Sample records for factors influencing growth


    Florina Popa


    Full Text Available Adequate to the new requirements of economy, the economic research has achieved progresses in addressing the issues regarding the growth and development, the economists drawing a number of theories and models, in order to find resorts that lead to sustainable growth. The paper refers to the means of assessment and forecast of the potential growth of an economy, by using a mathematical model, whose production function takes into consideration the role of three factors, being highlighted the role of the Total Factor Productivity, as an element of influence on growth with the other two factors. The study includes an application of the model use, for the analysis of the growth potential of the economy, at national level.

  2. Colloid's influences on microalgae growth as a potential environmental factor

    赵新淮; 张正斌; 刘莲生


    The role of colloid as "colloid pump" in the ocean is well known. The important influence of colloid in seawater on the growth of microalga was found in our 1999-2000 study. Colloid concentrates were obtained by employing a cross-flow filtration systen to ultrafilter seawater (which had been pre-filtrated by 0.45 μm acetate cellulose membrane) successively with different membranes. Ultrafiltration retentions (we called them colloid concentrates ) together with control sample ( seawater without colloid) were then inoculated with two species of microalgae and cultivated in selected conditions. Monitoring of microalgae growth during cultivation showed that all colloid concentrates had obvious influence on the growth of the microalgae studied. Addition of Fe(OH)3 colloid or organic colloid (protein or carbohydrate) to the control sample enhanced the microalgae's growth.

  3. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa;


    Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent....... However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  4. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa; Aversano, Mario; Husemoen, Lise-Lotte; Linneberg, Allan; Bourgain, Catherine; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Ciullo, Marina


    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.......Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent...

  5. Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality

    Ruth Niva Ongachi; Henry M. Bwisa


    This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with s...

  6. Influence of environmental factors on growth and pigment synthesis by purple thiobacteria

    Y. О. Pavlova


    Full Text Available The influence of different environmental factors on growth and pigment biosynthesis by particular strains of purple thiobacteria was investigated. These strains belong to the genus Chromatium, Thiocystis, Thiocapsa and Lamprocystis and were isolated from Yavoriv sulphur mine. Calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and sodium chloride should be included in the medium for optimal growth of these bacteria. Addition of these elements entails increasing the biomass production and synthesis of carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Initial concentration of inoculum and electron donor has essential influence on growth of purple thiobacteria. Early in the development of culture, sulphide was oxidized, and then the growth impairment and destruction of cells under exposure of light were observed. For the optimization of bacteria growth the electron donor (sulphide must be added many times during the cultivation process in the concentration, which is not exceed an inhibition dose. The additional bringing of the electron donor in the medium promotes the raise of cells’ biomass. The acetate introduction in the medium has positive influence on the pigments’ biosynthesis. The essential factor of growth and pigments’ biosynthesis is the light intensity. Peak gain of the culture growth was observed under 400 lx. The amplification of light exposure is accompanied by the decrease of growth and content of pigments in cells. Oxygen inhibits the synthesis of pigments in all strains

  7. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 influences pancreatic cancer cell growth

    Sarah K Johnson; Randy S Haun


    AIM: To investigate the functional significance of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) overexpression in pancreatic cancer (PaC).METHODS: The effects of IGFBP-5 on cell growth were assessed by stable transfection of BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cell lines and measuring cell number and DNA synthesis. Alterations in the cell cycle were assessed by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses.Changes in cell survival and signal transduction were evaluated after mitogen activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor treatment.RESULTS: After serum depr ivat ion, IGFBP-5 expression increased both cell number and DNA synthesis in BxPC-3 cells, but reduced cell number in PANC-1 cells. Consistent with this observation, cell cycle analysis of IGFBP-5-expressing cells revealed accelerated cell cycle progression in BxPC-3 and G2/M arrest of PANC-1 cells. Signal transduction analysis revealed that Akt activation was increased in BxPC-3, but reduced in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) activation in BxPC-3, but enhanced ERK1/2 activation in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. When MEK1/2 was blocked, Akt activation remained elevated in IGFBP-5 expressing PaC cells; however, inhibition of PI3K or MEK1/2 abrogated IGFBP-5-mediated cell survival.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that IGFBP-5 expression affects the cell cycle and survival signal pathways and thus it may be an important mediator of PaC cell growth.

  8. Does Single Intramuscular Application of Autologous Conditioned Plasma Influence Systemic Circulating Growth Factors?

    Gert Schippinger; Florian Fankhauser; Karl Oettl; Stefan Spirk; Peter Hofmann


    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been employed to treat sports injuries to possibly accelerate healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential, especially for athletes. Growth factors are generally prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency with exception to PRP which may induce adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate any systemic increase of growth factors such as Insulin Like Growth Factor-1, Endothelial Growth Factors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factors, Fibroblast Gr...

  9. Factors influencing crystal growth rates from undercooled liquids of pharmaceutical compounds.

    Trasi, Niraj S; Baird, Jared A; Kestur, Umesh S; Taylor, Lynne S


    Amorphous forms of drugs are increasingly being used to deliver poorly water-soluble compounds. Therefore, understanding the magnitude and origin of differences in crystallization kinetics is highly important. The goal of this study was to better understand the factors that influence crystal growth rates from pharmaceutically relevant undercooled liquids and to evaluate the range of growth rates observed. The crystal growth rates of 31 drugs were determined using an optical microscope in the temperature region between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm). Thermodynamic parameters such as Tm, melting enthalpy, and Tg were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Selected viscosity values for the undercooled liquid were taken from the literature. The growth rates of the different compounds were found to be very different from each other with a variation of about 5 orders of magnitude between the fastest growing compounds and the slowest growing compounds. A comparison of the physicochemical properties showed that compounds that had fast crystal growth rates had smaller molecular weights, higher melting temperatures, lower melt entropies, lower melt viscosities, and higher crystal densities. Variations in the growth rates of the compounds could be rationalized to a large extent by considering the thermodynamic driving force for crystallization, the viscosity, and the entropy difference between the melt and undercooled liquid. This study therefore provides important insight into factors that may compromise the stability of amorphous pharmaceuticals. PMID:25076138

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma

    Andersen, Niels F; Vogel, Ulla; Klausen, Tobias W;


    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent proangiogenic factor. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene with influence on VEGF expression have been described. In multiple myeloma, VEGF stimulates angiogenesis which is correlated with disease progression and pro...... polymorphisms, so in the future we may be able to select multiple myeloma patients who especially will benefit from treatment with thalidomide....... prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the association between genetic variations in the VEGF gene in patients with multiple myeloma and time to treatment failure (TTF) after high-dose melphalan and stem cell support (HDT), overall survival (OS) and efficacy of the anti-angiogenic drug thalidomide...

  11. Influences of the environment on the endocrine and paracrine fish growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I system.

    Reinecke, M


    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key component of the complex system that regulates differentiation, development, growth and reproduction of fishes. The IGF-I gene is mainly expressed in the liver that represents the principal source of endocrine IGF-I but also in numerous other organs where the hormone most probably acts in an autocrine-paracrine manner. The primary stimulus for synthesis and release of IGF-I is growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary. Thus, in analogy to mammals, it is usual to speak of a fish 'GH-IGF-I axis'. The GH-IGF-I system is affected by changes in the environment and probably represents a target of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) that impair many physiological processes in fishes. Thus, the review deals with the influences of changes in different environmental factors, such as food availability, temperature, photoperiod, season, salinity and EDCs, on GH gene expression in pituitary, IGF-I gene expression in liver and extrahepatic sites and the physiological effects resulting from the evoked alterations in endocrine and local IGF-I. Environmental influences certainly interact with each other but for convenience of the reader they will be dealt with in separate sections. Current trends in GH-IGF-I research are analysed and future focuses are suggested at the end of the sections. PMID:20537012


    Gert Schippinger


    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been employed to treat sports injuries to possibly accelerate healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential, especially for athletes. Growth factors are generally prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency with exception to PRP which may induce adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate any systemic increase of growth factors such as Insulin Like Growth Factor-1, Endothelial Growth Factors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factors, Fibroblast Growth Factors, Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor and Transforming Growth Factors after local intramuscular administration of PRP in young, healthy male subjects keeping in mind adverse treatment effects. Enriched plasma from centrifuged blood samples was injected into the gluteus muscle. Venous blood was collected and serum prepared before as well as 0.5, 3 and 24 hours after PRP administration. Growth factors were analyzed using ELISA test kits. No significant systemic increase of growth factor levels was found after PRP injection except TGF-ß2. For that reason the PRP method may be applied for muscle injury treatment in elite athletes although further studies are necessary to clarify the response to the unspecific increased TGF-ß2 blood levels, which could increase the risk for local fibrosis

  13. Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality

    Ruth Niva Ongachi


    Full Text Available This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with structured and unstructured questions. The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing the growth of women entrepreneurship in Kitale and specifically to determine, the women’s level of education, skills and technology they employ, the social/cultural environmental conditions within which they operate and their financial capacity. The 70 respondents represented the target population which was within Kitale Municipality, selected by stratified random sampling procedures. Details in this project include the introduction, problem statement, the purpose, main and specific objectives of the study, research questions and the scope. A discussion of the available literature on women owned micro and small enterprises, included the enterprises’ start- up, undertakings and growth, the missing middle, the social, cultural and environmental conditions , the entrepreneur’s education level, skills technology and financing they access. The interventional efforts and growth models were also discussed. The literature review wound up with a critique, a conclusion and the missing gap. The methodology used in conducting the study was explained in details that included descriptive research design, the population, target population, sample size, sampling technique and procedure, the instruments, data collection procedure, processing and analysis. A questionnaire was administered orally to 70 women in MSE within the municipality in order to gather data. The

  14. Identification of growth phases and influencing factors in cultivations with AGE1.HN cells using set-based methods.

    Steffen Borchers

    Full Text Available Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN. We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell

  15. Identification of growth phases and influencing factors in cultivations with AGE1.HN cells using set-based methods.

    Borchers, Steffen; Freund, Susann; Rath, Alexander; Streif, Stefan; Reichl, Udo; Findeisen, Rolf


    Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-)validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN). We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell growth and

  16. Factors influencing growth of Acanthopagrus butcheri (Sparidae) in a eutrophic estuary have changed over time

    Cottingham, Alan; Hall, Norman G.; Potter, Ian C.


    The overall growth of Acanthopagrus butcheri in the eutrophic Swan River Estuary has previously been shown to decline between 1993-95 and 2007-11. This was attributed to the effects of an increase in hypoxia on A. butcheri in deeper water, brought about by reductions in freshwater flushing, and to density-dependent effects as this species became concentrated in the better-oxygenated, nearshore shallow waters. In the present study, a year-effect model was developed that provided a good fit to the lengths at age and could thus be used to explore the following: 1) The extent to which somatic growth of A. butcheri differed between years in the above two periods and within the later period, which was extended to include data for 2012 to 2014, and 2) whether annual growth in 2007-14 was related to temperature and/or freshwater discharge. Annual length increments for females and males during the second year of life, predicted from the model and when using a common initial length, were almost invariably less in each year in 2007-14 than in 1993-95. In 2007-14, these predicted increments varied by ˜2 times for both females and males and were positively correlated with average temperature during the main growth phase of A. butcheri. They were not significantly correlated, however, with freshwater discharge in the preceding cool wet 'winter' months, when the vast majority of rainfall occurs. The demonstration that the growth of A. butcheri was positively correlated with temperature for years in the latter period is consistent with the metabolic theory of ecology and contrasts with growth declining between 1993-95 and 2007-14 when temperatures were increasing. Thus, any influence of temperature on growth between those periods was overridden by the effects of other factors, i.e. hypoxia and related changes in density. As A. butcheri completes its life cycle within its natal estuary and has plastic biological characteristics, it is an ideal candidate for use as an indicator of

  17. Identification of Growth Phases and Influencing Factors in Cultivations with AGE1.HN Cells Using Set-Based Methods

    Borchers, S.; Freund, S; Rath, A.; Streif, S; Reichl, U.; Findeisen, R.


    Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimenta...

  18. Physical capacity influences the response of insulin-like growth factor and its binding proteins to training

    Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan;


    The influence of initial training status on the response of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and its binding proteins (IGFBP) to prolonged physical training was studied in young men. It was hypothesized that highly standardized training would result in more extensive changes in the...

  19. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  20. Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors.

    Ruijter, de, J.


    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that potato growers can use to minimise nematode damage.The research concentrated on the interaction between nematodes and soil-related factors. Experiments were carried out, mainly under field conditions, in w...

  1. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A.; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning; Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E.; Graham, Rona K.; Kim, Jeong Eun; Bissada, Nagat; Yang, X. William; Paganetti, Paolo; Friedlander, Robert M.; Leavitt, Blair R.; Hayden, Michael R


    Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (Y...

  2. Factors influencing germination and growth of isolated embryos of Pinus heldreichii

    Stojičić Dragana


    Full Text Available The effects of nutritional, hormonal, and physical factors on the germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of Pinus heldreichii were studied under in vitro conditions. The optimum medium for embryo germination and adequate conversion into seedlings was basal Gresshoff and Doy (1GD medium. All tested carbohydrates at the applied concentrations stimulated embryo growth, but only 3% sucrose increased embryo germination compared to the control, while maltose had an inhibitory effect. Among the applied plant growth regulators, only gibberelic acid (GA3 had a few benefits on the development of isolated embryos into plantlets, while the others had a negative effect. Embryos cultured on an agar-solidified medium grew better and the germination percentage was higher than in a liquid medium. Light treatment did not affect embryo germination, but generally stimulated seedling growth.

  3. Changes in Climatic Factors Influencing the Growth Period of Corn in Fengjie County

    Mao, Xiaozhen; Mou, Xinli; Ma, Chen; Huang, Jiang; Yuan, Lin


    Under the background of global climate change, we analyze the change tendency of average temperature and amount of precipitation influencing the corn's growth period. The results show that from March to August, the monthly temperatures show an upward trend, but the rise is different in different months, and the maximum temperature rise is in May. Precipitation in different months has different trends. Climate change brings about favorable conditions at high altitudes in Fengjie, reduces produ...

  4. Growth factors in haemopoiesis.

    Jones, A L; Millar, J L


    Haemopoietic growth factors have for over two decades allowed experimentalists to grow haemopoietic bone marrow cells in vitro. With refinements in technique and the discovery of novel growth factors, all of the known haemopoietic lineages can now be grown in vitro. This has allowed a much greater understanding of the complex process of haemopoiesis from the haemopoietic stem cell to the mature, functioning end-cell. The in vivo action of these growth factors has been harder to investigate. Although recombinant technology has afforded us the much greater quantities necessary for in vivo work, problems remain with administration because of effects on other tissues. Interpretation of results is difficult because of the complex inter-relationships which exist between factors. Some of these have been defined in vitro and it appears likely that they also operate in vivo. Erythropoietin is a physiological regulator of erythropoiesis. It has been detected in vivo with levels responding appropriately to stress (i.e. elevated in anaemia) and, when administered in pharmacological doses, has been shown to correct anaemia. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been detected in vivo and may influence the production and function of granulocytes and macrophages, although how it is regulated is unknown. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor are ore lineage-specific. Interleukin 3 (IL-3), although it has not been detected in vivo, may act on a primitive marrow precursor by expanding the population and making these cells more susceptible to other growth factors, such as GM-CSF. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) has been detected in vivo, does not appear to have any isolated action on bone marrow (except possibly radioprotection) but probably acts synergistically with other growth factors, such as G-CSF. Interleukins 2, 4, 5 and 6 have not been detected in vivo. All have effects on B-cells. In addition IL-2 is an essential

  5. Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females

    Widén, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno


    OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and female...

  6. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning;


    Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement...... of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice) and truncated mutant htt (shortstop mice). We demonstrate that htt influences...... body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...

  7. Changes in Climatic Factors Influencing the Growth Period of Corn in Fengjie County

    Xiaozhen; MAO; Xinli; MOU; Chen; MA; Jiang; HUANG; Lin; YUAN


    Under the background of global climate change,we analyze the change tendency of average temperature and amount of precipitation influencing the corn’s growth period. The results show that from March to August,the monthly temperatures show an upward trend,but the rise is different in different months,and the maximum temperature rise is in May. Precipitation in different months has different trends. Climate change brings about favorable conditions at high altitudes in Fengjie,reduces production due to the temperature drop after the beginning of autumn,and increases the pressure on the corn supply.

  8. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Influencing Nutrient Availability and Plant Growth in a Pine Tree Substrate

    Jackson, Brian Eugene


    Pine tree substrate (PTS) produced from freshly harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees has potential for replacing or reducing the use of aged pine bark (PB) and peat moss as container substrates for horticulture crop production. The objective of this work was to determine the factors influencing nutrient availability in PTS compared to PB or peat substrates. Chapter two reports data on the response of japanese holly and azalea to fertilizer rate when grown in PTS and PB. This stud...

  9. Influence of several factors on the growth of selenium nanowires induced by silver nanoparticles

    This paper presents a study on the crystallization and growth mechanism of selenium nanowires induced by silver nanoparticles at ambient conditions with special reference to the effects of factors such as the shapes and size of silver nanoparticles, the induced reaction time, and the molar ratio of Ag0 to SeO32- ions. The synthesis approach is conducted with no need of any stabilizers, and with no sonochemical process and/or templates. It is found that whether silver spherical particles or colloids can lead to the formation of nanowires with average diameter of 25 nm and lengths up to a few micrometers, and silver nanoplates lead to the formation of flat Se nanostructures. In particular, Au, Cu, Pt, and Pd particles cannot induce the growth of selenium nanowires in aqueous solution at room temperature. The results indicate that silver particles play a critical role in determining the growth of selenium nanowires. The lattice match between hexagonal-Se and orthorhombic- or trigonal-Ag2Se particles is the major driving force in the growth of such nanostructures. The findings would be useful for design and construction of heterogeneous nanostructures with similar lattice parameter(s)

  10. Influence of selected factors on growth performance of Suffolk lambs and their crossbreds

    Martin Ptáček


    Full Text Available The monitoring was performed in one year period in selected population of Suffolk sheep (SF, n = 257 and their crossbreds with Merinolandschaf (SF × ML, n = 87. Total of 627 lambs (SF, n = 463; SF × ML, n = 164 were observed in breeding conditions of two semi-extensive flocks. Lambs’ live weight at 100 days of age (LW100; musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT100 depth and backfat thickness (BT100 at the same age were assessed. Effects of breed, ewes’ live weight at mating, litter size, sex of lambs and ewe’s age as linear regression were evaluated using SAS 9.1. Significant differences (P < 0.05 in LW100, MLLT100 and BT100 between SF and SF × ML were observed. All the evaluated traits of growth performance were also influenced (P < 0.05 by ewes’ live weight at mating. The highest lambs’ growth performance traits were detected in lambs of ewes with highest live weight at mating (group of ≥ 80.7 kg. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed among singles, twins and triplets lambs as well. Significantly higher LW100 was marked in ram lambs compared to ewe lambs (P < 0.05.

  11. Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Foldager, Leslie;


    measured in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The......Recent studies suggest that the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. However, only a few studies have investigated serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression, or the possible association between genetic variants within...... the VEGF gene and depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression vs. control individuals, and associations between genetic markers located within VEGF and depression. In addition, determinants of the serum VEGF...

  12. Factors influencing epitaxial growth of three-dimensional Ge quantum dot crystals on pit-patterned Si substrate

    We investigated the molecular beam epitaxy growth of three-dimensional (3D) Ge quantum dot crystals (QDCs) on periodically pit-patterned Si substrates. A series of factors influencing the growth of QDCs were investigated in detail and the optimized growth conditions were found. The growth of the Si buffer layer and the first quantum dot (QD) layer play a key role in the growth of QDCs. The pit facet inclination angle decreased with increasing buffer layer thickness, and its optimized value was found to be around 21°, ensuring that all the QDs in the first layer nucleate within the pits. A large Ge deposition amount in the first QD layer favors strain build-up by QDs, size uniformity of QDs and hence periodicity of the strain distribution; a thin Si spacer layer favors strain correlation along the growth direction; both effects contribute to the vertical ordering of the QDCs. Results obtained by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that 3D ordering was achieved in the Ge QDCs with the highest ever areal dot density of 1.2 × 1010 cm−2, and that the lateral and the vertical interdot spacing were ∼10 and ∼2.5 nm, respectively. (paper)

  13. The Influence of Adnectin Binding on the Extracellular Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.


    The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.

  14. New thrombopoietic growth factors

    Kuter, David J.


    Although development of first-generation thrombopoietic growth factors (recombinant human thrombopoietin [TPO] and pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor [PEG-rHuMGDF]) was stopped due to development of antibodies to PEG-rHuMGDF, nonimmunogenic second-generation thrombopoietic growth factors with unique pharmacologic properties have been developed. TPO peptide mimetics contain TPO receptor-activating peptides inserted into complementarity-determining regions o...

  15. Factors that influence the oxidation of the manganese in a growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, R J

    The kinetic behavior of the oxidation of the manganese in the growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, Sepetiba Bay, R J, have been studied through the incubation with the radiotracer Mn-54. We have observed the great influence of the factors that interferes in the rate oxidation with the mangrove state in the moment of the sampling. We applied statistical multivariate to verify the correlation with the tide height and the physical-chemical parameters. With the program Statistical Analysis System, SAS, the samples were classified by hierarchical conglomerate methods and Factor Analysis. Water samples were collected in the entrance of the tide channel in five campaigns in the months of August, September, November and December of 98, and January of 99, in several tide heights. As a conclusion, by the multivariate statistical analysis where variables correlations are presented in each group or cluster in a population. Therefore the variables that we are measuring as reflecting the influence the oxidation manganese in the mangroves. Although the variable tide height did not influence in the classification groups. We suppose that will need more sampling in different tide height cycle. (author)

  16. Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: Maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Bernstein, Robin M; Hinde, Katie


    Among mammals, numerous bioactive factors in milk vary across mothers and influence offspring outcomes. This emerging area of research has primarily investigated such dynamics within rodent biomedical models, domesticated dairy breeds, and among humans in clinical contexts. Less understood are signaling factors in the milk of non-human primates. Here, we report on multiple bioactive components in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) milk and their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Milk samples were collected from 59 macaques at multiple time points across lactation in conjunction with maternal and infant morphometrics and life-history animal records. Milk was assayed for adiponectin (APN), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2 ). Regression models were constructed to assess the contributions of maternal factors on variation in milk bioactives, and on the relationship of this variation to infant body mass and growth. Maternal body mass, parity, social rank, and infant sex were all predictive of concentrations of milk bioactives. Primiparous mothers produced milk with higher adiponectin, but lower EGF, than multiparous mothers. Heavier mothers produced milk with lower EGF and EGF-R, but higher TGF-β2 . Mothers of daughters produced milk with higher TGF-β2 . Mid-ranking mothers produced milk with higher mean EGF and adiponectin concentrations than low-ranking mothers. Milk EGF and EGF-R were positively associated with infant body mass and growth rate. Importantly, these signaling bioactives (APN, EGF, EGF-R, and TGF-β2 ) were significantly correlated with nutritional values of milk. The effects of milk signals remained after controlling for the available energy in milk revealing the added physiological role of non-nutritive milk bioactives in the developing infant. Integrating analyses of energetic and other bioactive components of milk yields an important perspective for interpreting

  17. What Factors Influence Firm Perceptions of Labour Market Constraints to Growth in the MENA Region?

    Fakih, Ali; Ghazalian, Pascal L.


    Labour market constraints constitute prominent obstacles to firm development and economic growth of countries located in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This paper aims at examining the implications of firm characteristics, national locations, and sectoral associations for the perceptions of firms concerning two basic labour market constraints: labour regulations and labour skill shortages. The empirical analysis is carried out using firm-level dataset sourced from the World B...

  18. Influencing Factor Investigation on Dynamic Hydrothermal Growth of Gapped Hollow BaTiO3 Nanospheres

    Gao, Jiabing; Shi, Haiyue; Yang, Jing; Li, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Deliang


    Gapped hollow BaTiO3 nanospheres with an apparent diameter of 93 ± 19 nm (shell thickness of 10-20 nm) were synthesized via a dynamic hydrothermal process using TiO2 sols and Ba2+ ions as the Ti and Ba sources in alkaline aqueous solutions. The phases and morphologies of the BaTiO3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and Raman spectra. The effects of the hydrothermal temperatures and durations, NaOH concentrations, and Ba/Ti ratios on the formation of gapped hollow BaTiO3 nanospheres were systematically investigated. The optimum conditions for forming gapped hollow BaTiO3 nanospheres are hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for 10-20 h under a continuous magnetic stirring with NaOH concentrations of about 1 mol/L and molar Ba/Ti ratios of 1.2-1.5. The formation mechanism of the gapped hollow BaTiO3 nanospheres is understood as the combination of the orientated attachment and reversed crystal growth.

  19. Influence of static magnetic fields combined with human insulin-like growth factor 1 on human satellite cell cultures.

    Birk, Richard; Sommer, J Ulrich; Haas, Dominik; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schultz, Johannes D; Hoermann, Karl; Stern-Straeter, Jens


    Tissue engineering represents a promising research field, targeting the creation of new functional muscle tissue in vitro. The aim of the present study was to show the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), as enhancing stimuli on human satellite cell cultures, which are preferred sources of stem cells in engineering skeletal muscle tissue. To detect effects on myogenic maturation and proliferation, AlamarBlue® proliferation, assay and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of following markers was performed: desmin (DES), myogenic factor-5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen-1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and α1 actin (ACTA1). As a distinct marker of differentiation, immunohistochemical staining and fusion index determination was performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with IGF1 and IGF1-plus-SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. Proliferation was increased by additional SMF application to IGF1-stimulated cell cultures on the first day of myogenesis. Relative gene expression of measured markers was increased by IGF1 application in the first days of myogenesis except for ACTA1. Additional SMF application enhanced this effect. Nevertheless we were unable to demonstrate the formation of contractile muscle tissue. Immunhistochemical staining verified muscle origin and all markers were displayed. PMID:25189891

  20. Three-locus and four-locus QTL interactions influence mouse insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Hanlon, Philip; Lorenz, William Andrew; Shao, Zhihong; Harper, James M; Galecki, Andrzej T; Miller, Richard A; Burke, David T


    A previous analysis of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in a mouse population (n = 961) derived from a cross of (BALB/cJ x C57BL/6J) F1 females and (C3H/HeJ x DBA/2J) F1 males documented quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 1, 10, and 17. We employed a newly developed, random walk-based method to search for three- and four-way allelic combinations that might influence IGF-I levels through nonadditive (conditional or epistatic) interactions among 185 genotyped biallelic loci and with significance defined by experiment-wide permutation (P genetic interactions. In two cases, the four-allele combinations were associated with animals having high levels of IGF-I, and, in the third case, a four-allele combination was associated with animals having low IGF-I levels. The multiple-locus genome scan algorithm revealed new IGF-I QTL on chromosomes 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 12 that had not been detected in the single-locus genome search and showed that levels of this hormone can be regulated by complex, nonadditive interactions among multiple loci. The analysis method can detect multilocus interactions in a genome scan experiment and may provide new ways to explore the genetic architecture of complex physiological phenotypes. PMID:16782841

  1. Fibroblast growth factors in neurodevelopment and psychopathology

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Afke F; Bakker, Steven C; Kahn, René S; Kas, Martien J H


    In psychiatric disorders, the effect of genetic and environmental factors may converge on molecular pathways and brain circuits related to growth factor functioning. In this review, we describe how disturbances in fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors influence behavior by affecting b

  2. Growth factors in tumor microenvironment

    Zhang, Xuejing; Nie, Daotai; Chakrabarty, Subhas


    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. Components in the microenvironment can modulate the growth of tumor cells, their ability to progress and metastasize. A major venue of communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment is through polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. This article discusses three major classes of growth-stimulatory polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. It also d...

  3. Factors Influencing Biotite Weathering

    Reed, Ryan R.


    Factors Influencing Biotite Weathering by Ryan Reed Lucian W. Zelazny, Chairman Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences (ABSTRACT) Weathering of biotite supplies nutrients such as K+ and weathers into vermiculite/montmorillonite or kaolinite, which have varying influences on soil properties and characteristics. This study was conducted to determine if the weathering mechanisms of biotite are controlled by temperature, or if other factors, such as vegetation or leaching inten...

  4. Mammalian epidermal growth factor promotes plant growth

    Dyer, Melvin I.


    Application of mouse submaxillary gland epidermal growth factor to young sorghum seedlings at low concentrations (≈0.4-4 μM) increased shoot growth significantly over 3- and 6-day periods. The effects were dose dependent.

  5. The influence of MatrigelTM or growth factor reduced MatrigelTMo n human intervertebral disc cell growth and proliferation

    Desai, B.J.; Gruber, H E; Hanley Jr., E.N.


    MatrigelTM (reconstituted basement membrane extract) is a potent inducer of cell growth and differentiation in vitro. This study examined phenotypic variation and proliferative responses of human annular intervertebral disc cells in vitro in MatrigelTM and Growth Factor Reduced MatrigelTM (GFR-MatrigelTM). Cells from age- and gender-matched control subjects and patients with degenerative disc disease were grown either on the surface of, or suspended within, eit...

  6. Factors influencing the growth of cracks from defects in CDFR specification 316 stainless steel thermal shock specimens

    The growth of cracks from spark machined slits and gouged grooves has been studied in a CDFR specification cast of 316 stainless steel under thermal shock conditions using sodium as the heat transfer medium. Comparative uniaxial creep fatigue tests have also been performed in servohydraulic machines under isothermal conditions. The cycles used for the thermal shock tests consisted of step increases in temperatures of between 75 and 300 C followed by tensile holds at 600 C of duration 0.05 to 24 hours, and finally slow cooling to the initial temperature ready for the next cycle. The results are presented showing the influence on crack growth of strain range, hold time, number of cycles, types of defect and ferrite stringer direction. (author)

  7. Growth of new firms: Which factors influence post-entry performance? : An empirical analysis based on Swiss firm data

    Marmet, David


    The aim of this study is to shed light on the factors which determine the post-entry performance of new firms. It is often argued that new firms are the driving force of structural changes and sometimes they are even characterized as an “engine” of economic growth. Nevertheless, the empirical evidence is mixed. Taking into account the high exit rate of new firms, a specific founding cohort does not contribute substantially to new jobs. In this paper, we analyse the contribution of new firms c...

  8. Influence of mild hypothermia on vascular endothelial growth factor and infarct volume in brain tissues after cerebral ischemia in rats

    Fei Ye; Gangming Xi; Biyong Qin; Shifeng Wang; Chengyan Li


    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that mild hypothermia has obvious protective effect on both whole and local cerebral ischemia. However, the definite mechanism is still unclear for the brain protection of mild hypothermia on cerebral edema, inhibiting inflammatory reaction, stabilizing blood brain barrier, etc.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of mild hypothermia on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the infarct volume after cerebral ischemia in rats, and analyze the brain protective mechanism of mild hypothermia.DESIGN: A randomized grouping and controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Yunyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Twenty adult male SD rats of clean degree, weighing (250±30) g, were provided by the animal experimental center, School of Medicine, Wuhan University. The kits for SP immunohistochemistry were purchased from Beijing Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology Co., Ltd.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the laboratory of Department of Neurology, Renmen Hospital of Wuhan University from May to July 2005. ① The 20 rats were divided randomly into normal temperature group (n =10) and mild hypothermia group (n =10). Models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were established with modified nylon suture embolization. The rats were assessed with the Longa standards: O point for without nerve dysfunction; 1 for mild neurological deficit (fore claws could no extend completely); 2 for moderate neurological deficit (circling towards the affected side); 3 for severe neurological deficit (tilting towards the affected side); 4 for coma and unconscious; 1 -3 points represented that models were successfully established. The rats of the normal temperature group were fed at room temperature, and those in the mild hypothermia group were induced by hypothermia from 2 hours postoperatively, and the rectal temperature was kept at 34-35 ℃ for 72 hours. ② Measurement of infarct volume

  9. Analysis of environmental factors influencing salinity patterns, oyster growth, and mortality in lower Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana using 20 years of data

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Geaghan, James; Decossas, Gary A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.


    Freshwater inflow characteristics define estuarine functioning by delivering nutrients, sediments, and freshwater, which affect biological resources and ultimately system production. Using 20 years of water quality, weather, and oyster growth and mortality data from Breton Sound Estuary (BSE), Louisiana, we examined the relationship of riverine, weather, and tidal influence on estuarine salinity, and the relationship of salinity to oyster growth and mortality. Mississippi River discharge was found to be the most important factor determining salinity patterns over oyster grounds within lower portions of BSE, with increased river flow associated with lowered salinities, while easterly winds associated with increased salinity were less influential. These patterns were consistent throughout the year. Salinity and temperature (season) were found to critically control oyster growth and mortality, suggesting that seasonal changes to river discharge affecting water quality over the oyster grounds have profound impacts on oyster populations. The management of oyster reefs in estuaries (such as BSE) requires an understanding of how estuarine hydrodynamics and salinity are influenced by forcing factors such as winds, river flow, and by the volume, timing, and location of controlled releases of riverine water.

  10. Demographic factors of economic growth

    Fabiánová, Jana


    Development of the economic situation in recent years raises number of issues, including defining what are the factors of this development and whether it is possible to affect them. This thesis deals with the demographic factors of economic growth; those are factors associated with general population and factors which may have an impact on the country's economy. The main aim of this work is to precisely identify the demographic factor and analyze their development in the Czech Republic since ...

  11. Growth factors and new periodontology

    Paknejad M


    Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

  12. Expression of nerve growth factor mRNA in splenic lymphocytes of bronchial asthma rats and its influencing actors

    Jihong Dai; Yonghong Wang; Haixia He


    BACKGROUND: Previous research has proved that nerve growth factor (NGF) participates in the onset of asthma by the induction of neurogenic inflammation.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interferon-γ(IFN-γ) on the expression of NGF mRNA in the splenic lymphocytes of bronchial asthma rats.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The experiment, a completely randomized study based on cellular immunology, was performed in the Laboratory of Neurology in Chongqing Medical University and the Department of Clinical Pharmacy in College of Clinical Medicine, Chongqing Medical University (Chongqing, China) from January 2006 to April 2007.MATERIALS: Four adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. Rat IL-13, IFN-γprobe and the total RNA extraction kit were produced by Shanghai Sangon Biological Technology & Services Co., Ltd (China). The NGF ELISA kit was a product of Wuhan Boster Bioengineering Co., Ltd (China). A Du-70 automatic UV spectrophotometer was produced by Beckman Company (USA).METHODS: Rats were subjected to 1-mL intraperitoneal injections each containing 100 mg of ovalbumin, and were sensitized by using antigen solution, which was sensitized with 5×109 Bacillus pertussis and 100 mg aluminum hydroxide powder. Four rats were challenged with 1% ovalbumin using an ultrasonic nebulizer for 60 minutes to establish an asthmatic model. After rats were anesthetized, splenic lymphocytes were isolated and cultured in medium, which was supplemented with IL-13 or IFN-γ, for 0, 12, 24 or 48 hours. A parallel study was conducted with cultured splenic lymphocytes, which were divided into a control group, an IL-13 group and an IFN-γ group. Culture medium was added with different concentrations of IL-13 (10, 50, 100 μg/L) and IFN-γ (1, 10, 50 μg/L); 24 hours later, all samples were harvested.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expression levels of NGF mRNA were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: In the control group, the

  13. Factors influencing the enterprise innovation

    Yachmeneva, V.; Vol’s’ka, G.


    The factors that influenced the enterprise innovation are investigated and summarized in the article. Key factors of impact on the enterprise innovation are grouped. Their relationship and mutual influence are proved. Graphic reflect on the impact of external and internal environment factors of the innovative enterprise characteristics are constructed.

  14. Nerve growth factor and asthma.

    Bonini, S; Lambiase, A; Lapucci, G; Properzi, F; Bresciani, M; Bracci Laudiero, M L; Mancini, M J; Procoli, A; Micera, A; Sacerdoti, G; Bonini, S; Levi-Schaffer, F; Rasi, G; Aloe, L


    An increasing body of evidence shows that nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts biological activity not only on the central and peripheral nervous system, but also on the immune system thereby influencing allergic diseases and asthma. (1) NGF circulating levels are increased in patients with allergic diseases and asthma, and are related to the severity of the inflammatory process and disease. In vernal keratoconjunctivitis, NGF plasma levels correlate with the number of mast cells infiltrating the conjunctiva, and NGF mRNA is increased in nasal mucosal scrapings of patients with allergic rhinitis who have high levels of NGF in serum and nasal fluids; NGF is further increased in nasal fluids after specific allergen challenge. (2) NGF is produced and released by several modulatory and effector cells of allergic inflammation and asthma, for example T-helper 2 lymphocytes, mast cells and eosinophils. (3) NGF receptors are expressed on the conjunctival epithelium of patients with allergic conjunctivitis and the number of NGF-receptor positive cells is increased in the conjunctiva of these patients. Indeed, local administration of NGF induces fibroblast activation and healing processes of human corneal ulcers, which suggests that NGF plays a role in tissue remodelling processes occurring in asthma. (4) NGF increases airway hyperreactivity to histamine in an animal model of asthma, while anti-NGF treatment reduces airway hyperreactivity induced by ovalbumin topical challenge in the sensitized mouse. PMID:12144547

  15. Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Cornice'. II. Influence of growth inhibition on the anatomical structure of the stem

    Franciszka Jaumień


    Full Text Available Differentiation of the particular tissues in shoots inhibited in growth by chlormequat occurs differently than in vigorously growing ones. After the end of elongation growth, in the subapical part of shoots sprayed with chlormequat the cortex extends and secondary xylem develops less intensively, this leading to an increased participation of parenchymatous tissue in the stem.

  16. Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro

    Guo You-feng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P P = 0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P = 0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

  17. Relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations with the influence on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    Cai ZX


    Full Text Available Zuxun Cai Department of Thoracic Surgery, Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Zhengzhou City, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and to analyze the influence of CEA level on postoperative survival time in lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 296 patients who were treated in Thoracic Surgery Department of Henan Provincial Chest Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were recruited. The level of tumor markers, such as CEA, was determined before the surgery, and EGFR gene mutations were detected after surgery. Thereby, the relationship between tumor makers, including CEA, and EGFR mutation and its influence on prognosis could be investigated. Results: Among 296 patients, the positive rate of EGFR gene mutation was 37.84% (112/296; the mutation occurred more frequently in nonsmokers, adenocarcinoma patients, women, and patients aged <60 years (P<0.05. Both tumor markers and chemosensitivity indicators were related to the profile of EGFR mutations. Elevated squamous cell carcinoma and Cyfra21-1 as well as positively expressed ERCC1 were more common in patients with wild-type EGFR (P<0.05, whereas increased CEA level was observed more frequently in patients with EGFR gene mutation (P=0.012. The positive rate of EGFR gene mutations was higher as the serum CEA level increased, that is, the positive rate in patients with serum CEA level <5, 5–20, and >20 µg/L was 39.81%, 45.32%, and 65.47%, respectively (P=0.004. Logistic regression analysis showed that CEA level was an independent factor in predicting EGFR gene mutations, and serum CEA level was also an independent factor in affecting the prognosis of NSCLC patients, as the overall 2-year survival rate was 73.86% in elevated CEA group and 86.43% in normal group (P<0.01. Conclusion: The prognosis of

  18. Factors influencing donor return.

    Schlumpf, KS; Glynn, SA; Schreiber, GB; Wright, DJ; Randolph Steele, W; Tu, Y.; Hermansen, S; Higgins, MJ; Garratty, G; Murphy, EL


    BACKGROUND: To predict future blood donation behavior and improve donor retention, it is important to understand the determinants of donor return. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed in 2003 by 7905 current donors. With data mining methods, all factors measured by the survey were ranked as possible predictors of actual return within 12 months. Significant factors were analyzed with logistic regression to determine predictors of intention and of actual ret...

  19. Influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone on the co-culture of mature adipocytes and endothelial cells for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    Huber, Birgit; Czaja, Alina Maria; Kluger, Petra Juliane


    The composition of vascularized adipose tissue is still an ongoing challenge as no culture medium is available to supply adipocytes and endothelial cells appropriately. Endothelial cell medium is typically supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) as well as hydrocortisone (HC). The effect of EGF on adipocytes is discussed controversially. Some studies say it inhibits adipocyte differentiation while others reported of improved adipocyte lipogenesis. HC is known to have lipolytic activities, which might result in mature adipocyte dedifferentiation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of EGF and HC on the co-culture of endothelial cells and mature adipocytes regarding their cell morphology and functionality. We showed in mono-culture that high levels of HC promoted dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature adipocytes, whereas EGF seemed to have no negative influence. Endothelial cells kept their typical cobblestone morphology and showed a proliferation rate comparable to the control independent of EGF and HC concentration. In co-culture, HC promoted dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, which was shown by a higher glycerol release. EGF had no negative impact on adipocyte morphology. No negative impact on endothelial cell morphology and functionality could be seen with reduced EGF and HC supplementation in co-culture with mature adipocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that reduced levels of HC are needed for co-culturing mature adipocytes and endothelial cells. In co-culture, EGF had no influence on mature adipocytes. Therefore, for the composition of vascularized adipose tissue constructs, the media with low levels of HC and high or low levels of EGF can be used. PMID:26888598

  20. Adversarial Growth in Telephone Counsellors: Psychological and Environmental Influences

    O'Sullivan, Julian; Whelan, Thomas A.


    The aims of this study were to investigate the level of adversarial growth among telephone counsellors, and to examine the influence of psychological and environmental factors on growth. In particular, the effect of compassion fatigue, empathy, environmental support and calls per shift on posttraumatic growth was assessed. Sixty-four telephone…

  1. Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation and serum deprivation on gene activation patterns of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells

    Tratwal, Josefine; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Juhl, Morten;


    INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of mesenchymal stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been used in multiple animal studies and clinical trials for regenerative purposes. VEGF stimulation is believed to promote angiogenesis and VEGF....... Genes most prominently and significantly upregulated by both conditions were growth factors (IGF1, BMP6, PDGFD, FGF9), adhesion molecule CLSTN2, extracellular matrix-related proteins such as matricellular proteins SMOC2, SPON1 and ADAMTS12, and inhibitors of proliferation (JAG1). The most significantly...... downregulated genes included matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP1), and proliferation markers (CDKN3) and GREM2 (a BMP6 antagonist). CONCLUSION: The decisive factor for the observed change in ASC gene expression proves to be serum starvation rather than VEGF stimulation. Changes in expression of growth factors...

  2. Factors influencing dental decision making.

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L


    In clinical decision making, dentists routinely choose between alternative treatments such as crown vs amalgam/composite buildup, root canal vs extraction, fixed bridge vs removable partial denture, and prophylaxis vs subgingival curettage or periodontal scaling. A number of technical and patient factors can influence dentists' choice of treatment in these situations; however, little is known about their relative importance. To address this issue, a list of technical (e.g., periodontal status and caries rate) and patient (e.g., cost and patient preference) factors possibly influencing choice of treatment was developed for each pair of services. Responding to a mail questionnaire, 156 general dentists in Washington State listed the top three factors influencing their choice of service in each pair. Results revealed that dentists took different factors into account in choosing among alternative treatments. Technical factors dominated over patient concerns; only about 33 percent of the dentists considered patient factors important in choosing alternative therapies. The latter group was less preventively oriented, were solo practitioners, worked longer hours, and had lower prices. Results suggest patients may have little influence on prescriptions of therapy among experienced general dentists. PMID:3045303

  3. Epidermal growth factor and growth in vivo

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a dose-dependent thickening of the epidermis in suckling mice. The cellular mechanisms underlying this thickening were analyzed by measuring the effect of EGF on the cell-cycle. Neonatal mice were given daily injections of either 2ug EGF/g body weight/day or an equivalent volume of saline, and on the seventh day received a single injection of 3H-thymidine. At various times the mice were perfused with fixative; 1um sections of skin were stained with a modification of Harris' hematoxylin and were autoradiographed. The sections were analyzed using three methods based on the dependence on time after injection of 3H-thymidine of: frequency of labelled mitoses, labelling index, and reciprocal grains/nucleus. It was found that EGF caused a two-fold increase in the cell production rate. The effect of exogenous EGF on the morphology of gastric mucosa and incisors of suckling mice was also studied. The gastric mucosa appeared thicker in EGF-treated animals, but the effect was not statistically significant. In contrast to its effect on epidermis and gastric mucosa, EGF caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the size of the incisors. Because the mouse submandibular salivary gland is the major source of EGF the effect of sialoadenectomy on female reproductive functions was examined. Ablation of the submandibular gland had no effect on: length of estrus cycle, ability of the female to produce litters, length of the gestation period, litter size, and weight of the litter at birth. There was also no effect on survival of the offspring or on age at which the eyelids separated

  4. Factors Behind Industrial Profit Growth

    郑玉歆; 李玉红


    This paper analyzes Chinese enterprise industrial profit distribution and profitability rise between 1998 and 2005. Looking at it from the perspective of drivers of total growth, this paper will provide an in-depth analysis of the origins and industry-level factors involved in this growth. It reaches the conclusion that structural change in profits was the main driving force for profit increases, to which heavy industry contributed greatly. Light and machine building industry profit rates improved due to increases in productivity levels, while energy and raw material industry profits increased due to increases in product prices. In addition, average wages grew slower than GDP, and wages among industries varied widely. In general however, this paper sets out to determine which enterprises gained from increases in industrial profitability, and how this gain came about.

  5. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad


    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  6. Maternal Factors That Influence Children's Positive Behavior: Demonstration of a Structural Equation Analysis of Selected Data from the Berkeley Growth Study.

    Crano, William D.; Mendoza, Jorge L.


    An analysis using data drawn from Nancy Bayley's Berkeley Growth Study is performed for didactic purposes to illustrate the use of structural equation modeling on a child development data set. Alternatives to standard latent factor approaches are demonstrated for use in research situations in which the subject-to-variable ratio is less than…

  7. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  8. Factors influencing the temporal growth rate of the high order TM0n modes in the Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov oscillator

    When the wavelength of overmoded Cherenkov oscillator goes into Ka-band, power handling capacity becomes an essential issue. Using the TM02 mode or higher order TM0n modes as the operating mode is a potential solution. This paper is aimed to find some proper parameters to make the temporal growth rate of the TM02 mode higher in our previously studied Gigawatt (GW)-class Ka band oscillator. An accurate and fast calculation method of the “hot” dispersion equation is derived for rectangular corrugated SWSs, which are widely used in the high frequency Cherenkov devices. Then, factors that affect the temporal growth rate of the high order TM0n modes are analyzed, including the depth of corrugation, the radius of drift tube, and the diode voltage. Results show that, when parameters are chosen properly, the temporal growth rate of the TM02 mode can be as high as 0.3 ns−1

  9. Whey protein concentrate enhances intestinal integrity and influences transforming growth factor-β1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in piglets after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Xiao, Kan; Jiao, Lefei; Cao, Shuting; Song, Zehe; Hu, Caihong; Han, Xinyan


    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been reported to have protective effects on the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important component in the WPC, but whether TGF-β1 plays a role in these processes is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of WPC on the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as whether TGF-β1 is involved in these protection processes in a piglet model after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In total, eighteen weanling pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three treatment groups: (1) non-challenged control and control diet; (2) LPS-challenged control and control diet; (3) LPS+5 %WPC diet. After 19 d of feeding with control or 5 %WPC diets, pigs were injected with LPS or saline. At 4 h after injection, pigs were killed to harvest jejunal samples. The results showed that WPC improved (P<0·05) intestinal morphology, as indicated by greater villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and intestinal barrier function, which was reflected by increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased mucosal-to-serosal paracellular flux of dextran (4 kDa), compared with the LPS group. Moreover, WPC prevented the LPS-induced decrease (P<0·05) in claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens-1 expressions in the jejunal mucosae. WPC also attenuated intestinal inflammation, indicated by decreased (P<0·05) mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β. Supplementation with WPC also increased (P<0·05) TGF-β1 protein, phosphorylated-Smad2 expression and Smad4 and Smad7 mRNA expressions and decreased (P<0·05) the ratios of the phosphorylated to total c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 (phospho-JNK:JNK and p-p38:p38), whereas it increased (P<0·05) the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (phospho-ERK:ERK). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary inclusion of WPC

  10. Factors influencing wind energy curtailment

    Burke, Daniel J.; O'MALLEY, MARK, J.


    Nonphysically firm wind generation connections (i.e., those to which curtailment can apply) may be necessary for significant wind integration to congested transmission networks. A study of factors influencing this associated wind energy curtailment is, therefore, of timely importance. In this paper, the wind curtailment estimation effects of natural inter-yearly wind profile variability, system demand-profile/fuel-price parameter uncertainty, and minimum system inertial constraints are studie...

  11. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri;


    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.84) for...... females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  12. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Nandy, Debashis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Guggenheim 1321C, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)


    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

  13. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed

  14. Epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I upregulate the expression of the epidermal growth factor system in rat liver

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Vinter-Jensen, L; Flyvbjerg, A; Pedersen, S B; Nexø, E


    I treatment on the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor, and its activating ligands, transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor. METHODS: Fifty-five male rats received no treatment, human recombinant epidermal growth factor or human recombinant insulin-like growth......BACKGROUND/AIM: Both epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I play a role in connection with the liver. In the present study, the possible interaction of these two growth factor systems was studied by investigating the effect of epidermal growth factor or insulin-like growth factor.......8+/-1.6 fmol/mg protein epidermal growth factor and 144+/-22 fmol/mg protein transforming growth factor-alpha. Both epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I treatment increased the expression of mRNA for transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor, as well as the...

  15. The genome of Shope fibroma virus, a tumorigenic poxvirus, contains a growth factor gene with sequence similarity to those encoding epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha.

    Chang, W.; Upton, C; Hu, S L; Purchio, A F; McFadden, G


    Degenerate oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a highly conserved region common to epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, and vaccinia growth factor were used to identify a novel growth factor gene in the Shope fibroma virus genome. Sequence analysis indicates that the Shope fibroma growth factor is a distinct new member of this family of growth factors.

  16. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad


    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  17. Epidermal growth factor inhibits cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers

    Poulsen, Steen Seier


    The effect of the duodenal ulcerogen cysteamine on secretion of epidermal growth factor from Brunner's gland pouches was studied in the rat. Total output of immunoreactive epidermal growth factor was reduced to approximately 55%, compared with controls, 5 h after administration of cysteamine (300...... was studied. Luminal epidermal growth factor significantly inhibited the formation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer, compared with controls receiving saline. The effect was not due to inhibition of gastric acid secretion or stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion since the dose of epidermal...... growth factor used, when tested on chronic fistula rats, had no effect on acid secretion and did not influence bicarbonate secretion from Brunner's gland pouches. These results demonstrate that epidermal growth factor has a cytoprotective effect on the duodenal mucosa, and it is suggested that inhibition...

  18. The Influence of Education on Economic Growth



    Full Text Available In transition countries affected by uncertainty, the educational system usually suffers from lack of funds from the government and it is affected by various reforms. It is important to see how education influences economic growth and how this growth can be improved by investing in education. In this article, after a literature and econometric models review, the influence of primary, secondary and tertiary education over the GDP growth will be analyzed for Bulgaria, Czech Republic and the Netherlands, using regressions models, with the aid of computer software tool EViews. The models will be tested in order to obtain a good and reliable model.

  19. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Yong Jun Park


    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  20. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Wu SSX


    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  1. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.


    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  2. Risk factors for the regional economic growth

    Yevgeniy Sapiro; Tatyana Mirolyubova


    The article features principal aspects of economic growth in Permsky Krai as one of the representative regions of present Russia. It determines features of performance of economy sectors in Permsky Krai and specifies structure of the export-oriented sector. The author analyses the factors affecting economic growth in the region given the existing sources of economic growth of Permsky Krai are retained.

  3. Intergenerational influences on child growth and undernutrition.

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Zongrone, Amanda


    Intergenerational effects on linear growth are well documented. Several generations are necessary in animal models to 'wash out' effects of undernutrition, consistent with the unfolding of the secular trend in height in Europe and North America. Birthweight is correlated across generations and short maternal stature, which reflects intrauterine and infant growth failure, is associated with low birthweight, child stunting, delivery complications and increased child mortality, even after adjusting for socio-economic status. A nutrition intervention in Guatemala reduced childhood stunting; it also improved growth of the next generation, but only in the offspring of girls. Possible mechanisms explaining intergenerational effects on linear growth are not mutually exclusive and include, among others, shared genetic characteristics, epigenetic effects, programming of metabolic changes, and the mechanics of a reduced space for the fetus to grow. There are also socio-cultural factors at play that are important such as the intergenerational transmission of poverty and the fear of birthing a large baby, which leads to 'eating down' during pregnancy. It is not clear whether there is an upper limit for impact on intrauterine and infant linear growth that programmes in developing countries could achieve that is set by early childhood malnutrition in the mother. Substantial improvements in linear growth can be achieved through adoption and migration, and in a few selected countries, following rapid economic and social development. It would seem, despite clear documentation of intergenerational effects, that nearly normal lengths can be achieved in children born to mothers who were malnourished in childhood when profound improvements in health, nutrition and the environment take place before conception. To achieve similar levels of impact through public health programmes alone in poor countries is highly unlikely. The reality in poor countries limits the scope, quality and

  4. The influence of nutrition on the insulin-like growth factor system and the concentrations of growth hormone, glucose, insulin, gonadotropins and progesterone in ovarian follicular fluid and plasma from adult female horses (Equus caballus)

    Salazar-Ortiz, Juan; Monget, Philippe; Guillaume, Daniel


    Background Feed intake affects the GH-IGF system and may be a key factor in determining the ovarian follicular growth rate. In fat mares, the plasma IGF-1 concentration is high with low GH and a quick follicular growth rate, in contrast to values observed in thin mares. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of differential feed intake on the IGF system. The objective of this experiment was to quantify IGFs, IGFBPs, GH, glucose, insulin, gonadotropin and progesterone (P4) in blood a...

  5. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Growth of Export of Agricultural Products in Yunnan Province: An Empirical Study Based on CMS Model

    Dongmei; LI; Jianxing; LU; Zhiwen; XIAO; Bo; LI


    Yunnan Province is the bridgehead for the opening of the southwest region in China,and the economic frontier of China-ASEAN economic cooperation,where the export of agricultural products plays an important role in promoting the openness of the southwest region and strengthening China-ASEAN economic cooperation.In this paper,we use CMS model to analyze causes of the increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province during the period 2001-2010.It is found that the expanded import scale of agricultural products in the world,improvement in the export competitiveness of products and the adaption of product export structure to the changes in the structure of world import demand,are the main factors responsible for increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In recent years, the improvement of competitiveness of the export of agricultural products becomes a key factor for the growth of the export of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In terms of the products classified,strong export competitiveness has promoted the export of plant products,such as beverages and tobacco,while weak export competitiveness and unreasonable export structure has impeded the export of animal products,plant and animal oil and fat products.

  6. Growth factors for the treatment of ischemic brain injury (growth factor treatment).

    Larpthaveesarp, Amara; Ferriero, Donna M; Gonzalez, Fernando F


    In recent years, growth factor therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for ischemic brain injury. The efficacy of therapies that either directly introduce or stimulate local production of growth factors and their receptors in damaged brain tissue has been tested in a multitude of models for different Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. These growth factors include erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), among others. Despite the promise shown in animal models, the particular growth factors that should be used to maximize both brain protection and repair, and the therapeutic critical period, are not well defined. We will review current pre-clinical and clinical evidence for growth factor therapies in treating different causes of brain injury, as well as issues to be addressed prior to application in humans. PMID:25942688

  7. The growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factors

    Radosavljević Tatjana


    Full Text Available Introduction Growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals with endogenous neuroendocrine responses to the genetic programs that determine the body plan. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are integral components of multiple systems controlling both growth and metabolism. The IGF system The IGF system is thought to be more complex than other endocrine systems, as genes for six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs have been identified so far. The IGFs play a critical role in both cell cycle control and apoptosis, two functions involved in regulation of tumorigenesis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I is essential for normal growth. Confirmation of the significance of IGF-I in human physiology was obtained by the discovery of a patient with intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with a mutation in the IGF-1 gene. Stages of evolution of the somatomedin hypothesis The original somatomedin hypothesis postulated that somatic growth was regulated by growth hormone's (GH's stimulation of hepatic IGF-1 production, with IGF-1 acting in an endocrine fashion to promote growth. The dual effectors theory proposed an alternative view, involving direct effects by GH on peripheral tissues not mediated by IGF-1 and GH-stimulated local IGF-1 production for autocrine/paracrine action. It is now clear that G H stimulates the formation of ternary IGF binding complex, which stabilizes IGF-I in the serum.

  8. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    Dobos, Judit


    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell

  9. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  10. Factor Function Characteristics and Origin of Economic Growth of China

    Zhiqing Dong; Linhui Wang; Jia Sun


    The paper makes an empirical study on factor contribution and its stage variation characteristics during 1952¨C2005 and 1978¨C2005 in China. GMM and OLS tests show that the robustness and significance level of the institution, the physical capital and human capital¡¯s contributions are much higher than other factors, and 70% of economic growth is boosted by the capital and the labor input. Factor contribution decomposition and TFP growth indicate trade has the most remarkable influence on eco...

  11. Growth factor parametrization in curved space

    Gong, Yungui; Wang, Anzhong


    The growth rate of matter perturbation and the expansion rate of the Universe can be used to distinguish modified gravity and dark energy models in explaining the cosmic acceleration. We explore here the inclusion of spatial curvature into the growth factor. We expand previous results using the approximation $\\Omega_{m}^\\gamma$ and then suggest a new form, $\\Omega_m^\\gamma+(\\gamma-4/7)\\Omega_k$, as an approximation for the growth factor when the curvature $\\Omega_k$ is not negligible, and where the growth index $\\gamma$ is usually model-dependent. The expression recovers the standard results for the curved and flat $\\Lambda$CDM and Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models (DGP). Fitting the growth factor to observational data, we obtain $\\gamma_{\\Lambda}(\\Omega_{k} \

  12. [Expression of tissue factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal carcinoma].

    Altomare, D F; Rotelli, M T; Memeo, V; Martinelli, E; Guglielmi, A; DeFazio, M; D'Elia, G; Pentimone, A; Colucci, M; Semeraro, N


    Tissue factor (TF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. We analyzed their expression in the carcinoma and normal mucosa of 53 colorectal cancer patients. VEGF levels were significantly higher in the tumor and correlated with TF expression. No correlation was found with tumor stage. TF may influence tumor growth and metastasis by modulating VEGF expression and neoangiogenesis. PMID:12903530

  13. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A


    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  14. Factors explaining emerging economies’ growth slowdown

    K. Buysse; Vincent, E.


    Over the past decade, emerging market economies have staged a period of impressive growth, boosting their share in world GDP. In recent years, however, growth in emerging markets has slowed substantially and is projected to remain sluggish for the foreseeable future. The aim of the article is to highlight several structural factors that can explain this synchronised slowdown. The article focuses on four structural factors that have already had an impact on the economic performance of emerging...

  15. Epidermal growth factor in the rat prostate

    Tørring, Niels; Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier;


    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate....

  16. Transforming Growth Factor β1 Could Influence Thyroid Nodule Elasticity and Also Improve Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Li, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wu, Qiong; Hu, Bing


    Ultrasound elastography has been a very useful tool in predicting the risk of malignant thyroid tumor for several years. The objective of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between strain ratio (SR), collagen deposition and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression in different types of thyroid nodules and if TGF-β1 is related to cervical lymph node metastasis. 102 nodules from 81 patients who underwent thyroid resection surgery in our hospital were retrospectively studied. All of these patients had undergone ultrasound elastography scanning before surgery. Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate the ratio of expression of collagen deposition and TGF-β1. There was a significant difference between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in SR (8.913 ± 11.021 vs. 1.732 ± 0.727, p = 0.000), collagen content (0.371 ± 0.125 vs. 0.208 ± 0.057, p = 0.000) and TGF-β1 expression (0.336 ± 0.093 vs. 0.178 ± 0.071, p = 0.000). A cutoff of 2.99 for SR measurement was selected for the highest Youden index for predicting malignant thyroid nodules, which yielded 87.88% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 83.72% negative predictive value and 92.15% accuracy. Expression of collagen and TGF-β1 was positively correlated with SR measurements (coefficient = 0.839 for collagen and 0.855 for TGF-β1, p = 0.000). Among 61 nodules with papillary thyroid carcinoma, the average SR for the metastasis group was higher than that for the non-metastasis group (10.955 ± 13.805 and 7.852 ± 7.931, respectively), but without statistical significance (p = 0.287). Collagen deposition was significantly higher in the metastasis group than in the non-metastasis group (0.421 ± 0.091 vs. 0.353 ± 0.118, p = 0.011). TGF-β1 expression was also significantly higher in the metastasis group than in the non-metastasis group (0.378 ± 0.0.69 vs. 0.328 ± 0.091, p = 0.016). To conclude, TGF-β1 may contribute to thyroid

  17. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  18. Factors that determine the evolution of high-growth businesses

    Oriol Amat


    Full Text Available Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and management practices; in 2013, they were re-analyzed to investigate the factors that contributed to continued growth for certain companies. Contributions: Through diverse statistical techniques, business policies related to quality, innovation, internationalization and finance were shown to influence business growth and sustainability over time. Limitations of the Research: This study focuses on industrial businesses at least ten years old in Catalonia; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations and economic sectors, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical Implications: Because growth is a measure of business success, identifying variables that contribute to high growth and its sustainability is helpful for businesses that seek to adopt effective policies. Social Implications: Generating employment is one of the primary contributions by high-growth businesses. For years with high unemployment, authorities may be interested in corporate policies that strengthen high-growth businesses. Originality/Added Value: High-growth businesses have been studied throughout the world, but this is the first study to investigate the evolution of businesses after a high-growth phase.

  19. Pumpkin Fruit Influence on Calves’ Growth



    Pumpkin provides a valuable source of carotenoids and ascorbic acid which have major roles in nutrition as provitamin A and as an antioxidant respectively. Carotenoids are a source of vitamin A, and β-carotene present in pumpkin is converted to vitamin A in the body. Pumpkins’ biomass is distinguished for having antioxidant and phytobiotic characteristics.The aim of our research is to analyse pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita maxima D.) flours’ influence upon calves growth, intestinal microflora, dige...

  20. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  1. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld


    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the...... metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening...

  2. Effect of nerve growth factor and fibroblast growth factor on PC12 cells: inhibition by orthovanadate


    Sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, causes increased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation and blocks, at noncytotoxic concentrations, the differentiative response of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to beta-nerve growth factor (beta NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a reversible manner. It also prevents growth factor-induced neurite proliferation in primed cells and causes the retraction of previously formed neurites, even in the presence of bet...

  3. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier;


    basal cell layer. The present investigation and our previous results confirm the existence of EGF receptors, TGF-alpha and EGF in laryngeal carcinomas. In addition, we conclude that the conditions do exist for growth factors to act through an autocrine system in poorly differentiated tumours and through......Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF...... receptors) which were confined predominantly to the undifferentiated cells. The expression of this growth factor system in malignant cells may play a role in carcinogenesis and/or tumour growth. All carcinomas were positive for TGF-alpha and 12 were positive for EGF. In moderately-to-well differentiated...

  4. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor beta 1 selectively modulate glycosaminoglycans, collagen, and myofibroblasts in excisional wounds.

    Pierce, G F; Vande Berg, J.; Rudolph, R; Tarpley, J.; Mustoe, T A


    Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) influence the rate of extracellular matrix formed in treated incisional wounds. Because incisional healing processes are difficult to quantify, a full-thickness excisional wound model in the rabbit ear was developed to permit detailed analyses of growth-factor-mediated tissue repair. In the present studies, quantitative and qualitative differences in acute inflammatory cell influx, glycosamino...

  5. Effects of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 on Postoperative Muscle and Substrate Metabolism

    Folke Hammarqvist


    To conclude, growth factors influences urea metabolism, protein degradation and protein synthesis. There was no clearcut additional effect when combining GH and IGF-1 but the study was probably underpowered to outrule this and effects on nitrogen balance.

  6. Physical Factors Influencing Beer Overfoaming

    Novák, Pavel; Vitoušová, K.; Poštulková, Michaela; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Vol. Session 1. - : -, 2013, T2:P26. ISBN N. [Conference of European Colloid and Interface Society /27./. Sofia (BG), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer * gushing * physical factors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  7. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    Vainikka, Bianca


    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng


    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  9. Multilayered assemblies for growth factor delivery

    Kumorek, Marta Maria; Kubies, Dana; Houska, Milan; Riedel, Tomáš; Filová, E.; Rypáček, František

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2013. L9. ISBN 978-80-85009-76-7. [Workshop "Career in Polymers" /5./. 12.07.2013-13.07.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor * tissue engineering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  10. Fibroblast growth factor 23--et fosfatregulerende hormon

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Kassem, Moustapha;


    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, ...

  11. 力影响下的IGF-1剪切变体——力生长因子(MGF)研究进展%Study on Splice Variant of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1:Mechano Growth Factor(MGF)under Influence of Force

    王峰; 赵建芳; 王宝珍; 王贵平


    The mechano growth factor (MGF) as an splice variant of the insulin-like growth factor-1, which can respond to the stimulation of force signal and adjust expression of itself, and then influence local mass and structure changes, for instance muscle hypertrophy, strength skeleton etc.Studies have shown that the MGF can activate satellite cells and enhancement multiplication of stem cells.It plays an important role on cure sarcopenia, prevent myocardial damage and apoptosis, repair of nerve injury and the treatment of bone defects ect.Therefore, making an intensive study of MGF will be widely used in treat disease and repair tissue engineering.%力生长因子(MGF)作为IGF-1的一个剪切变构体,能够响应力信号刺激而调节自身的表达,进而影响局部组织和结构变化,如肌肉肥大、骨骼强壮等.研究表明,MGF能够激活卫星细胞、促进干细胞增殖,在治疗肌肉丢失、预防心肌损伤、防止细胞凋亡和修复神经损伤以及治疗骨缺陷等方面具有重要的作用,因此对MGF深入研究,期望在疾病治疗和组织工程修复领域取得广泛的应用.


    Yun-Tsan Lin; Chen-Hsien Lin


    Many researchers have provided comprehensive definitions for the term of brand loyalty and also examined the factors affecting brand loyalty with many empirical studies. But there is little research focusing on the brand loyalty of professional sports fans. The topic area about factors influencing brand loyalty in professional sports fans was identified because these fans bring significant financial benefits every year and stimulate economic growth in the United States. Although different con...


    Ioana Beleiu; Emil Crisan; Razvan Nistor


    The high frequency of using projects in all fields determined the increasing importance of adequate project management. Considering the direct relationship between reaching projects’ objectives and the long term development of an organization, aspects regarding projects’ success and the success factors of projects are topics of great interest in project management literature. Reaching projects’ objectives in compliance with constraints of cost, time and performance is usually not sufficient t...

  14. Impact of trade factors on economic growth: seemingly unrelated regression model

    Nawaz , Samar; Aziz , Arshad; Khalid ZAMAN


    This study explores the impact of trade on the economic growth, using seemingly unrelated regression model for SAARC countries namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Srilanka for the period of 1980-2012. Trade factors include total exports, total imports, terms of trade, trade openness and investment. The results indicate the strong correlation between trade factors and economic growth, however, the magnitude of influencing economic growth varies factors to factors of international trade.

  15. Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism

    Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur


    The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…

  16. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Torres-Gimeno Ana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  17. Modulation of radiosensitivity by growth factors

    The full text of the publication follows. For the past 70 years, radiotherapy protocols were defined to target and kill cancer cells. New research developments showed that the tissue or tumor radiosensitivities might be directly modulated by its own microenvironment. Between all the micro-environmental cells, endothelial cells are playing a unique role due to the need of angio-genesis for tumor genesis and to the microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis involved in acute normal tissue and tumor radiosensitivities. Both endothelial behaviours may be controlled by specific growth factors secreted by tumor cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are two cytokines involved in angio genesis and endothelial cell survival. Because radiation exposure develops opposite molecular and cellular responses by inhibiting proliferation and by enhancing apoptosis, inhibiting these cytokines has been proposed as a relevant strategy to improve radiotherapy efficiency. Drugs or antibody against VEGF, or other growth factors have been used with success to limit endothelial cell resistance, but also to transiently normalize of blood vessels to improve oxygen distribution into the tumor. However, better characterisation of the role of the cytokines will help to better improve the strategy of the use of their antagonists. We demonstrate that bFGF or sphingosin 1 phosphate (S1P), a lipid endothelial growth factor, protects endothelial cells from radiation stress by inhibiting the pre-mitotic apoptosis through enhancement of pro-survival molecular cascade, such as the Pi3K/AKT pathway, but not post-mitotic death. This discrepancy allowed a specific use of S1P as pharmacological drug protecting quiescent endothelial cells, present in normal tissue blood vessels, but not in proliferating angiogenic blood vessels, majority present in tumor blood vessel. In vivo studies are underway. (author)

  18. Review of identified factors influencing contraceptive use

    Bjelica Artur; Trninić-Pjević Aleksandra


    Introduction It is necessary to know the factors that influence contraceptive behavior in order to overcome obstacles of contraceptive use by implementing modern family planning programs that have to be based on logistic management and directed to the client. The factor isolated till now are systematized into the two groups: the socio-demographic factors - to a greater extent associated with developing countries and the psychological factors -mainly related to developed countries. Socio-demog...

  19. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen


    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  20. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  1. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping


    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  2. Human embryonic growth : Periconception parental and environmental factors

    Uitert, Evelyne Mariët


    markdownabstract__abstract__ Prenatal growth in the second half of pregnancy and subsequent birth weight have been studied for decades and have been shown to be associated not only with pregnancy outcome but also with health and disease in adult life. Many parental and environmental factors during pregnancy have been shown to influence birth weight. Yet although the embryonic period is perhaps the most important period of prenatal development as this is the period in which organogenesis is co...

  3. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.


    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  4. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor gene transcription

    The authors have studied in vitro transcription of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor proto-oncogene using nuclear extracts of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, which overproduce the EGF receptor. With the in vitro system we found that Sp1 and other trans-acting factors bound to the EGF receptor promoter regions and are required for maximal expression. Fractionation showed that a DEAE-Sepharose fraction (BA) contained a novel factor, which specifically stimulated EGF receptor transcription 5- to 10-fold. The molecular mass of the native form of the factor is about 270-kDa based on its migration on Sephacryl S-300. This factor may activate transcription of the proto-oncogene through a weak or indirect interaction with the DNA template

  5. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing growth rate and production of traps by the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans when induced by Cooperia oncophora larvae

    Grønvold, J.; Wolstrup, J.; Nansen, P.; Larsen, M.; Henriksen, S. A.; Bjørn, H.; Kirchheiner, K.; Lassen, K.; Rawat, H.; Kristiansen, H.L.


    A series of experiments on corn meal agar was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in different abiotic and biotic conditions which occur in cow pats. Above a concentration of 50 parasitic larvae (L-3) cm(-2) the fungus produced a maximum of...... between 500 and 600 nets cm(-2) at 20 degrees C in 2 days on the surface of corn meal agar. There were no differences in the trap-producing capacity of three strains of D. flagrans (CIII4, CI3 and Trol A). On agar at 30 degrees and 20 degrees C, the fungus responded to Coaperia oncophora L-3 very quickly...... will be ready to attack parasitic larvae, when the oxygen tension increases as a result of, for example the activity of the coprophilic fauna. Artificial light giving 3000-3400 Lux on the surface of the agar significantly depressed the growth rate and the production of trapping nets in D, flagrans (CI3...


    Michał Kopeć


    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  7. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.


    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  8. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor system and carcinogenesis.

    Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva; Kopchick, John J


    The growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In terms of cell cycle regulation, the GH-IGF system induces signalling pathways for cell growth that compete with other signalling systems that result in cell death; thus the final effect of these opposed forces is critical for normal and abnormal cell growth. The association of the GH-IGF system with carcinogenesis has long been hypothesised, mainly based on in vitro studies and the use of a variety of animal models of human cancer, and also on epidemiological and clinical evidence in humans. While ample experimental evidence supports a role of the GH-IGF system in tumour promotion and progression, with several of its components being currently tested as central targets for cancer therapy, the strength of evidence from patients with acromegaly, GH deficiency, or treated with GH is much weaker. In this review, we will attempt to consolidate this data. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (4): 414-426). PMID:27387246

  9. Effects of medium flow on axon growth with or without nerve growth factor.

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro


    Axon growth is a crucial process in regeneration of damaged nerves. On the other hand, elongation of nerve fibers in the epidermis has been observed in skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Thus, regulation of nerve fiber extension might be an effective strategy to accelerate nerve regeneration and/or to reduce itching in pruritus dermatosis. We previously demonstrated that neurons and epidermal keratinocytes similarly contain multiple receptors that are activated by various environmental factors, and in particular, keratinocytes are influenced by shear stress. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of micro-flow of the medium on axon growth in the presence or absence of nerve growth factor (NGF), using cultured dorsal-root-ganglion (DRG) cells. The apparatus, AXIS™, consists of two chambers connected by a set of microgrooves, through which signaling molecules and axons, but not living cells, can pass. When DRG cells were present in chamber 1, NGF was present in chamber 2, and micro-flow was directed from chamber 1 to chamber 2, axon growth was significantly increased compared with other conditions. Acceleration of axon growth in the direction of the micro-flow was also observed in the absence of NGF. These results suggest that local micro-flow might significantly influence axon growth. PMID:26212442

  10. Growth hormone-insulinlike growth factor I and immune function.

    Gelato, M C


    Growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) may be part of a neuroendocrine immune axis that stimulates cellular proliferation of primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, thymus) as well as stimulates activation of peripheral lymphocytes and macrophages to enhance specific immune responses. GH can also stimulate production of thymic hormones and cytokines, and in this way impact on immune function. It is not clear whether GH and IGF-I act independently or whether the action of GH is mediated by local production of IGF-I by lymphocytes. Both GH and IGF-I and their receptors are present in lymphocytes. Thus, cells of the immune system may be important targets of the GH-IGF-I axis. PMID:18407143

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  12. Factor Endowment, Structural Change, and Economic Growth

    Che, Natasha Xingyuan


    This paper aims (1) to test the endowment-based structural change theory proposed by recent studies such as Acemoglu & Guerrieri (2008) and Ju, Lin & Wang (2009); and (2) to explore the linkage between structural coherence and economic growth. By structural coherence, I refer to the degree that a country’s industrial structure optimally reflects its factor endowment fundamentals. Using data from 27 industries across 15 countries, I examine whether higher capital endowment is associated w...

  13. The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway

    Ornitz, David M.; Itoh, Nobuyuki


    The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STA...

  14. Binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in human myometrium and leiomyomata

    Samples of uterine myometrium and leiomyoma from 11 women were analyzed for the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors. In addition, the content of soluble insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-BP/PP12) was measured in the tissue cytosols. Cell membrane preparations of myoma tissue bound significantly more insulin-like growth factor I than did those of adjacent normal myometrium, whereas myoma tissue bound less epidermal growth factor than did the normal myometrium. The differences in both insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor binding were due to changes in receptor concentration rather than to alterations in receptor affinity. Neither myoma nor myometrial tissue contained detectable levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. The changes in epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I binding to the myometrium may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomata

  15. Ocular Angiogenesis: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Other Factors.

    Rubio, Roman G; Adamis, Anthony P


    Systematic study of the mechanisms underlying pathological ocular neovascularization has yielded a wealth of knowledge about pro- and anti-angiogenic factors that modulate diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The evidence implicating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in particular has led to the development of a number of approved anti-VEGF therapies. Additional proangiogenic targets that have emerged as potential mediators of ocular neovascularization include hypoxia-inducible factor-1, angiopoietin-2, platelet-derived growth factor-B and components of the alternative complement pathway. As for VEGF, knowledge of these factors has led to a product pipeline of many more novel agents that are in various stages of clinical development in the setting of ocular neovascularization. These agents are represented by a range of drug classes and, in addition to novel small- and large-molecule VEGF inhibitors, include gene therapies, small interfering RNA agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In addition, combination therapy is beginning to emerge as a strategy to improve the efficacy of individual therapies. Thus, a variety of agents, whether administered alone or as adjunctive therapy with agents targeting VEGF, offer the promise of expanding the range of treatments for ocular neovascular diseases. PMID:26502333

  16. Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1.

    Nicholls, Adam R; Holt, Richard I G


    Human growth hormone (GH) was first isolated from the human pituitary gland in 1945 and found to promote the growth of children with hypopituitarism. Since the formation of the World Anti-Doping Association, human GH has appeared on the list of forbidden substances. There is a significant amount of anecdotal evidence that human GH is misused by athletes to enhance performance, and there have been a number of high-profile cases of GH use in professional sport. GH secretagogues (GH-Ss), which increase GH secretion, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which mediates many of the effects of GH, are also misused, although there is less evidence for this. The effectiveness of GH, IGF-1, and GH-Ss as performance-enhancing drugs remains unclear. Evidence from studies of GH use in people with hypopituitarism show several desirable outcomes, including increased lean body mass, increased strength, and increased exercise capacity. These anabolic and metabolic properties, coupled with the difficulty in detecting them, make them attractive as agents of misuse. Studies in healthy young adults have also demonstrated a performance benefit with GH and IGF-1. PMID:27347885




    Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

  18. Influence of semi-volatile species on particle hygroscopic growth

    Villani, Paolo; Sellegri, Karine; Monier, Marie; Laj, Paolo


    In this study, we use a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA) system combining particle volatilization and humidification conditioning (VH-TDMA) to test the effect of the gentle volatilization of a small fraction of the atmospheric particles on the particle hygroscopic growth in several environments (urban to remote). We first give an overview of the Hygroscopic Growth Factors (HGF) in these various environments, showing that in most of them, aerosol particles are externally mixed. We then show that the particle hygroscopicity can either be increased or decreased after thermal conditioning of the particle at moderate temperatures (50-110 °C). The hygroscopic growth factor changes induced by volatilization indicate that some volatile compounds, although present at low concentrations, can significantly influence the hygroscopic growth of particles in a way that can most of time be theoretically explained if simplified assumptions are used. However, simplified assumptions occasionally fail over several hours to explain hygroscopic changes, kinetic/surface effects observed at remote environments are suspected to be important.

  19. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications



    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop applicat...

  20. The multiple interactions between growth factors and microenvironment in vivo


    Cell, growth factors and extracellular matrices (ECMs) coexist in a dynamic tissue envi- ronment. A knowledge of multiple interactions among them is highly important for effectively raising the biological activities of growth factors, regulating cell life cycle, designing and preparing exogenous mat- rices to control growth factors release in tissue or organ regeneration by engineering means. This paper addresses the characteristics and functions of growth factors, interactions between growth factors and ECMs, the manners and correlative signaling of growth factors acting on cells, and briefly summarizes the biomimetic requisites for controlled release mat- rices, hoping to provide a useful reference for co- rrelative research in tissue engineering.


    van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; FREEMAN, JL; ASA, SL


    A number of growth factors have been implicated as stimuli of thyroid cell proliferation; overexpression of these growth factors and/or their receptors may play a role in the growth of thyroid tumors. To determine if immunohistochemical detection of growth factors and/or their receptors correlates w

  2. 天然气水合物形成与生长影响因素综述%Review of influence factors of natural gas hydrate formation and growth

    丁麟; 史博会; 吕晓方; 柳扬; 宫敬


    Natural gas hydrate is a kind of complex clathrate crystal formed by water and natural gas molecules,which has an important significance for research and utilization in industries of oil/gas pipeline transportation,natural gas storage and refrigeration. While the formation and growth of natural gas hydrate is a complex process involving multi-components and multistages,and the influence of different factors on hydrate formation and growth still needs to be understood. This paper introduces the physical process of natural gas formation and three hypotheses of natural gas nucleation. Then,the influences of substrate amphipathy,additives,porous media environment and impurities,liquid composition,temperature,pressure and flow conditions on hydrate formation and growth are discussed. At last,this paper points out that quantification of inhibition of hydrate caused by different crude oil compositions,influence of wax on mass transfer and heat transfer during hydrate growth,and a microscopic mechanism of kinetic hydrate inhibition should be further studied in the future.%天然气水合物(NGH)是水分子和天然气分子形成的一种复杂的笼型晶体,其在油气管道输送、天然气储存和制冷等行业中都具有重要的研究意义和利用价值,但天然气水合物的形成是一个多组分、多阶段的复杂过程,不同因素对于天然气水合物形成和生长的影响尚有待明确。本文介绍了天然气水合物形成的物理过程以及水合物成核的3种机理假说;详细梳理了基质两亲性、添加剂、多孔介质环境和杂质、液体组成、温度压力以及流动条件等因素对于天然气水合物形成和生长的影响,并对其作了简要分析。同时指出,原油组成对于水合物抑制效果的定量化、蜡晶结构对于水合物形成过程中传质和传热的影响以及微观化的动力学抑制剂抑制机理等都是水合物相关研究中需要进一步深入探究和明确的问题。

  3. Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development

    Vahid Abbas Zadeh; Gholamreza Heydari Kord Zangeneh; Naser Azad


    Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is ...

  4. Ecological factors regulating growth of seaweeds in Arctic communities

    Shoshina E. V.


    Full Text Available Features of seaweeds in the Arctic communities in connection with periodic and unperiodic influences of ecological factors have been analyzed. It has been shown that the existence of benthic algae biocenosis of the northern seas is mainly controlled by the primary periodic environmental factors acting as triggers that determine the direction of vegetative and generative processes, as well as contribute to the emergence of adaptive devices to extreme environmental conditions. Therefore, periodic exposure to environmental factors cause only structural changes in plant communities due to the elastic stability of fucus algae populations acquired as a result of the long process of adaptation to the northern seas conditions. Unperiodic primary factors also violate the ratio of the number by elimination and inhibit growth of certain algae age stages. However thanks to the stability of resistant the algae community can eventually restore its structural and functional organization

  5. Factors Influencing Korean Consumers' Ethical Decision Making

    Jungbok Ha


    Ethics studies in business are more popular and their importance is also recognized more than ever. This conceptual study tries to shade light on consumer ethics study especially in cross-cultural context. Based on previous consumer ethics study, factors such as Hofstede's four dimensional cultural typology, Moral Philosophies and Machiavellianism, influencing consumer ethics decision making were identified and several propositions were formulated regarding to these factors.

  6. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi


    The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...

  7. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  8. Relationship between Family Parenting and Physical Growth and Development of Children and Its Influencing Factors%家庭养育与儿童体格生长发育的关系及其影响因素分析

    刘美华; 况晓燕; 龚俊; 李维君; 钟霞; 谢芸芸; 李燕


    Objective To investigate the relationship between family parenting and physical growth and development of children,and to find out the factors influencing children’s physical growth for providing a scientific basis for the development of children’s parenting program.Meth-ods The family members of 206 growth-stunted children(case group)and 206 healthy children (control group)were investigated using the matched case-control study with the self-made ques-tionnaire.The body weight and height were measured in both groups.The multiple conditional lo-gistic regression was used to analyze the factors influencing physical growth and development of children.Results The body weight and height were,respectively,(14.37±3.79)kg(range,9.8 to 38.7 kg)and(96.38±13.01)cm(range,11.2 to 120.3 cm)in case group,and(18.22±4.05)kg (range,11.0 to 31.0 kg)and(105.83±11.39)cm(range,84.0 to 128 cm)in control group.There were significant differences in body weight and height between the two groups(P <0.01).In addi-tion,differences in the proportion of main fosterers,educational level and parenting knowledge of main fosterers,communication with children,feeding with beverage milk and the time of adding rice cakes were obvious between the two groups(P <0.05).Multiple conditional logistic regres-sion analysis showed that the low education level of main fosterers(father and grandparents),poor parenting knowledge,less communication with children,feeding with beverage milk,less daily milk intake,eating too much snack food,irregular diet,long duration of each meal,partiality for a particular kind of food,and playing while eating were the factors influencing physical growth and development of children.Conclusion The factors affecting physical development of children in-clude family environment,feeding knowledge and pattern,and eating habit.The construction of good family feeding environment,improvement in parenting knowledge and skills,establishment of healthy parenting behaviors

  9. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Michał Dudek


    In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  10. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Michał Dudek


    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  11. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  12. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities



    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  13. Inhibition of 125I-epidermal growth factor binding to cultured keratinocytes by antiproliferative molecules gamma interferon, cyclosporin A, and transforming growth factor-beta

    The growth of cultured human keratinocytes (KC) is inhibited by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), cyclosporin A and transforming growth factor-beta, but not by tumor necrosis factor. When these antiproliferative molecules were added to KC they induced a concentration and time-dependent inhibition of 125I-epidermal growth factor (I-EGF) binding. These anti-proliferative molecules primarily reduced the number of binding sites by approximately 25%-50% without affecting the binding affinity. Tumor necrosis factor did not influence the ligand binding by I-EGF. In parallel with the ability of the antiproliferative molecules to inhibit I-EGF binding, there was an increase in transforming growth factor-alpha production. These results suggest that several different antiproliferative molecules may share a common mechanism to inhibit cell growth by reducing I-EGF binding to KC

  14. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  15. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.


    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  16. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Đilda Pečarić


    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  17. Radioreceptor assay for epidermal growth factor

    An established cell line of human lung fibroblasts with a high number of surface receptors for mouse epidermal growth factor (mEGF) was used to deveop a simple and highly sensitive radioreceptor assay for EGF. 125I-Labeled mEGF competed mole for mole with unlabeled mEGF for specific receptors. Optimal range for discriminating EGF concentrations in body fluids and tissue extracts by a competitive binding assay was between 5 and 100 ng/ml. Interassay correlation of variation was 8.47% and the recovery of highly purified mEGF added to serum and urine samples was greater than 95%. Human serum and amniotic fluids contained about 24 and 4 ng/ml, respectively, of mEGF equivalents. Concentrations of mEGF in mouse urine and serum were highly variable and were 2- to 10-fold greater than that previously detected by radioimmune assay. Hypophysectomy nearly abolished submaxillary mEGF content in both male and female mice, but testosterone treatment of hypophysectomized animals restored normal concentrations of mEGF to the glands. mEGF added to culture medium disappeared with time as a function of the number of cellular EGF receptors indicating cellular degradation of the growth factor. The radioreceptor assay for EGF is based on the close biologic relationship between the cell receptor site and the native hormone and should prove to be a useful complementary tool to characterize the physiological role of EGF

  18. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  19. Review of identified factors influencing contraceptive use

    Bjelica Artur


    Full Text Available Introduction It is necessary to know the factors that influence contraceptive behavior in order to overcome obstacles of contraceptive use by implementing modern family planning programs that have to be based on logistic management and directed to the client. The factor isolated till now are systematized into the two groups: the socio-demographic factors - to a greater extent associated with developing countries and the psychological factors -mainly related to developed countries. Socio-demographic f actors of the contraceptive use The most significant socio-demographic determinants of contraceptive behavior appear to be the age, women's educational level but even the educational level of the husband/partner, occupation, environment (urban/rural, some cultural factors, and high price of contraceptives. Psychological variables as a factor of contraceptive (nonuse In the group of psychological variables that influence contraceptive use it is possible to distinguish: the presence of illusion of fertility control, locus of control, level of Ego maturity, femininity and masculinity, i.e. the accepted gender roles, level of self-acceptance. The majority of the factors show that the presence of personal initiative and assertiveness are associated with higher level of contraception use.

  20. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins: a structural perspective

    Briony eForbes


    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6 bind insulin-like growth factors-I and -II (IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. These binding proteins maintain IGFs in the circulation and direct them to target tissues, where they promote cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival via the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R. IGFBPs also interact with many other molecules, which not only influence their modulation of IGF action but also mediate IGF-independent activities that influence processes such as cell migration and apoptosis by influencing gene transcription.IGFBPs-1 to -6 are structurally similar proteins consisting of three distinct domains, N-terminal, Linker and C-terminal. There have been major advances in our understanding of IGFBP structure in the last decade and a half. While there is still no structure of an intact IGFBP to date, several structures of individual N- and C-domains have been solved. The structure of a complex of N-BP-4:IGF-I:C-BP-4 has also been solved, providing a detailed picture of the structural features of the IGF binding site and the mechanism of binding. Structural studies have also identified features important for interaction with extracellular matrix components and integrins. This review summarises structural studies reported so far and highlights features important for binding not only IGF but also other partners. It also highlights future directions in which structural studies will add to our knowledge of the role played by the IGFBP family in normal growth and development, as well as in disease.

  1. Pumpkin Fruit Influence on Calves’ Growth



    Full Text Available Pumpkin provides a valuable source of carotenoids and ascorbic acid which have major roles in nutrition as provitamin A and as an antioxidant respectively. Carotenoids are a source of vitamin A, and β-carotene present in pumpkin is converted to vitamin A in the body. Pumpkins’ biomass is distinguished for having antioxidant and phytobiotic characteristics.The aim of our research is to analyse pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita maxima D. flours’ influence upon calves growth, intestinal microflora, digestibility of rations’ nutrients and health. In pursuance of this aim two groups of 1-month-old Lithuanian Black and White breeds’ heifers were constituted, 10 animals per group: control and experimental. The heifers were fed by the same feeding plan and grown in equal conditions. Except for experimental groups’ animals, each of them was additionally given 120g of pumpkin fruits’ flour with their days’ ration.The results of this research showed that calves which were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour had grown more rapidly. After six months of the research the weight of experimental groups‘ heifers was 9,2 kg or 5,34 pct. bigger than the weight of control groups‘ heifers. Pumpkin fruits‘ flour distinguished for phytobiotic activity in calves‘ intestine, it stimulated the increase of lacto- and bifidobacteria. After four months of the research there were 63,6 pct. (P<0,001 more lactobacteria and 19,3 pct. (P<0,01 more bifidobacteria in the faeces of heifers that were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour comparing to heifers that were not given it. After 6 months of the research respectively there were 10,7 pct. and 34,0 pct. more of lacto- and bifidobacteria. Besides that, pumpkin fruits‘ flour improved digestibility of rations‘ nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter increased by 1,9 pct., organic matter – 2,3 pct., fat – 1,6 pct., proteins – 3,07 pct. (P>0,05. Morphological blood indexes of both calves groups

  2. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    McCourt, M


    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  3. Epidermal growth factor as a biologic switch in hair growth cycle

    Mak, KKL; Chan, SY


    The hair growth cycle consists of three stages known as the anagen (growing), catagen (involution), and telogen (resting) phases. This cyclical growth of hair is regulated by a diversity of growth factors. Although normal expression of both epidermal growth factor and its receptor (EGFR) in the outer root sheath is down-regulated with the completion of follicular growth, here we show that continuous expression of epidermal growth factor in hair follicles of transgenic mice arrested follicular...

  4. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  5. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor receptors in meningioma

    Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were localized and characterized in eight samples of human meningioma (four fibrous, two meningothelial, and two angioblastic types), using quantitative autoradiographic techniques. Effects of both growth factors on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in the cultured meningioma cells were examined. High numbers of specific binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF were homogeneously present in tissue sections derived from fibrous and meningothelial types of meningiomas, whereas binding sites for these growth factors were not detectable in adjacent leptomeninges. While relatively large numbers of IGF-I binding sites were located in the wall of the intratumoral vasculature, the number of binding sites in the stromal component was lower in angioblastic-type meningiomas, including a low number of EGF binding sites detected only in the stromal portion. Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF in the meningiomas examined (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.6 to 2.9 nM, and the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) = 16 to 80 fmol/mg for IGF-I; and Kd = 0.6 to 4.0 nM, Bmax = 3 to 39 fmol/mg for EGF). Both growth factors increased the synthesis of DNA, in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The combination of IGF-I and EGF synergistically stimulated the synthesis of DNA, and the effects seen with 10% fetal bovine serum could be reproduced at a concentration of 10(-10) M. These observations can be interpreted to mean that both IGF-I and EGF may be involved in the growth modulation of meningiomas, possibly through paracrine or autocrine mechanisms

  6. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie


    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  7. 婴幼儿期体格生长偏离与喂养困难的关系及影响因素%Relationship between Growth Deviation and Feeding Disorders and Its Influencing Factors among Infants and Toddlers

    周爱琴; 徐海青; 戴琼; 赵职卫; 汪鸿; 罗西贝; 刘建琼; 刘芳


    目的 探讨要幼儿期体格生长偏离与喂养困难的关系及体格生长偏离的影响因素.方法 采用定点抽样的方法,在确定调查对象后,由儿童的主要抚养人和医务人员共同填写婴幼儿喂养困难评分量表及调查问卷,并对婴幼儿体格发育情况进行测量.结果 6~24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养困难发生率为21.41%;婴幼儿有无喂养困难及喂养困难程度与是否发生生长迟缓、低体质量、消瘦相关,随着喂养困难程度的加重,三者发生率增高.经多因素非条件Logistic回归分析,“是否反复上呼吸道感染,喂养人是否为母亲,喂养时孩子对您的反应积极,孩子进餐地点固定,孩子的喂养人固定,孩子进食时间超过30 min,您允许孩子想吃就吃,同一种食物用不同做法促进食欲,您判断孩子不吃某种食物的依据,现在每天是否吃鱼肉虾类、吃蛋类、吃粮谷类、吃水果类”13个因素是婴幼儿体格生长偏离的影响因素.结论 预防婴幼儿喂养困难可有效降低婴幼儿生长迟缓、低体质量、消瘦的发生.合理的饮食结构、喂养人科学的喂养知识和恰当的喂养行为有利于预防体格生长偏离的发生.%Objective To explore the relationship between growth deviation and feeding disorders and its influencing factors among infants and toddlers. Methods With fixed - point sampling, caregivers fill in the Chinese version of The Children Feeding Scale and the ques-tionair were designed,and the physical developmental parameters of infants and toddlers were measured. Results The incidence rate of feeding disorders among 6 - to - 24 - month - old children was 21.41 % . The association between feeding disorders, the degree of feeding difficulty and growth deviation (including stunted, wasting, underweight) were related. And with the degree of feeding disorders increased,3 incidences increased. A multivariate non - conditioned Logistic regression analysis was

  8. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.


    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Growth Factors and Breast Tumors, Comparison of Selected Growth Factors with Traditional Tumor Markers

    Kučera, R.; Černá, M.; Ňaršanská, A.; Svobodová, Š.; Straková, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Fuchsová, R.; Třešková, I.; Kydlíček, T.; Třeška, V.; Pecen, Ladislav; Topolčan, O.; Padziora, P.


    Roč. 31, č. 12 (2011), s. 4653-4656. ISSN 0250-7005 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NS9727; GA MZd(CZ) NS10238; GA MZd(CZ) NS10253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth factor * breast cancer * tumor markers * CA 15-3 * CEA * IGF1 * EGF * HGF Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  11. Nerve growth factor-induced alteration in the response of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells to epidermal growth factor

    Huff, K; End, D; Guroff, G


    PC12 cells, which differentiate morphologically and biochemically into sympathetic neruonlike cells in response to nerve growth fact, also respond to epidermal growth factor. The response to epidermal growth factor is similar in certain respects to the response to nerve growth fact. Both peptides produce rapid increases in cellular adhesion and 2-deoxyglucose uptake and both induce ornithine decarboxylase. But nerve growth factor causes a decreased cell proliferation and a marked hypertrophy ...

  12. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Yong Jun Park; Chang Min Moon; Hwang Jae Yoo


    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and prese...

  13. Human epidermal growth factor receptor residue covalently cross-linked to epidermal growth factor

    An epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor monoclonal antibody (mAb), mAb LA22, was used to analyze the covalent coupling of human EGF receptors to mouse EGF by the amine-reactive cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate. A soluble Mr 105,000 truncated form of the receptor secreted by A-431 epidermoid carcinoma cells and consisting of the ligand-binding extracellular domain was cross-linked to 125I-labeled EGF. Digestion of this complex with an endoproteinase that specifically cleaves at the COOH side of glutamyl residue released a single radiolabeled glycosylated fragment of Mr18,000 that reacted with mAb LA22. The receptor residue(s) involved in the covalent coupling of rat 125I-labeled transforming growth factor α was similarly localized to this region of the receptor. This receptor interval, which included two glycosylated asparaginyl residues at positions 328 and 337, contained but three amino acid residues that were potentially reactive with disuccinimidyl suberate: Lys-332, Lys-333, and Lys-336. These results indicated that disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked the NH2 group of EGF residue Asn-1 to the human EGF receptor residue Lys-336. The results further suggest that EGF and transforming growth factor α, two members of the EGF family of peptide growth factors, interact with closely apposed or identical features of the receptor

  14. Factors influencing the feasibility of laparoscopy colectomy

    He Zhiyun; Zhang Zhongtao


    Objective The objective was to review the factors affecting the feasibility of performing successful laparoscopic colectomy.Data sources The literatures about the risk factors closely related to the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy on different surgical diseases of the colon cited in this review were obtained from PubMed published in English from 2006 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the risk factors that affect the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy were selected.Results Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,advanced age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of developing serious complications such as hemorrhage,anastomotic leak,and skin and soft tissue infections following laparoscopic colectomy.These factors also increase the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.In this study,we reviewed the recent original articles about the relationship of laparoscopic colectomy with these risk factors.We also describe some strategies that limit the likelihood of these complications and the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.Conclusions Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of either serious complications or conversion to open operation with laparoscopic colectomy.Evaluation of these risk factors preoperatively should influence the decision to perform colectomy using laparoscopic techniques.

  15. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe


    Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and bone mineralisation

    Yu-Chen Guo; Quan Yuan


    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that is mainly secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in bone. The critical role of FGF23 in mineral ion homeostasis was first identified in human genetic and acquired rachitic diseases and has been further characterised in animal models. Recent studies have revealed that the levels of FGF23 increase significantly at the very early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may play a critical role in mineral ion disorders and bone metabolism in these patients. Our recent publications have also shown that FGF23 and its cofactor, Klotho, may play an independent role in directly regulating bone mineralisation instead of producing a systematic effect. In this review, we will discuss the new role of FGF23 in bone mineralisation and the pathophysiology of CKD-related bone disorders.

  17. Aldosterone as a renal growth factor.

    Thomas, Warren


    Aldosterone regulates blood pressure through its effects on the cardiovascular system and kidney. Aldosterone can also contribute to the development of hypertension that leads to chronic pathologies such as nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Aldosterone directly modulates renal cell proliferation and differentiation as part of normal kidney development. The stimulation of rapidly activated protein kinase cascades is one facet of how aldosterone regulates renal cell growth. These cascades may also contribute to myofibroblastic transformation and cell proliferation observed in pathological conditions of the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that is accelerated by hypertension. EGFR-dependent proliferation of the renal epithelium is a factor in cyst development and trans-activation of EGFR is a key feature in initiating aldosterone-induced signalling cascades. Delineating the components of aldosterone-induced signalling cascades may identify novel therapeutic targets for proliferative diseases of the kidney.

  18. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    Nagarkoti, Bishal


    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  19. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  20. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Jawahar Nesan


    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  1. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D


    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... as outcome predictors. Thus, nerve gap distance and repair type exert their influence through time to muscle reinnervation. These findings emphasize that factors that control early axonal outgrowth influence the final level of recovery attained years later. They also highlight that a time window...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...

  2. Factors influencing warfarin response in hospitalized patients

    Abdel-Aziz, Mahmoud I.; Ali, Mostafa A. Sayed; Hassan, Ayman K.M.; Elfaham, Tahani H.


    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simultaneous factors that potentially keep patients far from achieving target INR range at discharge in hospitalized patients. Prospective cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Cardiology Department and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Assiut University Hospitals. One-hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study from July 2013 to January 2014. Outcome measures were discharge INRs, bleeding and thromboembo...

  3. Factors Influencing Impulse Buying in Retail Stores

    Giorgadze, Nino


    Impulse buying is a widely pervasive phenomenon. Statistics shows that more and more shoppers are experiencing irresistible urge to purchase unplanned and in most cases unnecessary product. Existing researches fall short in identifying most suitable tools that marketers can adopt in order to promote impulsive sales. Therefore, this thesis provides deep analysis of those, controllable factors that influence impulse buying. Particularly four external cues are examined: product display, promotio...

  4. Factors influencing corporate governance in Ukrainian companies

    Afanasieva, Larysa


    The factors influencing corporate governance in Ukraine have been identified. As a result of the conducted analysis and case studies the essence of each have been revealed. The specificity of Ukrainian corporate governance system have been described. The importance of corporate collaboration within different authority levels have been underlined and the necessity of Ukrainian companies’ adaptation to internationally unified rules, principles and standards of corporate governance have been ...

  5. Factors influencing auditor change: evidence from Malaysia

    Sharifah Nazatul Faiza Syed Mustapha Nazri; Malcolm Smith; Zubaidah Ismail


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine two factors which influence auditor change: audit and client firms’ characteristics, for Malaysian listed companies. Given the costs involved, it is important to understand the reasons why companies change their auditor and choose a particular level of audit assurance. Design/methodology/approach – This study evaluates the effects of various independent variables on auditor change behaviour and the sensitivity of results to alternative period ...

  6. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)

  7. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    Chun; Yi


      2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.……

  8. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market


    @@ 2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.

  9. Factors influencing customers' choices of online merchants

    Li, Chenghuan


    Objectives of the Study: The aim of the research is to define and assess the importance of the factors that influence online shoppers' choices of merchants. The previous literature mainly focuses on loyalty of users to websites and online purchase decision-making process within one website. No literature studies the situation under which the customer has already decided the item to purchase and needs to compare different merchants selling the same item. Since this situation is very common...

  10. Factor-structure of economic growth in E-commerce

    吴隽; 刘洪久; 栾天行


    In order to analyze the factors having effect on economic growth of E-commerce, the economic growthprocess of E-commerce is divided into three stages; growth stage, stabilization stage and re-growth stage. Thesethree different stages are analysed using several economic growth theories, a set of factor-structure is proposedfor each stage of the economic growth process of E-commerce.

  11. Temperature influence on phytoplankton community growth rates

    Sherman, Elliot; Moore, J. Keith; Primeau, Francois; Tanouye, David


    A large database of field estimates of phytoplankton community growth rates in natural populations was compiled and analyzed to determine the apparent temperature effect on phytoplankton community growth rate. We conducted an ordinary least squares regression to optimize the parameters in two commonly used growth-temperature relations (Arrhenius and Q10 models). Both equations fit the observational data equally with the optimized parameter values. The optimum apparent Q10 value was 1.47 ± 0.08 (95% confidence interval, CI). Microzooplankton grazing rates closely matched the temperature trends for phytoplankton growth. This likely reflects a dynamic adjustment of biomass and grazing rates by the microzooplankton to match their available food source, illustrating tight coupling of phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates. The field-measured temperature effect and growth rates were compared with estimates from the satellite Carbon-based Productivity Model (CbPM) and three Earth System Models (ESMs), with model output extracted at the same month and sampling locations as the observations. The optimized, apparent Q10 value calculated for the CbPM was 1.51, with overestimation of growth rates. The apparent Q10 value in the Community Earth System Model (V1.0) was 1.65, with modest underestimation of growth rates. The GFDL-ESM2M and GFDL-ESM2G models produced apparent Q10 values of 1.52 and 1.39, respectively. Models with an apparent Q10 that is significantly greater than ~1.5 will overestimate the phytoplankton community growth response to the ongoing climate warming and will have spatial biases in estimated growth rates for the current era.

  12. Influence of crystallographic orientation on growth behavior of spherical voids

    ZHANG Xin-ming; LIU Wen-hui; TANG Jian-guo; YE Ling-ying


    The influence of crystallographic orientation on the void growth in FCC crystals was numerically simulated with 3D crystal plasticity finite element by using a 3D unit cell including a spherical void, and the rate-dependent crystal plasticity theory was implemented as a user material subroutine. The results of the simulations show that crystallographic orientation has significant influence on the growth behavior of the void. Different active slip systems of the regions around the void cause the discontinuity in lattice rotation around the void, and the corner-like region is formed. In the case of the void located at grain boundary, large heterogeneous deformation occurs between the two grains, and the equivalent plastic deformation along grain boundary near the void in the case of θ=45°(θ is the angle between grain boundary direction and X-axis) is larger than the others. Large difference of orientation factor of the two grains leads to large equivalent plastic deformation along grain boundary, and the unit cell is more likely to fail by intergranular fracture.

  13. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz


    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  14. Fatores determinantes do crescimento infantil Determinant factors of infant growth

    Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani


    Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation

  15. Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Jørgensen, P E;


    We have used rats with epidermal growth factor (EGF) autoantibodies to study the role of EGF deficiency during perinatal development. The study was focused on organs known to contain EGF or its receptor. Compared with controls, the offspring of autoimmune rats had a higher perinatal mortality and a......, the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight...

  16. Influence of semi-volatile species on particle hygroscopic growth

    P. Villani


    Full Text Available The hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles are often related to their content of soluble material, on the basis of the Kohler theory. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that the role of aerosol particle semi-volatile fraction properties has been underestimated. In this study, we use a novel method based on a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA system combining particle volatilization and humidification conditioning (VH-TDMA to test the effect of the gentle volatilization of a small fraction of the atmospheric particles on the particle hygroscopic growth in several environments (urban to remote. Results show that the particle hygroscopic properties can either be enhanced or decreased after thermal conditioning of the particle at moderate temperatures (50 to 110°C. The hygroscopic growth factor changes induced by volatilization indicate that some volatile compounds, although present at low concentrations, drastically influence the hygroscopic growth of particles in the way that can not be predicted by the Kohler theory at equilibrium.

  17. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia


    factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... the motivation of employees to share knowledge. The model is tested using statistical methods on a sample of 114 respondents in Denmark. Qualitative data is used to elaborate and explain quantitative findings. Findings: Our findings pinpoint towards the general drivers and barriers to knowledge sharing within...... organizations. The significant drivers are: enjoy helping others, monetary rewards, management support, change of knowledge sharing behavior and recognition. The significant identified barriers to knowledge sharing are: change of behavior, lack of trust and lack of time. Practical implications: The proposed...

  18. Factors influencing union formation in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne


    Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585

  19. Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect

    H.Ya. Hlukha


    The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine...

  20. Radioimmunoassay of human epidermal growth factor (urogastrone)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a polypeptide hormone that stimulates growth of a variety of tissues. Although it was originally discovered in male mouse submaxillary glands, EGF has recently been isolated from human urine. A heterologous radioimmunoassay for human EGF (hEGF) has been developed, using purified hEGF as reference standard and radioiodinated tracer and antibodies raised against mouse EGF. Purified hEGF specifically displaced radioiodinated hEGF from the antibodies; no other human peptide hormone tested demonstrated any cross-reaction. Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of RIA-hEGF in normal adult males and females was 97.8 +- 10.7 and 72.0 +- 4.5 (mean +- SE) μg/total volume, or 51.7 +- 4.5 and 57.0 +- 4.9 μg/g of creatinine, respectively. Urinary excretion in normal children increased with age, from less than 40 μg/24 h at 4 years of age to adult levels at about the age of puberty. The concentration of RIA-hEGF in human saliva ranged from 5.6 to 16.8 ng/ml, was about 80 ng/ml in human milk and was undetectable in human amniotic fluid (<1.4 ng/ml). It was recently been suggested that human EGF is identical with human urogastrone. However, the tissue secreting this ''new'' human hormone and the role of hEGF in health and disease have yet to be determined

  1. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C


    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513




    Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.

  3. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bretlau, P


    Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected with a...... monoclonal mouse antibody and EGF with polyclonal rabbit antiserum. Thirty-five of the tumours were positive for TGF-alpha and 26 of the tumours for EGF. None of the poorly differentiated tumours was positive for EGF, but they all were for TGF-alpha. In sections including normal differentiated oral mucosa......, the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells...

  4. Do the fibrin architecture and leukocyte content influence the growth factor release of platelet concentrates? An evidence-based answer comparing a pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) gel and a leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF).

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Jimbo, Ryo; Barbé, Giovanni; Del Corso, Marco; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto


    Platelet concentrates for surgical use are tools of regenerative medicine designed for the local release of platelet growth factors into a surgical or wounded site, in order to stimulate tissue healing or regeneration. Leukocyte content and fibrin architecture are 2 key characteristics of all platelet concentrates and allow to classify these technologies in 4 families, but very little is known about the impact of these 2 parameters on the intrinsic biology of these products. In this demonstration, we highlight some outstanding differences in the growth factor and matrix protein release between 2 families of platelet concentrate: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP, here the Anitua's PRGF - Preparation Rich in Growth Factors - technique) and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF, here the Choukroun's method). These 2 families are the extreme opposites in terms of fibrin architecture and leukocyte content. The slow release of 3 key growth factors (Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor AB (PDGF-AB) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)) and matrix proteins (fibronectin, vitronectin and thrombospondin-1) from the L-PRF and P-PRP gel membranes in culture medium is described and discussed. During 7 days, the L-PRF membranes slowly release significantly larger amounts of all these molecules than the P-PRP gel membranes, and the 2 products display different release patterns. In both platelet concentrates, vitronectin is the sole molecule to be released almost completely after only 4 hours, suggesting that this molecule is not trapped in the fibrin matrix and not produced by the leukocytes. Moreover the P-PRP gel membranes completely dissolve in the culture medium after less than 5 days only, while the L-PRF membranes are still intact after 7 days. This simple demonstration shows that the polymerization and final architecture of the fibrin matrix considerably influence the strength and the growth factor trapping/release potential

  5. Nerve growth factor actions on the brain

    We examined the effect of the trophic protein, nerve growth factor (NGF), on cultures of fetal rat neostriatum and basal forebrain-medial septal area (BF-MS) to define its role in brain development. Treatment of cultures with NGF resulted in an increase in the specific activity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (CAT) in both brain areas. CAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons. In the BF-MS, NGF treatment elicited a marked increase in staining intensity and an apparent increase in the number of CAT-positive neurons. Moreover, treatment of BF-MS cultures with NGF increased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting that the cholinergic neuron as a whole was affected. To begin defining mechanisms of action of NGF in the BF-MS, we detected NGF receptors by two independent methods. Receptors were localized to two different cellular populations: neuron-like cells, and non-neuron-like cells. Dissociation studies with [125I]NGF suggested that high affinity receptors were localized to the neuron-like population. Only low-affinity receptors were localized to the non-neuron-like cells. Moreover, employing combined immunocytochemistry and [125I]NGF autoradiography, we detected a subpopulation of CAT-containing neutrons that exhibited high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing cell group also expressed high affinity binding. However, only subsets of cholinergic or GABA neurons expressed high-affinity biding, suggesting that these transmitter populations are composed of differentially response subpopulations

  6. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Jovanović Snežana T.


    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  7. Influence of substrate morphology on Pb growth

    The crystallographic structure and morphology of Pb layers in their early stage of growth on Si(3 3 5) surface are studied with Reflection High Electron Energy Diffraction (RHEED) and specific resistivity techniques. The vicinal Si(3 3 5), with different surface morphology controlled by the amount of predeposited Au, was used as a substrate. Changes in the substrate morphology, from disordered step distribution through a perfectly ordered Si(3 3 5) to a hill-and-valley structure consisting of wide (1 1 1) terraces and high Miller index facets, cause switching between one- and two-dimensional growth of the Pb structures

  8. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L


    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  9. Radiotherapy and receptor of epidermal growth factor

    The expression level of the receptor of the epidermal growth factor is in correlation with the tumor cells radiosensitivity. An overexpression of the E.G.F.R. is often present in the bronchi cancer, epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere, esophagus, uterine cervix, and anal duct but also in the rectum cancers and glioblastomas. At the clinical level, the E.G.F.R. expression is in correlation with an unfavourable prognosis after radiotherapy in numerous tumoral localizations. In the rectum cancers it is an independent prognosis factor found in multifactorial analysis: increase of the rate of nodes and local recurrence when the E.G.F.R. is over expressed. In the uterine cervix cancers, the survival is is negatively affected in multifactorial analysis by the E.G.F.R. membranes expression level. At the therapy level, the development of anti E.G.F.R. targeted therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies) opens a new therapy field at radio-sensitivity potentiality. The irradiation makes an activation of the E.G.F.R. way that would be partially responsible of the post irradiation tumoral repopulation. This activation leads the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase ways and M.A.P. kinase ones, then the Akt protein one that acts an apoptotic modulator part. It has been shown that blocking the E.G.F.R. way acts on three levels: accumulation of ells in phase G1, reduction of the cell repair and increasing of apoptosis. he inhibition of post irradiation action of the E.G.F.R. signal way is a factor explaining the ionizing radiation - anti E.G.F.R. synergy. The preclinical data suggest that the E.G.F.R. blocking by the monoclonal antibodies is more important than the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A first positive randomized study with the cetuximab, published in 2006 in the epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere lead to its authorization on the market with the radiotherapy for this localization. The use of cetuximab in other indication with or in

  10. The Effects of Environmental Factors on the Growth and Competition of Algae

    Jing; WANG; Jiazhang; CHEN; Shunlong; MENG


    In order to study the effect of environmental factors on the algae growth and competition,the author summarized overseas and domestic related researches in recent years.Most of the researches are about the influence of single factor on growth of algae.However,there is insufficient investment on the interaction of different factors and the competition between algae growth.This paper briefly introduced the classification of algae and the role they played in ecological system and focused on the influence which included temperature,illumination,nitrogen,phosphorus and pH on the growth and competition of algal.In the end,the author proposed key questions which were still needed to be studied in order to know more about the relationship between environment effects and growth and competition of algae.Therefore,people could better improve the community structure of algae and water ecological environment,and improve water primary productivity.

  11. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

  12. Factors influencing choice of countermeasure strategy

    There are number of countermeasures that can be used, singly and in combination, to reduce doses in the short-term following a nuclear accident. Which strategy is adopted will depend on local factors, such as the type of accident, local geography and demography, and the resources available, and on the form of national and international guidance is to facilitate a consistent level of response to accidents, wherever they occur, whilst at the same time providing for flexibility of response to suit local circumstances. This paper discusses the influence of all these factors on the choice of protective strategy. The goal of any off-site emergency response strategy should be the protection of the public, not just against radiation, but in the sense of providing overall benefit. To achieve this goal, differing local and national constraint mean that the precise strategy adopted may vary from site to site. (Authors). 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  14. Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics

    N. Tuzemen


    Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01. Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01. Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01 influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01. The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

  15. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Rosana Marta Kolb


    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  16. Platelet-rich growth factor in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    Pal, Uma Shanker; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Rakesh K.; Das, Somdipto; Singh, Nimisha; Singh, Mayank


    Platelet-rich growth factor is an innovative regenerative therapy used to promote hard and soft tissue healing. It involves the application of autologous platelet-leukocyte-rich plasma containing growth factors and thrombin directly to the site of treatment. It is the intrinsic growth factors released by activated platelets which are concentrated in a topical gel formula. Clinically, it is an affordable treatment with potentially broad spectrum of applications in maxillofacial surgery especia...

  17. Transport Sector CO(2) Emissions Growth in Asia : Underlying Factors and Policy Options

    Timilsina, G. R.; Shrestha, A.


    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy i...

  18. Galactosamine induced hepatitis induces a reduction in hepatocyte epidermal growth factor receptors.

    Vesey, D A; Woodman, A C; Hodgson, H J


    The rapid regenerative response of the rat liver to partial hepatectomy is associated with a decline in liver epidermal growth factor receptor numbers which implies that ligand epidermal growth factor receptor interactions maybe important in initiating and/or modulating this process. The proliferative process in toxic hepatitis (where in contrast with partial hepatectomy the majority of hepatocytes have been exposed to damaging influences) has been less widely investigated. We studied the DNA...

  19. Purification and characterization of native human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6

    Taferner, Andrea; Micutkova, Lucia; Hermann, Martin; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Pircher, Haymo


    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are key regulators of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) mediated signal transduction and thereby can profoundly influence cellular phenotypes and cell fate. Whereas IGFBPs are extracellular proteins, intracellular activities were described for several IGFBP family members, such as IGFBP-3, which can be reinternalized by endocytosis and reaches the nucleus through routes that remain to be fully established. Within the family of IGFBPs, IGFBP-...

  20. Fibroblast Growth Factors Stimulate Hair Growth through β-Catenin and Shh Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    Wei-hong Lin; Li-Jun Xiang; Hong-Xue Shi; Jian Zhang; Li-ping Jiang; Ping-tao Cai; Zhen-Lang Lin; Bei-Bei Lin; Yan Huang; Hai-Lin Zhang; Xiao-Bing Fu; Ding-Jiong Guo; Xiao-Kun Li; Xiao-Jie Wang; Jian Xiao


    Growth factors are involved in the regulation of hair morphogenesis and cycle hair growth. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of three approved growth factor drugs, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and the mechanism of action. We observed that FGFs promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric ana...

  1. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

    Pšeničny Viljem


    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  2. Organisation of the Influence Factors System for Foodstuffs Lyophilization

    Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Dumitru Mnerie; Dumitru Tucu; Titus Slavici; Alin Vasile Mneri


    Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying) presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through wh...

  3. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Regulates Aberrant Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 3

    TAKAOKA, MUNENORI; Harada, Hideki; Andl, Claudia D; Oyama, Kenji; Naomoto, Yoshio; Dempsey, Kelly L.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; El-Deiry, Wafik S; GRIMBERG, ADDA; Nakagawa, Hiroshi


    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in esophageal carcinoma and its precursor lesions. To gain insights into how EGFR overexpression affects cellular functions in primary human esophageal cells, we performed gene expression profiling and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 as the most up-regulated gene. IGFBP-3 regulates cell proliferation through both insulin-like growth factor-dependent and independent mechanisms. We found that IGF...

  4. 湖南农村双亲留守儿童生长发育影响因素分析%Status and influencing factors of growth and development among rural left-behind children in Hunan province

    彭喜春; 罗家有


    目的 探讨湖南省农村<7岁双亲留守儿童生长发育状况及其影响因素.方法 按照分层整群随机抽样原则,对随机选择的湖南省4县市695名<7岁农村留守儿童和592名对照儿童进行调查.结果 双亲留守儿童与对照儿童的生长迟缓率分别为18.7%、16.4%,低体重率为2.0%、2.2%,超重率为1.0%、0.5%,肥胖率为3.7%、2.9%,差异均无统计学意义(x2=1.184,P=0.276;x2=0.015,P=0.821;x2=1.038,P=0.358;x2=0.748,P=0.387);双亲留守儿童贫血检出率(33.4%)高于对照儿童(26.0%)(x2=8.265,P=0.004);多分类logistic回归分析结果显示,出生体重较重、不贫血、不挑食、家庭人口数较多、母亲文化程度较高,则身高别体重Z评分(WHZ)较高;母亲年龄较大及外出务工时间较长,则WHZ较低;父亲外出务工时间较长,年龄别身高Z评分(HAZ)较高;出生体重较重、散居、母亲文化程度较高,则年龄别体重Z评分(WAZ)较高;母亲年龄较大,WAZ评分低.结论 湖南省学龄前双亲留守儿童生长发育存在迟缓现象,母亲年龄较大、母亲外出务工而造成的母亲照顾缺失对儿童的生长发育有延缓作用.%Objective To investigate the status and related influencing factors of growth and development among rural left-behind children under 7 years old in Hunan province. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 695 rural left-behind children and 592 controls for a questionnaire survey and physical measurement. Results The incidence rates were 18.7% and 16.4% for growth retardation,2. 0% and 2. 2% for underweight,3. 7% and 2. 9% for overweight,and 3. 7% and 2. 9% for obesity, respectively, among the left-behind and control children, with no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0. 2 for all). The rate of anemia in left-behind children (33. 4% ) was significantly higher than that of the control (26. 0% ,x2 = 8. 265 ; P = 0. 004). The results of multivariate logistic

  5. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    McLoughlin Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2 or hypoxia (10% O2 for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or

  6. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    Sands, Michelle


    Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the

  7. Negative phototropism of rice root and its influencing factors

    WANG; Zhong(王忠); MO; Yiwei(莫亿伟); QIAN; Shanqin(钱善勤); GU; Yunjie(顾蕴洁)


    Some characteristics of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) root were found in the experiment of unilaterally irradiating the roots which were planted in water: (ⅰ) All the seminal roots, adventitious roots and their branched roots bent away from light, and their curvatures ranged from 25° to 60°. The curvature of adventitious root of the higher node was often larger than that of the lower node, and even larger than that of the seminal root. (ⅱ) The negative phototropic bending of the rice root was mainly due to the larger growth increment of root-tip cells of the irradiated side compared with that of the shaded side. (ⅲ) Root cap was the site of light perception. If root cap was shaded while the root was irradiated the root showed no negative phototropism, and the root lost the characteristic of negative phototropism when root cap was divested. Rice root could resume the characteristic of negative phototropism when the new root cap grew up, if the original cells of root cap were well protected while root cap was divested. (ⅳ) The growth increment and curvature of rice root were both influenced by light intensity. Within the range of 0-100μmol@m-2@s-1, the increasing of light intensity resulted in the decreasing of the growth increment and the increasing of the curvature of rice root. (ⅴ) The growth increment and the curvature reached the maximum at 30℃ with the temperature treatment of 10-40℃. (ⅵ) Blue-violet light could prominently induce the negative phototropism of rice root, while red light had no such effect. (ⅶ) The auxin (IAA) in the solution, as a very prominent influencing factor, inhibited the growth, the negative phototropism and the gravitropism of rice root when the concentration of IAA increased. The response of negative phototropism of rice root disappeared when the concentration of IAA was above 10 mg@L-1.

  8. Keratinocyte growth factor is a growth factor for mammary epithelium in vivo. The mammary epithelium of lactating rats is resistant to the proliferative action of keratinocyte growth factor.

    Ulich, T. R.; Yi, E. S.; Cardiff, R; Yin, S.; Bikhazi, N.; Biltz, R; Morris, C. F.; Pierce, G. F.


    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. KGF is secreted by stromal cells and affects epithelial but not mesenchymal cell proliferation. KGF injected intravenously was found to cause dramatic proliferation of mammary epithelium in the mammary glands of rats. KGF causes ductal neogenesis and intraductal epithelial hyperplasia but not lobular differentiation in nulliparous female rats. KGF causes ductal and lobular epithelial hyperplasia in male...

  9. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Asha Tyagi


    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  10. Factors influencing the prognosis in bladder cancer

    In the categories T1, T2 and T3NxM0 bladder cancer, with a diameter not exceeding 5 cm, the treatment in the Rotterdam Radio-Therapy Institute consists of interstitial irradiation with needles containing radioactive material. The results of treatment and the role of additional external irradiation are discussed. Category T3NxM0 tumors with a diameter exceeding 5 cm are treated by external irradiation followed by cystectomy; the results are presented here. Factors influencing prognosis appeared to be the degree of differentiation, number of transurethral resections (TURs) prior to definitive treatment, intravenous pyelography (IVP), vascular invasion, T category after preoperative irradiation, and postsurgical histopathologically-assessed T category (pT)




    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  12. Factors influencing the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Although predicting that there will be more nuclear weapons in the future is safe enough, predicting how many more countries over what period of time, which ones under what circumstances, and how much more of what kind of nuclear-weapons capability for each is more difficult. Predicting what effect more will have is a related question that is even more difficult. This chapter identifies some of the factors that will determine the answers: including the supply policies of nuclear-exporting counties, the international nuclear-fuel cycle, superpower security policies, the health of the non-proliferation regime, cataclysmic events and international reaction, and preventive and preemptive strikes. The author concludes that more proliferation will only be better if we accept the greater probability of catastrophic wars in exchange for less frequent conventional conflicts, but he tempers this with the observation that the policies of governments can influence the course of proliferation

  13. Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior Among Adolescents.

    Sen, Urmi; Basu, Arindam


    Objective: To study the impact of tobacco advertisements and other social factors on the smoking habits of adolescents in Calcutta, India. Design: Cross sectional, school based survey of students in the IXth and XIth grades. The responses were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Participants: High School students in Calcutta aged 14 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measure: Smoking Status as defined by ever smokers of tobacco products. Results: 1973 students were interviewed (males-73.79% and females-26.21%). Increased tobacco use was associated with older age-groups, male gender, government-run schools, having parents or peers who were smokers, and if the respondent was also a chewer. The likelihood of a respondent being a smoker was 8.5 times greater (95% CI: 5.05-14.43) if he or she had a smoker friend, and about 4.5 times (95% CI: 2.7-7.4) if he or she had a smoker sibling. In the multivariate model, the parents' smoking status did not have a statistically significant association with respondent's smoking status. Television advertisements of tobacco products had no statistically significant association with respondents' smoking status. Conclusions: The finding of tobacco advertisements not having a significant association with smoking habits among adolescents could be due to the fact that, at the time of this survey, tobacco advertisements were not frequent in the prime channels due to Government regulations. Peer influence had the strongest association with adolescent smoking. It is therefore suggested that the peer influence factor should be considered for anti-tobacco regulatory activities that target adolescent smoking in India. PMID:12716305

  14. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Ritson Christopher


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  15. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  16. A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty

    Mahmood Modiri


    Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

  17. Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development

    Vahid Abbas Zadeh


    Full Text Available Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.71 and 1955 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. Using principal component analysis, the study has detected six factors including customer’s information, building trust, secure internet access, having good internet infrastructure and internet users.

  18. Tumor epidermal growth factor receptor molecular imaging research

    Because of the importance of epidermal growth factor signaling pathway in oncogenesis, maintenance, and progression of different types of tumors, there are great significance that non-invasive monitoring of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the diagnosis and the judge of therapeutic efficacy. The studys of radioactive tracers for EGFR have provided a good basis for the molecular imaging of EGFR. (authors)

  19. Push Vs Pull: Factors Influence Student Retention

    Matthew Leone


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Student retention becomes one of the most significant issues that administrators of colleges and universities must deal with in today’s highly competitive market. Approach: In fact retaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out its mission. A high rate of attrition is not only a fiscal problem for schools, but a symbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose. Results: There are many ways to keep students retain at the same college until graduation, some easier than people may think but great changes will have to be made in order for schools to complete these transformations. This study is a descriptive study about the factors that influence student retention rate at a higher educational institution. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the previous studies of the similar topic and a random sample survey, this study identifies the possible push and pull factors that promote student leave from a specific college and transfer to other colleges to continue their college studies, it probes the implementable solutions to help the college to maintain and increase the student retention rate.

  20. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing


    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  1. Enhancement of epidermal regeneration by biosynthetic epidermal growth factor


    Epidermal regeneration depends on mitosis and migration of keratinocytes. Epidermal growth factor is known to stimulate growth of keratinocytes in vitro, thus it might be expected to promote wound healing. The results of this study show that topical application of biosynthetic human epidermal growth factor accelerates epidermal regeneration in split-thickness wounds and partial-thickness burns. The significant enhancement of epidermal regeneration suggests the potential for clinical use of ep...

  2. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a Secreted Angiogenic Mitogen

    Leung, David W.; Cachianes, George; Kuang, Wun-Jing; Goeddel, David V.; Ferrara, Napoleone


    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was purified from media conditioned by bovine pituitary folliculostellate cells (FC). VEGF is a heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells that is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo. Complementary DNA clones for bovine and human VEGF were isolated from cDNA libraries prepared from FC and HL60 leukemia cells, respectively. These cDNAs encode hydrophilic proteins with sequences related to those of the A and B chains of platelet-derived growth factor. DNA sequencing suggests the existence of several molecular species of VEGF. VEGFs are secreted proteins, in contrast to other endothelial cell mitogens such as acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor. Human 293 cells transfected with an expression vector containing a bovine or human VEGF cDNA insert secrete an endothelial cell mitogen that behaves like native VEGF.

  3. Abnormal growth factor and cytokine expression in Dupuytren's contracture.

    Baird, K S; Crossan, J F; Ralston, S H


    AIM--To analyse patterns of gene expression for peptide regulatory factors in patients with Dupuytren's contracture. METHODS--Tissue samples (palmer fascia) from 12 patients with Dupuytren's contracture and 12 controls were studied using the reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) technique. RESULTS--Tissue from patients with Dupuytren's contracture expressed a higher percentage of peptide regulatory factors than that of controls: interleukin-1 alpha (83% v 16%; p < 0.01); interleukin-1 beta (66% v 8%; p < 0.01); transforming growth factor beta (75% v 25%; p < 0.02); and basic fibroblast growth factor (66% v 25%; p < 0.05). Platelet derived growth factors alpha and beta were also expressed more commonly (66% v 33% and 25% v 16%, respectively), but these differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS--The increased prevalence of expression for the above mRNAs in Dupuytren's tissue is relevant as interleukin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta stimulate the growth of fibroblasts and transforming growth factor beta also enhances production of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins. Excessive local release of these peptide regulatory factors may have an important role in the pathogenesis of Dupuytren's contracture. Images PMID:8320323

  4. Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, and the Skeleton

    Giustina, Andrea; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Canalis, Ernesto


    GH and IGF-I are important regulators of bone homeostasis and are central to the achievement of normal longitudinal bone growth and bone mass. Although GH may act directly on skeletal cells, most of its effects are mediated by IGF-I, which is present in the systemic circulation and is synthesized by peripheral tissues. The availability of IGF-I is regulated by IGF binding proteins. IGF-I enhances the differentiated function of the osteoblast and bone formation. Adult GH deficiency causes low ...



  6. Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth

    Russell, S.B.; Trupin, K.M.; Rodriguez-Eaton, S.; Russell, J.D.; Trupin, J.S.


    Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ..beta... Whereas transforming growth factor ..beta.. reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated.

  7. Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis Are Associated with Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Ong, J.; Salomon, J; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Witteman, B.J.; Dura, P.; Lacko, M; Peters, W H M


    INTRODUCTION: Numerous factors influence the development of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a role in embryonic and postnatal growth and tissue repair. Elevated levels of IGFs, low levels of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and over-expression of IGF receptor (IGFR-I) were associated with several stages of cancer. Here, the prevalence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs6214 in the IGF type I (IGF-I) gene and rs6898743 in the growth hormo...

  8. High-growth-factor implosions (HEP4)

    Landen, O.L.; Keane, C.J.; Hammel, B.A. [and others


    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the kinetic energy of an ablating, inward-driven, solid spherical shell is used to compressionally heat the low-density fuel inside. For a given drive, the maximum achievable compressed fuel density and temperature - and hence the maximum neutron production rate depend on the degree of shell isentropy and integrity maintained during the compression. Shell integrity will be degraded by hydrodynamic instability growth of areal density imperfections in the capsule. Surface imperfections on the shell grow as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities when the shell is accelerated by the ablating lower-density plasma. Perturbations at the outer capsule surface are transferred hydrodynamically to the inner surface, where deceleration of the shell by the lower-density fuel gives rise to further RT growth at the pusher-fuel interface.

  9. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ

    Dennehy John J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  10. Organisation of the Influence Factors System for Foodstuffs Lyophilization

    Gabriela-Victoria Anghel


    Full Text Available Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through which an organized system was formed was applied. Finally, the values of entropy system and of the organization level of the factors system were determined.

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor targeted molecularly therapies of cancers

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been known to be a significant factor in the development and growth of many types of cancers. It is now accepted that the EGFR signal transduction net work plays an important role in multiple tumorigenic processes, contributing to cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as protection from apoptosis. Recently, EGFR monoclonal antibodies (McAb) and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors have been validated as new treatment approach for those EGFR-positive cancers and have shown activity aginst advanced, chemofractory cancers in clinical trials. This article focuses on three EGFR targeted molecularly therapies of cancers. (authors)

  12. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson


    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting,such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partⅠ, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors,epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part Ⅱ will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.

  13. Serum free and total insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 levels in healthy elderly individuals - Relation to self-reported duality of health and disability

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; Lamberts, SWJ


    Background: Little is known about the influence of the free insulin-like growth factor-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-I/IGFBP) system on the quality of health and on disability in the elderly population. Design: In a cross-sectional population based study of 218 healthy elderly su

  14. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Dannetta, Vincent


    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  15. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan


    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  16. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Cristina, Romeo T.


    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  17. Neonatal fibroblast growth factor treatment enhances cocaine sensitization.

    Clinton, Sarah M; Turner, Cortney A; Flagel, Shelly B; Simpson, Danielle N; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda


    Growth factors are critical in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, and recent studies point to their involvement in addiction. We previously reported increased levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) in high novelty/drug-seeking rats (bred high responders, bHR) compared to low novelty/drug-seeking rats(bred low responders, bLRs). The present study asked whether an early life manipulation of the FGF system(a single FGF2 injection on postnatal day 2) can impact cocaine sensitization and associated neurobiological markers in adult bHR/bLR animals. Neonatal FGF2- and vehicle-treated bHR/bLR rats were sensitized to cocaine(7 daily injections, 15 mg/kg/day, i.p.) in adulthood. Neonatal FGF2 markedly increased bLRs' typically low psychomotor sensitization to cocaine (day 7 locomotor response to cocaine), but had little effect on bHRs' cocaine sensitization. Gene expression studies examined dopaminergic molecules as well as FGF2 and the FGFR1 receptor in cocaine naïve animals, to investigate possible neurobiological alterations induced by neonatal FGF2 exposure that may influence behavioral response to cocaine. bLRs showed decreased tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), decreased D1 and increased D2 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens core, as well as decreased FGF2 in the VTA, substantia nigra, accumbens core, and caudate putamen compared to bHRs. Neonatal FGF2 selectively increased D1 receptor and FGF2 mRNA in the accumbens core of bLRs, which may contribute to their heightened cocaine sensitization. Our results suggest increased FGF2 in the mesodopaminergic circuit (as in baseline bHRs and neonatal FGF2-exposed bLRs vs. baseline bLRs) enhances an individual's susceptibility to cocaine sensitization and may increase vulnerability to drug seeking and addiction. PMID:22819969

  18. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Placental Growth Factor Heterodimer Levels in Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Procianoy, Renato S; Hentges, Cláudia R; Silveira, Rita C


    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is associated with changes in pulmonary angiogenesis. However, the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor/placental growth factor (VEGF/PlGF) heterodimer, an antiangiogenic factor, remains unknown in this disease. Objective To compare VEGF/PlGF levels in preterm infants with and without BPD. Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Preterm neonates with birth weight institutions after 72 hours of life; death before blood collection; presence of major congenital malformations, inborn errors of metabolism, and early sepsis; and mothers with multiple pregnancies, TORCH infections, HIV infection, or autoimmune diseases. BPD was defined as the need for oxygen therapy for a period equal to or greater than 28 days, accompanied by radiographic changes compatible with the disease. Blood was collected from neonates in the first 72 hours of life. VEGF/PlGF levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The chi-square test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test, analysis of variance, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Variables found to be significant in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. Results Seventy-three patients were included (19 with BPD, 43 without BPD, and 11 neonates who died in the first 28 days of life), with a mean (SD) gestational age of 30.32 (2.88) weeks and birth weight of 1,288 (462) g. Median VEGF/PlGF levels were higher in the groups with BPD and death in the first 28 days of life than in the group without BPD (16.46 [IQR, 12.19-44.57] and 20.64 [IQR, 13.39-50.22], respectively, vs. 9.14 [IQR, 0.02-20.64] pg/mL], p < 0.001). Higher VEGF/P1GF levels remained associated with BPD and death in the first 28 days of life in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Higher plasma VEGF/PlGF levels were found in preterm neonates with BPD and in those who died in the first 28 days of life, suggesting an

  19. Progress in Relevant Growth Factors Promoting the Growth of Hair Follicle

    Wang, J. M.; J. T. Zhang


    Hair is a protective appendage on the body that is considered accessory structure of the integument. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. The morphological changes of the hair cycle have been very clear that hair morphogenesis and epidermal development are orchestrated by an array of growth factors. In this review, we summarize the major growth factors involved in promoting growth of hair follicles

  20. Influencing factors of embryo rescue in seedless grape

    In this study, we investigated the impact of inoculating stage, medium type and concentration of plant growth regulators on embryo rescue effectiveness by L25(5)6 orthogonal design using selfed ovules of Venus Seedless as the testing material. The main results were as follows. The most important factor influencing ovule germination was inoculating stage. Ovule germinating rate gradually increased as inoculating being postponed. The highest germinating rate appeared when inoculation was done 55d after flowering. Other influencing factors were IBA concentration, exogenous amino acid, 6-BA concentration, GA3 concentration and medium type in descending order. The best embryo rescue result was based on Nitsch medium including 1.0 mg/L IBA, 0.1 mg/L GA3, 0.7 mg /L 6-BA and 2.0 mmol/L glutamine using ovules inoculated 55d after flowering. The highest germinating rate reached 41.25%, and a batch of seedlings was also obtained. (author)

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.


    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight. Presented with an imbalanced dietary phosphorus to calcium ratio, increased secretion of FGF23 will inhibit renal phosphorus reabsorption, resulting in increased excretion and reduced circulating phosphorus. Increased intake and excretion of phosphorus is associated with increased kidney stone risk in both the terrestrial and microgravity environments. Highly processed foods and carbonated beverages are associated with higher phosphorus content. Ideally, the dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio should be at minimum 1:1. Nutritional requirements for spaceflight suggest that this ratio not be less than 0.67 (3), while the International Space Station (ISS) menu provides 1020 mg Ca and 1856 mg P, for a ratio of 0.55 (3). Subjects in NASA's bed rest studies, by design, have consumed intake ratios much closer to 1.0 (4). FGF23 also has an inhibitory influence on PTH secretion and 1(alpha)-hydroxylase, both of which are required for activating vitamin D with the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will result in decreased intestinal phosphorus absorption, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion (via decreased renal reabsorption). Should a decrease in 1

  2. Organizational Creativity: A Substantial Factor to Growth

    Malikeh Beheshtifar


    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea sources, and evidence of the creative planning process; and organizational creativity is as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The creative climate encourages people to generate new ideas and helps the organization to grow and increase its efficiency and at the same time it enables members to generate and implement creative ideas more effectively.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor 2

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Hyttel, Poul; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech;


    Intrinsic defects within the embryos, reflected by elevated cell death and low proliferative ability, are considered the most critical factors associated with bovine infertility. The identification of embryonic factors, which are responsible for successful embryo development, is thus critical in.......g., excellent, good, and poor) of bovine blastocysts produced by IVF. Variation in total blastocyst cell numbers as well as their allocation to inner cell mass and trophectoderm lineages were also determined by differential CDX2 staining. Results showed that transcript levels for IGF-II, BCL2-L1, and the BCL2-L...... not only greater total cell number but also greater mean inner cell mass/total cell number proportion than that of poor-quality blastocysts (P<0.01). The expression levels of IGF-II showed negative correlation with the levels of HSP70 (r=-0.70; P<0.05); however, the correlation of expression levels of...

  4. Circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin - like growth factor - I (IGF-I) in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    Circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin - like growth factor - I (EGF-I) were estimated in 58 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and were correlated with clinically and biochemically important prognosticators. EGF-I levels were significantly low in patients as compared to controls. The relation of growth factors with clinically important prognosticators was non - significant. Moreover, the levels of EGF and IGF - I in ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- groups and in the low and high EGFR + tumors did not differ significantly. Patients with EGF1.0 ng/ml. (author)

  5. An immunologic approach to induction of epidermal growth factor deficiency

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier;


    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in pharmacologic doses is able to induce growth and development in the fetus and the newborn. To investigate the opposite situation, the effects of insufficient amounts of EGF during development, we wanted to establish an in vivo model with a state of EGF deficiency....

  6. Factor Accumulation and Economic Growth in Pakistan: Incorporating Human Capital

    Arshad, Shahzad; Munir, Kashif


    The objective of this study is to analyze relationship between factor accumulation and economic growth in Pakistan for the time period of 1973 to 2014 using ARDL bound testing approach to cointegration. Considering human capital as a core factor of production we have constructed a series of human capital as average year of schooling and real capital stock is also generated on the basis of gross fixed capital formation. Under endogenous growth model bound testing approach to cointegration sugg...

  7. Clinical Application of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Wound Healing

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana


    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of non-healing wounds (e.g. pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted a nonline search of Medline and Pub Medical and crit...

  8. Neonatal Fibroblast Growth Factor Treatment Enhances Cocaine Sensitization

    Clinton, Sarah M; Turner, Cortney A.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Simpson, Danielle N.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda


    Growth factors are critical in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, and recent studies point to their involvement in addiction. We previously reported increased levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) in high novelty/drug-seeking rats (bred High Responders, bHR) compared to low novelty/drug-seeking rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs). The present study asked whether an early life manipulation of the FGF system (a single FGF2 injection on postnatal day 2) can impact cocaine sensitization...

  9. Cardiac Regeneration using Growth Factors: Advances and Challenges

    Juliana de Souza Rebouças; Nereide Stela Santos-Magalhães; Fabio Rocha Formiga


    Abstract Myocardial infarction is the most significant manifestation of ischemic heart disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Novel strategies targeting at regenerating the injured myocardium have been investigated, including gene therapy, cell therapy, and the use of growth factors. Growth factor therapy has aroused interest in cardiovascular medicine because of the regeneration mechanisms induced by these biomolecules, including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remod...

  10. Exercise and angiogenic growth factors in human skeletal muscle

    Gustafsson, Thomas


    Long-term electrical stimulation and endurance exercise increase the amount of capillaries in skeletal muscle. VEGF-A is a well-characterized stimulatory angiogenic growth factor and has shown to play an important role in angiogenesis in pathological conditions in humans and in physiological conditions in animal models. A close relationship has recently been observed between VEGF-A and another group of endothelial specific growth factors, angiopoietins, during development an...

  11. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Kusumanto, Yoka Hadiani


    This thesis focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, an angiogenic growth factor. Since the recognition of VEGF’s pivotal role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis research has evolved from cell culture and animal experiments to application in humans. The studies described in this thesis aim to contribute to the evaluation of circulating VEGF as a surrogate marker in the quantification of angiogenesis and of the therapeutic role of V...

  12. Influence of forced convection on unidirectional growth of crystals

    Influence of forced convection on the growth rate of KDP crystal grown by unidirectional method has been investigated. The results were compared with the crystal grown under free convection conditions. To the best of our knowledge the effect of forced convection on unidirectional growth has been reported for the first time. An apparatus was designed and developed for growth of crystals by cooling under forced convection conditions. The growth rate achieved under forced convection was double to that under free convection conditions. Transmittance in the visible region for the crystals grown under the two types of convection regimes was ∼90%. Birefringence and Mach-Zehnder interferometry shows good refractive index homogeneity of the grown crystals.

  13. Effect of sericin on diabetic hippocampal growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis***

    Zhihong Chen; Songhe Yang; Yaqiang He; Chengjun Song; Yongping Liu


    Previous studies have shown that sericin extracted from silk cocoon significantly reduces blood glucose levels and protects the nervous system against diabetes mel itus. In this study, a rat type 2 diabetes mel itus model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin for 3 successive days, fol owing which the rats were treated with sericin for 35 days. After treatment, the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats decreased significantly, the growth hormone level in serum and its expression in the hippocampus decreased significantly, while the insulin-like growth factor-1 level in serum and insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone receptor expression in the hippocampus increased significantly. The experimental findings indicate that sericin improves disorders of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis to al eviate hippocampal damage in diabetic rats.

  14. A full factorial analysis of nine factors influencing in vitro antagonistic screens for potential biocontrol agents.

    Dickie, G A; Bell, C R


    The effect of nine factors on the outcome of classic in vitro screens testing the antagonistic action of endophytic bacterial isolates from grape vines against virulent Agrobacterium vitis has been examined. These factors were (i) the strain of A. vitis, (ii) the strain of endophyte, (iii) the growth medium of the pathogen, (iv) the growth medium of the endophyte, (v) the temperature of growth of the pathogen, (vi) the temperature of growth of the endophyte, (vii) the pH of growth of the pathogen, (viii) the pH of growth of the endophyte, and (ix) the medium of the assay plate. Analyses of variance of the full factorial design incorporating main effects and two- and three-way interactions accounted for 66% of the variance. All nine factors had a significant effect on the diameter of inhibition zones (p antagonism (especially the composition of the growth medium and the temperature of growth), had a profound effect on the outcome of the test. Generally the more chemically defined media produced less inhibition whereas the lower growth temperature of 15 degrees C produced more inhibition. These findings could be relevant to in situ inhibitory activity. The method used to conduct the inhibitory screen (order of strain application and the medium of the assay plate) had a profound influence on the results. These influences add to the caution necessary in the use of in vitro antagonistic screens for finding successful biocontrol agents. PMID:7736357


    魏木生; 刘巧华


    In this article, we derive upper bounds of different growth factors for the LU factorization, which are dominated by A11(k)-1A12(k),A21(k)A11(k)-1, where A11(k), A12(k), A21(k), A22(k) are sub-matrices of A. We also derive upper bounds of growth factors for the Cholesky factorization. Numerical examples are presented to verify our findings.

  16. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Rina Wu


    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  17. Typical Bamboo Habitat Ecological Factors Influence Evaluation

    He Lu; Zhenran Gao; Guangzhi Di; Hongzhou Qian


    Ecological factors is generally refers to only important factor in a variety of biological impact of environmental factors and it is to determine the distribution of habitats. To analyze the Yunnan Bambusoideae affecting habitat distribution ecological factors principal component, first analyze the basic theory and geometric meaning of the Principal Component. Based on this analysis to determine the steps, we selected hollow bamboo genera hollow bamboo as a typical case of bamboo species for ...

  18. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Masud, E. [ed.


    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  19. Epidermal growth factor reactivity in rat milk

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Tollund, L;


    The concentration of EGF immunoreactivity in rat whey increases from 0.3 pmol/ml at lactation day 1 to 2.0 pmol/ml at lactation day 19. The concentration of EGF is not influenced when the rats undergo sialoadenectomy prior to mating. On S-200 gel chromatography, almost all EGF-reactivity in rat...... whey elutes as a broad peak corresponding to a Stokes radius of 4.0 nm (an approximate molecular weight of 80 kDa). Almost no 6 kDa EGF is present. Judged by gel filtration of whey pre-incubated with 125I-EGF (6 kDa), no binding protein for EGF is present in rat whey. When rat milk is incubated...... in rat whey behaves as a peptide with a Stokes radius of 2.7 nm, corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa at gel filtration. Comparative binding studies between EGF purified from the submandibular glands and the EGF purified from rat whey confirm differences in the binding to...

  20. Exogenous Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior on the Insurance Market

    Petrescu Marian; Ioncic? Diana Eugenia,; Petrescu Eva-Cristina


    The insurance services’ consumer behavior is influenced by a series of factors, which can be divided, function of their nature, in endogenous and exogenous factors. The potential insurance client’s behavior is influenced by the following main categories of exogenous factors: situational factors – related to the moment before the sale of the insurance policy (connected, for instance, to the process of communication between the insured and the insurer), the moment of purchase of the insurance p...


    ZHANG; Long


    [1]LIU Xu-wen, FU Pei-yu, GAO Zhi-xian. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human glioma [J]. Chin J Neurosurgery 1998; 14:71.[2]Wong AJ, Ruppert JM, Bigner SH, et al. Structural alterations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in human gliomas [J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89:4309.[3]Webster J, Ham J, Bevan JS. Preliminary characterization of growth factors secreted by human pituitary tumors [J]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 72:687.[4]Klibanski A. Nonsecreting pituitary tumors [J]. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1987; 16:793.[5]LeRiche VK, Asa SL, Ezzat S. Epidermal growth factor and its receptor (EGF-R) in human pituitary adenomas: EGF-R correlates with tumor aggressiveness [J]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81:656.

  2. Influence of growth retardant on growth and development of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch

    Anna Pobudkiewicz


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of single foliar flurprimidol treatment on morphology and transpiration of ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias. The growth retardant flurprimidol (Topflor 015 SL) was applied once as a foliar spray at concentrations of 5, 10 or 15 mg × dm-3 when lateral shoots were about 5 cm in length. Single foliar flurprimidol treatment was sufficient to inhibit stem elongation of both poinsettia cultivars. The degree of growth inhibition depended on cu...

  3. Inducing effects of hepatocyte growth factor on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human colorectal carcinoma cells through MEK and PI3K signaling pathways

    ZHANG Yu-hua; WEI Wei; XU Hao; WANG Yan-yan; WU Wen-xi


    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a key role in human colorectal carcinoma invasion and metastasis. However, the regulation mechanism remains unknown. Recent studies have shown that several cytokines can regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor cells. In this study, we investigated whether hepatocyte growth factor can regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal carcinoma cells.Methods Hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in human serum were measured by ELISA.The mRNA level of vascular endothelial growth factor was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR. Western blot assay was performed to evaluate levels of c-Met and several other proteins involved in the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in colorectal carcinoma cells.Results Serum hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly increased in colorectal carcinoma subjects. In vitro extraneous hepatocyte growth factor markedly increased protein and mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal carcinoma cells. Hepatocyte growth factor induced phosphorylation of c-Met, ERK1/2 and AKT in a dose-dependent manner. Specific inhibitors on MEK and PI3K inhibited the hepatocyte growth factor-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal carcinoma cells.Conclusion This present study indicates that hepatocyte growth factor upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal carcinoma cells via the MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

  4. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor/Diphtheria Toxin Receptor in Normal and Neoplastic Hematopoiesis

    Fabrizio Vinante; Antonella Rigo


    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) belongs to the EGF family of growth factors. It is biologically active either as a molecule anchored to the membrane or as a soluble form released by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. HB-EGF is involved in relevant physiological and pathological processes spanning from proliferation and apoptosis to morphogenesis. We outline here the main activities of HB-EGF in connection with normal or neoplastic differentiative or proliferativ...

  5. Product platforms: influencing factors and effects

    Uddin, Abul Hasnat Md Zakir


    The product platform strategy is well known for its several positive effects. However, these effects differ under different market situations. Several product platform projects related decisions can influence these effects. This research work will show how these effects are influenced by decisions under different market situations, findings will help academics in enriching product platform theories and, it will help managers to take proper decisions to enhance the possibility of product platf...

  6. Environmental influence on mussel (Mytilus edulis) growth - A quantile regression approach

    Bergström, Per; Lindegarth, Mats


    The need for methods for sustainable management and use of coastal ecosystems has increased in the last century. A key aspect for obtaining ecologically and economically sustainable aquaculture in threatened coastal areas is the requirement of geographic information of growth and potential production capacity. Growth varies over time and space and depends on a complex pattern of interactions between the bivalve and a diverse range of environmental factors (e.g. temperature, salinity, food availability). Understanding these processes and modelling the environmental control of bivalve growth has been central in aquaculture. In contrast to the most conventional modelling techniques, quantile regression can handle cases where not all factors are measured and provide the possibility to estimate the effect at different levels of the response distribution and give therefore a more complete picture of the relationship between environmental factors and biological response. Observation of the relationships between environmental factors and growth of the bivalve Mytilus edulis revealed relationships that varied both among level of growth rate and within the range of environmental variables along the Swedish west coast. The strongest patterns were found for water oxygen concentration level which had a negative effect on growth for all oxygen levels and growth levels. However, these patterns coincided with differences in growth among periods and very little of the remaining variability within periods could be explained indicating that interactive processes masked the importance of the individual variables. By using quantile regression and local regression (LOESS) this study was able to provide valuable information on environmental factors influencing the growth of M. edulis and important insight for the development of ecosystem based management tools of aquaculture activities, its use in mitigation efforts and successful management of human use of coastal areas.

  7. Intracellular growth factors in polycythemia vera and other myeloproliferative disorders.

    Eid, J.; Ebert, R F; Gesell, M S; Spivak, J L


    In polycythemia vera, idiopathic myelofibrosis, and essential thrombocytosis, hematopoietic cell proliferation is increased in the absence of a recognizable stimulus, suggesting the autonomous production of growth factors in these disorders. Sonicates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with polycythemia vera, idiopathic myelofibrosis, and essential thrombocytosis contained soluble factors that stimulated the proliferation of quiescent-confluent 3T3 cells. PBMNC sonica...

  8. Instability restricts signaling of multiple fibroblast growth factors

    Buchtová, Marcela; Chaloupková, R.; Zakrzewska, M.; Veselá, I.; Celá, Petra; Barathová, J.; Gudernová, I.; Zajíčková, R.; Trantírek, L.; Martin, J.; Kostas, M.; Otlewski, J.; Damborský, J.; Kozubík, Alois; Wiedlocha, A.; Krejčí, P.


    Roč. 72, č. 12 (2015), s. 2445-2459. ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31540S; GA ČR GBP302/12/G157 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor * FGF * unstable Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.808, year: 2014

  9. Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia

    Riva Uda


    Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-II: possible local growth factor in pheochromocytoma.

    Gelato, M C; Vassalotti, J


    Pheochromocytomas, neural crest tumors, express an abundance of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II). To assess further the potential for IGF-II to play an autocrine role for these tumors, we measured 1) IGF-II content by RRA in 7 pheochromocytomas and peripheral blood in these patients, 2) IGF-II receptors by Western analysis, and 3) characterized the tumor binding proteins by ligand blot studies. IGF-II levels in the tumors varied from 2.8-41 micrograms/g. Chromatography revealed that 60% of the peptide eluted as a large mol wt form of IGF-II (8.7-10 kDa); the remainder coeluted with mature peptide (7.5 kDa). This was in contrast to IGF-II levels in normal adrenal tissue (0.225 +/- 0.005 micrograms/g) or another neural crest-derived tumor, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (0.63 +/- 0.02 micrograms/g). Serum IGF-II levels in the 7 patients with pheochromocytoma (720 +/- 71 ng/mL) were similar to those in 35 normal controls (762 +/- 69 ng/mL). Radiolabeled IGF-II (9 +/- 1%) and IGF-I (20 +/- 2%) bound specifically to pheochromocytoma membranes. Western analysis of these membranes using a specific antiserum directed against the type II receptor demonstrated a band at 210 kDa. Affinity cross-linking studies with [125I]IGF-I demonstrated a specific band at 140 kDa. Ligand blot analysis was performed on the void volume pools from the Sephadex G-75 column and demonstrated bands at about 30 and 25 kDa. In conclusion, these data 1) confirm that pheochromocytomas have increased levels of IGF-II; 2) demonstrate that despite high IGF-II concentrations in the tumors, peripheral levels are not elevated, suggesting that very little tumoral IGF-II is released into the circulation, unlike catecholamines; 3) demonstrate the presence of IGF-II and IGF-I receptors; 4) describe binding protein species similar to those present in other tissues. Thus, the presence of high levels of IGF-II and both type I and type II receptors suggests that IGF II may act through both receptors to

  11. Influence of nutrition and various substrates on spruce seedling growth

    Đukić Matilda


    Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.

  12. Making a tooth: growth factors, transcription factors, and stem cells

    Yah Ding ZHANG; Zhi CHEN; Yi Qiang SONG; Chao LIU; Yi Ping CHEN


    Mammalian tooth development is largely dependent on sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.These processes involve a series of inductive and permissive interactions that result in the determination, differentiation,and organization of odontogenic tissues. Multiple signaling molecules, including BMPs, FGFs, Shh, and Wnt proteins,have been implicated in mediating these tissue interactions. Transcription factors participate in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions via linking the signaling loops between tissue layers by responding to inductive signals and regulating the expression of other signaling molecules. Adult stem cells are highly plastic and multipotent. These cells including dental pulp stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells could be reprogrammed into odontogenic fate and participated in tooth formation. Recent progress in the studies of molecular basis of tooth development, adult stem cell biology, and regeneration will provide fundamental knowledge for the realization of human tooth regeneration in the near future.

  13. Typical Bamboo Habitat Ecological Factors Influence Evaluation

    He Lu


    Full Text Available Ecological factors is generally refers to only important factor in a variety of biological impact of environmental factors and it is to determine the distribution of habitats. To analyze the Yunnan Bambusoideae affecting habitat distribution ecological factors principal component, first analyze the basic theory and geometric meaning of the Principal Component. Based on this analysis to determine the steps, we selected hollow bamboo genera hollow bamboo as a typical case of bamboo species for this analysis. The second to standardize ecological factors data, building Habitat distribution Factor correlation matrix to determine y1, y2, y3 as three main components. Evaluate the habitat distribution of hollow bamboo by principal component analysis.

  14. Chapter 6. Radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value. Chapter consistsof next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of plants; (2) Radioactive contamination of plants; (3) Factors influencing radioactivity of biological chain soil - plant; (4) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of agricultural and food products

  15. Analysis of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    Jing; GAO; Fang; YANG


    Based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,this article uses the multivariate adjustment regression analysis method,to analyze the factors influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity and the mechanism. The results show that demographic characteristics are still an important factor influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity,but the extent of its influence is weaker than entrepreneurs’ trait. The new trait theory is verified in farmers’ entrepreneurship opportunity behavior; entrepreneurship environment is becoming an important factor influencing entrepreneurial opportunity identification,whose regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ social network and previous experience is stronger than the regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ psychological trait.

  16. A placenta growth factor 2 variant acts as dominant negative of vascular endothelial growth factor A by heterodimerization mechanism

    Tarallo, Valeria; Tudisco, Laura; Falco, Sandro De


    Angiogenesis is one of the crucial events for cancer development and growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family plays an essential role in this biological phenomenon. The members of VEGF family mainly involved in angiogenesis are VEGF-A, VEGF-B and placental growth factor (PlGF), which exert their activity through the binding and activation of two VEGF receptors, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. Human VEGF-A and PlGF are expressed in different isoforms and have the peculiarity to form he...

  17. Effects of Electromagnetic Field and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Osteoblast's Growth

    GUOYong; ZHANGXi-zheng; WANGHao; LIBin; LIRui-xin; WUJin-hui; ZHAOYun-shan; WUJi-min


    Osteoblasts of rat cultured in vitro were stimulated with pulsed 50 Hz electromagnetic field and basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF). The MTT method, flow cytometry and histochemistry staining were used to detect cell proliferation, cell cycle and alkaline phosphatase. The results indicated : after stimulated by 1 mT electromagnetic field, the cells are more abundant,have more S phase percentages, 2 mT electromagnetic field have no evident effect on cells' growth;compared with electromagnetic field, the cells stimulated by bFGF are more abundant and have larger S phase ratios. Electromagnetic field and bFGF have no effect on cells, alkaline phosphatase. Therefore ,we concluded that electromagnetic field can enhance osteoblasts growth like some growth factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and the osteoblasts', characteristics was not changed.

  18. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    Dumitru Mnerie


    Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.

  19. Short-latency local actions of nerve growth factor at the growth cone.

    Seeley, P J; Greene, L A


    Cultures of neurite-bearing pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and of sympathetic neurons have been examined by time-lapse video microscopy. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), the neurites of such cultures elongated and their growth cones changed geometry, via microspike and lamellipodial motion, on a time scale of minutes. Withdrawal of NGF caused process extension to cease and a progressive reduction in growth-cone area as a result of retraction of lamellipodia and microspikes. By app...

  20. Active synthesis of epidermal growth factor in human mammary glands

    Mieczysław Walczak


    Full Text Available Background. Human milk contains considerable number of growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. There are no data comparing the EGF and IGF-1 levels in the serum and milk of breast-feeding women. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess a possible relationship between the concentrations of these growth factors. Material and methods. Thirty-nine women in child-birth were included in the study. All women provided blood and milk samples during the first six hours after delivery. EGF (by immunoenzymatic method and IGF-1 (by radioimmunossay method concentrations were measured in both media. Results. EGF breast milk concentrations ranged from 3.18 to 4.51 ng/ml and on average were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than those found in the women’s serum (from 0.02 to 0.13 ng/ml. The opposite distribution was found for IGF-1 levels. Its milk concentrations ranged from 8.8 to 61.9 ng/ml and on average were significantly lower (p < 0.0001 than the serum concentrations (from 192.6 to 595.3 ng/ml. No correlation was found between the serum and milk concentrations of both growth factors. Conclusion. EGF seems to be synthesized locally in mammary glands, whereas IGF-1 probably permeates into the milk from the vascular bed.  

  1. Study on Influencing Factors of Capital Structure of Energy Listed Companies

    HUANG Guo-liang; LI Qiang


    Based on the determinative factors school of capital structure theory, this paper uses the data of 35 Chinese energy listed companies from 2000 to 2003, and adopts multi-variable regression method to make an empirical study of the influencing factors of their capital structure. The results indicate that the factors of size, income volatility, and the concentration of owner's equity have positive relation with the capital structure, while the relation between profitability and capital structure is negative. It is also found that the influencing of growth and secured asset on the capital structure are relatively insignificant.

  2. Urinary transforming growth factors in neoplasia: separation of 125I-labeled transforming growth factor-alpha from epidermal growth factor in human urine

    Purified human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) from urine promotes anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar medium. This growth is enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and is specifically inhibited by hEGF antiserum. Transforming growth factors of the alpha type (TGF-alpha), potentially present in normal human urine or urine from tumor-bearing patients, also promote anchorage-independent cell growth and compete with EGF for membrane receptor binding. Consequently, TGF-alpha cannot be distinguished from urinary hEGF by these two functional assays. Therefore, a technique for separation of TGF-alpha and related peptides from urinary EGF based on biochemical characteristics would be useful. Radioiodination of characterized growth factors [mouse EGF (mEGF), hEGF, and rat TGF-alpha (rTGF-alpha)], which were then separately added to human urine, was used to evaluate a resolution scheme that separates TGF-alpha from the high level of background hEGF present in human urine. Methyl bonded microparticulate silica efficiently adsorbed the 125I-labeled mEGF, 125I-labeled hEGF, and 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha that were added to 24-h human urine samples. Fractional elution with acetonitrile (MeCN) of the adsorbed silica released approximately 70 to 80% of the 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF between 25 and 30% MeCN, and over 80% of the 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha between 15 and 25% MeCN, with retention after dialysis of less than 0.2 and 1.7% of the original urinary protein, respectively. A single-step enrichment of about 400-fold for mEGF and hEGF, and 50-fold for rTGF-alpha were achieved rapidly. 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF eluted later than would be predicted on the basis of their reported molecular weight of approximately 6000, whereas 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha eluted from Bio-Gel P-10 at an approximate molecular weight of 8000 to 9000

  3. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Petrovici, Dan A.; Ritson, Christopher


    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decis...

  4. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Ritson Christopher; Petrovici Dan A


    Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individ...

  5. Examining the Factors Influencing Environmental Innovations

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Zoboli, Roberto


    Technological innovation is a key factor for achieving a better environmental performance of firms and the economy as a whole, to the extent that it helps to increase the material/energy efficiency of production processes and to reduce emission/effluents associated to outputs. Environmental innovation may spur from exogenous driving forces, like policy intervention, and/or from endogenous factors associated to firm market and management strategies. Despite the crucial importance of research i...

  6. Growth-promoting action and growth factor release by different platelet derivatives.

    Passaretti, F; Tia, M; D'Esposito, V; De Pascale, M; Del Corso, M; Sepulveres, R; Liguoro, D; Valentino, R; Beguinot, F; Formisano, P; Sammartino, G


    Abstract Platelet derivatives are commonly used in wound healing and tissue regeneration. Different procedures of platelet preparation may differentially affect growth factor release and cell growth. Preparation of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is accompanied by release of growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), and several cytokines. When compared with the standard procedure for platelet-rich plasma (PRP), PRF released 2-fold less PDGF, but >15-fold and >2-fold VEGF and TGFβ1, respectively. Also, the release of several cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFNγ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β and TNFα) was significantly increased in PRF-conditioned medium (CM), compared to PRP-CM. Incubation of both human skin fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with PRF-derived membrane (mPRF) or with PRF-CM enhanced cell proliferation by >2-fold (pVEGF in the PRF-CM. Thus, the procedure of PRP preparation leads to a larger release of PDGF, as a possible result of platelet degranulation, while PRF enhances the release of proangiogenic factors. PMID:23855408

  7. Factors Influencing The Tasks Performed By Paraprofessionals In Elementary Inclusive Classrooms

    Cramer, Margaret M. Jr.


    Factors Influencing The Tasks Performed By Paraprofessionals In Elementary Inclusive Classrooms by Margaret M. Cramer Dr. Harold McGrady and Dr. Christina M. Dawson, Co-Chairs Administration and Supervision of Special Education (Abstract) Although there has been a phenomenal growth in the utilization of paraprofessionals in inclusive classrooms in recent years, few ...

  8. Factor income taxation, growth, and investment specific technological change

    Monisankar Bishnu; Chetan Ghate; Pawan Gopalakrishnan


    We construct a tractable endogenous growth model with production externalities in which the public capital stock augments investment speci?c technological change. We characterize the ?rst best ?scal policy and show that there exist several labor and capital tax-subsidy combinations that decentralize the planner?s growth rate. The optimal factor income tax mix is therefore indeterminate which gives the planner the flexibility to choose policy rules from a large set. Our model explains why many...

  9. Perinatal factors, growth and development, and osteosarcoma risk

    Troisi, R; Masters, M N; Joshipura, K; Douglass, C; Cole, B. F.; Hoover, R N


    Osteosarcoma incidence patterns suggest an aetiologic role for perinatal factors, and growth and development. Osteosarcoma patients (n=158) and controls with benign orthopaedic conditions (n=141) under age 40 were recruited from US orthopaedic surgery departments. Exposures were ascertained by interview, birth, and growth records. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Current height and age- and sex-specific height percentiles were not associ...




    Full Text Available Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to organize resources and competence in novel patterns. Enterprises extend their ability to develop new business concepts, their dynamic capability, by accessing external resources. This study proposes to investigate how the use of external resources varies in the course of SMEs innovation processes, and how deployment of external resources is influenced by the nature of the innovation as well as by the context of the innovation process.

  11. Factors influencing EB curing of epoxy matrix

    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated

  12. Factors influencing EB curing of epoxy matrix

    Li Fengmei E-mail:; Bao Jianwen; Chen Xiangbao; Bao Huaying; Wang Huiliang


    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated.

  13. Insulin-like growth factor-1: roles in androgenetic alopecia.

    Panchaprateep, Ratchathorn; Asawanonda, Pravit


    Of all the cytokines or growth factors that have been postulated to play a role in hair follicle, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to be regulated by androgens. However, how IGF-1 is altered in the balding scalp has not yet been investigated. In this study, expressions of IGF-1 and its binding proteins by dermal papilla (DP) cells obtained from balding versus non-balding hair follicles were quantified using growth factor array. DP cells from balding scalp follicles were found to secrete significantly less IGF-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 (P balding counterparts. Our data confirmed that the downregulation of IGF-1 may be one of the important mechanisms contributing to male pattern baldness. PMID:24499417

  14. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; McCONNELL, ROB; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer


    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods charact...

  15. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale;


    Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three...... factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which m...

  16. The influence of different forms of government spending on distribution and growth

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Panico, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio


    This paper deals with the influence of different types of government expenditure on growth. It widens that proposed by the literature which follows the lines set by Barro (1990) because it adds the changes working through the demand side, generated by the variations in the distribution of the net income of the economy, to those working through the supply side, generated by the variations in factor productivity. The analysis considers a government sector with a balanced budget and an autonomou...

  17. Nerve growth factor levels and localisation in human asthmatic bronchi.

    Olgart Höglund, C; de Blay, F; Oster, J P; Duvernelle, C; Kassel, O; Pauli, G; Frossard, N


    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has recently been suggested to be an important mediator of inflammation. In support of this, serum levels of NGF have been shown to be enhanced in asthmatics. However, it has not yet been shown whether the levels of NGF are also altered locally in asthmatic airways, when compared with healthy subjects, and the localisation of potential sources of NGF in the human bronchus have not yet been described. The aim of the present study was to assess NGF levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asthmatics and to compare them to those of control subjects. Furthermore, the authors wanted to localise potential sources of NGF in bronchial tissue, and to number NGF-immunopositive infiltrating cells in the bronchial submucosa. BALF and bronchial biopsies were obtained from seven control subjects and seven asthmatic patients by fibreoptic bronchoscopy. NGF protein levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in BALF. NGF localisation was examined by immunohistochemistry on bronchial biopsy sections. The asthmatics exhibited significantly enhanced NGF levels in BALF. Intense NGF-immunoreactivity was observed in bronchial epithelium, smooth muscle cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells in the submucosa, and to a lesser extent in the connective tissue. The asthmatics exhibited a higher number of NGF-immunoreactive infiltrating cells in the bronchial submucosa than control subjects. This study provides evidence that nerve growth factor is locally produced in the airways, and shows that this production is enhanced in asthmatics. These findings suggest that nerve growth factor is produced by both structural cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells in human bronchus in vivo, and the authors suggest that the increase in nerve growth factor protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid observed in asthmatic patients may originate both from structural cells, producing increased nerve growth factor levels in inflammatory conditons, and from

  18. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G


    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689

  19. Influencing factors of infrared surveying in roadway

    CAI Kang-xu; GUO Da


    The main factors that affect infrared surveying in roadway include that property of rock, electromechanical equipments running, environmental temperature, hydrogeology and support material etc. This paper sums up the expression features of these disturbing factor through theoretical analysis and actual measurement contrasts and considers that some tunnel section does not suit to go on infrared survey, for instance, soft rock meets water to expanse, and surround rock has obviously pouring water. The basic methods had made evading disturbing of electromechanical equipments, environmental temperature and protect material etc to become possible. It is helpful that offers infrared surveying technical service for production safety better in roadway.

  20. The Effect of Insulin-Like Growth Factor System on Embryo Growth and Development

    H.B. Ciftci


    Full Text Available Insulin like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II are expressed in embryos and reproductive tracts of several species including cow, sheep and swine. They are mitogenic and have endocrine, paracrine and autocrine function infusing cell division, blastocyst formation, implantation and embryo growth. Increase in embryo growth will probably result with a higher implantation rates leading to consequent increases in the number of live offspring. In this review, insulin, IGFs, their receptors and their physiology and function in embryonic growth development were concerned.

  1. Small Is Beautiful: Insulin-Like Growth Factors and Their Role in Growth, Development, and Cancer

    Maki, Robert G.


    Insulin-like growth factors were discovered more than 50 years ago as mediators of growth hormone that effect growth and differentiation of bone and skeletal muscle. Interest of the role of insulin-like growth factors in cancer reached a peak in the 1990s, and then waned until the availability in the past 5 years of monoclonal antibodies and small molecules that block the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. In this article, we review the history of insulin-like growth factors and their role in growth, development, organism survival, and in cancer, both epithelial cancers and sarcomas. Recent developments regarding phase I to II clinical trials of such agents are discussed, as well as potential studies to consider in the future, given the lack of efficacy of one such monoclonal antibody in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy in a first-line study in metastatic non–small-cell lung adenocarcinoma. Greater success with these agents clinically is expected when combining the agents with inhibitors of other cell signaling pathways in which cross-resistance has been observed. PMID:20975071

  2. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii


    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  3. Factor prices and productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution

    Antras, Pol; Voth, Hans-Joachim


    This paper presents new estimates of total factor productivity growth in Britain for the period 1770–1860. We use the dual technique and argue that the estimates we derive from factor prices are of similar quality to quantity-based calculations. Our results provide further evidence, calculated on the basis of an independent set of sources, that productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution was relatively slow. The Crafts–Harley view of the Industrial Revolution is thus rein...

  4. Preliminary evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for platelet derived growth factor

    Together with insulin and epidermal growth factor, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of the most important and powerful mitogens. The authors developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a double incubation solid phase for human PDGF, in some biological fluids. Immunoglobulins were immobilized via protein A. using purified recombinant protein A at 1 mg/L with monoclonal antibody against human recombinant PDGF (BB) at 1000 fmol/tube, a binding capacity of approx. 17% was obtained. Non-specific binding (NSB%) was 50 ng/mL in 9 of 10 serum samples tested. (author). 18 refs, 8 figs

  5. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie


    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that

  6. Factors influencing parameters of laser ion sources

    Láska, Leoš; Badziak, J.; Boody, F. P.; Gammino, S.; Jungwirth, Karel; Krása, Josef; Krouský, Eduard; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Ryč, L.; Skála, Jiří; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Wolowski, J.


    Roč. 25, - (2007), s. 199-205. ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : highly charged ions * laser -produced plasma * self-focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 4.696, year: 2007

  7. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    Frederickson, Norah


    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  8. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P


    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  9. Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function

    Seino, Yoshiki

    Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-β family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-β, and third IGF-I. TGF-β enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-β affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-β mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-β is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-β and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

  10. The effects of hematopoietic growth factors on neurite outgrowth.

    Ye Su

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF are initially discovered as the essential hematopoietic growth factors regulating bone marrow stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and SCF in combination with G-CSF (SCF+G-CSF has synergistic effects on bone marrow stem cell mobilization. In this study we have determined the effect of SCF and G-CSF on neurite outgrowth in rat cortical neurons. Using molecular and cellular biology and live cell imaging approaches, we have revealed that receptors for SCF and G-CSF are expressed on the growth core of cortical neurons, and that SCF+G-CSF synergistically enhances neurite extension through PI3K/AKT and NFκB signaling pathways. Moreover, SCF+G-CSF induces much greater NFκB activation, NFκB transcriptional binding and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF production than SCF or G-CSF alone. In addition, we have also observed that BDNF, the target gene of NFκB, is required for SCF+G-CSF-induced neurite outgrowth. These data suggest that SCF+G-CSF has synergistic effects to promote neurite growth. This study provides new insights into the contribution of hematopoietic growth factors in neuronal plasticity.

  11. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille


    focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24%) and...... placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special...

  12. Cheiradone: a vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor antagonist

    Ahmed Nessar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is associated with physiological (for example wound healing and pathological conditions (tumour development. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF are the major angiogenic regulators. We have identified a natural product (cheiradone isolated from a Euphorbia species which inhibited in vivo and in vitro VEGF- stimulated angiogenesis but had no effect on FGF-2 or EGF activity. Two primary cultures, bovine aortic and human dermal endothelial cells were used in in vitro (proliferation, wound healing, invasion in Matrigel and tube formation and in vivo (the chick chorioallantoic membrane models of angiogenesis in the presence of growth factors and cheiradone. In all cases, the concentration of cheiradone which caused 50% inhibition (IC50 was determined. The effect of cheiradone on the binding of growth factors to their receptors was also investigated. Results Cheiradone inhibited all stages of VEGF-induced angiogenesis with IC50 values in the range 5.20–7.50 μM but did not inhibit FGF-2 or EGF-induced angiogenesis. It also inhibited VEGF binding to VEGF receptor-1 and 2 with IC50 values of 2.9 and 0.61 μM respectively. Conclusion Cheiradone inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis by binding to VEGF receptors -1 and -2 and may be a useful investigative tool to study the specific contribution of VEGF to angiogenesis and may have therapeutic potential.

  13. Alterations of the genes involved in the PI3K and estrogen-receptor pathways influence outcome in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy with trastuzumab is widely used for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer, but a significant number of patients with the tumor fail to respond, or relapse. The mechanisms of recurrence and biomarkers that indicate the response to the chemotherapy and outcome are not fully investigated. Genomic alterations were analyzed using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in 46 HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) 3+ or 2+/fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)+ breast cancers that were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel, cyclophosphamid, epirubicin, fluorouracil, and trastuzumab. Patients were classified into two groups based on presence or absence of alterations of 65 cancer-associated genes, and the two groups were further classified into four groups based on genomic HER2 copy numbers or hormone receptor status (HR+/−). Pathological complete response (pCR) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were compared between any two of the groups. The pCR rate was 54% in 37 patients, and the RFS rate at 3 years was 72% (95% CI, 0.55-0.89) in 42 patients. The analysis disclosed 8 tumors with nonamplified HER2 and 38 tumors with HER2 amplification, indicating the presence of discordance in tumors diagnosed using current HER2 testing. The 8 patients showed more difficulty in achieving pCR (P=0.019), more frequent relapse (P=0.018), and more frequent alterations of genes in the PI3K pathway (P=0.009) than the patients with HER2 amplification. The alterations of the PI3K and estrogen receptor (ER) pathway genes generally indicated worse RFS rates. The prognostic significance of the alterations was shown in patients with a HR+ tumor, but not in patients with a HR- tumor when divided. Alterations of the PI3K and ER pathway genes found in patients with a HR+ tumor with poor outcome suggested that crosstalk between the two pathways may be involved in resistance to the current chemotherapy with trastuzumab. We

  14. Intussusception: Clinical and radiographic factors influencing reducibility

    Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.)

  15. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand identification

    Naser Azad; Daryoush Raoof; Shabnam Haj Seyed Javadi; Hamed Asgari; Hamid Bagheri


    Building a famous brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. A good brand name plays an important role on increasing word of mouth advertisement, the number of loyal customers and repurchase habits. However, in order to build a good brand, we need to create sustainable brand identification and to do this we need to determine influential factors. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing brand identification. The p...

  16. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha


    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. PMID:25521518

  17. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    V. Proto


    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  18. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A.


    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with...

  19. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark


    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

  20. Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antibody for Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Hanson, Joseph A.; Hsu, Frank P K; Jacob, Arun T; Bota, Daniela A.; Alexandru, Daniela


    Despite aggressive investigation, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains one of the deadliest cancers, with low progression-free survival and high one-year mortality. Current first-line therapy includes surgery with adjuvant radiation therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy, but virtually all tumors recur. Given the highly vascular nature of GBM and its high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and other angiogenic factors, recent investigation has turned to bevacizumab, an antivascular...

  1. The role of macrophage derived growth factors in pulmonary fibrosis

    Factors released from rat alveolar macrophages exposed to high (95 μg/mL) concentrations of the fibrogenic agent, nickel subsulfide, were found to inhibit the proliferation of cultured lung epithelial cells and stimulate the growth of fibroblasts. Such factors, if present in the alveoli of rats exposed by inhalation to nickel subsulfide in vivo, may play a role in inhibiting re-epithelization of nickel-damaged lungs and in stimulating fibroblast proliferation, leading to pulmonary fibrosis. (author)

  2. Growth/differentiation factor-15: prostate cancer suppressor or promoter?

    Vaňhara, P.; Hampl, A.; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel


    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2012), s. 320-328. ISSN 1365-7852 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9600; GA MZd NS9956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : MACROPHAGE-INHIBITORY CYTOKINE-1 * GROWTH-DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-15 * TGF-BETA SUPERFAMILY Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2012

  3. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.


    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  4. Key variables influencing patterns of lava dome growth and collapse

    Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.


    transition in the growth pattern, while a decrease in infusion rate results in larger crystals causing the material to stiffen leading to formation of spines. Material stiffness controls the growth direction of the viscous plug in the lava dome interior. Material strength and stiffness controled by rate of infusion influence lava dome growth more significantly than coefficient of frictional of the talus.

  5. The factors that influence nuclear nonproliferation credibility

    Most legitimate nuclear activities worldwide that are intended for peaceful purposes are currently conducted within the international nonproliferation regime, established in 1970 on the basis of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This regime was augmented by several consecutive treaties that arose as a result of various world events, rendering it significantly more stringent. The methodology consists of three steps: (1) structuring a criteria-tree that incorporates all the criteria and sub-criteria that influence credibility formation and demonstrates the relationships between the criteria and sub-criteria, (2) defining the weight coefficients of each criteria through pairwise comparisons of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), and (3) assigning numerical scores to a state under each criterion and combining them with weight coefficients in order to provide an overall assessment of the state. Employing the proposed methodology, the paper proceeds to assess the current level of unclear nonproliferation credibility that South Korea has reached

  6. Insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in mammary gland function

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-mediated proliferation and survival are essential for normal development in the mammary gland during puberty and pregnancy. IGFs interact with IGF-binding proteins and regulate their function. The present review focuses on the role of IGFs and IGF-binding proteins in the mammary gland and describes how modulation of their actions occurs by association with hormones, other growth factors and the extracellular matrix. The review will also highlight the involvement of the IGF axis in breast cancer

  7. Factors Influencing Selection of Treatment for Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Cavalli-Björkman, Nina


    In Sweden and elsewhere there is evidence of poorer cancer survival for patients of low socioeconomic status (SES), and in some settings differences in treatment by SES have been shown. The aim of this thesis was to explore factors which influence cancer treatment decisions, such as knowledge reaped from clinical trials, patient-related factors, and physician-related factors. In a register study of colorectal cancer, all stages, patients were stratified for SES-factors. Differences were seen ...


    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin; Vaidean Viorela-Ligia; Cuceu Ionut-Constantin


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/to...

  9. Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa

    Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina


    Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in th...

  10. Cow placenta extract promotes murine hair growth through enhancing the insulin - like growth factor-1

    Dongliang Zhang


    Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.

  11. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Unsia HABIB


    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  12. Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues

    Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier


    immunoreactivity. TGF-alpha was found to be widely distributed in cells of normal human tissues derived from all three germ layers, most often in differentiated cells. In epithelial cells, three different kinds of staining patterns were observed, either diffuse cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic in the basal parts of the...... anchorage-independent growth of normal cells and was, therefore, considered as an "oncogenic" growth factor. Later, its immunohistochemical presence in normal human cells as well as its biological effects in normal human tissues have been demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate...... the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical...

  13. Insulin-like growth factor-I and the liver

    Bonefeld, Karen; Møller, Søren


    has a strong antifibrotic effect that acts directly through the GH/IGF system and indirectly by the regulation of hepatoprotective and profibrogenic factors. It is most likely that IGF-I deficiency contributes to the diverse metabolic complications of cirrhosis. At present, liver transplantation......Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play an essential role in growth and development, as well as in the overall cellular regulation and metabolism in the human body. In chronic liver disease, IGF levels are decreased, and the circulating levels correlate to the extent of hepatocellular dysfunction...... consequences in cirrhosis are only partly understood. Disruption of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis seems to be closely associated with the development of liver disease, and treatment with recombinant human IGF (rhIGF)-I has been shown to halt, and even reverse, the fibrotic degeneration. IGF-I in itself...


    Neamtu, Liviu; Neamtu, Adina Claudia


    The price is an important element in product position; it is a means of sending signals to consumers about the nature and quality of the product. When, for a certain business environment, the demand curve is known in relation to market (competition) costs and prices, the firm can choose a pricing policy simultaneously with business strategy. This study synthesizes the key-factors occurring in choosing a business strategy and the game of price and cost on the market As an approach to pricing p...

  15. Emotional Factors Influencing Students’ English Writing Competence



    As an international common language,English becomes more and more important.Students try their best to improve their English writing competence,especially as the social’s requirements for their English writing become higher and higher.However,students’English writing is very poor,fewer and fewer of them can write fluent English.Through the study of this topic,the author hopes it can remove students’emotional obstacles of English writing learning,master the direction of emotional factor,arouse students’interesting in learning oral English,make them practice English writing positively and obtain a better teaching effect

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in acute myeloid leukemia

    Kampen, Kim R.; ter Elst, Arja; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.


    This review is designed to provide an overview of the current literature concerning vascular endothelial growth factor signaling (VEGF) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Aberrant VEGF signaling operates in the bone marrow of AML patients and is related to a poor prognosis. The altered signaling pathw

  17. Role of fibroblast growth factors in organ regeneration and repair.

    El Agha, Elie; Kosanovic, Djuro; Schermuly, Ralph T; Bellusci, Saverio


    In its broad sense, regeneration refers to the renewal of lost cells, tissues or organs as part of the normal life cycle (skin, hair, endometrium etc.) or as part of an adaptive mechanism that organisms have developed throughout evolution. For example, worms, starfish and amphibians have developed remarkable regenerative capabilities allowing them to voluntarily shed body parts, in a process called autotomy, only to replace the lost parts afterwards. The bizarre myth of the fireproof homicidal salamander that can survive fire and poison apple trees has persisted until the 20th century. Salamanders possess one of the most robust regenerative machineries in vertebrates and attempting to draw lessons from limb regeneration in these animals and extrapolate the knowledge to mammals is a never-ending endeavor. Fibroblast growth factors are potent morphogens and mitogens that are highly conserved among the animal kingdom. These growth factors play key roles in organogenesis during embryonic development as well as homeostatic balance during postnatal life. In this review, we provide a summary about the current knowledge regarding the involvement of fibroblast growth factor signaling in organ regeneration and repair. We also shed light on the use of these growth factors in previous and current clinical trials in a wide array of human diseases. PMID:26459973

  18. Enhanced Phosphoproteomic Profiling Workflow For Growth Factor Signaling Analysis

    Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike; Leclerc, Gregory;


    understanding of pathological processes. In our study we create and integrate data on phosphorylations that are initiated by several growth factor receptors. We present an approach for quantitative, time-resolved phosphoproteomic profiling that integrates the important contributions by phosphotyrosines. Methods...

  19. Hematopoietic growth factors for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes

    Hansen, P B; Penkowa, M; Johnsen, H E


    of leukemic myelopoiesis and subsequent progression into overt acute myeloid leukemia. In conclusion, combinations of hematopoietic growth factors may be of clinical benefit in some patients with MDS. However, due to the cost and unpredictable clinical outcome there is a need for extended laboratory research...... to understand the functional defects of MDS stem cells and progenitors....

  20. Human embryonic growth : Periconception parental and environmental factors

    E.M. van Uitert (Evelyne Mariët)


    markdownabstract__abstract__ Prenatal growth in the second half of pregnancy and subsequent birth weight have been studied for decades and have been shown to be associated not only with pregnancy outcome but also with health and disease in adult life. Many parental and environmental factors during

  1. Nerve Growth Factor in Cancer Cell Death and Survival

    One of the major challenges for cancer therapeutics is the resistance of many tumor cells to induction of cell death due to pro-survival signaling in the cancer cells. Here we review the growing literature which shows that neurotrophins contribute to pro-survival signaling in many different types of cancer. In particular, nerve growth factor, the archetypal neurotrophin, has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis over the past decade. Nerve growth factor mediates its effects through its two cognate receptors, TrkA, a receptor tyrosine kinase and p75NTR, a member of the death receptor superfamily. Depending on the tumor origin, pro-survival signaling can be mediated by TrkA receptors or by p75NTR. For example, in breast cancer the aberrant expression of nerve growth factor stimulates proliferative signaling through TrkA and pro-survival signaling through p75NTR. This latter signaling through p75NTR promotes increased resistance to the induction of cell death by chemotherapeutic treatments. In contrast, in prostate cells the p75NTR mediates cell death and prevents metastasis. In prostate cancer, expression of this receptor is lost, which contributes to tumor progression by allowing cells to survive, proliferate and metastasize. This review focuses on our current knowledge of neurotrophin signaling in cancer, with a particular emphasis on nerve growth factor regulation of cell death and survival in cancer


    Full Text Available FIELD NO 609436 FIELD TI 609436 FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 21; FGF21 FIELD TX CLONING Nishimura et ... f hypoglycemic effects. FGF21-transgenic mice were lean , had lower fasted glucose levels, were resistant t ... and 29 obese Chinese individuals compared with 105 lean ... controls. In 29 healthy premenopausal Chinese wome ...

  3. Mapping growth-factor-modulated Akt signaling dynamics.

    Gross, Sean M; Rotwein, Peter


    Growth factors alter cellular behavior through shared signaling cascades, raising the question of how specificity is achieved. Here, we have determined how growth factor actions are encoded into Akt signaling dynamics by real-time tracking of a fluorescent sensor. In individual cells, Akt activity was encoded in an analog pattern, with similar latencies (∼2 min) and half-maximal peak response times (range of 5-8 min). Yet, different growth factors promoted dose-dependent and heterogeneous changes in signaling dynamics. Insulin treatment caused sustained Akt activity, whereas EGF or PDGF-AA promoted transient signaling; PDGF-BB produced sustained responses at higher concentrations, but short-term effects at low doses, actions that were independent of the PDGF-α receptor. Transient responses to EGF were caused by negative feedback at the receptor level, as a second treatment yielded minimal responses, whereas parallel exposure to IGF-I caused full Akt activation. Small-molecule inhibitors reduced PDGF-BB signaling to transient responses, but only decreased the magnitude of IGF-I actions. Our observations reveal distinctions among growth factors that use shared components, and allow us to capture the consequences of receptor-specific regulatory mechanisms on Akt signaling. PMID:27044757

  4. Chemical strategies for the presentation and delivery of growth factors

    Cabanas Danés, Jordi; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal


    Since the first demonstration of employing growth factors (GFs) to control cell behaviour in vitro, the spatiotemporal availability of GFs in vivo has received continuous attention. In particular, the ability to physically confine the mobility of GFs has been used in various tissue engineering appli

  5. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.;


    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, M...

  6. Insulin infusion reduces hepatocyte growth factor in lean humans

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Dougherty, Sonia;


    OBJECTIVE: Plasma Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is significantly elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular disease, metabolic syndrome or cancer in obese individuals. The current studies were done to determine if hyperinsulinemia increases plasma HGF. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two parti...

  7. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy; Andersen, Jens S


    mass spectrometry-based proteomics has allowed exciting views on the very early events in signal transduction. Activation profiles of regulated phosphorylation sites on epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream signal transducers showed different kinetics within the first ten seconds of...

  8. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)

  9. Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.

    Bbaale, Edward


    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  10. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Fratu, D.


    Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

  11. Factors influencing Consumer Behaviour on the Czech Market

    Hasan, Maher Mohamad


    The important problems for marketing companies in the Czech Republic are how to exposure determinants that lead consumer to decision of buying certain products and which factors influence the consumer purchasing, Through this, Czech marketing companies can understand deeply their consumer behaviour and issue suitable strategies so they can develop their companies and whole industry more. The objective of the study is: To exploit the factors that influence buying decision when buying certain p...

  12. Factors Influencing the Surgical Success in Patients with Infantile Esotropia

    Fatma Gül Yılmaz Çınar; Deniz Somer; Ayşe Burcu; Züleyha Yalnız Akkaya; Firdevs Örnek


    Purpose: To determine the factors that influence the surgical success in patients with infantile esotropia and to evaluate the relationship between amount of bilateral medial rectus recession and convergence. Material and Method: We retrospectively investigated the records of 188 patients with infantile esotropia who were operated on. The surgical success rate, the factors that influence the surgical success, and the relationship between amount of bilateral medial rectus recession ...


    Ameen M Al-Agaga; Khalil Md Nor


    The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfacti...

  14. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.


    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent moth...

  15. Growth conditions influence melanization of Brazilian clinical Sporothrix schenckii isolates

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; FRASES, SUSANA; Monteiro, Paulo Cezar Fialho; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.


    Sporothrix schenckii is known to produce DHN melanin on both conidial and yeast cells, however little information is available regarding the factors inducing fungal melanization. We evaluated whether culture conditions influenced melanization of 25 Brazilian S. schenckii strains and one control strain (ATCC 10212). Tested conditions included different media, pH, temperature, incubation time, glucose concentrations, and presence or absence of tricyclazole or L-DOPA. Melanization was reduced on...

  16. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Ali Shamai


    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  17. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  18. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in milk: a review

    Fernanda Lopes da Silva; Michele da Silva Pinto; Antônio Fernandes de Carvalho; Ítalo Tuler Perrone


    Bovine milk and colostrum contain growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor IGF-I, IGF-II, transforming growth factor TGF-β1, TGF-β2, epidermal growth factor EGF, basic fibroblast growth factor bFGF and platelet-derived growth factor PDGF. In recent years, intense scientific interest has been focused on the identification of factors within bovine milk that may be relevant to improving human health. Then a number of methodologies for the extraction of milk growth factors from milk, col...

  19. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth hormone in chronic liver disease

    Møller, Søren; Becker, Povl Ulrik


    Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are peptides synthesized in the liver. IGFs have different anabolic and metabolic actions and are important in normal growth and development. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is low in patients with chronic liver disease...... mainly due to the decreased liver function. Low levels of somatomedins are also seen in patients with growth hormone (GH) insufficiency, renal impairment, and malnutrition. GH stimulates the production of IGF-1, and both are part of a negative feedback system acting on hepatic, pituitary, and...... hypothalamic levels. The basal and stimulated GH concentration is pathologically elevated in patients with chronic liver disease and may be due to a disturbed regulation. Alterations in liver IGF receptors in patients with chronic liver disease still require investigation as they may be important for the liver...

  20. Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana.

    Lado, C


    This study examined water use patterns in Botswana, and socioeconomic and political factors that influence sustainable water supply, and discusses water conservation and high sustainable levels of supply and demand; the market structure and its prices, costs, and subsidies; and sustainable water supplies. Data were obtained from unpublished workshop papers on integrated water resource management from seminars conducted in 1994, at the University of Botswana's Department of Environmental Science. Rainfall varied by location. Evaporation is about 4 times the average annual precipitation, which leads to continual water deficiency. Water supplies are based on ground and surface water in the ratio of 2:1. Groundwater is only partly renewable. Surface water is renewable only under the circumstance of sufficient rain and maintained storage capacity. Conservation of water is affected by the high rates of evaporation, few suitable dam sites, high temporal variability of runoff and large surface water storage capacity, the constraints of semi-arid environments, the normally critical water balance, rapid population growth and concentrations in urban areas, economic conditions, and the general increase in living conditions. The governments need to strengthen control over non-market water use and to provide sufficient incentives for efficient water use. Water prices should increase in order to reflect the total economic value, regardless of the political consequences. There are needs to protect water catchment areas and to clarify ownership of water resources. Control of demand should include prioritizing water consumption. PMID:12348506

  1. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Mehmet Ferit Can


    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.


    Dongliang Zhang; Lijuan Gu; Jingjie Li; Zheng Li; Chunyan Wang; Zhen Wang; Lei Liu; Mira Li; Changkeun Sung


    Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE), water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice fo...

  3. In Vivo Assessment of the Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and EGF Receptor in the Human Endometrium by Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

    Fernando M. Reis; Lhullier, Cintia; Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Spritzer, Poli Mara


    Purpose: The present study evaluated the in vivo effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the localization of immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and their common receptor (EGF-R) in the human endometrium.

  4. Mapping of the fibroblast growth factors in human white adipose tissue.

    Mejhert, Niklas; Galitzky, Jean; Pettersson, Amanda T; Bambace, Clara; Blomqvist, Lennart; Bouloumié, Anne; Frayn, Keith N.; Dahlman, Ingrid; Arner, Peter; Rydén, Mikael


    CONTEXT: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate the development of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the secretion and cellular origin of individual FGFs in WAT as well as the influence of obesity are unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to map FGFs in human sc WAT, the cellular source, and association with obesity. DESIGN: Secretion, mRNA, and circulatory levels of FGFs in human abdominal sc WAT from nonobese and obese donors were examined by microarray, real-time quantitative PCR, an...

  5. Factors Influencing Dropouts' GED & Diploma Attainment

    Jeffrey C. Wayman


    Full Text Available This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.

  6. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 regulates tumor invasion by coupling fibroblast growth factor signaling to extracellular matrix degradation

    Sugiyama, Nami; Varjosalo, Markku; Meller, Pipsa; Lohi, Jouko; Hyytiäinen, Marko; Kilpinen, Sami; Kallioniemi, Olli; Ingvarsen, Signe; Engelholm, Lars H; Taipale, Jussi; Alitalo, Kari; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Lehti, Kaisa


    Aberrant expression and polymorphism of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) has been linked to tumor progression and anticancer drug resistance. We describe here a novel mechanism of tumor progression by matrix degradation involving epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to memb...

  7. Connective tissue growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor from airway smooth muscle interact with the extracellular matrix

    Burgess, Janette K; Ge, Qi; Poniris, Maree H; Boustany, Sarah; Twigg, Stephen M; Black, Judith L; Johnson, Peter R A


    Airway remodeling describes the structural changes that occur in the asthmatic airway that include airway smooth muscle hyperplasia, increases in vascularity due to angiogenesis, and thickening of the basement membrane. Our aim in this study was to examine the effect of transforming growth factor-be

  8. Stimulation of glucose uptake by transforming growth factor β: evidence for the requirement of epidermal growth factor-receptor activation

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), derived from human platelets, stimulates the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by cultured cell monolayers 2- to 4-fold. Stimulation can be detected as early as 30 min with as little as 0.1 ng of TGF-β per ml and maximal effects can be obtained at 2 hr with 1 ng of the growth factor per ml. TGF-β-induced stimulation of sugar uptake is enhanced by the co-addition of platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/ml) or epidermal growth factor (EGF, 1 ng/ml). The NR-6 variant of mouse 3T3 cells, which lack EGF receptors, is not stimulated by TGF-β. Antisera to EGF receptors that block 125I-labeled EGF binding also inhibit TGF-β stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake, although 125I-labeled TGF-β binding remains unimpaired. In contrast, antisera to the EGF receptor, which do not block EGF binding, have no measurable effect on the TGF-β-stimulated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose. The authors confirm that the receptor for TGF-β is distinct from the receptor for EGF and the authors conclude that TGF-β stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake requires the co-activation of the EGF receptor kinase system

  9. FGF19 functions as autocrine growth factor for hepatoblastoma

    Elzi, David J.; Song, Meihua; Blackman, Barron; Weintraub, Susan T.; López-Terrada, Dolores; Chen, Yidong; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Shiio, Yuzuru


    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver cancer in children, accounting for over 65% of all childhood liver malignancies. Hepatoblastoma is distinct from adult liver cancer in that it is not associated with hepatitis virus infection, cirrhosis, or other underlying liver pathology. The paucity of appropriate cell and animal models has been hampering the mechanistic understanding of hepatoblastoma pathogenesis. Consequently, there is no molecularly targeted therapy for hepatoblastoma. To gain insight into cytokine signaling in hepatoblastoma, we employed mass spectrometry to analyze the proteins secreted from Hep293TT hepatoblastoma cell line we established and identified the specific secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a growth factor for liver cells. We determined that silencing FGF19 by shRNAs or neutralizing secreted FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody inhibits the proliferation of hepatoblastoma cells. Furthermore, blocking FGF19 signaling by an FGF receptor kinase inhibitor suppressed hepatoblastoma growth. RNA expression analysis in hepatoblastoma tumors revealed that the high expression of FGF19 signaling pathway components as well as the low expression of FGF19 signaling repression targets correlates with the aggressiveness of the tumors. These results suggest the role of FGF19 as autocrine growth factor for hepatoblastoma.

  10. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-α in human milk

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-α and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-α was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-α was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-α and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-α was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-α. Although the physiological role of TGF-α in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants

  11. Influence of Experimental Parameters on Fatigue Crack Growth and Heat Build-Up in Rubber

    Franziska Stadlbauer


    Full Text Available Loading parameters (frequency, amplitude ratio and waveform are varied to determine their influence on fatigue crack growth in rubber. Up to three different rubber blends are investigated: one actual engineering material and two model materials. Fatigue crack growth curves and strain distributions of pure shear and faint waist pure shear samples are compared for a model material. Fatigue behavior is studied for three different frequencies (1 Hz, 3 Hz and 5 Hz. Amplitude ratio appears to be another important influence factor concerning fatigue crack growth in rubber. The beneficial effect of positive amplitude ratios (tensional loading conditions is shown for different materials. However, fatigue crack growth is considerably increased for negative amplitude ratios (tensional-compressional loading conditions. Furthermore, the influence of the waveform is determined for three different waveform shapes. One is sinusoidal, and two have a square shape, including dwell periods and sinusoidal slopes. Special focus lies on heat build-up, which is substantial, especially for large loads, high frequencies and/or highly filled rubber blends. Plateau temperatures are determined for various loading conditions and rubber blends. A very simple linear relationship with dissipated energy per time and unit area is obtained. Results gathered with dynamic mechanical analyses show, likewise, a linear trend, but the heat build-up is very small, due to different sample geometries.

  12. Gene expression of fibroblast growth factors in human gliomas and meningiomas: demonstration of cellular source of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA and peptide in tumor tissues.

    J.A. Takahashi; Mori, H.; Fukumoto, M; Igarashi, K; Jaye, M; Oda, Y.; Kikuchi, H; Hatanaka, M


    The growth autonomy of human tumor cells is considered due to the endogenous production of growth factors. Transcriptional expression of candidates for autocrine stimulatory factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), acidic FGF, and transforming growth factor type beta were determined in human brain tumors. Basic FGF was expressed abundantly in 17 of 18 gliomas, 20 of 22 meninglomas, and 0 of 5 metastatic brain tumors. The level of mRNA expression of acidic FGF in gliomas was signi...

  13. Steady Impact Factor Growth for MDPI Open Access Journals

    Alexander Thiesen


    Full Text Available For the past three years MDPI has announced the newly released impact factors for its Open Access journals by the means of an annual editorial [1–3]. In 2012 we are—once again—pleased to report that the growth of the impact factors of MDPI’s Open Access journals continues. This year’s edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR, which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes 10 journals published by MDPI, including three that have received their first official Impact Factors—International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH, Materials and Nutrients. Table 1 reports the latest Impact Factors for 2011. Figure 1 graphically depicts the evolution of the Impact Factors for four MDPI open access journals that have received Impact Factors in the past. Table 2 reports the ranking of the MDPI journals within the subject categories of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE.

  14. Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model

    With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China. - Highlights: → We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions. → Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. → These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. → Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO2 emission is different. → Improving technology level is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China.

  15. Analysis of Factors Influencing Agritourism Businesses in Expansion

    Jensen, Kimberly; Bruch Leffew, Megan; Menard, Jamey; English, Burton C.


    This study assesses how characteristics of agritourism operations may influence future expansion plans. Differences in barriers which agritourism operations face, as well as types of promotion methods used are examined for expansion-minded agritourism operators. This information will be useful to agritourism operators, as they look for contributors to future growth.

  16. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  17. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra


    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  18. Factors influencing ring closure through olefin metathesis - A perspective

    Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar


    Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.

  19. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin


    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  20. Influence of Psychological Factors on the Improvement of Spoken English



      From learner's innermost feelings,the author attempts to elaborate the influences of psychological factors on improving the spoken language. The study of spoken English is a very complex process, which is affected easily by learner's linguistic environment and character. We can draw a conclusion that psychological factors are an important problem and cannot be neglected.

  1. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.


    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an import

  2. Therapeutic systems for Insulin-like growth factor-1

    Schultz, Isabel


    SUMMARY Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 7.649 kDa and an anabolic potential. Thereby, IGF-I has a promising therapeutic value e.g. in muscle wasting diseases such as sarcopenia. IGF-I is mainly secreted by the liver in response to growth hormone (GH) stimulation and is rather ubiquitously found within all tissues. The effects of IGF-I are mediated by its respective IGF-I transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor triggering the stimulation of pr...

  3. Growth Rate Factor Analysis of Turkey Using Grey System Theory

    Ceviz, Emre; Erden, Caner


    In this study, by using Grey System Theory (GST), factors of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate is analyzed. Macro-economic and financial data in the 2000s is used to evaluate the economic growth of Turkey. GST which can be used with little or inadequate amount of data, was preferred in the analysis. Although discovered in 1982, GST increases the amount of usage and publication especially after the 2000s. The gray system theory in the study focused on the impact on economic analysis. At...




    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to emphasize the structural changes involved by globalization process who generate a semnificative influence on the economic growth in Romania. Thus, on this background it is important to point out that even though the phenomenon of globalization represents manny opportunities for Romanian economic growth, nevertheles, our country must regard at the same time all the systemic risks that are involved in this process. From this perspective, an important role has the activity of romanian small and medium sized enterprises that through its specific creates jobs and contributes substantially to growth in Romania. In terms of risks, for our country is necessary to develop effective mechanisms of self-defense against involved economic dangers. Also, should not be ignored that the quality of European Union member offers for Romania a strong base and in the same time the chance to benefit from the positive effects of the single market and the opportunities offered by the global market. In this framework, Romanian economy is not exempted from stiff competition in the field of trade in goods and services from countries like China or India who succeed through competition, to "break down trade barriers" of economic blocs. More than that, Romanian high tech industry can take advantage for themselves from the positive effects of globalization process by penetrating on third country markets.

  5. Influence of the Tussock Growth Form on Arctic Ecosystem Carbon Stocks

    Curasi, S.; Rocha, A. V.; Sonnentag, O.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Myers-Smith, I. H.; Fetcher, N.; Mack, M. C.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Parker, T.


    The influence of plant growth forms on ecosystem carbon (C) cycling has been under appreciated. In arctic tundra, environmental factors and plant traits of the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum cause the formation of mounds that are dense amalgamations of belowground C called tussocks. Tussocks have important implications for arctic ecosystem biogeochemistry and C stocks, but the environmental and biological factors controlling their size and distribution across the landscape are poorly understood. In order to better understand how landscape variation in tussock size and density impact ecosystem C stocks, we formed the Carbon in Arctic Tussock Tundra (CATT) network and recruited an international team to sample locations across the arctic. The CATT network provided a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient along which to improve our understanding of tussocks' influence on ecosystem structure and function. CATT data revealed important insights into tussock formation across the arctic. Tussock density generally declined with latitude, and tussock size exhibited substantial variation across sites. The relationship between height and diameter was similar across CATT sites indicating that both biological and environmental factors control tussock formation. At some sites, C in tussocks comprised a substantial percentage of ecosystem C stocks that may be vulnerable to climate change. It is concluded that the loss of this growth form would offset C gains from projected plant functional shifts from graminoid to shrub tundra. This work highlights the role of plant growth forms on the magnitude and retention of ecosystem C stocks.

  6. Growth, yield and seed production of okra as influenced by different growth regulators

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) affect various aspects of plant physiology, mainly vegetative and reproductive traits including yield and seed production. Therefore, different concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of gibberellic acid (GA3) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), alone or in different combinations were sprayed on okra plants at 2-true leaf stage, to ascertain their impact on plant growth, pod production, seed yield and seed quality. All variables regarding vegetative and reproductive growth were significantly influenced by different concentrations of the growth regulators except number of days taken to flowering. Growth regulators were less effective when applied individually as compared to their combined use; however, performance of plants treated with individual PGR was better than the untreated plants. The number of leaves plant/sup -1/ and plant height was higher in plants when sprayed with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+100 ppm as well as with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. The number of pods plant/sup -1/, pod length, pod fresh and dry weight, seed yield and seed quality (in terms of germination percentage and 1000-seed weight) was maximum in plants receiving foliar spray of both GA3 and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. These results signify the role of GA/sub 3/ and NAA in okra pod production for fresh consumption as well as for seed yield. (author)

  7. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana


    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405


    Michael Wall


    Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

  9. A Discussion on Motivation Factor Influencing Second Language Acquisition



    Various characteristics can influence students'second language acquisition and language development, which in-cludes age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these factors mentioned, motivation factor that is categorized into learner factors affects learner's learning effect to a great extent. In this paper, motiva-tion characteristic that influences second language learning are discussed. At last, some strategies on the real classroom teaching application are provided after the discussion, which aims at making contribution to the second language teaching process as well as students'language development.

  10. Environmental factors determining growth of salamander larvae:A field study

    Laura LIMONGI; Gentile Francesco FICETOLA; Giuseppe ROMEO; Raoul MANENTI


    Larval growth and survival of organisms are strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic factors, as demonstrated by ex-perimental studies performed under controlled laboratory or semi-natural conditions. Even if they have many advantages, ex-periments cannot cover the full complexity of natural conditions and field studies are needed for a better understanding of how environmental variation determines growth and development rate. Fire salamanderSalamandra salamandrafemales give birth to larvae in a variety of habitats, both epigean and subterranean. In caves, salamander larvae successfully grow and metamorphose, but their growth is more than three times longer than in epigean streams and factors determining these differences require inves-tigation. We performed a field study to understand the factors related to the growth of fire salamander larvae in different envi-ronmental conditions, evaluating the relationship between environmental features and larval growth and differences between caves and epigean spring habitats. Both caves and epigean larvae successfully grew. Capture-mark-recapture allowed to individu-ally track individuals along their whole development, and measure their performance. Growth rate was significantly affected by environmental variables: larvae grew faster in environments with abundant invertebrates and few conspecifics. Taking into ac-count the effect of environmental variables, larval growth was significantly lower in caves. Food availability plays a different ef-fect in the two environments. Larval growth was positively related to the availability of invertebrates in epigean sites only. The development rate of hypogeous populations of salamanders is slower because of multiple parameters, but biotic factors play a much stronger role than the abiotic ones [Current Zoology 61 (3): 421–427, 2015].

  11. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.


    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  12. Factors Influencing Successful Small-Farm Operations in North Carolina

    Yeboah, Anthony K.; Owens, John Paul; Bynum, Jarvetta S.


    The overall goal of this research project is to identify and refine factors influencing successful small farm operations in North Carolina. Small farms account for 91 percent of all farms. Given the importance of small farm viability, this research project focuses on identifying ways to further enhance successful small farming in North Carolina. In an effort to further explain the factors that affect successful small-scale farming, researchers have identified factors that have underpinnings i...

  13. Factors Influencing Trade Area Activity in the Great Basin Area

    George Ebai; Thomas R. Harris


    Proper assessment of rural retail sector activity would yield effective and targeted retail extension/outreach programs. Pull factors assess a local retail sector's ability to meet local retail demands and to capture outside trade. If the local retail sector's pull factor vaiue is above the threshold value of one, the local retail sector is capturing local and non-local retail demands. Tobit estimation procedures were used for eight retail sectors to determine factors which influence the capt...




    New product development is considered as one of the survival strategies for organisations with high risk which is related to extreme failure rate that should not be neglected. Among internal and contextual factors which affect winning or losing in new product development (NPD), the role of top management team as key decision makers is critical. The objective of our research is to explore managerial factors influencing success in new product development. To find out these factors, relevant lit...

  15. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    Naser Azad; Mina Mohammadi


    Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employ...

  16. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami


    The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...

  17. Multiple timescale analysis and factor analysis of energy ecological footprint growth in China 1953-2006

    Scientific analysis of energy consumption and its influencing factors is of great importance for energy strategy and policy planning. The energy consumption in China 1953-2006 is estimated by applying the energy ecological footprint (EEF) method, and the fluctuation periods of annual China's per capita EEF (EEFcpc) growth rate are analyzed with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method in this paper. EEF intensity is analyzed to depict energy efficiency in China. The main timescales of the 37 factors that affect the annual growth rate of EEFcpc are also discussed based on EMD and factor analysis methods. Results show three obvious undulation cycles of the annual growth rate of EEFcpc, i.e., 4.6, 14.4 and 34.2 years over the last 53 years. The analysis findings from the common synthesized factors of IMF1, IMF2 and IMF3 timescales of the 37 factors suggest that China's energy policy-makers should attach more importance to stabilizing economic growth, optimizing industrial structure, regulating domestic petroleum exploitation and improving transportation efficiency


    WANG Dong; XIAO Hualiang; LI Zengpeng; CHEN Li


    Objective: To investigate the expression of angiogenic factors, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in osteosarcoma, its association with neovascularization and prognosis. Methods: The expression of bFGF, TGFβ1 and their receptors, as well as intratumoral microvessel count (MVD) were studied in 80osteosarcomas by immunohistochemical staining and morphometry. The relationship between the angiogenic factors expression and prognosis was evaluated by a multivariate analysis using Cox proportion hazard model. Results: Among 80 cases of osteosarcoma, 46cases were positive for bFGF/bFGFr (57.5%), and 31cases for TGF-β1/TGF-β (RI)(38.8%) respectively. The MVD and bFGF, TGF-β1 were important indicators to predict the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma by the Cox proportion hazard model analysis. Conclusion:The angiogenic factors bFGF and TGF-β1 are involved in the angiogenesis of osteosarcoma, and the angiogenesis influences the prognosis. Also they may be useful in the evaluation of the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma.

  19. Influence factors of crack growth resistance of domestic neodymium-based cis-1,4-polybutadiene rubber%影响国产钕系顺丁橡胶耐裂口增长性能的因素

    雷娟; 周新红; 周豪; 宋玉萍; 赵泽鹏


    针对混炼方式、炭黑种类及填充量、硫黄与促进剂配比、与天然橡胶或乳聚丁苯橡胶并用等因素对钕系顺丁橡胶(NdBR)对裂口增长性能的影响进行了研究.结果表明,混炼方式会在一定程度上影响NdBR的耐裂口增长性能.炭黑填充量增加,NdBR的耐裂口增长性能下降;加入白炭黑可明显改善NdBR的耐裂口增长性能.使用具有较大基团的促进剂DZ及提高硫黄与促进剂的配比均有利于改善NdBR的耐裂口增长性能.NdBR与天然橡胶或乳聚丁苯橡胶并用可不同程度地改善其耐裂口增长性能.%The effects of mixing mode, kind and amount of carbon black, mass ratio of sulphur to accelerator and blending with natural rubber and emulsion polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber on crack growth resistance of neodymium-based cis-1 ,4-poly-butadiene rubber( NdBR) were investigated. There-suits showed that the mixing mode had effect on crack growth resistance of NdBR to a certain extent. The crack growth resistance of NdBR decreased with increasing carbon black but evidently increased when white carbon black partially replaced carbon black. Using accelerator DZ with bigger group and increasing mass ratio of sulphur to accelerator were favourable for improving the crack growth resistance of NdBR. And blending NdBR with natural rubber or emulsion polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber could improve the crack growth resistance of NdBR to different extent.

  20. The relationship between human resource development factors, career growth and turnover intention: The mediating role of organizational commitment

    Muhammad Shahid Nawaz


    Full Text Available Retaining the best employees is of high concern for most organizations and this issue has become a significant focus of attention for many researchers. For this reason, this paper discusses different factors which influence the employee turnover intention-behavior in the organization, specifically to examine the effect of salary, performance appraisal, training & development and career growth on turnover intention. In addition, based on the social exchange theory this paper explains the mediating role of organizational commitment in the relationship between human resource development factors, career growth and turnover intention. A cross sectional, survey data study is undertaken to investigate the relationships in a sample of 270 full time faculty members employed in different private universities of Pakistan. Partial Least Square two step path modeling is used to test the direct and the indirect hypothesis of the study. The results of PLS (SEM path modeling reveal that human resource development factors specially salary and performance appraisal were negatively associated with turnover intention. In addition, the results also indicate that career growth had significant relationships with turnover intention. Moreover, out of four dimensions of career growth, only two dimensions, namely promotion speed and remuneration growth, have strong influence on turnover intention. Finally, in terms of organizational commitment as mediating variable between the relationships of salary, performance appraisal, career growth and turnover intention, four out of six variables indicate partial mediation including career growth (career goal progress, career growth (promotion speed, career growth (remuneration growth and performance appraisal.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major

    Ashraf T Soliman


    Full Text Available Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake, correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term ′IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc′ was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report.

  2. Identification of factors influencing the restoration of cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts.

    Bu, Chongfeng; Wu, Shufang; Yang, Yongsheng; Zheng, Mingguo


    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover >35% of the Earth's land area and contribute to important ecological functions in arid and semiarid ecosystems, including erosion reduction, hydrological cycling, and nutrient cycling. Artificial rapid cultivation of BSCs can provide a novel alternative to traditional biological methods for controlling soil and water loss such as the planting of trees, shrubs, and grasses. At present, little is known regarding the cultivation of BSCs in the field due to lack of knowledge regarding the influencing factors that control BSCs growth. Thus, we determined the effects of various environmental factors (shade; watering; N, P, K, and Ca concentrations) on the growth of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs from the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States. The soil surface changes and chlorophyll a concentrations were used as proxies of BSC growth and development. After 4 months, five factors were found to impact BSC growth with the following order of importance: NH4NO3 ≈ watering frequency>shading>CaCO3 ≈ KH2PO4. The soil water content was the primary positive factor affecting BSC growth, and BSCs that were watered every 5 days harbored greater biomass than those watered every 10 days. Groups that received NH4NO3 consistently exhibited poor growth, suggesting that fixed N amendment may suppress BSC growth. The effect of shading on the BSC biomass was inconsistent and depended on many factors including the soil water content and availability of nutrients. KH2PO4 and CaCO3 had nonsignificant effects on BSC growth. Collectively, our results indicate that the rapid restoration of BSCs can be controlled and realized by artificial "broadcasting" cultivation through the optimization of environmental factors. PMID:24625498

  3. Influence of various growth parameters on fungal growth and volatile metabolite production by indoor molds.

    Polizzi, Viviana; Adams, An; De Saeger, Sarah; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Moretti, Antonio; De Kimpe, Norbert


    A Penicillium polonicum, an Aspergillus ustus and a Periconia britannica strain were isolated from water-damaged environments and the production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was investigated by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. The most important MVOCs produced were 2-methylisoborneol, geosmin and daucane-type sesquiterpenes for P. polonicum, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, germacrene D, δ-cadinene and other sesquiterpenes for A. ustus and the volatile mycotoxin precursor aristolochene together with valencene, α-selinene and β-selinene for P. britannica. Different growth conditions (substrate, temperature, relative humidity) were selected, resembling indoor parameters, to investigate their influence on fungal metabolism in relation with the sick building syndrome and the results were compared with two other fungal strains previously analyzed under the same conditions. In general, the range of MVOCs and the emitted quantities were larger on malt extract agar than on wallpaper and plasterboard, but, overall, the main MVOC profile was conserved also on the two building materials tested. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on growth and metabolism is different for different fungal species, and two main patterns of behavior could be distinguished. Results show that, even at suboptimal conditions for growth, production of fungal volatiles can be significant. PMID:22169393

  4. Growth factors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: relative roles

    Allen Jeremy T


    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients has evolved very slowly; the fundamental approach of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents has had little impact on long-term survival. The continued use of corticosteroids is justified because of the lack of a more effective alternative. Current research indicates that the mechanisms driving idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis reflect abnormal, dysregulated wound healing within the lung, involving increased activity and possibly exaggerated responses by a spectrum of profibrogenic growth factors. An understanding of the roles of these growth factors, and the way in which they modulate events at cellular level, could lead to more targeted therapeutic strategies, improving patients' quality of life and survival.

  5. Transforming growth factor-β and smooth muscle differentiation


    Transforming growth factor(TGF)-β family members are multifunctional cytokines regulating diverse cel- lular functions such as growth,adhesion,migration, apoptosis,and differentiation.TGF-βs elicit their effects via specific typeⅠand typeⅡserine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. Knockout mouse models for the different components of the TGF-β signaling pathway have revealed their critical roles in smooth muscle cell(SMC)differentia- tion.Genetic studies in humans have linked mutations in these signaling components to specific cardiovascular disorders such as aorta aneurysm and congenital heart diseases due to SMC defects.In this review,the current understanding of TGF-β function in SMC differentiation is highlighted,and the role of TGF-βsignaling in SMC- related diseases is discussed.

  6. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor in various blood transfusion components

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Werther, K; Mynster, T;


    sVEGF was determined in nonfiltered and prestorage white cell-reduced whole blood (WB), buffy coat-depleted saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and buffy coat-derived platelet (BCP) pools obtained from volunteer, healthy blood donors. As a control, total content...... of platelet-derived soluble plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (sPAI-1) was determined by an EIA in the same samples. Finally, the extracellular accumulation of sVEGF was determined in nonfiltered WB and SAGM blood during storage for 35 days and in BCP pools during storage for 7 days. RESULTS: In......BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion may reduce survival after curative surgery for solid tumors. This may be related to extracellular content of cancer growth factors present in transfusion components. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis in solid tumors. The...

  7. Adipocytokines, gut hormones and growth factors in anorexia nervosa.

    Kowalska, Irina; Karczewska-Kupczewska, Monika; Strączkowski, Marek


    Anorexia nervosa is a complex eating disorder of unknown etiology which affects adolescent girls and young women and leads to chronic malnutrition. Clinical manifestations of prolonged semistarvation include a variety of physical features and psychiatric disorders. The study of different biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa is an area of active interest. In this review we have described the role of adipocytokines, neurotrophins, peptides of the gastrointestinal system and growth factors in appetite regulation, energy balance and insulin sensitivity in anorexia nervosa patients. PMID:21699889

  8. [Distribution and influence factors of Anammox bacteria in sewage treatment systems].

    Zheng, Bingyu; Peng, Yongzhen; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Anming; Zhang, Shujun


    Nitrogen removal techniques based on Anammox process are developing rapidly these years. The distribution and diversity of Anammox have become important research directions. A variety of Anammox have been detected till now, of which only Kuenenia and Brocadia are often detected in wastewater treatment systems. In addition, in a single niche there is only one type of Anammox bacteria. However, the distribution mechanism and transformation of Anammox bacteria in different niches are still ambiguous. Therefore, the distribution of Anammox in various conditions was summarized and analyzed in this article. And the key factors influencing the distribution of Anammox were concluded, including substrate concentration and the specific growth rate, sludge properties and microbial niche, the joint action and influence of multiple factors. The engineering significance research on the distribution and influencing factors of Anammox bacteria in the sewage system and proposed research prospects were expounded. PMID:26016371

  9. Teamwork and technology: Success factors for creating growth

    The petroleum industry faces many challenges moving toward the next century. How effectively these challenges are addressed and managed will determine whether or not the exploration and production business grows and prospers in the future. This presentation relates to success factors for growth creation. Themes discussed here are succeeding in a global energy market, evolution of relationships between oil and gas companies and service companies, the power of technology, and effectively combining teamwork and technology

  10. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Prostate Cancer Derived Exosomes

    Geetanjali Kharmate; Elham Hosseini-Beheshti; Josselin Caradec; Mei Yieng Chin; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S.


    Exosomes proteins and microRNAs have gained much attention as diagnostic tools and biomarker potential in various malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the role of exosomes and membrane-associated receptors, particularly epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as mediators of cell proliferation and invasion in PCa progression remains unexplored. EGFR is frequently overexpressed and has been associated with aggressive forms of PCa. While PCa cells and tissues express EGFR, it ...

  11. Proepithelin is an autocrine growth factor for bladder cancer

    Lovat, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandro; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Fassan, Matteo; Goldoni, Silvia; Metalli, David; Wubah, Vera; McCue, Peter; Serrero, Ginette; Gomella, Leonard G.; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea


    The growth factor proepithelin functions as an important regulator of proliferation and motility. Proepithelin is overexpressed in a great variety of cancer cell lines and clinical specimens of breast, ovarian and renal cancer, as well as glioblastomas. Using recombinant proepithelin on 5637 transitional cell carcinoma-derived cells, we have shown previously that proepithelin plays a critical role in bladder cancer by promoting motility of bladder cancer cells. In this study, we used the ONCO...

  12. The Fibroblast Growth Factor System is Downregulated Following Social Defeat

    Turner, Cortney A; Calvo, Nelson; Frost, Douglas O.; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.


    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system has previously been found to be altered in post-mortem brains of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study tested whether the FGF system is altered following acute social defeat. Rats were exposed to four consecutive days of either a social defeat paradigm or novel cages. Animals were sacrificed after the last social defeat session and gene expression was assessed in the hippocampus by mRNA in situ hybridization. Molecular co...

  13. Paternal Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Fetal Growth Restriction

    Hillman, Sara; Peebles, Donald M.; Williams, David J.


    OBJECTIVE Fathers of low–birth weight offspring are more likely to have type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life. We investigated whether paternal insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors were evident at the time that fetal growth–restricted offspring were born. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We carried out a case-control study of men who fathered pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction, in the absence of recognized fetal disease (n = 42), compared with men who...

  14. Milk minor constituents, enzymes, hormones, growth factors, and organic acids

    Rodrigues, L. R.


    Milk and derived products contain essential nutrients, such as proteins, lactose, minerals, vitamins, and enzymes. Additionally, despite of their low concentrations in milk, many other minor constituents present important physiological and/or technological roles (e.g. hormones, growth factors). Dairy industries face many challenges regarding milk processing. Also, the full knowledge on these constituents’ physiological roles and effects on health is still lacking. Technological...

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Diversity

    KASAP, Murat


    The secreted glycoprotein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and specific mitogen for vascular endothelial cells, capable of stimulating angiogenesis during embryonic development and tumor formation. Despite intensive research, the functions of several VEGF family members remain a mystery. Insight into their evolutionary relationships could profoundly improve our understanding of why there are so many VEGFs and why we have not been able to dissect their function to our sati...

  16. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: Biology and Therapeutic Applications

    Ho, Quoc T.; Kuo, Calvin J.


    While the development of anti-angiogenic therapy, as it pertains to cancer treatment, may still be in its infancy relative to well-established modalities such as chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, major strides made in the past several decades have allowed translation of basic science discoveries in this field into clinical reality. The discovery of key molecular modulators of angiogenesis, notably Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), has catalyzed the development of numerous neutral...

  17. EGF: new tricks for an old growth factor.

    Carpenter, G


    During the past year, the biology of epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been investigated in lower organisms (Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and bacteria). These experiments have produced some surprising results: the identification of defects produced by mutation of EGF-like genes; the role of EGF receptors in bacterial invasion; and the role of EGF-like precursors as receptors for a bacteria toxin. PMID:8507498

  18. Factors of Economic Growth in Russia’s Regions

    Sergey Drobyshevsky; Oleg Lugovoy; Ekaterina Astafieva; Anna Kozlovskaya; Pavel Trunin; Lew Lederman


    The monograph deals with analysis of the factors that determine the diversity in the degree and pace of economic development of Russia's regions. In particular, basing on the data of main socio economic indicators of RF constituent regions' performance, the authors have empirically tested various convergence concepts and attempted to conduct decomposition of economic growth and assess the dynamics of labor productivity in Russia's regions. One of the sections of the monograph focuses on the C...

  19. Fibroblast Growth Factors: Biology, Function, and Application for Tissue Regeneration

    Ye-Rang Yun; Jong Eun Won; Eunyi Jeon; Sujin Lee; Wonmo Kang; Hyejin Jo; Jun-Hyeog Jang; Ueon Sang Shin; Hae-Won Kim


    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that signal through FGF receptors (FGFRs) regulate a broad spectrum of biological functions, including cellular proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. The FGF signal pathways are the RAS/MAP kinase pathway, PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, and PLCγ pathway, among which the RAS/MAP kinase pathway is known to be predominant. Several studies have recently implicated the in vitro biological functions of FGFs for tissue regeneration. However, to obtain opt...

  20. Transforming Growth Factor-β Induces Airway Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy

    Goldsmith, Adam M.; Bentley, J. Kelley; Zhou, Limei; Jia, Yue; Bitar, Khalil N; Fingar, Diane C.; Hershenson, Marc B.


    Although smooth muscle hypertrophy is present in asthmatic airways, little is known about the biochemical pathways regulating airway smooth muscle protein synthesis, cell size, or accumulation of contractile apparatus proteins. We sought to develop a model of airway smooth muscle hypertrophy in primary cells using a physiologically relevant stimulus. We hypothesized that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induces hypertrophy in primary bronchial smooth muscle cells. Primary human bronchial sm...

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma

    HANAZONO, Kiwamu; Fukumoto, Shinya; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; ENDO, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; IWANO, Hidetomo; UCHIDE, Tsuyoshi


    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a urinary bladder tumor with high mortality, is encountered commonly in dogs. Whereas overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development of human urinary bladder cancer, information on EGFR expression in canine TCC is lacking. In this study, EGFR protein and mRNA expression in canine normal bladder (n=5), polypoid cystitis (n=5) and TCC (n=25) were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction....

  2. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System and Nutritional Assessment

    Callum Livingstone


    Over recent years there has been considerable interest in the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in health and disease. It has long been known to be dysregulated in states of under- and overnutrition, serum IGF-I levels falling in malnourished patients and responding promptly to nutritional support. More recently, other proteins in this system have been observed to be dysregulated in both malnutrition and obesity. Currently no biochemical marker is sufficiently specific for u...

  3. Placental growth factor promotes atherosclerotic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation

    Khurana, R.; Moons, L; Shafi, S.; A. Luttun; Collen, D; Martin, J. F.; Carmeliet, P.; Zachary, I. C.


    Background: Placental growth factor (PlGF) has been implicated in the pathophysiological angiogenesis and monocyte recruitment that underlie chronic inflammatory disease, but its role in atherosclerosis has not been examined. We investigated the effects of exogenous PlGF, delivered by adenoviral gene transfer, on atherogenic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation induced by collar placement around the rabbit carotid artery and examined the effects of PlGF deficiency on atherosclerosis...

  4. Posttraumatic Growth and Related Factors of Child Protective Service Workers

    Rhee, Young Sun; Ko, Young Bin; Han, In Young


    Objectives The aim of the study is to measure the level of vicarious trauma, posttraumatic growth (PTG), and other factors affecting PTG among child protective service workers. Methods We include posttraumatic stress, social support, stress coping, and demographic data as independent variables. Data was collected from 255 full-time social workers from 43 child protective agencies as acomplete enumeration and 204 included in the final analysis. Results The major findings of the study were as f...

  5. Skeletal effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I therapy.

    Lindsey, Richard C; Mohan, Subburaman


    The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis is critically important for the regulation of bone formation, and deficiencies in this system have been shown to contribute to the development of osteoporosis and other diseases of low bone mass. The GH/IGF axis is regulated by a complex set of hormonal and local factors which can act to regulate this system at the level of the ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), or IGFBP proteases. A combination of in vitro studies, transgenic animal models, and clinical human investigations has provided ample evidence of the importance of the endocrine and local actions of both GH and IGF-I, the two major components of the GH/IGF axis, in skeletal growth and maintenance. GH- and IGF-based therapies provide a useful avenue of approach for the prevention and treatment of diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:26408965

  6. Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk

    Breast milk has been shown to enhance neonatal intestinal growth. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in the milk of various mammalian species, the hypothesis was tested that EGF in rodent milk mediates, in part, the breast milk-enhanced intestinal growth in neonatal rat. Fifty-eight rat pups fed artificial formal that contained 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 μg/ml EGF for 39 h had greater incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and DNA content of intestine than 29 pups fed unsupplemented formula. Pups fed EGF for 5 days had significantly greater body weight, intestinal weight, length, and DNA content than control pups. Conversely, pups fed pooled rat milk containing rabbit-derived antibody to EGF for 39 h had intestines of lower weight that contained less DNA than animals fed rat milk containing normal rabbit serum. EGF appears to mediate, in part, breast milk-enhanced neonatal intestinal growth

  7. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Ali Valipour


    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  8. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

  9. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P


    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  10. Influence of growth retardant on growth and development of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch

    Anna Pobudkiewicz


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of single foliar flurprimidol treatment on morphology and transpiration of ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias. The growth retardant flurprimidol (Topflor 015 SL was applied once as a foliar spray at concentrations of 5, 10 or 15 mg × dm-3 when lateral shoots were about 5 cm in length. Single foliar flurprimidol treatment was sufficient to inhibit stem elongation of both poinsettia cultivars. The degree of growth inhibition depended on cultivar and growth retardant concentration. As compared to the control, the shoots of flurprimidol treated ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ plants were up to 44% and 37% shorter, respectively. The desirable plant heights for ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias were obtained with flurprimidol at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg × dm-3, respectively. The shoots of flurprimidol sprayed poinsettia were also more rigid and aligned relative to each other and thus the bracts on the plant were placed on the same level. The diameters of growth retardant treated poinsettias were up to 13% narrower. The leaf areas, petiole lengths, fresh and dry weights of ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias treated with flurprimidol were substantially smaller as compared to the control. The bract diameters of both poinsettia cultivars were only slightly affected by growth retardant application. Plants exposed to flurprimidol had also intensified green leaf pigmentation. There was almost no abscission of the oldest leaves in the low portions of growth retardant treated plants, compared to those of the control ones. Flurprimidol had no effect on transpiration rate per unit leaf area and stomatal conductance in both poinsettia cultivars. No phytotoxicity was observed in flurprimidol treated plants. Chemical name used: α-(1-methylethyl-α-[4-(trifluromethoxyphenyl]-5-pyrimidinemethanol (flurprimidol.



    Objective To investigate the relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and en docrine parameters so as to assess the effects of the main endocrine factors on IUGR. The concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin, T3, T4 and TSH were measured in umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid and maternal serum. Methods The samples were collected from 23 pregnant women who were diagnosed as the full term IUGR, 42 normal full term pregnant women with normal infants' weight were taken as control. Growth hormone and insulin were mea sured by radioimmunoassay. T3, T4 and TSH were investigated by micro-radioimmunoassay. Results The concentra tions of growth hormone, insulin and T4 in umbilical cord blood were lower in IUGR than that in control group(GH 4. 63μg/L vs 7.01μg/L, insulin 10. 68μIU/ml vs 31.44μIU/ml, T4 87. 39nmol/L vs 138. 10nmol/L. P <0. 05, 0. 05 and 0. 05, respectively). The TSH concentration in umbilical cord blood was higher in IUGR than in control group (10. 84μmIU/L vs 5. 75μmIU/L, P <0. 01). The concentration of growth hormone in maternal serum and the concen tration of insulin in amniotic fluid were also lower in IUGR group than in control group(GH 1.77μg/L vs 2.74μg/L, P <0. 01, insulin 5. 84μIU/mi vs 15. 64μIU/ml, P <0. 01). Conclusion This study confirms that full term neonates with IUGR are abnormal in endocrine factors. The inadequacy of growth hormone may be one of the causes of IUGR. The relative scarcity of growth hormone and insulin seems to be a factor to compromise the fetus' metabolism. Be sides, the early hypothyrosis of infants with IUGR might protect them from unfavorable environment in the uterine.

  12. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Elena Gorbacheva


    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  13. Serum Levels of Growth Factors in Alcohol-dependent Patients according to Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    Han, Changwoo; Ahn, Donghyun; Hahm, Woong; Nam, Junghyun; Park, Yongchon; Lim, Seulgi; Kim, Dai-Jin


    Objective This study aims to reveal the relationship of depression with growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in inpatients diagnosed with alcohol dependence, and to identify candidate growth factors as biological markers to indicate the comorbid of alcohol dependence and depression. Methods This study examined demographic factors in 45 alcohol-dependent patients. The ADS (Korean version of the Alco...

  14. Empirical Analysis on Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetal Production

    Wenjie; WU


    Since the reform and opening-up,there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978- 2013. From the sequential characteristics,China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution,China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of " going down the south" and " marching the west". In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors,this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition,non-agricultural employment,market demand,knowledge spillover,comparative effectiveness,rural road and government policies.

  15. Primary factors influencing online shopping behavior in Vietnam

    Le, Ngoc Thao Nguyen


    Recently, in Vietnam, e-commerce is growing significantly, and the growth rate of Vietnam online shopping is among the highest in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose of this thesis was to examine and get a deep understanding of factors affecting online shopping behavior in Vietnam. Price, Trust, Convenience, and Products were identified as important factors. Another purpose of this thesis is to, based on the results, give suggestions for an electronics manufacturer and retailer in Vietnam – ...

  16. Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees

    Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D.


    Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal‐based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a m...

  17. Forest edges in boreal landscapes - factors affecting edge influence

    Jansson, Ulrika


    The boreal forest in Fennoscandia has been subjected to major loss and fragmentation of natural forests due to intensive forestry. This has resulted in that forest edges are now abundant and important landscape features. Edges have documented effects on the structure, function and biodiversity in forests. Edge influence on biodiversity is complex and depends on interactions between many local and regional factors. This thesis focuses on sharp forest edges and their potential to influence biod...

  18. Influence of Rhizobacterial Inoculation on Growth of the Sweetpotato Cultivar

    Y. Farzana


    Full Text Available Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. is the most important of local tuber crops in Malaysia. It is usually planted on marginal soils such as peat and sandy soils. Malaysian’s are consumed a lot of sweetpotatoes and its production requires high fertilizer input, which can lead to increased production cost and environment problems. The use of biofertilizer and bioenhancer such as N2 (nitrogen fixing bacteria and beneficial microorganism can reduce chemical fertilizer applications and consequently lower production cost. The pot experiment was conducted to determine the influence of rhizobacterial isolates on the response of sweetpotato plant growth. A total of five rhizobacterial isolates capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA were used. Four of the isolates were collected from sweetpotato rhizosphere and one isolate was imported. Cuttings of sweetpotato cultivars melaka and oren were planted in plastic pots containing alluvium soil. Cultures of the rhizobacterial isolates were inoculated at planting time, two and four weeks after planting. Plants were harvested 60 days after planting. The results showed that, three of isolates significantly increased the plant growth and the N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake of sweetpotato cultivar.

  19. The statistical mechanics of complex signaling networks: nerve growth factor signaling

    Brown, K. S.; Hill, C. C.; Calero, G. A.; Myers, C. R.; Lee, K. H.; Sethna, J. P.; Cerione, R. A.


    The inherent complexity of cellular signaling networks and their importance to a wide range of cellular functions necessitates the development of modeling methods that can be applied toward making predictions and highlighting the appropriate experiments to test our understanding of how these systems are designed and function. We use methods of statistical mechanics to extract useful predictions for complex cellular signaling networks. A key difficulty with signaling models is that, while significant effort is being made to experimentally measure the rate constants for individual steps in these networks, many of the parameters required to describe their behavior remain unknown or at best represent estimates. To establish the usefulness of our approach, we have applied our methods toward modeling the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of neuronal cells. In particular, we study the actions of NGF and mitogenic epidermal growth factor (EGF) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Through a network of intermediate signaling proteins, each of these growth factors stimulates extracellular regulated kinase (Erk) phosphorylation with distinct dynamical profiles. Using our modeling approach, we are able to predict the influence of specific signaling modules in determining the integrated cellular response to the two growth factors. Our methods also raise some interesting insights into the design and possible evolution of cellular systems, highlighting an inherent property of these systems that we call 'sloppiness.'

  20. ATP differentially upregulates fibroblast growth factor 2 and transforming growth factor α in neonatal and adult mice: effect on neuroproliferation.

    Jia, C; Cussen, A R; Hegg, C C


    Multiple neurotrophic factors play a role in proliferation, differentiation and survival in the olfactory epithelium (OE); however, the signaling cascade has not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypotheses that ATP induces the synthesis and secretion of two neurotrophic factors, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), and that these neurotrophic factors have a role in inducing proliferation. Protein levels of FGF2 and TGFα were increased 20 h post-intranasal instillation of ATP compared to vehicle control in adult Swiss Webster mice. Pre-intranasal treatment with purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-20,40-disulfonic acid (PPADS) significantly blocked this ATP-induced increase, indicating that upregulation of FGF2 and TGFα expression is mediated by purinergic receptor activation. However, in neonatal mouse, intranasal instillation of ATP significantly increased the protein levels of FGF2, but not TGFα. Likewise, ATP evoked the secretion of FGF2, but not TGFα, from neonatal mouse olfactory epithelial slices and PPADS significantly blocked ATP-evoked FGF2 release. To determine the role of FGF2 and TGFα in inducing proliferation, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was examined in adult olfactory epithelium. Intranasal treatment with FGF receptor inhibitor PD173074 or epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor AG1478 following ATP instillation significantly blocked ATP-induced BrdU incorporation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces proliferation in adult mouse olfactory epithelium by promoting FGF2 and TGFα synthesis and activation of their receptors. These data suggest that different mechanisms regulate neurogenesis in neonatal and adult OE, and FGF2 and TGFα may have different roles throughout development. PMID:21187124

  1. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on growth and differentiation of the continuous rat thyroid follicular cell line, FRTL-5

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many widely varied cell types in vitro, including some that are endocrinologically active. We have investigated the previously unknown effects of this unique growth factor in the differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL-5. The cells demonstrated specific, high affinity binding of TGF beta, and as with other epithelial cells, the growth of these thyroid follicular cells was potently inhibited by addition of TGF beta to the culture medium. TGF beta caused a significant reduction in TSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in the cells. The addition of (Bu)2cAMP along with the growth factor to cultures partially reversed the characteristic morphological changes seen with TGF beta, but did not reverse the growth inhibition. To further investigate the possible mechanisms of the effects of TGF beta on the cells, we measured the influence of the growth factor on [125I]TSH binding. TGF beta did not compete for specific TSH-binding sites; however, exposure of the cells to TGF beta for 12 or more h resulted in a dose-dependent down-regulation of TSH receptors that was fully reversible. While cellular proliferation was potently inhibited by TGF beta, differentiated function, as manifest by iodine-trapping ability, was stimulated by the growth factor. This stimulation of iodine uptake was independent of, and additive to, the stimulatory effects of TSH. Finally, FRTL-5 cells in serum-free medium and in response to TSH were shown to secrete TGF beta-like activity that competed for [125I]TGF beta in a RRA. These studies suggest that TGF beta may represent an autocrine mechanism of controlling the growth response to TSH in thyroid follicular cells, while allowing the continuance of differentiated function

  2. Mutagenesis of the crystal contact of acidic fibroblast growth factor

    Several mutations at Glu81 located on the crystal contact of human acidic fibroblast growth factor were studied in an effort to improve crystal growth. Mutation to Ser and Thr resulted in crystallization of a rather bulky form of the wild type, whereas mutation to Val prohibited crystallization. These results suggest that crystal growth may be controlled by designing a new interface by protein engineering. An attempt has been made to improve a crystal contact of human acidic fibroblast growth factor (haFGF; 140 amino acids) to control the crystal growth, because haFGF crystallizes only as a thin-plate form, yielding crystals suitable for X-ray but not neutron diffraction. X-ray crystal analysis of haFGF showed that the Glu81 side chain, located at a crystal contact between haFGF molecules, is in close proximity with an identical residue related by crystallographic symmetry, suggesting that charge repulsion may disrupt suitable crystal-packing interactions. To investigate whether the Glu residue affects the crystal-packing interactions, haFGF mutants in which Glu81 was replaced by Ala, Val, Leu, Ser and Thr were constructed. Although crystals of the Ala and Leu mutants were grown as a thin-plate form by the same precipitant (formate) as the wild type, crystals of the Ser and Thr mutants were grown with increased thickness, yielding a larger overall crystal volume. X-ray structural analysis of the Ser mutant determined at 1.35 Å resolution revealed that the hydroxy groups of Ser are linked by hydrogen bonds mediated by the formate used as a precipitant. This approach to engineering crystal contacts may contribute to the development of large protein crystals for neutron crystallography

  3. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Oana Dumitrascu


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  4. A study on effective factors influencing on equity risk in banking industry

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard


    Full Text Available Measuring the effects of various factors influencing on risk of return in banking system plays essential role on making managerial decisions. This paper investigates the effects of seven factors including equities, leverage, dividend, size, growth domestic products, bank concentration and market return on risk of return in selected banks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects the necessary data through financial statements announced on exchange as well as macro-economic figures reported by central bank of Iran to examine the hypotheses of the survey. Using some regression technique, the study has determined that only bank size and growth domestic product influence significantly on risk of return on Tehran Stock Exchange.

  5. Adult-Onset Deficiency in Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Alters Oligodendrocyte Turnover in the Corpus Callosum

    Hua, Kun; Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Lichtenwalner, Robin J.; Sonntag, William E.; Riddle, David R.


    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) provide trophic support during development and also appear to influence cell structure, function and replacement in the adult brain. Recent studies demonstrated effects of the GH/IGF-I axis on adult neurogenesis, but it is unclear whether the GH/IGF-I axis influences glial turnover in the normal adult brain. In the current study we used a selective model of adult-onset GH and IGF-I deficiency to evaluate the role of GH and IGF-I in ...

  6. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Fratu, D.


    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.


    Ameen M Al-Agaga


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging were found to have a significant impact on customer e-loyalty in Internet banking.

  8. Influence analysis for the factor analysis model with ranking data.

    Xu, Liang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Lee, Sik-Yum


    Influence analysis is an important component of data analysis, and the local influence approach has been widely applied to many statistical models to identify influential observations and assess minor model perturbations since the pioneering work of Cook (1986). The approach is often adopted to develop influence analysis procedures for factor analysis models with ranking data. However, as this well-known approach is based on the observed data likelihood, which involves multidimensional integrals, directly applying it to develop influence analysis procedures for the factor analysis models with ranking data is difficult. To address this difficulty, a Monte Carlo expectation and maximization algorithm (MCEM) is used to obtain the maximum-likelihood estimate of the model parameters, and measures for influence analysis on the basis of the conditional expectation of the complete data log likelihood at the E-step of the MCEM algorithm are then obtained. Very little additional computation is needed to compute the influence measures, because it is possible to make use of the by-products of the estimation procedure. Influence measures that are based on several typical perturbation schemes are discussed in detail, and the proposed method is illustrated with two real examples and an artificial example. PMID:18482479

  9. Role of growth factors in the growth of normal and transformed cells

    Growth factors play an important role in the growth of normal cells. However, their untimely and/or excess production leads to neoplastic transformation. The role of growth factors in the growth of normal cells was studied by investigating the mechanism of transmodulation of the cell surface EGF receptor number by protamine. Protamine increased the EGF stimulated mitogenic response in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells and A431 cells by increasing the number of functionally active EGF receptors. Protamine also increased EGF receptor number in plasma membranes and solubilized membranes. This was evidenced by an increase in both 125I-EGF-EGF-receptor complex and EGF stimulated phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. The solubilized EGF receptor was retained on a protamine-agarose gel indicating that protamine might increase EGF receptor number by directly activating cryptic EGF receptors in the plasma membranes. The role of growth factors in neoplastic transformation was studied by investigating the role of the oncogene v-sis in the growth of Simian sarcoma virus (SSV) transformed cells. The product of the oncogene v-sis is 94% homologous to the B chain of PDGF. This study found that (i) v-sis gene product is synthesized as a 32 kDa unglycosylated monomer which is glycosylated, dimerized and proteolytically processed into p36, p72, p68, p58, p44 and p27 mol. wt. species respectively. (ii) p36, p72, p68 and p58 are very likely formed in the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi complex. A fraction of newly synthesized p72, p68 and p58 is degraded intracellularly at a fast rate. (iii) p44 is a secretory product which remains tightly associated with the cell surface. p44 is recaptured by the cells through interaction with cell surface PDGF receptors and degraded into p27. (iv) During long term cultures p44 is extracellularly cleaved into a 27 kDa product

  10. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Regulates the Secretion of Different Angiogenic Factors in Lung Cancer Cells.

    Frezzetti, Daniela; Gallo, Marianna; Roma, Cristin; D'Alessio, Amelia; Maiello, Monica R; Bevilacqua, Simona; Normanno, Nicola; De Luca, Antonella


    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is one of the main mediators of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, it has been described an autocrine feed-forward loop in NSCLC cells in which tumor-derived VEGFA promoted the secretion of VEGFA itself, amplifying the proangiogenic signal. In order to investigate the role of VEGFA in lung cancer progression, we assessed the effects of recombinant VEGFA on proliferation, migration, and secretion of other angiogenic factors in A549, H1975, and HCC827 NSCLC cell lines. We found that VEGFA did not affect NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. On the other hand, we demonstrated that VEGFA not only produced a strong and persistent increase of VEGFA itself but also significantly induced the secretion of a variety of angiogenic factors, including follistatin (FST), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-8, leptin (LEP), platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), and platelet-derived growth factor bb (PDGF-BB). PI3K/AKT, RAS/ERK, and STAT3 signalling pathways were found to mediate the effects of VEGFA in NSCLC cell lines. We also observed that VEGFA regulation mainly occurred at post-transcriptional level and that NSCLC cells expressed different isoforms of VEGFA. Collectively, our data suggested that VEGFA contributes to lung cancer progression by inducing a network of angiogenic factors, which might offer potential for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26542886

  11. Influence of controlling vibrations on heat transfer in floating zone crystal growth*

    Fedyushkin, A. I.

    The crystal growth processes of monocrystals are strongly vibrational sensitive systems and in particular it concerns to a floating zone method as presence of a free surface and two fronts of crystallization and melting that aggravate it The given work is devoted to numerical investigations of the influence of controlling vibrations on heat transfer during crystal growth by floating zone technique Normal and weightless environment conditions are considered Mathematical simulation is performed on the numerical solutions of basis unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flows and energy equation 2D axisymmetric geometry was used in model Marangoni convection and radiation condition on the curvature free surface were taken in account The calculations of the shape of a free surface of a liquid zone and influences on it of a corner of wetting force of weight and size of factor of a superficial tension are carried out The simulations of convective heat transfer for real curvature free surface of a liquid zone with and without the taking into account of the following factors parameters of radiation rotations natural and Marangoni convection and vibrations are carried out The given calculations are carried out for semiconductors melts with Prandtl number Pr 1 and for oxides Pr 1 The influence of vibrations of a crystal on melt flow and on the wide of dynamic and thermal boundary layers at melt-crystal interface is studied The action of vibrations on an enhancement of heat fluxes at the melt crystal interface is shown

  12. An expandable, inducible hemangioblast state regulated by fibroblast growth factor.

    Vereide, David T; Vickerman, Vernella; Swanson, Scott A; Chu, Li-Fang; McIntosh, Brian E; Thomson, James A


    During development, the hematopoietic and vascular lineages are thought to descend from common mesodermal progenitors called hemangioblasts. Here we identify six transcription factors, Gata2, Lmo2, Mycn, Pitx2, Sox17, and Tal1, that "trap" murine cells in a proliferative state and endow them with a hemangioblast potential. These "expandable" hemangioblasts (eHBs) are capable, once released from the control of the ectopic factors, to give rise to functional endothelial cells, multilineage hematopoietic cells, and smooth muscle cells. The eHBs can be derived from embryonic stem cells, from fetal liver cells, or poorly from fibroblasts. The eHBs reveal a central role for fibroblast growth factor, which not only promotes their expansion, but also facilitates their ability to give rise to endothelial cells and leukocytes, but not erythrocytes. This study serves as a demonstration that ephemeral progenitor states can be harnessed in vitro, enabling the creation of tractable progenitor cell lines. PMID:25458896

  13. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled 239PuO2 were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-α protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-α. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-α also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-α were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Insulin-like growth factor-I in growth and metabolism

    Backeljauw, P; Bang, P; Dunger, D B; Juul, A; Le Bouc, Y; Rosenfeld, R

    proper interpretation of data. Recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) treatment improves stature in patients with severe primary IGFD, and has also been shown to improve glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in patients with severe insulin resistance. Ongoing studies of patients receiving rhIGF-I will......Deficiency of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) results in growth failure. A variety of molecular defects have been found to underlie severe primary IGF-I deficiency (IGFD), in which serum IGF-I concentrations are substantially decreased and fail to respond to GH therapy. Identification of more...

  15. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei


    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.


    Anand.j; Chitra Devi. S


    Nuisance struggle in contemporary market provides an organization to overwhelm the competitors by looking out for an mixed bag of strategy, So many organizations purposefully in implementing e recruitment for their growth and sustainability, to source right person for right time with right cost. The superiority of real-time communication over the Internet is an reason why e recruitment become the main platform for HR Professionals. The purpose of the study is to learn the Factors influencing ...

  17. An Exploratory Study of Marketing Factors Influencing Fairtrade Food Buying Behaviour in the UK

    Fred Amofa Yamoah


    The phenomenal growth of the fairtrade industry has attracted increased research interest but little is known as to what marketing factors drive fairtrade retail sales. This gap has profound implications for fairtrade marketing research and the future of the fairtrade industry. To provide a more robust and objective insight this paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million fairtrade shoppers to establish the influence of price, promotion and distribution on f...

  18. An investigation on important factors influencing customer repurchase: A case study of Airline agencies

    Mohammadreza Rahimi Shamsabadi; Naser Azad


    During the past few years, there has been an increase trend on purchasing via internet, which indicates a steady growth on this internet service. There are different advantages on e-purchase services such as availability of usage, fast and reliable services, etc. The purpose of this survey is to investigate on different influencing factors on customer's fidelity on purchasing air ticket from different agencies located in Tehran, Iran. The Cronbach Alpha validates our results. The proposed con...

  19. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in rubber industry

    Mehrnaz Moshkelati; Elham Eghbali; Hamed Asgari; Hamid Bagheri


    Building a distinguished brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. It also helps us sell products with higher price; attract reliable customers for long term relationships. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing rubber industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 20 questions, distributes it among 300 people and collects 265 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.756...

  20. Time dependent impact of perinatal hypoxia on growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3.

    Kartal, Ömer; Aydınöz, Seçil; Kartal, Ayşe Tuğba; Kelestemur, Taha; Caglayan, Ahmet Burak; Beker, Mustafa Caglar; Karademir, Ferhan; Süleymanoğlu, Selami; Kul, Mustafa; Yulug, Burak; Kilic, Ertugrul


    Hypoxic-ischemia (HI) is a widely used animal model to mimic the preterm or perinatal sublethal hypoxia, including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It causes diffuse neurodegeneration in the brain and results in mental retardation, hyperactivity, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and neuroendocrine disturbances. Herein, we examined acute and subacute correlations between neuronal degeneration and serum growth factor changes, including growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) after hypoxic-ischemia (HI) in neonatal rats. In the acute phase of hypoxia, brain volume was increased significantly as compared with control animals, which was associated with reduced GH and IGF-1 secretions. Reduced neuronal survival and increased DNA fragmentation were also noticed in these animals. However, in the subacute phase of hypoxia, neuronal survival and brain volume were significantly decreased, accompanied by increased apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus and cortex. Serum GH, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels were significantly reduced in the subacute phase of HI. Significant retardation in the brain and body development were noted in the subacute phase of hypoxia. Here, we provide evidence that serum levels of growth-hormone and factors were decreased in the acute and subacute phase of hypoxia, which was associated with increased DNA fragmentation and decreased neuronal survival. PMID:26943480

  1. Analysis of Factors Influencing Agritourism Businesses Perceptions about Expansion

    Jensen, Kimberly L.; Bruch Leffew, Megan; Menard, R. Jamey; English, Burton C.


    Agritourism can provide both on-farm recreational activities for visitors and educational activities showing how food is produced. It can help farmers diversify and add income to their operations. This study assesses how characteristics of agritourism operations and perceived barriers may influence future plans to expand using a logit model. This information will be useful to policymakers and economic development professionals, as they look for contributors to future growth in the agritourism...

  2. Effects of growth factors on the proliferation of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro.

    Kim, D S; Korting, H C; Schäfer-Korting, M


    Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) is a new member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of multifunctional peptide growth factors that appear to mediate many key events in cell growth and development. The effects of GDF-5 and other growth factors (epidermal growth factor, EGF; TGF-beta 1) on the proliferation of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts compared with desoximetasone and calcipotriol have been investigated. The proliferation rate was determined by a hemocytometer, MTT assay and the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. Moreover, cell cycle analyses were performed and the influence on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) production in keratinocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because of its pronounced proinflammatory effect. In keratinocytes, GDF-5 stimulated cell proliferation to a minor extent. The drug already proved to be effective at very low concentrations (0.1 ng/ml). Growth stimulatory effects with EGF have been observed only in keratinocyte basal medium (KBM), but not in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM). TGF-beta 1 markedly inhibited the proliferation of keratinocytes at concentrations > 1 ng/ml. Calcipotriol and desoximetasone also showed a dose-dependent cell growth inhibition in epidermal cell cultures. IL-1 alpha synthesis was greatly suppressed by calcipotriol 10(-8)-10(-6) M. EGF at 10 ng/ml, in contrast, strongly stimulated IL-1 alpha production. Neither GDF-5 nor TGF-beta 1 had a significant effect on IL-1 alpha production in keratinocyte monolayer cultures. In fibroblasts, GDF-5 induced very weak antiproliferative effects. Calcipotriol and desoximetasone also inhibited cell growth in fibroblast cultures whereas proliferation and DNA synthesis were strongly stimulated by 1 ng/ml EGF. There was, however, a contradiction between TGF-beta 1 results on fibroblasts. Whereas TGF-beta 1 increased proliferation in cell number determination and in the thymidine incorporation assay, MTT assays showed

  3. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 effects on proliferation and telomerase activity in sheep growth plate chondrocytes

    Smith Logan B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 inhibits growth-plate chondrocyte proliferation and limits bone elongation. Gain-of-function FGFR3 mutations cause dwarfism, reduced telomerase activity and shorter telomeres in growth plate chondroyctes suggesting that FGFR3 reduces proliferative capacity, inhibits telomerase, and enhances senescence. Thyroid hormone (T3 plays a role in cellular maturation of growth plate chondrocytes and a known target of T3 is FGFR3. The present study addressed whether reduced FGFR3 expression enhanced telomerase activity, mRNA expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and RNA component of telomerase (TR, and chondrocyte proliferation, and whether the stimulation of FGFR3 by T3 evoked the opposite response. Results Sheep growth-plate proliferative zone chondrocytes were cultured and transfected with siRNA to reduce FGFR3 expression; FGFR3 siRNA reduced chondrocyte FGFR3 mRNA and protein resulting in greater proliferation and increased TERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity (p 3 significantly enhanced FGFR3 mRNA and protein expression and reduced telomerase activity (p 3 at the growth plate may be partially mediated through the FGFR3 pathway. Conclusions The results suggest that FGFR3 inhibits chondrocyte proliferation by down-regulating TERT expression and reducing telomerase activity indicating an important role for telomerase in sustaining chondrocyte proliferative capacity during bone elongation.

  4. Effects of Nutritional Factors on the Growth and Heterotrophic Eicosapentaenoic Acid Production of Diatom Nitzschia laevis

    CAO Xiaohong; LI Songyao; WANG Chunling; LU Meifang


    The effects of several nutritional factors on the growth and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production of diatom Nitzschia laevis were studied. 4 LDM (quadrupled concentration of the nutrient salt) was the optimal concentration of nutrient salt for the growth and EPA production ofN. laevis. The growth ofN. laevis was inhibited when the glucose concentration was either lower than 10gL-1 or higher than 15gL-1. Both sodium nitrate and urea were good nitrogen sources for the growth and EPA production, while ammonium chloride seriously decreased the dry cell weight (DW) and the EPA content. Silicate seriously influenced the growth of N. laevis. The maximum DW of 2.34gL-1 was obtained in the presence of 150 mgL-1 Na2SiO3·9H2O. The EPA content remained almost the same when the silicate concentration was lower than 150 mgL-1; however, higher silicate concentrations resulted in a steady de- crease of EPA content. Low medium salinity (≤29) did not seem to influence the DW of N. laevis, and high salinity resulted in a decrease of DW. The highest EPA content (4.08%) and yield (110 mgL-1) were observed at the salinity of 36 and 29, respectively.

  5. The influence of the factors of consumer behavior in tourism

    Cuculeski, Nikola; Cuculeski, Vasko; Taskov, Nako


    The consumer behavior in general and especially in tourism is affected of multitude factors. The efforts in this publication are to define and examine the key factors that influence consumer behavior in tourism. Because the marketing aspect is in the focus of the theoretical framework, these aspects and specifics are related to marketing. Consumer behavior is connected to the studying of and for the individual, group or organization and processes that are used to select, secure, usage and ...

  6. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli; Hamid Bagheri; Sina Nobahari; Naser Azad; Mohammad Rikhtegar


    These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distr...

  7. Factors Influencing Range of Motion after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    H Farahini; Moghtadaei, M; Bagheri, A; Akbarian, E


    Background The range of motion after a total knee arthroplasty is an important clinical outcome affecting the life of the patient. The aim of this study was to determine the most important factors influencing the postoperative knee flexion in Tehran, Iran. Methods Between July 2007 and January 2009, on 95 cases of total knee joint replacement (89 patients), who were followed for 1 year postoperatively, the risk factors were assessed. Patient demographics (sex, age, body mass index, previous s...

  8. Factors Influencing Job Choice among Agricultural Economics Professionals

    McGraw, Katherine; Popp, Jennie S. Hughes; Bruce L Dixon; Newton, Doris J.


    This article identifies factors that influence agricultural economics professionals’ job choice between academic and government employment. Respondents agreed that job responsibilities were the most important factor in choosing their current position. They also agreed that having a positive work environment, good salary, family time, adequate resources, and professional and social interaction were important job attributes. Proportionally more women than men regarded partner opportunities, n...

  9. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi


    Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our s...

  10. Influencing factors on postoperative hospital stay after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Chong, Jae Uk; Lee, Jin Ho; Yoon, Young Chul; Kwon, Kuk Hwan; Cho, Jai Young; Kim, Say-Jun; Kim, Jae Keun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Choi, Sae Byeol; Kim, Kyung Sik


    Backgrounds/Aims Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can reduce postoperative pain and recovery time. However, some patients experience prolonged postoperative hospital stay. We aimed to identify factors influencing the postoperative hospital stay after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Patients (n=336) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder pathology at 8 hospitals were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: 2 or less and more than 2 days postoperative stay. Perioperative factors ...

  11. Influencing factors of growth hormone in response to insulin tolerance test in 50 healthy adults%50名健康成人生长激素对胰岛素耐量试验反应性的影响因素

    宋向欣; 顾锋; 徐焱成; 葛家璞; 崔立全


    胰岛素耐量试验(ITT)激发的生长激素(GH)峰值是诊断成人生长激素缺乏症的“金标准”.本研究探讨50名中国健康成人中ITT激发的GH峰值的受影响因素.结果显示血糖谷值或血糖下降幅度与GH峰值无相关性.在多元回归分析中,ITT激发的GH与体重指数呈负相关(P<0.01),与年龄、性别和腹围无显著相关性.%The peak level of growth hormone (GH) stimulated by insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the " gold standard" for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in adults.This study was aimed to explore the factors influencing GH response to ITT in 50 healthy adults.The results showed that the nadir or decreased amplitude of blood glucose was not related to GH peak level.In multivariable analysis,the GH level stimulated by ITT was negatively associated with body mass index(P<0.01),but there was no any association with age,gender,and waist circumference.

  12. Influence of music on the growth of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Pisces: Cyprindae)

    Vasantha, L.; Jeyakumar, A.; Pitchai, M.A.


    An experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of music on the growth of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio) by subjecting the fish to music. Weekly growth in weight was recorded and used to calculate the growth rate and specific growth rate. The difference in growth between the control and experiment groups of fishes was statistically tested for significance. It was observed that the growth of fish subjected to music was significantly higher.

  13. Exogenous growth hormone inhibits growth hormone-releasing factor-induced growth hormone secretion in normal men.

    Rosenthal, S M; Hulse, J A; Kaplan, S L; Grumbach, M. M.


    Previous studies from this laboratory and by others in rats, monkeys, and humans support the concept that growth hormone (GH) can regulate its own secretion through an autofeedback mechanism. With the availability of human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), the possible existence of such a mechanism was reexplored by examining the effect of exogenous GH on the GH response induced by GRF-44-NH2 in six normal men (mean age, 32.4 yr). In all subjects the plasma GH response evoked by GRF-44-N...

  14. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor is an independent prognostic factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Wang, Qifeng; Zhu, Hongxia; Xiao, Zefen; Zhang, Wencheng; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Xun; He, Jie; Kelin SUN; Wang, Lvhua; Xu, Ningzhi


    Background The overall survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains poor. Prognostic predictions in ESCC are usually based on histological assessment of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis, but a biomarker with better predictive accuracy could be more useful. Because overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been associated with poor prognosis, this study investigated whether EGFR is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival ...

  15. The growth factor independence-1 transcription factor: New functions and new insights☆

    Kazanjian, Avedis; Gross, Eleanore A.; Grimes, H. Leighton


    The growth factor independence-1 (Gfi1) transcription factor is required for proper development of neuroendocrine cells, sensory neurons, and blood. Patients with mutations in Gfi1 exhibit severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) or non-immune chronic idiopathic neutropenia of adults. Gfi1 was initially described as an oncoprotein that mediates tumor progression in a mouse model of leukemia; however, recent data suggest that Gfi1 may act as either an oncogene or an anti-proliferative tumor suppres...

  16. Influence of main site factors on Fraxinus mandshurica(Oleaceae) plantation

    SUHan-ying; LINDai-bin


    The investigation was carried out on 10-year-old plantation of Fraxinus mandshurica in Mao'er Mountain Experimental Station of Northeast Forest University.tree height(H),diameter at breast height(D1.3) and the increment of tree height in 5 years (H5),the thickness of humus layer,as well as the soil moisture were measured for the plantation and the growth indexes(H,D1.3,H5) for different site conditions were analyzed.The results showedthat main site factors influencing the growth of Fraxinus mandshurica were soil moisture,gradient and location of siope in order.The growth of Fraxinus mandshurica was better on the middle-or up-slope site than on the down-slope site.Soil moisture and late frost caused by terrain are the main reasons that limit the growth of Fraxinus mandshurica plantation.

  17. The discovery of angiogenic growth factors: the contribution of Italian scientists

    Ribatti, Domenico


    Angiogenesis is regulated, under both physiological and pathological conditions, by numerous “non-classic” pro-angiogenic factors, including fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and placental growth factor (PlGF), and “non-classic” pro-angiogenic factors, including granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and erythropoietin (EPO). In the context of the most important discoveries in this ...

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor in primary human lung cancer

    Cell membranes were prepared from 12 human lung cancers for the study of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). EGFR concentration was estimated by ligand binding studies using 125I-radiolabeled EGF. The dissociation constants of the high affinity sites were identical, 1.48 nmol and 1.1 nmol in cancer and normal lung tissues, the EGFR contents were higher in lung cancer tissues (range: 2.25 to 19.39 pmol·g-1 membrane protein) than that in normal tissues from the same patients (range: 0.72 to 7.43 pmol·g-1 membrane protein). These results suggest that EGF and its receptor may play a role in the regulatory mechanisms in the control of lung cellular growth and tumor promotion

  20. Interdependent epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and trafficking.

    Jones, Sylwia; Rappoport, Joshua Z


    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signalling regulates diverse cellular functions, promoting cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell growth and survival. EGFR signalling is critical during embryogenesis, in particular in epithelial development, and disruption of the EGFR gene results in epithelial immaturity and perinatal death. EGFR signalling also functions during wound healing responses through accelerating wound re-epithelialisation, inducing cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. Upregulation of EGFR signalling is often observed in carcinomas and has been shown to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation and metastasis. Therefore aberrant EGFR signalling is a common target for anticancer therapies. Various reports indicate that EGFR signalling primarily occurs at the plasma membrane and EGFR degradation following endocytosis greatly attenuates signalling. Other studies argue that EGFR internalisation is essential for complete activation of downstream signalling cascades and that endosomes can serve as signalling platforms. The aim of this review is to discuss current understanding of intersection between EGFR signalling and trafficking. PMID:24681003