OCs; 35.7% used a low-dose OC and the remainder took high-dose, two-phased, or unknown preparations. Concomitant use of one or more other drugs (spray saline, astemizol, mianserin, chlorcyclizin, paradryl, carbamazepin, lithium, chlorprotixen, and imipramine was reported by 5 women (7%) who experienced OC failure; 4 of these women were using a triphasic OC. At the time of conception, 16 women (30%) had symptoms of gastroenteritis (vomiting and/or diarrhea) and had self-medicated with an unknown preparation. No risk factor could be identified in the remaining 49 women (70%). 2/3 of women who became pregnant while taking OCs returned to this method after abortion. There was no association between the annual sales of various OCs during the study period and the incidence of OC failure. These findings confirm the contributions of concurrent gastroenteritis and drug interactions to OC failure but suggest these are rare occurrences. PMID:9033246

Hansen, T H; Lundvall, F

1997-01-01

355

Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Tunisia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly that use of internet banking in Tunisia is influenced moststrongly by convenience, risk, security and prior internet knowledge. Only information on online banking did notaffect intention to use internet banking service in Tunisia. The results also propose that demographic factorsimpact significantly internet banking behaviour, specifically, occupation and instruction. Finally, this papersuggests that an understanding the factors affecting intention to use internet banking is very important to thepractitioners who plan and promote new forms of banking in the current competitive market.

Wadie Nasri

2011-08-01

356

An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

Arash Hosseinzadeh

2013-05-01

357

Critical Factors Influencing Intra-operative Surgical Decision-making:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of intra-operative surgical decision support systems requires a thorough understanding of the factors influencing the decision-making of surgeons in the surgical workspace. These factors are a construct of the surgical workspace which generate situation awareness and hence provide real-time information to guide intra-operative decision-making The knowledge of these factors is especially required to provide real-time image guidance or procedural support to the surgeons’ via s...

Jalote-parmar, A.; Badke-schaub, P.

2008-01-01

358

An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employ...

Naser Azad; Mina Mohammadi

2013-01-01

359

Tunable dual growth factor delivery from polyelectrolyte multilayer films  

Science.gov (United States)

A promising strategy to accelerate joint implant integration and reduce recovery time and failure rates is to deliver a combination of certain growth factors to the integration site. There is a need to control the quantity of growth factors delivered at different times during the healing process to maximize efficacy. Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films, built using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, are attractive for releasing controlled amounts of potent growth factors over a sustained period. Here, we present PEM films that sequester physiological amounts of osteogenic rhBMP-2 (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein - 2) and angiogenic rhVEGF165 (recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor) in different ratios in a degradable [poly(?-amino ester)/polyanion/growth factor/ polyanion] LbL tetralayer repeat architecture where the biologic load scaled linearly with the number of tetralayers. No burst release of either growth factor was observed as the films degraded. The release of rhBMP-2 was sustained over a period of 2 weeks, while rhVEGF165 eluted from the film over the first 8 days. Both growth factors retained their efficacy, as quantified with relevant in vitro assays. rhBMP-2 initiated a dose dependent differentiation cascade in MC3T3-E1S4 pre-osteoblasts while rhVEGF165 upregulated HUVEC proliferation, and accelerated closure of a scratch in HUVEC cell cultures in a dose dependent manner. In vivo, the mineral density of ectopic bone formed de novo by rhBMP-2/rhVEGF165 PEM films was approximately 33% higher than when only rhBMP-2 was introduced, with a higher trabecular thickness, which would indicate a decrease in the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Bone formed throughout the scaffold when both growth factors were released, which suggests more complete remodeling due to an increased local vascular network. This study demonstrates a promising approach to delivering precise doses of multiple growth factors for a variety of implant applications where control over spatial and temporal release profile of the biologic is desired. PMID:21645919

Shah, Nisarg J.; Macdonald, Mara L.; Beben, Yvette M.; Padera, Robert F.; Samuel, Raymond E.; Hammond, Paula T.

2011-01-01

360

Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 ?g, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 ?g Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 ?g Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability

 
 
 
 
361

Active synthesis of epidermal growth factor in human mammary glands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Human milk contains considerable number of growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. There are no data comparing the EGF and IGF-1 levels in the serum and milk of breast-feeding women. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess a possible relationship between the concentrations of these growth factors. Material and methods. Thirty-nine women in child-birth were included in the study. All women provided blood and milk samples during the first six hours after delivery. EGF (by immunoenzymatic method and IGF-1 (by radioimmunossay method concentrations were measured in both media. Results. EGF breast milk concentrations ranged from 3.18 to 4.51 ng/ml and on average were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than those found in the women’s serum (from 0.02 to 0.13 ng/ml. The opposite distribution was found for IGF-1 levels. Its milk concentrations ranged from 8.8 to 61.9 ng/ml and on average were significantly lower (p < 0.0001 than the serum concentrations (from 192.6 to 595.3 ng/ml. No correlation was found between the serum and milk concentrations of both growth factors. Conclusion. EGF seems to be synthesized locally in mammary glands, whereas IGF-1 probably permeates into the milk from the vascular bed.  

Mieczys?aw Walczak

2010-06-01

362

Factores de crecimiento IV: Factor de crecimiento epidérmico,Factores estimuladores de colonias, Neurotropinas Growth factors: epidermal growth factor, colony stimulating factors and neurotropins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En esta cuarta entrega sobre los factores de crecimiento se revisan el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGF), los factores estimuladores de colonias (CSF) y las neurotropinas. Como se ha venido presentando en las anteriores entregas, se hace referencia a su estructura bioquímica, su mecanismo de acción, sus efectos biológicos y sus interacciones. Las neurotropinas y el EGF, por tratarse de factores que actúan predominantemente en el microambiente tisular, no pueden manejarse en el conte...

Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño; Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.

1999-01-01

363

Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

364

Simulation analysis of factors influencing chiller EER  

Science.gov (United States)

This study constructed a mathematic model of a variable frequency centrifugal chiller using Simulink software. By running the simulation, it was discovered that when the other factors are constant, the EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) of the chiller increases with decreases in the temperature of the cooling water and increases in the temperature of the chilled water. The effect of changes in the cooling water temperature on the EER of the chiller is stronger than that of changes in the chilled water temperature. In addition, as the chiller load decreases, the EER increases until reaching a maximum, after which it decreases. Furthermore, the EER of chillers working under a constant flow rate is slightly higher than that of those working under varying flow rates.

Hao, Xuejun; Wang, Tong

2014-06-01

365

Epidermal growth factor reactivity in rat milk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The concentration of EGF immunoreactivity in rat whey increases from 0.3 pmol/ml at lactation day 1 to 2.0 pmol/ml at lactation day 19. The concentration of EGF is not influenced when the rats undergo sialoadenectomy prior to mating. On S-200 gel chromatography, almost all EGF-reactivity in rat whey elutes as a broad peak corresponding to a Stokes radius of 4.0 nm (an approximate molecular weight of 80 kDa). Almost no 6 kDa EGF is present. Judged by gel filtration of whey pre-incubated with 125I-EGF (6 kDa), no binding protein for EGF is present in rat whey. When rat milk is incubated overnight at 37 degrees C, the 80 kDa EGF is degraded and elutes as a peak with a Stokes radius of 2.7 nm, corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa EGF and as a peak corresponding to 6 kDa EGF. Also, after partial purification by immuno-affinity chromatography, the EGF-reactive material in rat whey behaves as a peptide with a Stokes radius of 2.7 nm, corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa at gel filtration. Comparative binding studies between EGF purified from the submandibular glands and the EGF purified from rat whey confirm differences in the binding to antibodies raised against submandibular EGF, but not in binding to the EGF-receptor. Our results make it unlikely that EGF in rat whey is derived from the submandibular glands.

Raaberg, Lasse; NexØ, Ebba

1990-01-01

366

Mineral coatings modulate ?-TCP stability and enable growth factor binding and release.  

Science.gov (United States)

?-Tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) is an attractive ceramic for bone tissue repair because of its similar composition to bone mineral and its osteoconductivity. However, compared with other ceramics ?-TCP has a rapid and uncontrolled rate of degradation. In the current study ?-TCP granules were mineral coated with the aim of influencing the dissolution rate of ?-TCP, and also to use the coating as a carrier for controlled release of the growth factors recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF), modular VEGF peptide (mVEGF), and modular bone morphogenetic protein 2 peptide (mBMP2). The biomineral coatings were formed by heterogeneous nucleation in aqueous solution using simulated body fluid solutions with varying concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO(3)). Our results demonstrate that we could coat ?-TCP granules with mineral layers possessing different dissolution properties. The presence of a biomineral coating delays the dissolution rate of the ?-TCP granules. As the carbonate (CO(3)(2-)) content in the coating was increased the dissolution rate of the coated ?-TCP also increased, but remained slower than the dissolution of uncoated ?-TCP. In addition, we showed sustained release of multiple growth factors, with release kinetics that were controllable by varying the identity of the growth factor or the CO(3)(2-) content in the mineral coating. Released rhVEGF induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, and mVEGF enhanced migration of mouse embryonic endothelial cells in a scratch wound healing assay, indicating that each released growth factor was biologically active. PMID:22154864

Suárez-González, Darilis; Lee, Jae Sung; Lan Levengood, Sheeny K; Vanderby, Ray; Murphy, William L

2012-03-01

367

Peripheral insulin-like growth factor-I produces antidepressant-like behavior and contributes to the effect of exercise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth factors in the brain are important to depression and it’s treatment and we assessed the ability of peripherally administered insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to influence behavior related to depression. We found that mice that received chronic IGF-I treatment showed antidepressant-like behavior in forced-swim and novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) tests and increased sucrose consumption after chronic mild unpredictable stress exposure. Additionally, peripheral anti-IGF-I administra...

Duman, Catharine H.; Schlesinger, Lee; Terwilliger, Rosemarie; Russell, David S.; Newton, Samuel S.; Duman, Ronald S.

2009-01-01

368

Real Exchange Rate Undervaluation and Growth: Is there a Total Factor Productivity Growth Channel?  

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Undervaluation of the currency is generally believed to affect growth through two main transmission channels: the "capital accumulation channel" and the "total factor productivity (TFP) growth channel". This paper carries out the first empirical investigation on the TFP growth channel. More specifically, we provide answers to the three following questions: Does undervaluation of the currency boost the overall productivity level in the economy? If so, does this "undervaluation-induced" product...

Mbaye, Samba

2012-01-01

369

Suramin prevents neovascularisation and tumour growth through blocking of basic fibroblast growth factor activity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inhibition of angiogenesis through blocking of growth factors involved in this process could be a novel therapeutic approach in several important pathologies, neoplasia among them. Suramin has recently been described to possess antineoplastic activity in animals and humans, and it has been proposed that an important role in this activity is played by antagonism of growth factors and especially bFGF. To investigate this hypothesis in vivo, we used gelatin sponges loaded with bFGF and implanted...

Pesenti, E.; Sola, F.; Mongelli, N.; Grandi, M.; Spreafico, F.

1992-01-01

370

Platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer), transforming growth factor-beta 1, and basic fibroblast growth factor in dermal wound healing. Neovessel and matrix formation and cessation of repair.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer, rPDGF-BB), transforming growth factor beta 1 (rTGF-beta 1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF) can accelerate healing of soft tissues. However, little information is available characterizing the components of wound matrix induced by these growth factors and the molecular mechanisms underlying accelerated repair and wound maturation. In this study, the composition, quantity, and rate of extracellular matrix deposition within gro...

Pierce, G. F.; Tarpley, J. E.; Yanagihara, D.; Mustoe, T. A.; Fox, G. M.; Thomason, A.

1992-01-01

371

Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As florestas tropicais secas representam cerca da metade das florestas tropicais do mundo e são ecossistemas que estão sofrendo uma grande deterioração pelas atividades humanas. Neste artigo realizamos uma revisão de literatura sobre a dinâmica da regeneração das florestas tropicais secas enfocando [...] principalmente nos fatores abióticos que influenciam esta regeneração, tais como, o clima estacional, a fertilidade e umidade do solo e as perturbações naturais e antrópicas. O principal objetivo é compreender um aspecto muito importante da dinâmica sucessional das florestas tropicais secas. Abstract in english Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors i [...] nfluencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

Eliane, Ceccon; Pilar, Huante; Emanuel, Rincón.

2006-03-01

372

Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection. PMID:25483789

Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

2014-12-01

373

Growth factors with heparin binding affinity in human synovial fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synovial effusions were obtained from the knees of 15 subjects with joint trauma, menisceal or ligamentous injury, or osteoarthritis. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of these synovial fluids revealed, in general, three major peaks of mitogenic activity as measured by incorporation of 3H-thymidine into 3T3 cells. Gradient elution patterns showed activities at 0.5M NaCl, which is characteristic of platelet derived growth factor, and at 1.1 M NaCl and 1.6M NaCl, indicative of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, respectively. The identities of these mitogenic fractions were confirmed by specific immunologic and receptor-binding assays. The presence of platelet derived, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in the synovial fluid may contribute to wound healing in the arthritic joint

374

Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in anal canal carcinoma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most anal canal carcinomas (ACCs) are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). SCCs in other tumor sites strongly express epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), the inhibition of which might result in favorable changes in tumor growth. A review of the published scientific literature reveals no information regarding the expression of EGFR in ACCs. Therefore, we obtained archived pathology samples from ACC biopsies and examined the frequency and level of expression of EGFR and other cell surface an...

Le?, Lh; Chetty, R.; Moore, Mj

2005-01-01

375

Growth factor delivery for oral and periodontal tissue engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The treatment of oral and periodontal diseases and associated anomalies accounts for a significant proportion of the healthcare burden, with the manifestations of these conditions being functionally and psychologically debilitating. Growth factors are critical to the development, maturation, maintenance and repair of craniofacial tissues, as they establish an extracellular environment that is conducive to cell and tissue growth. Tissue-engineering principles aim to exploit these properties in...

Kaigler, Darnell; Cirelli, Joni A.; Giannobile, William V.

2006-01-01

376

Fibroblast growth factors in gastrointestinal development, homeostasis and injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) are essential for controlling cell growth and proliferation, angiogenesis, wound healing and tumourigenesis. In mammals, there are twenty-three FGFs and five FGFRs, with each FGFR having different ligand binding specificities. FGFs are thought to act in a paracrine manner, in which they are secreted by one cell and activate FGFRs on another cell type, and such interaction helps to establish the fundamental crosstal...

Ding, Su Sin

2010-01-01

377

Factors that determine the evolution of high-growth businesses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish) was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and manageme...

Oriol Amat; Marcos Antón Renart; María José García

2013-01-01

378

Urinary transforming growth factors in neoplasia: separation of 125I-labeled transforming growth factor-alpha from epidermal growth factor in human urine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purified human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) from urine promotes anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar medium. This growth is enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and is specifically inhibited by hEGF antiserum. Transforming growth factors of the alpha type (TGF-alpha), potentially present in normal human urine or urine from tumor-bearing patients, also promote anchorage-independent cell growth and compete with EGF for membrane receptor binding. Consequently, TGF-alpha cannot be distinguished from urinary hEGF by these two functional assays. Therefore, a technique for separation of TGF-alpha and related peptides from urinary EGF based on biochemical characteristics would be useful. Radioiodination of characterized growth factors [mouse EGF (mEGF), hEGF, and rat TGF-alpha (rTGF-alpha)], which were then separately added to human urine, was used to evaluate a resolution scheme that separates TGF-alpha from the high level of background hEGF present in human urine. Methyl bonded microparticulate silica efficiently adsorbed the 125I-labeled mEGF, 125I-labeled hEGF, and 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha that were added to 24-h human urine samples. Fractional elution with acetonitrile (MeCN) of the adsorbed silica released approximately 70 to 80% of the 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF between 25 and 30% MeCN, and over 80% of the 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha between 15 and 25% MeCN, with retention after dialysis of less than 0.2 and 1.7% of the original urinary protein, respectively. A single-step enrichment of about 400-fold for mEGF and hEGF, and 50-fold for rTGF-alpha were achieved rapidly. 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF eluted later than would be predicted on the basis of their reported molecular weight of approximately 6000, whereas 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha eluted from Bio-Gel P-10 at an approximate molecular weight of 8000 to 9000

379

An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

Naser Azad

2013-07-01

380

Factors Influencing Corporate Online Identity: A New Paradigm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.

Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Replication and phenotypic expression of control and scleroderma human fibroblasts: responses to growth factors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To explore the mechanism of increased collagen synthesis by scleroderma skin fibroblasts in vitro, control and scleroderma fibroblasts were compared in confluent monolayer cultures growth-arrested by serum deprivation; responses to optimal mitogenic doses of platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor were compared. Platelet-derived growth factor had a selective mitogenic effect on control skin fibroblasts not observed with sclerod...

Leroy, E. C.; Mercurio, S.; Sherer, G. K.

1982-01-01

382

ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

Elena Gorbacheva

2014-11-01

383

Epidermal growth factor system regulates mucin production in airways  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Goblet-cell hyperplasia is a critical pathological feature in hypersecretory diseases of airways. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown, and no effective therapy exists. Here we show that stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) by its ligands, EGF and transforming growth factor ? (TGF?), causes MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells both in in vitro and in vivo. We found that a MUC5AC-inducing epithelial cell line, NCI-H292, expresses EGF-R constitutively; EG...

Takeyama, Kiyoshi; Dabbagh, Karim; Lee, Heung-man; Agusti?, Carlos; Lausier, James A.; Ueki, Iris F.; Grattan, Kathleen M.; Nadel, Jay A.

1999-01-01

384

Sustained immobilization of growth factor proteins based on functionalized parylenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein molecules immobilized on biomaterial surfaces are performed based on oriented conjugation or replaced mimicking peptides. The sustainable immobilization of growth factor proteins using functionalized parylene coatings is demonstrated in this study. Site-specific and nonspecific immobilization approaches are realized to conjugate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2). The binding affinities and conformational changes of BMP-2 are confirmed by QCM and SPR characterizations. Osteoinduction of stem cells is examined by ALP activity on the BMP-2 modified surfaces. Finally, immobilizations and equally sustained biological functions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a mimicking peptide of KLTWQELYQLKYKG (QK) are also examined and confirmed. PMID:25434778

Chen, Yung-Chih; Sun, Ting-Pi; Su, Chiao-Tzu; Wu, Jyun-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yeh; Yu, Jiashing; Huang, Chao-Wei; Chen, Chia-Jie; Chen, Hsien-Yeh

2014-12-24

385

Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which mRNA expression changes are significantly associated. Among key metabolic pathways, this analysis revealed de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides and ATP producing and consuming reactions at fast cellular growth. By scoring the significance of overlap between growth rate dependent genes and known transcription factor target sets, transcription factors that coordinate balanced growth were also identified. Our analysis shows that FhII, Rap1, and Sfp1, regulating protein biosynthesis, have significantly enriched target sets for genes up-regulated with increasing growth rate. Cell cycle regulators, such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion: Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more conservative estimate of growth rate dependent genes than previously reported. We also provide a global view of how a small set of transcription factors, 13 in total, contribute to control of cellular growth rate. We anticipate that multi-factorial designs will play an increasing role in elucidating cellular regulation.

Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher

2008-01-01

386

Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal?based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. ...

Schuppli, C. A.; Fraser, D.

2007-01-01

387

Factors that influence students' choice of careers in Construction Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study was to explore the demographics, career influences in terms of experiences and relationships, and self-efficacy of students currently enrolled in accredited Construction Management (CM) programs in one Midwestern state. Numerous factors influence students who enter CM programs, however, insufficient information exists to explain the characteristics of these students. Obtaining a better understanding of students currently enrolled in construction management programs can ...

Koch, Daphene Cyr

2006-01-01

388

The Aromatase Gene (CYP19A1) Variants and Circulating Hepatocyte Growth Factor in Postmenopausal Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Estrogen and androgen have been linked to the regulation of circulating hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an adipose tissue-derived cytokine. It is possible that the CYP19A1 gene which alters sex hormones production may influence HGF levels. We examined the association between the CYP19A1 gene variants and plasma HGF concentrations. Design We evaluated 45 common and putative functional variants of CYP19A1 and circulating levels of HGF among 260 postmenopausal women who later devel...

Gunter, Marc J.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Lin, Jennifer H.; Manson, Joann Elisabeth; Rexrode, Kathryn Marian; Cook, Nancy Romanowicz; Kraft, Peter; Ho, Gloria Y. F.; Zhang, Shumin

2012-01-01

389

Housing market and urban growth in China: what are the factors affecting housing prices?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A rapid urbanization process facilitated an enormous expansion of the cities and stimulated the development of the urban housing markets in China. The primary purpose of this thesis is to find factors influencing the urban housing prices. Based on the supply and demand theory, I examine housing prices in 95 cities in 2010 related to population growth, wages, manufacturing employment, human capital, pollution, and housing investment using a cross section data analysis. The empirical results in...

Liu, Danyuan

2012-01-01

390

Epidermal growth factor upregulates serotonin transporter in human intestinal epithelial cells via transcriptional mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular availability of serotonin and is a potential pharmacological target for gastrointestinal disorders. A decrease in SERT has been implicated in intestinal inflammatory and diarrheal disorders. However, little is known regarding regulation of SERT in the intestine. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to influence intestinal electrolyte and nutrient transport processes and has protective effects on intestinal mucosa. Whether EGF regulates SE...

Gill, Ravinder K.; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu Natarajan; Esmaili, Ali; Kumar, Anoop; Nazir, Saad; Malakooti, Jaleh; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Saksena, Seema

2011-01-01

391

Extracellular matrix composition determines the transcriptional response to epidermal growth factor receptor activation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The transcriptional response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) was examined in a cultured cell model of adhesion. Gene expression was monitored in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) after attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, laminin, and fibronectin, by using complementary DNA micorarrays printed with 1,718 individual human genes. Cluster analysis revealed that the influence of EGF on gene expression, either positive or negative, was largely i...

Yarwood, Stephen J.; Woodgett, James R.

2001-01-01

392

Growth factor regulation of integrin-mediated cell motility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell motility, a primary component of tumor cell invasion, is a continuum of sequential events in which the cell extends pseudopodia, forms nascent attachments, assembles and contracts the cytoskeleton, and finally, as it translocates forward, disengages distal adhesions. What triggers cells to move? Substratum contact mediated by integrin adhesion receptors is important, but other signals such as chemokinetic factors appear to be required for continued crawling. It is now apparent that integrins do not simply bind cells to matrix in a Velcro-like fashion, but also are potent signaling molecules. Initial engagement of integrins induces their condensation into focal contacts, forming anchors to the extracellular matrix and discrete signal-transducing complexes on the cytoplasmic surface. A number of growth factors, through either autocrine or paracrine pathways, can activate the cellular machinery that mobilizes the cell. Thus, these two classes of receptors--the integrin receptors that bind specific extracellular adhesion molecules, and growth factor receptors that bind their respective ligands--can regulate cell locomotion. Not surprisingly, there is 'cross-talk' between integrin and growth factor receptors that occurs through their common intracellular signaling pathways. In this way, each receptor type can either amplify or attenuate the other's signal and downstream response. An example of growth factor-induced motility is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). When bound to its receptor, the c-met proto-oncogene product, HGF/SF induces a phenotypic conversion that appears to be an important aspect of tumor progression in malignant carcinomas. The motogenic response produced by HGF/SF in carcinoma cells occurs in discrete steps in which integrins and focal adhesion kinase (p125FAK) are first recruited to focal contacts. This is rapidly followed by cell spreading, disruption of focal adhesions and cell-cell contacts, and, finally, cell crawling. The precise mechanism by which growth factors such as HGF/SF and its receptor induce this motogenic response and modulate integrin function has not been clearly defined but appears to involve several signaling pathways. Understanding the process by which growth factor and integrin receptors interact and regulate motility may suggest novel targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:8548869

Matsumoto, K; Ziober, B L; Yao, C C; Kramer, R H

1995-09-01

393

The Study of Factors Influencing Smoking among Male University Students in Kermanshah  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Due to the rapid growth of smoking prevalence and due to the necessity of knowing the problem, in order to sensitize the community and the health officials, the present study aimed to determine factors influencing smoking among male university students in kermanshah based on BASNEF Model. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 569 students studying in Kermanshah in 1387 were selected through snowball sampling procedure. The data was collected through a valid and reliable researc...

Siamak Mohebbi; marzieh shahsiah; mohammad matlabi; mehdi kargar

2010-01-01

394

Factors Influencing the Chlorine Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The susceptibility of representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (the MAIS group) to chlorine was studied to identify factors related to culture conditions and growth phase that influenced susceptibility. M. avium and M. intracellulare strains were more resistant to chlorine than were strains of M. scrofulaceum. Transparent and unpigmented colony variants were more resistant to chlorine than were their isogenic opaque and pigmen...

Falkinham, Joseph O.

2003-01-01

395

Growth and differentiation factors for periodontal regeneration : a review on factors with clinical testing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A large body of evidence implies that growth and differentiation factors, based on their ability to regulate various functions of cells originating in the periodontal tissues, may support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, creating an environment conducive to and/or immediately inducing de novo tissue formation. This study presents a short systematic overview on growth and differentiation factor technologies evaluated in the clinic for their potential to enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration.

Stavropoulos, A; Wikesjö, U M E

2012-01-01

396

Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription by hypoxia-inducible factor 1.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is induced in cells exposed to hypoxia or ischemia. Neovascularization stimulated by VEGF occurs in several important clinical contexts, including myocardial ischemia, retinal disease, and tumor growth. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix protein that activates transcription of the human erythropoietin gene in hypoxic cells. Here we demonstrate the involvement of HIF-1 in the activation of VEGF tr...

Forsythe, J. A.; Jiang, B. H.; Iyer, N. V.; Agani, F.; Leung, S. W.; Koos, R. D.; Semenza, G. L.

1996-01-01

397

Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

Oana Dumitrascu

2015-01-01

398

Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 in diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short-stature children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) is conventionally diagnosed and confirmed by diminished peak Growth Hormone (GH) levels to provocative testing. Serum Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are under the influence of GH and reflect the spontaneous endogenous GH secretion. Owing to the absence of a circadian rhythm, it is possible to take individual measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 at any time of the day for evaluation of GH status instead of subjecting the individual to cumbersome provocative tests. Objectives of this study were to compare IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 assays with Exercise and L-Dopa stimulation tests in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short stature children using ITT as gold standard. Methods: This validation study was conducted at Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP, Rawalpindi, from November 2005 to October 2006. Fifty-two short stature children were included in the study. Basal samples for GH levels and simultaneous IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 measurements were obtained and afterwards all children were subjected to sequential exercise and LDopa stimulation tests. Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) was performed one week later with all the necessary precautionary measures. On the basis of ITT results, children were divided into two groups, i.e., 31 growth hormone deficient and 21 Normal Variant Short Stature (NVSS). Results: The diagnostic value of exercise stimulation test remained hie of exercise stimulation test remained highest with sensitivity 90.3%, specificity 76.0%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 84.84%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 84.2% and accuracy 84.6%. The conventional L-Dopa stimulation had sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 38.0%, PPV 69.7%, NPV 88.8 % and accuracy 73.0%. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were positively correlated with post ITT peak GH levels (r= 0.527, r=0.464 respectively, both p<0.001). The diagnostic value of IGF-1 had sensitivity 83.87%, specificity 76.2%, PPV 83.87%, NPV 76.2% and accuracy 80.76%. The diagnostic value of IGFBP-3 had sensitivity 54.83%, specificity 90.47%, PPV 89.47%, NPV 57.57% and accuracy 69.23%. With combined use of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 diagnostic value had sensitivity 69.35%, specificity 83.33% PPV 86%, NPV 64.81% and accuracy 75%. Conclusion Growth Hormones provocative tests still remain the most useful investigations for the diagnosis of GHD. Measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 have shown comparable diagnostic performance with growth hormone stimulation tests and are valuable for patients convenience and ease of performance and can be useful in the initial workup of short stature. (author)

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Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

400

The Effect of Insulin-Like Growth Factor System on Embryo Growth and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insulin like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II are expressed in embryos and reproductive tracts of several species including cow, sheep and swine. They are mitogenic and have endocrine, paracrine and autocrine function infusing cell division, blastocyst formation, implantation and embryo growth. Increase in embryo growth will probably result with a higher implantation rates leading to consequent increases in the number of live offspring. In this review, insulin, IGFs, their receptors and their physiology and function in embryonic growth development were concerned.

H.B. Ciftci

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Transforming Growth Factor-? and Endoglin Signaling Orchestrate Wound Healing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Physiological wound healing is a complex process requiring the temporal and spatial co-ordination of various signaling networks, biomechanical forces, and biochemical signaling pathways in both hypoxic and non-hypoxic conditions. Although a plethora of factors are re