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1

Factors influencing graphene growth on metal surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphene forms from a relatively dense, tightly bound C-adatom gas when elemental C is deposited on or segregates to the Ru(0001) surface. Nonlinearity of the graphene growth rate with C-adatom density suggests that growth proceeds by addition of C atom clusters to the graphene edge. The generality of this picture has now been studied by use of low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to observe graphene formation when Ru(0001) and Ir(111) surfaces are exposed to ethylene. The finding that graphene growth velocities and nucleation rates on Ru have precisely the same dependence on adatom concentration as for elemental C deposition implies that hydrocarbon decomposition only affects graphene growth through the rate of adatom formation. For ethylene, that rate decreases with increasing adatom concentration and graphene coverage. Initially, graphene growth on Ir(111) is like that on Ru: the growth velocity is the same nonlinear function of adatom concentration (albeit with much smaller equilibrium adatom concentrations, as we explain with DFT calculations of adatom formation energies). In the later stages of growth, graphene crystals that are rotated relative to the initial nuclei nucleate and grow. The rotated nuclei grow much faster. This difference suggests firstly, that the edge-orientation of the graphene sheets relative to the substrate plays an important role in the growth mechanism, and secondly, that attachment of the clusters to the graphene is the slowest step in cluster addition, rather than formation of clusters on the terraces.

2009-06-01

2

Growth-oriented start-ups- Factors influencing financing decisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on identifying factors influencing the financing decisions of growth-oriented start-ups. A sample of 8 business incubator start-ups has been studied within a qualitative research so as to reach that goal. Their fundraising choices are analyzed using supporting financial and psychological theories. Also, the thesis examines the start-ups’ interaction with a business incubator and investors.It is found that growth oriented start-ups use internal funds in the first instance,...

2012-01-01

3

Differentiated thyroid cancer: Growth factors, oncogenes and environmental influences  

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Full Text Available The present data of growth factors, oncogenes, tumor-suppressor-genes and environmental factors can be summarized in thus: thyrotropin, growth factors and other hormones do increase thyrocyte growth and specific mutations of growth factor receptors (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], alpha subunit of hetero-trimeric transducer protein [GSP] cause autonomously functioning thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In the thyroid, as in other organs, genes that are found to be differentially expressed between normal thyroid tissue and thyroid carcinomas can be used as targets for molecular-based diagnosis and therapy. Deregulation of tumor suppressor gene p53, however, parallels dedifferentiation of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer but has been found in few cases only. Iodide inhibiting thyrocyte growth will have to be investigated more intensively after sodium-iodide-symporter (NIS has been cloned, and studies may now be available that could lead to form of conservative treatment in especially dedifferentiated thyroid cancer.

Paunovi? Ivan R.

2003-01-01

4

Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871) and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812). A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614) were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.

Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela

2012-01-01

5

Analysis of the Influence of Individual Factors on the Growth Regions of Ukraine ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???? ???????? ???????  

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Full Text Available The article investigates the influence of individual factors particular scientific and technological activities on the economic growth of regions of Ukraine. Analyzed their dynamics in quantitative and value terms. On the basis of cluster analysis identified regions of the leaders, implemented changes to the forecast of the gross regional product using the dynamic model.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????-??????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ???????? ???????. ????????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????-??????, ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????.

Tischenko Aleksandr N.

2011-02-01

6

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 influences pancreatic cancer cell growth  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the functional significance of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5 overexpression in pancreatic cancer (PaC.METHODS: The effects of IGFBP-5 on cell growth were assessed by stable transfection of BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cell lines and measuring cell number and DNA synthesis. Alterations in the cell cycle were assessed by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. Changes in cell survival and signal transduction were evaluated after mitogen activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor treatment.RESULTS: After serum deprivation, IGFBP-5 expression increased both cell number and DNA synthesis in BxPC-3 cells, but reduced cell number in PANC-1 cells. Consistent with this observation, cell cycle analysis of IGFBP-5-expressing cells revealed accelerated cell cycle progression in BxPC-3 and G2/M arrest of PANC-1 cells. Signal transduction analysis revealed that Akt activation was increased in BxPC-3, but reduced in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2 activation in BxPC-3, but enhanced ERK1/2 activation in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. When MEK1/2 was blocked, Akt activation remained elevated in IGFBP-5 expressing PaC cells; however, inhibition of PI3K or MEK1/2 abrogated IGFBP-5-mediated cell survival.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that IGFBP-5 expression affects the cell cycle and survival signal pathways and thus it may be an important mediator of PaC cell growth.

Sarah K Johnson, Randy S Haun

2009-07-01

7

Size variation of 0-group plaice: Are earlier influences on growth potential a contributing factor?  

Science.gov (United States)

Over a decade of sampling has shown that there are consistent differences in the sizes of 0-group plaice by late summer comparing 21 nursery sites on the Scottish west coast. However, when young fish were collected from two sites which produce particularly small and large fish and reared using a common garden design, growth rates between fish from the two sites were indistinguishable. Either there is little selection for fast or slow growth up to a few weeks post-settlement, or such effects do not persist sufficiently strongly to influence later growth. There were also no significant correlations between the time-series of fish size comparing sites, although within some sites there was evidence of inter-annual density-dependent effects. Any influences of offshore regional-scale factors, such as sea temperature or pelagic primary productivity on growth thus appear to be heavily modified by local conditions on the nursery grounds. The field observations combined with the experimental results lead us to conclude that the size 0-group plaice attain in late summer is mainly controlled by post-settlement habitat quality.

Fox, Clive J.; Targett, Timothy E.; Ciotti, Benjamin J.; de Kroon, Kasper; Hortsmeyer, Lena; T. Burrows, Michael

2014-04-01

8

Sciatic nerve regeneration across gaps within collagen chambers: the influence of epidermal growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) on axonal regeneration of a sectioned sciatic nerve within collagen tubes were investigated in 15 rats. Following baseline electrophysiologic assessment, bilateral 7-mm nerve gaps were created and repaired by interposition of collagen tubes, into which EGF (left side) or type I collagen (right side) was instilled. After 4 or 8 weeks, axonal regeneration, measured by electrophysiologic and histologic means, was identical for the EGF and control legs. The conclusion is that EGF does not influence nerve regeneration within a collagen chamber. PMID:8301632

Dubuisson, A S; Beuermann, R W; Kline, D G

1993-09-01

9

Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality  

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Full Text Available This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with structured and unstructured questions. The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing the growth of women entrepreneurship in Kitale and specifically to determine, the women’s level of education, skills and technology they employ, the social/cultural environmental conditions within which they operate and their financial capacity. The 70 respondents represented the target population which was within Kitale Municipality, selected by stratified random sampling procedures. Details in this project include the introduction, problem statement, the purpose, main and specific objectives of the study, research questions and the scope. A discussion of the available literature on women owned micro and small enterprises, included the enterprises’ start- up, undertakings and growth, the missing middle, the social, cultural and environmental conditions , the entrepreneur’s education level, skills technology and financing they access. The interventional efforts and growth models were also discussed. The literature review wound up with a critique, a conclusion and the missing gap. The methodology used in conducting the study was explained in details that included descriptive research design, the population, target population, sample size, sampling technique and procedure, the instruments, data collection procedure, processing and analysis. A questionnaire was administered orally to 70 women in MSE within the municipality in order to gather data. The research findings analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences(SPSS, were discussed using a triangulation style along with tables and figures the major factors affecting growth were found to be lack of training, finance, and multiple roles. The rate of growth was found to be between low and moderate. The whole research process was summarized concisely, concluded and relevant recommendations outlined. This study has made some contribution to research and added to knowledge in the existing literature all of which have been pinpointed in the summary and conclusion. The appendix included the research instrument, some tables, figures, introduction letters, a budget and a work plan. The research findings have helped unravel the problem by answering the research questions outlined and may therefore significantly play the role of assisting the stakeholders in addressing the problem of women in the MSE sector. The stakeholders include the government organs, NGOs, financial institutions, women proponents, the women entrepreneur’s, professionals and the society at large. It is hoped that the recommendation made shall be adopted by the concerned party to improve the growth of women owned MSEs in Kitale municipality and the nation at large.

Ruth Niva Ongachi

2013-10-01

10

Influence of fluticasone propionate on the production of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor from nasal fibroblasts in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of fluticasone propionate (FP) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) production from nasal polyp fibroblasts (NPFs) was examined in vitro. NPFs, at a density of 2.5 x 10(5) cells/ml, were stimulated with 25 ng/ml TNF-alpha in the presence or absence of FP for 24 h. FP at more than 10(-6) M could suppress VEGF production from NPFs. bFGF production induced by TNF-alpha stimulation was also suppressed by FP, when the agent was added to cell cultures at more than 10(-7) M. The present results also showed the suppressive activity of FP on mRNA expression for VEGF and bFGF, which were increased by TNF-alpha stimulation. PMID:15646818

Uchida, Jun; Kanai, Kenichi; Asano, Kazuhito; Watanabe, So; Hisamitsu, Tadashi; Suzaki, Harumi

2004-01-01

11

Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent studies suggest that the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. However, only a few studies have investigated serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression, or the possible association between genetic variants within the VEGF gene and depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression vs. control individuals, and associations between genetic markers located within VEGF and depression. In addition, determinants of the serum VEGF levels were identified. One-hundred and fifty-five depressed subjects and 280 controls were included in the study. All individuals returned a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms were successfully analysed. VEGF levels were measured in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The genetic marker rs10434 was significantly associated with depression after correction for multiple testing, but not with the serum VEGF level. Our final model included depression and BMI as predictors of serum VEGF levels. Our study suggests a role for circulating serum VEGF in depression. Furthermore, our data also demonstrate that other factors than a diagnosis of depression influence the serum VEGF level. The importance of these factors should be emphasized when studies are compared.

Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle

2014-01-01

12

Livestock production in central Mali: factors influencing growth and liveweight in agro-pastoral cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on weight and growth of indigenous African cattle under a traditional management system are reported. In semi-arid central Mali (14 degrees N, 6 degrees W) calf birth weight was 16.6 kg, growth rates to weaning at seven months averaged 185 grams per day. Cows did not reach mature weights (230 kg) until after five years of age and work oxen did not achieve a mature weight of 297 kg until after six years. Effects of season of birth were significant on growth throughout life but effects of year of birth only persisted for nine months. Parity of cow, season and year had significant influences on post-partum weight. Seasonal changes in weight were severe for both work oxen (87 to 107% of mean weight) and for cows (88 to 110%). Over a seven year study period the decline in mature weights of oxen was 4% per year equivalent to about 80 kg over the period. For cows the decline was proportionately less severe (2.7%) these animals averaging 40 kg less in 1984 than they did in 1978. The slow growth rates, low mature weights and reduction in adult size is considered to be due to chronic overstocking on already denuded feed resources and to a decline in rainfall over the period. Current research programmes aimed at finding solutions to these problems are outlined. PMID:3629718

Wilson, R T

1987-05-01

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Differential effects of dexamethasone on the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells: Influence of microenvironment, tissue origin and growth factor  

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Full Text Available nchymal stromal cells (MSCs, which reside within various tissues, are utilized in the engineering of cartilage tissue. Dexamethasone (DEX – a synthetic glucocorticoid – is almost invariably applied to potentiate the growth-factor-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro, albeit that this effect has been experimentally demonstrated only for transforming-growth-factor-beta (TGF-?-stimulated bone-marrow-derived MSCs. Clinically, systemic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with untoward side effects (e.g., bone loss and increased susceptibility to infection. Hence, the use of these agents should be avoided or limited. We hypothesize that the influence of DEX on the chondrogenesis of MSCs depends upon their tissue origin and microenvironment [absence or presence of an extracellular matrix (ECM], as well as upon the nature of the growth factor. We investigated its effects upon the TGF-?1- and bone-morphogenetic-protein 2 (BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs as a function of tissue source (bone marrow vs. synovium and microenvironment [cell aggregates (no ECM vs. explants (presence of a natural ECM]. In aggregates of bone-marrow-derived MSCs, DEX enhanced TGF-?1-induced chondrogenesis by an up-regulation of cartilaginous genes, but had little influence on the BMP-2-induced response. In aggregates of synovial MSCs, DEX exerted no remarkable effect on either TGF-?1- or BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis. In synovial explants, DEX inhibited BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis almost completely, but had little impact on the TGF-?1-induced response. Our data reveal that steroids are not indispensable for the chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro. Their influence is context dependent (tissue source of the MSCs, their microenvironment and the nature of the growth-factor. This finding has important implications for MSC based approaches to cartilage repair.

N Shintani

2011-11-01

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Influence of farnesyl transferase inhibitor treatment on epidermal growth factor receptor status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiolabelled growth factor [123/125I] I-hEGF is evaluated in vitro and in vivo to monitor the acute effects on the EGFR of R115777, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI). Upregulation of the EGFR after incubation with R115777 correlated linearly with FTI induced acute growth inhibition. Receptor mediated [125I] I-hEGF internalization decreased following R115777 treatment. Preliminary data suggest that the net in vivo effect is a decrease of [123I] I-hEGF uptake in the tumour. These findings suggest the possible use of radioiodinated hEGF as a radiodiagnosticum to investigate EGFR status changes as a predictor for eventual FTI chemotherapy outcome in vivo

2004-08-01

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Influence of farnesyl transferase inhibitor treatment on epidermal growth factor receptor status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiolabelled growth factor [{sup 123/125}I] I-hEGF is evaluated in vitro and in vivo to monitor the acute effects on the EGFR of R115777, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI). Upregulation of the EGFR after incubation with R115777 correlated linearly with FTI induced acute growth inhibition. Receptor mediated [{sup 125}I] I-hEGF internalization decreased following R115777 treatment. Preliminary data suggest that the net in vivo effect is a decrease of [{sup 123}I] I-hEGF uptake in the tumour. These findings suggest the possible use of radioiodinated hEGF as a radiodiagnosticum to investigate EGFR status changes as a predictor for eventual FTI chemotherapy outcome in vivo.

Cornelissen, Bart E-mail: bart.cornelissen@ugent.be; Thonissen, Thomas; Kersemans, Veerle; Wiele, Christophe van de; Lahorte, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi A; Slegers, Guido

2004-08-01

16

Evaluation of Variables Influencing the Measurement of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Our aim was to identify the frequency and possible clinical and analytical factors leading to "falsely" elevated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with IGF-1 concentrations above the reference interval. They were selected from a database of patients who had consecutive IGF-1 measurements between the years 2007-2010.Results: Out of 2,747 unique patients, 117 (4%) were found to have IGF-1 concentrations above the reference interval that were considered false-positives following a review of the clinical data. There was no relationship between the percentage of increase in IGF-1 and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, medication use, gonadal status, baseline growth hormone (GH), or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations. An abnormal IGF-1 concentration led to performance of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for GH suppression in 21 of 117 patients (18%) and repeat IGF-1 measurements in 52 patients (44%). In 34 of 52 patients (65%) with a median follow-up of 36 months, the subsequent IGF-1 concentration was within the reference interval.Conclusion: Discovery of "falsely" elevated IGF-1 concentrations may lead to unnecessary testing and physician visits. Although the cause of the "falsely" elevated IGF-1 concentrations during the study period remains to be elucidated, it appears they are caused by a combination of high biological variability and method-specific assay performance issues. Clinicians should consider retesting patients with potentially spurious IGF-1 elevations after some time interval before embarking on more extensive investigations. PMID:24326002

Bancos, Irina; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia; Grebe, Stefan K; Donato, Leslie J; Nippoldt, Todd B; Erickson, Dana

2014-05-01

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Ram Sperm Motility Parameters under The Influence of Epidermal Growth Factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the important cytokines that play a role in fertility. It is known that EGF affects both male and female reproduction, but its effect on sperm parameters is not fully understood. Up to the present, the effect of EGF on ram sperm motility parameters has not been published. We analyzed motility parameters of ejaculates after 24, 48, and 72 hours from the EGF addition. EGF was added to chilled ram sperm at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, and 400?ng·ml?...

2011-01-01

18

Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and females from a large, prospective, and randomly ascertained birth cohort from Northern Finland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Pubertal timing was estimated based on pubertal height growth in 5,058 subjects (2,417 males and 2,641 females), and the relationship between puberty and body weight, glucose and lipid homeostasis, and blood pressure at age 31 years was evaluated with linear regression modeling. RESULTS Earlier pubertal timing associated with higher adult BMI, fasting insulin, diastolic blood pressure, and decreased HDL cholesterol in both sexes (P < 0.002) and with higher total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in males. The association with BMI and diastolic blood pressure remained statistically significant in both sexes, as did the association with insulin levels and HDL cholesterol concentrations in males after adjusting for covariates reflecting both fetal and childhood growth including childhood BMI. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate independent association between earlier pubertal timing and adult metabolic syndrome-related derangements both in males and females. The connection emphasizes that the mechanisms advancing puberty may also contribute to adult metabolic disorders.

Widen, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

2012-01-01

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Influence of Feixian Formula on serum transforming growth factor-?1 and platelet-derived growth factor in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis  

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Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of Feixian Formula, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treating pulmonary fibrosis, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and its influence on serum transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF.Methods: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were infused with bleomycin (1 mg/kg through tracheal intubation to induce pulmonary fibrosis, and they were randomly divided into untreated group (n=24, prednisone-treated group (n=24 and Feixian Formula-treated group (n=24. Fifteen male Wistar rats of the sham-operated group were infused with equivalent normal saline. Twenty-four hours after operation, prednisone (5 mg/kg and Feixian Formula (1.25 g/kg were given to the prednisone-treated group and Feixian Formula-treated group respectively by intragastric administration once a day. Equivalent saline was administered to rats of the untreated group and sham-operated group. On the 14th, 28th and 45th day, 5 rats in the sham-operated group and 8 rats in each of the other three groups were dissected to observe pathologic changes of the lung tissues, and the levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: At the 45th day, the degree of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was lesser in rats of the Feixian Formula-treated group as compared with those of the untreated group and prednisone-treated group. The levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were increased, and were significantly higher than those of the sham-operated group, especially on the 45th day (P0.05, and there was no significant difference between the prednisone-treated group and the Feixian Formula-treated group (P>0.05. PDGF in the Feixian Formula-treated group reached the highest level on the 14th day, significantly higher than those of the other three groups (P<0.01. Then it decreased, and was close to that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P=0.792. The levels of PDGF in untreated group and prednisone-treated group were increased depending on time, and were obviously higher than that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P<0.01. Conclusion: Feixian Formula can relieve bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and the mechanism of its action may be related to down-regulating serum PDGF.

Wei ZHANG

2008-06-01

20

Non-genetic and genetic factors influencing growth performance in Murrah Buffalos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Live weight data from 590 Murrah buffalo calves (140 male and 450 female calves) maintained at the Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India, born in the period between 1990 and 2004 were used for this study. Data were analysed using least-squares procedures. The adjusted birth weigh [...] ts of male and female calves were 33.0 ± 0.49 and 31.9 ± 0.27 kg, respectively, with an overall value of 32.4 ± 0.30 kg. The mean body weight at three, six, nine and 12 months of age pooled over periods, season and sex were 62.0 ± 0.65, 87.9 ± 0.95, 112.4 ± 1.23 and 134.16 ± 1.41 kg, respectively. Period of calving influenced the weight significantly at birth, three and six months of ages only. The effect of dam parity on body weight at different ages was highly significant. The calves born during the dam's second parity were generally heavier than those born in other parities. Generally, males had a higher body weight than females at all age groups. All the growth traits showed medium heritability (direct) estimates, which ranged between 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.22 ± 0.16. The genetic correlations were all medium to high and positive. The genetic parameter estimates indicated that the six months weight can be used as a selection tool for genetic improvement of growth traits considering its high heritability and positive genetic correlations with succeeding growth traits.

A.K., Thiruvenkadan; S., Panneerselvam; R., Rajendran.

 
 
 
 
21

Influence of Environmental Factors and Medium Composition on Vibrio gazogenes Growth and Prodigiosin Production  

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Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 29988 growth and prodigiosin synthesis were studied in batch culture on complex and defined media and in chemostat cultures on defined medium. In batch culture on complex medium, a maximum growth rate of 0.75 h?1 and a maximum prodigiosin concentration of 80 ng of prodigiosin · mg of cell protein?1 were observed. In batch culture on defined medium, maximum growth rates were lower (maximum growth rate, 0.40 h?1), and maximum prodigiosin concentrations were higher (...

Allen, Garry R.; Reichelt, John L.; Gray, Peter P.

1983-01-01

22

Growth factors and scaffold composition influence properties of tissue engineered human septal cartilage implants in a murine model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several surgical disciplines apply cartilage grafts for reconstructive purposes and have to overcome the scarcity of donor sites for this unique tissue. Employing the techniques of tissue engineering, cartilage might be generated in reasonable amounts for clinical purposes. Application of growth factors together with biochemical and biomechanical scaffold properties influence the process of ex vivo transplant production. The aims of this study are: 1) to investigate the influence of IGF-1 and TGFbeta-2 on tissue engineered human septal cartilage in vitro and in vivo after transplantation in nude mice; 2) to analyse the effect of the polydioxanone (PDS) content of the biodegradable Ethisorb E210 scaffold on the properties of the implanted constructs. Cells were three-dimensionally cultured on biodegradable Ethisorb E210 (PGA-PLA-copolymer fleeces with polydioxanone (PDS) adhesions), or on E210 scaffolds with a reduced polydioxanone content. Wet weight (ww), GAG-, and hydroxyprolin-content, as well as the cellularity of the neocartilage constructs were quantitatively evaluated. Additionally, the in vivo resorption of the two types of cell carriers was monitored. Addition of growth factors clearly increased the wet weight of the in vitro cultured constructs before transplantation. After transplantation, high PDS content improved the in vivo stability and macroscopic morphometric appearance of the tissue engineered specimens and led to enhanced deposition of glycosaminoglycans in transplanted constructs. Hydroxyproline content of the implants was not affected by either growth factors or PDS content. These data suggest a role for IGF-1 and TGFbeta-2 in preparative in vitro culture of chondrocytes before implantation, while PDS content of the scaffold is important for in vivo properties of the implanted material. PMID:19144266

Skodacek, D; Brandau, S; Deutschle, T; Lang, S; Rotter, N

2008-01-01

23

Factors that influence the oxidation of the manganese in a growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, R J  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetic behavior of the oxidation of the manganese in the growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, Sepetiba Bay, R J, have been studied through the incubation with the radiotracer Mn-54. We have observed the great influence of the factors that interferes in the rate oxidation with the mangrove state in the moment of the sampling. We applied statistical multivariate to verify the correlation with the tide height and the physical-chemical parameters. With the program Statistical Analysis System, SAS, the samples were classified by hierarchical conglomerate methods and Factor Analysis. Water samples were collected in the entrance of the tide channel in five campaigns in the months of August, September, November and December of 98, and January of 99, in several tide heights. As a conclusion, by the multivariate statistical analysis where variables correlations are presented in each group or cluster in a population. Therefore the variables that we are measuring as reflecting the influence the oxidation manganese in the mangroves. Although the variable tide height did not influence in the classification groups. We suppose that will need more sampling in different tide height cycle. (author)

1999-10-25

24

Factors that influence the oxidation of the manganese in a growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, R J  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The kinetic behavior of the oxidation of the manganese in the growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, Sepetiba Bay, R J, have been studied through the incubation with the radiotracer Mn-54. We have observed the great influence of the factors that interferes in the rate oxidation with the mangrove state in the moment of the sampling. We applied statistical multivariate to verify the correlation with the tide height and the physical-chemical parameters. With the program Statistical Analysis System, SAS, the samples were classified by hierarchical conglomerate methods and Factor Analysis. Water samples were collected in the entrance of the tide channel in five campaigns in the months of August, September, November and December of 98, and January of 99, in several tide heights. As a conclusion, by the multivariate statistical analysis where variables correlations are presented in each group or cluster in a population. Therefore the variables that we are measuring as reflecting the influence the oxidation manganese in the mangroves. Although the variable tide height did not influence in the classification groups. We suppose that will need more sampling in different tide height cycle. (author)

Canesin, F.P.; Bellido, A.V.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica]. E-mail: fcanesin@risc2.rmn.uff.br; alf@risc1.rmn.uff.br; Lacerda, L.D. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica]. E-mail: geodrud@vm.uff

1999-07-01

25

The influence of elevated levels of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase on tumourigenicity, tumour growth, and oxygenation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Investigation of the effect of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP) on various aspects of tumour growth in a xenograft model, including growth rate, tumourigenicity and oxygenation levels. Methods and Materials: MDA 231 breast cancer cells overexpressing PD-ECGF/TP protein were made by retroviral transduction. These cells were grown in vitro and in vivo as xenografts. Direct measurement of tumours was used to record growth parameters, while the comet assay with the bioreductive drug RSU 1069 was used to assess tumour cell oxygenation. Results: We report that MDA 231 breast tumour cell lines expressing an increased range of levels of PD-ECGF/TP have increased tumourigenicity positively related to the level of PD-ECGF/TP when implanted in nude mice. As previously reported, tumours grown from these overexpressing cell lines grew faster than the parental line. These tumours expressed higher levels of TP activity and showed increased immunocytochemical staining for PD-ECGF. In addition, the rate of growth was found to be positively related to the level of PD-ECGF/TP expressed by the tumour cells. When the comet assay was used to compare the oxygenation status of cells between the parental and PD-ECGF/TP overexpressing tumours, the latter were found to have a larger proportion of well oxygenated cells. This is consistent with these tumours having an increased and functionally competent vascular supply in response to the expression of PD-ECGF/TP. Conclusion: PD-ECGF/TP appears to be capable of influencing tumourigenicity, angiogenesis and tumour growth in a proportional manner and can directly influence tumour oxygenation levels via its role in formation of functional vasculature

1998-11-01

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Beyond Thermodynamics: Drug Binding Kinetics Could Influence Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling  

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We modeled the kinetics of drug binding to protein kinases in the EGF signaling pathway relevant to non-small cell lung cancer and found that binding kinetics could influence therapeutic potential, that fast binding kinetics was advantageous for most targets with a couple of exceptions, that targeting some protein kinases could enhance rather than attenuate the pathway, and that IC50 could be sensitive to the kinetic parameters of drug binding.

2009-01-01

27

Factors to influence the nucleation and growth of interstitial clusters during cascade damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small interstitial clusters produced by cascade collisions are known to serve as the nucleation sites of dislocation loops. However, their density is quite low compared with the number of large cascades. Factors which suppress the nucleation of interstitial type dislocation loops are explained and their relative importance is discussed. The first is the positional instability of small interstitial clusters. This effect is expected to enhance the dislocation structure development by agglomeration of the embryos, but it is also expected to suppress the formation of loops by easy escape to sinks. The second is the stochastic fluctuation of point defect reactions with embryos. This effect plays an important role when the point defect concentrations of a quasi-steady state are high. The third is the thermal instability of embryos of loops. The fourth is the cascade localization induced bias (CLIB) effect, which leads a vacancy dominant atmosphere in a cascade. At a low temperature at which vacancies are immobile and embryos are thermally stable, only the first factor is effective. At a very high temperatures on the other hand, the third and fourth factors are the main factors. In the intermediate temperature range, four factors are competitive. ((orig.))

1994-09-01

28

Influence of magnitude and location of tropospheric growth factors for the transformation of cyclones to severe storms over the North Atlantic  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of European surface wind storms out of normal mid-latitude cyclones is substantially influenced by upstream tropospheric growth factors over the Northern Atlantic. The main factors include divergence and vorticity advection in the upper troposphere, latent heat release and the presence of instabilities of baroclinic waves of suitable wave lengths. In this study we examine a subset of these potential growth factors and their related influences on the transformation of extra-tropical cyclones into severe damage prone surface storm systems. Previous studies have shown links between specific growth factors and surface wind storms related to extreme cyclones. In our study we investigate in further detail the relevant processes, spatial coherence and temporal variability between surface developments and upstream growth factors at different vertical levels of the troposphere. The analyses will primarily comprise of the three growth factors baroclinicity, latent heat release and upper tropospheric divergence. Firstly we will examine the relation of the magnitude of an upstream growth factor anomaly to the strength of the storm system. Secondly we will analyse the influence and variability of the positions of these anomalies and their relation to the location of a surface storm event. We thus address the question whether the link between storm intensity and related growth factor anomalies taking into account their spatial variability can be quantified. Using ERA Interim Reanalysis from 1979-2012 for an extended winter season (October to March), results for baroclinicity show a zonally elongated enhancement of baroclinic instability over the mid North Atlantic. While our findings suggest that baroclinicity increases up to more than double of the long term mean previously to the occurrence of a wind storm, a clear relation between its magnitude and resulting cyclone intensity has yet to be established. Factors steering these anomalies are investigated including the link to hemispheric anomaly patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation.

Wild, Simon; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

2014-05-01

29

Influence of basic fibroblast growth factor on the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT in epidermal cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT in epidermal cells and the influence on basic fibroblasts growth factor(bFGF.Methods The precursor epithelial stem cells(ESCs were derived by in vitro bFGF-induced dedifferentiation of human keratinocytes(HEK cells.The phenotypic changes of derived ESCs were detected by immunocytochemical staining,and the hTERT expression was detected by flow cytometry,immunofluorescence staining and TRAP-silver staining.HEK without bFGF treatment were used as control,and ESCs simultaneously isolated from human epidermis were used as positive control.Results Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression of ?1-integrin,CK19 and CK14 in derived ESCs was significantly up-regulated,while the CK10 expression was significantly down-regulated.Flow cytometry revealed that the percentage of hTERT+ cell subsets in experimental group(derived ESCs,control group and positive control group was 98.41%,0.77% and 99.76%,respectively.TRAP-silver staining analysis indicated that the telomerase activity was significantly up-regulated in experimental group compared with that in control group,while there was no significantly difference between experimental group and positive control group.Furthermore,immunofluorescence assay revealed that there was difference in subcellular localization of hTERT between experimental group(derived ESCs and positive control group(ESCs.Conclusion Basic fibroblast growth factor may induce epidermal cells to dedifferentiate and regain the phenotype of ESCs,which leads to the changes in hTERT expression and activity,and induces its subcellular shift of the locus.

Xiao-yan SUN

2011-06-01

30

FACTORS DETERMINING ECONOMIC GROWTH  

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Different regions of the world have to face distinct processes of economic growth. The measure of growth is divergent; countries carry distinct evolutionary ways into execution. The state of development as the result of the above processes is different, too. What is the reason? It is the question I would like to answer. My further questions are: What is the reason for economic growth? What kind of factors determines the level of development and cause regional differences? I deal with concentr...

2009-01-01

31

FGF growth factor analogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

2012-07-24

32

RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION  

Science.gov (United States)

ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression. ...

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Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor attenuates contusion necrosis without influencing contusion edema after traumatic brain injury in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

To clarify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the formation of contusion edema and necrosis after traumatic brain injury, we examined the time course of changes in the VEGF expression (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), cerebrovascular permeability (extravasation of Evans blue), and water content (dry-wet weight method) of the contused brain tissue in a cortical impact injury model using rats. In addition, we tested the effects of administration of bevacizumab (VEGF monoclonal antibody) on changes in the cerebrovascular permeability and water content of the contused brain tissue, as well as the neurological deficits (rota rod test) and volume of contusion necrosis. Increased VEGF expression was maximal at 72?h after injury (p<0.003). Increases in cerebrovascular permeability and water content, however, became maximal within 24?h (p<0.001) after injury (p<0.01), respectively. Administration of bevacizumab did not influence these changes in cerebrovascular permeability and water content, but led to a significant rise in the neurological deficits at 72?h-14 days (p<0.05 or 0.01) and the volume of contusion necrosis at 21 days (p<0.001) after injury. These findings suggest that increased expression of VEGF after injury does not contribute to the formation of contusion edema, but attenuates the formation of contusion necrosis. This is probably because of an increased angiogenesis and improved microcirculation in the areas surrounding the core of contusion. PMID:24294928

Tado, Masahiro; Mori, Tatsuro; Fukushima, Masamichi; Oshima, Hideki; Maeda, Takeshi; Yoshino, Atsuo; Aizawa, Shin; Katayama, Yoichi

2014-04-01

34

The influence of agr and sigmaB in growth phase dependent regulation of virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression of many virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus is tightly coordinated generally by global regulatory elements such as accessory gene regulator (agr), staphylococcal accessory regulator and the alternative sigma factor sigmaB. We have compared the two-dimensional (2-D) protein pattern of extracellular protein extracts of wild-type cells with the 2-D patterns of the respective regulatory mutants in order to identify proteins whose amount is influenced by a mutation in agr or sigB. In order to quantify changes in the level of interesting proteins we used the Ettan-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis technique (Amersham Biosciences). As in most bacteria, the amount of extracellular proteins was strongly regulated and increased mainly in the stationary phase of growth at high cell densities. By comparing the extracellular protein pattern of the RN6390 rsbU strain with that of an isogenic agr mutant RN6911 we show that the level of about 70 protein spots changed in the mutant. To analyze the role of sigmaB in virulence gene expression an RsbU+ (RN6390 RsbU+) derivative was included in this study. The protein pattern of the RsbU+ strain (RN6390 RsbU+) was very similar to that of the Deltaagr/DeltarsbU mutant strain (RN6911) indicating an opposing effect of agr and rsbU on the expression of the same genes. PMID:15378746

Ziebandt, Anne-Kathrin; Becher, Dörte; Ohlsen, Knut; Hacker, Jörg; Hecker, Michael; Engelmann, Susanne

2004-10-01

35

Specification of sites for polarized growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the influence of external factors on site selection.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many eucaryotic cell types exhibit polarized cell growth and polarized cell division at nonrandom sites. The sites of polarized growth were investigated in G1 arrested haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. When yeast cells are arrested during G1 either by treatment with alpha-factor or by shifting temperature-sensitive cdc28-1 cells to the restrictive temperature, the cells form a projection. Staining with Calcofluor reveals that in both cases the projection usually forms at axial sites (i....

Madden, K.; Snyder, M.

1992-01-01

36

Growth factors in tumor microenvironment  

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Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. Components in the microenvironment can modulate the growth of tumor cells, their ability to progress and metastasize. A major venue of communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment is through polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. This article discusses three major classes of growth-stimulatory polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. It also d...

Zhang, Xuejing; Nie, Daotai; Chakrabarty, Subhas

2010-01-01

37

The influence of meteorological factors on growth and vegetation process of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton in Lithuania  

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The results of a study on the dependence of growth and vegetation process of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton upon meteorological factors are presented in the article. The investigations were conducted at Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University during vegetation periods in 2001–2005. The object of investigations was Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, a medicinal annual herbaceous plant of Lamiaceae Lindl. family, native of Eastern Asia, which passes the whole development cycle un...

Ragaz?inskiene?, Ona; S?einauskiene?, Erika; Janulis, Valdimaras; Jankauskaite?, Lina; Milas?ius, Arvydas

2006-01-01

38

Influence of Age on the Response to Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Treatment in a Rat Model of Stroke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) has been reported to protect against ischemic injury in the brains of young adult rodents. However, little is known about whether FGF-2 retains this capability in the aged ischemic brain. Since stroke in human is much more common in older people than among younger adults, to address this question is clinically important. In this study, aged (24-month-old) rats were treated with intracerebroventricular infusion of FGF-2 or vehicle for 3 days, beginning 48...

Won, Seok Joon; Xie, Lin; Kim, Sun Hee; Tang, Huidong; Wang, Yaoming; Mao, Xiaoou; Banwait, Surita; Jin, Kunlin

2006-01-01

39

Refixation of the supraspinatus tendon in a rat model--influence of continuous growth factor application on tendon structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose was to evaluate histological changes of the supraspinatus tendon (SSP) after refixation under continuous growth factor application over 20 days in comparison to the native healing process. In a chronic rat tendon tear model (15 rats/group), a transosseous SSP refixation was performed and growth factors (control, G-CSF, b-FGF, combination) were continuously released into the subacromial space by an osmotic pump. Tendon healing was evaluated histologically by a modified MOVIN-Score, and Collagen I/III content was determined by immunohistology at 6 weeks. A modified MOVIN sum score showed significant lower counts for G-CSF and b-FGF in comparison to the control group (p = 0.050/p = 0.027) and the combined group (p = 0.050/p = 0.043). Collagen III was significantly reduced in the combined group compared to the control group (p = 0.028). Collagen I showed no significant differences. The Collagen I/III ratio was nearly doubled for b-FGF and the combined group compared to the control. At the study endpoint, 33% of pump dislocations were detected. The continuous application of both isolated growth factors (G-CSF/b-FGF) achieved improved tendon-remodeling. However, the continuous application via an osmotic pump showed a relative high dislocation rate when applied in the rat model. PMID:22912341

Buchmann, Stefan; Sandmann, Gunther H; Walz, Lars; Hoppe, Henriette; Beitzel, Knut; Wexel, Gabriele; Tian, Weiwei; Winter, Gerhard; Imhoff, Andreas B

2013-02-01

40

Factors influencing the growth of cracks from defects in CDFR specification 316 stainless steel thermal shock specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of cracks from spark machined slits and gouged grooves has been studied in a CDFR specification cast of 316 stainless steel under thermal shock conditions using sodium as the heat transfer medium. Comparative uniaxial creep fatigue tests have also been performed in servohydraulic machines under isothermal conditions. The cycles used for the thermal shock tests consisted of step increases in temperatures of between 75 and 300 C followed by tensile holds at 600 C of duration 0.05 to 24 hours, and finally slow cooling to the initial temperature ready for the next cycle. The results are presented showing the influence on crack growth of strain range, hold time, number of cycles, types of defect and ferrite stringer direction. (author)

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Mammalian epidermal growth factor promotes plant growth  

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Application of mouse submaxillary gland epidermal growth factor to young sorghum seedlings at low concentrations (?0.4-4 ?M) increased shoot growth significantly over 3- and 6-day periods. The effects were dose dependent.

1980-01-01

42

Growth of new firms: Which factors influence post-entry performance? : An empirical analysis based on Swiss firm data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to shed light on the factors which determine the post-entry performance of new firms. It is often argued that new firms are the driving force of structural changes and sometimes they are even characterized as an engine of economic growth. Nevertheless, the empirical evidence is mixed. Taking into account the high exit rate of new firms, a specific founding cohort does not contribute substantially to new jobs. In this paper, we analyse the contribution of new firms con...

Marmet, David

2004-01-01

43

Influence of promoter region variants of insulin-like growth factor pathway genes on the strength-training response of muscle phenotypes in older adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To examine the influence of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway gene polymorphisms on muscle mass and strength responses to strength training (ST), we studied 128 White and Black men and women before and after a 10-wk single-leg knee extension ST program. One-repetition maximum strength, muscle volume (MV) via computed tomography, and muscle quality (MQ) were assessed at baseline and after 10 wk of ST. There was a significant combined IGF1 cytosine adenine (CA) repeat gene effect, which ...

Hand, Brian D.; Kostek, Matthew C.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Douglass, Larry W.; Roth, Stephen M.; Hagberg, James M.; Hurley, Ben F.

2007-01-01

44

Purification method directly influences effectiveness of an epidermal growth factor-coupled targeting agent for noninvasive tumor detection in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Receptor targeting is an effective method of enhancing fluorescence signal in tumors for optical imaging. We previously used epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated to IRDye 800CW to detect and track orthotopic prostate tumors in mice. In this study, our goal was to identify a reliable assay for targeting agent integrity in vitro that correlated with signal strength in vivo. Binding of IRDye 800CW EGF to intact A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells was quantified in a microplate assay. Specificity was confirmed by competition with unlabeled EGF or monoclonal antibody blocking. Biological activity of intact and damaged targeting agents relative to unlabeled EGF was determined by binding and stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Both assays indicated a reduction of up to 60% of the fluorescence intensity with damaged agents. Using a research prototype imaging system optimized for IRDye 800CW detection, we compared the efficacy of intact and damaged targeting agents for imaging subcutaneous tumors in mice. In live animal images and in sections of the excised tumors, damaged targeting agents consistently yielded diminished fluorescence signals corresponding to the reduction observed in microplate assays. This is the first study to directly correlate targeting agent signal strength in whole cell binding, In-Cell Western, and in vivo near-infrared imaging. PMID:17188228

Kovar, Joy L; Volcheck, William M; Chen, Jiyan; Simpson, Melanie A

2007-02-01

45

Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and sporulation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon and Maubl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a common tea (Camellia sinensis) pathogen, usually does not sporulate or sporulates poorly in common media, which makes spore production difficult. In this study the effects of culture media, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH and light on mycelial growth and sporulation were evaluated. Among several carbon sources tested, glucose and sucrose were found superior for growth. Potassium nitrate supplemented media showed maximum growth amongst the tested inorganic nitrogen sources while peptone produced maximum growth among the tested organic nitrogen sources. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium was found to be the most suitable for mycelial growth and sporulation of L. theobromae. The fungus grow at temperatures ranging from 40 to 36 degrees C, with optimum growth at 28 degrees C and no growth was noted at 40 degrees C. There was no significant effect of different light period on growth of L. theobromae, but light enhanced sporulation. The fungus grow at pH 3.0-8.0 and optimum growth was observed at pH 6.0. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium with pH 6.0 was the most suitable for production of conidia of L. theobromae at 28 degrees C. Hence this media may be recommended for inoculum production for further studies. PMID:18972700

Saha, A; Mandal, P; Dasgupta, S; Saha, D

2008-05-01

46

Maximizing expenditure efficiency by optimizing influencing factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A calculation is performed of optimizing the distribution of influencing factors to achieve the maximum production efficiency using the example of the Serebrovks Oil Company for 1979 according to an economic and mathematical model developed. A numerical solution to the problem is obtained on the BESM-6 computer using the simplex method of linear programming with a standard program in ALGOL-60. The technique proposed also enables determination of the fractional influence of the reserve of each factor in the generalizing index of oil and gas production efficiency. Optimizing factor distribution provides a growth in the economic efficiency of production of 113,800 rubles for this one firm alone.

Atayan, N.K.

1981-01-01

47

Growth factors in ovarian cancer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha are two peptides which bind to the epidermal growth factor receptor. One hundred and seventy-four samples from 133 patients with ovarian cancer were examined for EGF and TGF alpha. EGF was detected in only 27.6% of samples while TGF alpha was present in 88.5%. The median values for TGF alpha presence were at least 10-fold greater than those of EGF. There was no statistical difference between either TGF alpha or EGF levels and degree...

Owens, O. J.; Stewart, C.; Leake, R. E.

1991-01-01

48

Growth factors and new periodontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

Paknejad M

1999-06-01

49

Radiobiological aspects of the influence on growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from the radiogenic disturbance of proliferation and inactivation of cells the radiobiological aspects of an influence on the growth of malignant tumors are described. In connection with this the dependence of the biological effect on quality of rays, genetic factors, cycle of generations, partial pressure of oxygen as well as on the fractionation of the dose and on hyperthermia is discussed. Capabilities, derived from this, for the increase of electivity of radiation effects are outlined. (author)

1986-01-01

51

Growth Factors in Synaptic Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Synapses are increasingly recognized as key structures that malfunction in disorders like schizophrenia, mental retardation, and neurodegenerative diseases. The importance and complexity of the synapse has fuelled research into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In this regard, neurotrophic factors such as netrin, Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, and others have gained prominence for their ability to regulate synaptic function. Several of these factors were first implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal growth, and axon guidance. However, their roles in synaptic development and function have become increasingly clear, and the downstream signaling pathways employed by these factors have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we will address the role of these factors and their downstream effectors in synaptic function in vivo and in cultured neurons.

MikyoungPark

2013-09-01

52

Factors Influencing the One- and Two-Year Growth Response in Children Treated with Growth Hormone: Analysis from an Observational Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess gender-, pubertal-, age-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation score (, data from 5,797 growth hormone (GH naïve pediatric patients ( at year 1 was significantly greater for males versus females (, but no other gender differences were observed. For patients with GHD, was greater in prepubertal than in pubertal patients. Younger patients for both genders ( ( for GHD, MPHD, and ISS. Overall, positive were observed in all patients, with greater growth responses in younger prepubertal children, emphasizing the importance of starting GH treatment early.

Gut Robert

2010-09-01

53

Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil  

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Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wastin...

Lander, Rebecca L.; Lander, Alastair G.; Lisa Houghton; Williams, Sheila M.; Hugo Costa-Ribeiro; Barreto, Daniel L.; Mattos, Angela P.; Gibson, Rosalind S.

2012-01-01

54

Growth factors in orthopedic surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The author...

Zaharia, C.; Niculescu, M.; Despa, N.; Simionescu, M.; Jinga, V.; Fleseriu, I.

2010-01-01

55

The influence of genotype on vascular endothelial growth factor and regulation of myocardial collateral blood flow in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that mutations in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene are associated with plasma concentration of VEGF and subsequently the ability to influence coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Blood samples from patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (n=53) and acute coronary syndrome (n=61) were analysed. Coronary collaterals were scored from diagnostic biplane coronary angiograms. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of VEGF was increased in patients with acute compared to chronic CHD (p=0.01). The genotype frequencies differed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in three of 15 examined loci. Four new mutations in addition to the already described were identified. The VEGF haplotype did not seem to predict plasma VEGF concentration (p=0.5). There was an association between the genotype in locus VEGF-1154 and coronary collateral size (p=0.03) and a significant association between the VEGF plasma concentration and the collateral size (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: VEGF plasma concentration seems related to coronary collateral function in patients with CHD. The results did not support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the untranslated region of the VEGF gene were associated with the concentration of circulating VEGF. Increased understanding of VEGF in the regulation of myocardial collateral flow may lead to new therapies in CHD Udgivelsesdato: 2009

Ripa, R.S.; Jorgensen, E.

2009-01-01

56

The Influencing Factors of Coal Reservoir Permeability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The permeability of coal reservoir is the most important influencing factor for choosing favorable area and production of coalbed methane, this article takes a detailed analysis of coal rank, thickness of coal seam, coal structure, construct curvature, effective stress, Klingberg effect and matrix shrinkage effect on reservoir permeability with comprehensive information consulting, literature review methods. The results show that coal reservoir is dual pore structure; the degree of development of fracture directly influences the size of the coal seam permeability. The growth of natural fracture density and lithotype band or negatively correlate to the layer thickness.

LIU Jun-shan

2014-03-01

57

Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

2010-01-01

58

Factors influencing bone scan quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables.

Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

1983-10-07

59

Influence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3 on bone health: results from the European Male Ageing Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-I on calcaneal ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men aged 40-79 years were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Subjects were invited by letter to complete a postal questionnaire and to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus, and a fasting blood sample from which serum levels of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, IGF-I, estradiol (E(2)), and SHBG were assayed. The questionnaires included the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and questions about smoking and alcohol consumption. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) was derived as a function of the QUS parameters speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Height and weight were measured in all subjects. 3057 men, mean age 59.7 years (standard deviation 11.0) were included in the analysis. After adjusting for age, center, and BMI, higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with lower eBMD. Higher levels of both IGFBP-3 and IGF-I were associated with higher eBMD. After further adjustment for PASE score, current smoking, alcohol consumption, free E(2), and SHBG, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I, though not IGFBP-1, remained significantly associated with eBMD. IGFBP-1 was associated with bone health, though the effect could be explained by other factors. IGFBP-3 and IGF-I were independent determinants of bone health in middle-aged and elderly European men. PMID:21503646

Pye, Stephen R; Almusalam, Bader; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Borghs, Herman; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W

2011-06-01

60

What factors influence mitigative capacity?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.

Sri Astuti Pratminingsih

2013-06-01

62

Curvas de crescimento de ovinos Bergamácia criados no Distrito Federal / Parameters for three growth curves and factors that influence them for Bergamasca sheep in the Brasilia Region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A análise de um banco de dados de crescimento em ovinos Bergamácia (pesos até dois anos de idade de 1982 a 1996) foi feita usando-se métodos não-lineares para determinar parâmetros de três curvas (Brody, Richards e Logística) de crescimento. Os parâmetros das curvas foram analisados pelo Statistical [...] Analysis System (SAS) usando o procedimento GLM e CORR para determinar fatores que influenciaram os parâmetros e as correlações entre os parâmetros e pesos dos animais. O sistema de manejo foi semi-extensivo com os ovinos ao pasto durante o dia e presos à noite para proteger dos predadores. Os fatores fixos incluídos foram ordem do parto, sexo do cordeiro, tipo de nascimento, mês e ano. As médias dos parâmetros das curvas foram: Richards - A = 50,024, B = 0,647, k = 0,003, M = 17,771 e R² = 0,838; Brody - A= 52,763, B=0,885, k =0,003, R²= 0,842; Logístico - A=47,894, B=-3,895, k=0,007 e R²= 0,840. O meio ambiente influenciou o crescimento e a reprodução de ovinos na região de Brasília. A correlação negativa entre k e A indica que animais que amadurecem mais cedo têm menos probabilidade de atingir pesos adultos mais altos que animais que amadurecem tardiamente. A curva Logística estimou o peso adulto dos animais com média inferior às das outras curvas. Os pesos atuais estão, contudo, mais bem correlacionados com os estimados pela Logística. Não houve diferença entre os três tipos de curvas em termos de R². O quadrado médio do resíduo foi maior para a curva de Richards. A curva recomendada para ajustar dados de crescimento de ovinos da raça Bergamácia é Logística. Abstract in english Fifteen years of data from a flock of Bergamasca sheep weighed every two weeks was analyzed using non-linear methods to determine parameters of three growth curves (Brody , Richards and Logistic). The curve parameters were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) procedures GLM and CORR to d [...] etermine factors which influenced them and correlations between the parameters and weights at determined ages. Fixed effects in the model included lambing number, sex of lamb, type of birth and month and age of lambing. The management system is semi-extensive, with the sheep at pasture during the day and imprisoned at night to protect them against predators. Means of the parameters were: Richards; A = 50.024, B = 0.647, k = 0.003, M = 17.771 and R²= 0.838; Brody; A= 52.763, B=0.885, k=0.003, R²= 0.842; Logistic; A =47.894, B=-3.895, k=0.007 and R²= 0.840. The environment influenced the growth of sheep in the region of Brasilia. The Logistic curve estimated adult weights lower than the other curves but the actual weights were better correlated with those estimated by this curve. There was no difference between the curves in terms of R², and the error mean square was higher for the Richards curve. The negative correlation between A and k indicates that early maturing animals were less likely to reach high mature weights, compared with late maturing ones. The recommended curve for adjusting growth curves in Bergamasca sheep is the Logistic curve.

Concepta, McManus; Cibele, Evangelista; Luiz Augusto Costa, Fernandes; Roberto Meirelles de, Miranda; Francisco Ernesto, Moreno-Bernal; Natalia Ribeiro dos, Santos.

63

Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play an important role in embryonic development, angiogenesis, wound healing, cell proliferation and differentiation. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) isoforms have been under intense scrutiny for effective anticancer drug candidates. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and its receptor (FGFR) provide another pathway that seems critical to monitoring angiogenesis. Recent findings suggest that FGFR mediates signaling, regulates the PKM2 activity, and plays a crucial role in cancer metabolism. The current review also covers the recent findings on the role of FGFR1 in cancer metabolism. This paper reviews the progress, mechanism, and binding modes of recently known kinase inhibitors such as PD173074, SU series and other inhibitors still under clinical development. Some of the structural classes that will be highlighted in this review include Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, Indolin- 2-one, Pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine, Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one, and 1,6- Naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones. PMID:23016864

Kumar, Suneel B V S; Narasu, Lakshmi; Gundla, Rambabu; Dayam, Raveendra; J A R P, Sarma

2013-01-01

64

Enhanced Epidermal Growth Factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulate angiogenesis and cell growth in the developing brain. EGF, HGF, and VEGF modulate the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade, a pathway regulating cell growth that is aberrantly activated in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We hypothesized that expression of EGF, HGF, VEGF, and their receptors EGFR, c-Met, and Flt-1, respectively, would be altered in TSC...

2011-01-01

65

Epidermal growth factor and growth in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a dose-dependent thickening of the epidermis in suckling mice. The cellular mechanisms underlying this thickening were analyzed by measuring the effect of EGF on the cell-cycle. Neonatal mice were given daily injections of either 2ug EGF/g body weight/day or an equivalent volume of saline, and on the seventh day received a single injection of 3H-thymidine. At various times the mice were perfused with fixative; 1um sections of skin were stained with a modification of Harris' hematoxylin and were autoradiographed. The sections were analyzed using three methods based on the dependence on time after injection of 3H-thymidine of: frequency of labelled mitoses, labelling index, and reciprocal grains/nucleus. It was found that EGF caused a two-fold increase in the cell production rate. The effect of exogenous EGF on the morphology of gastric mucosa and incisors of suckling mice was also studied. The gastric mucosa appeared thicker in EGF-treated animals, but the effect was not statistically significant. In contrast to its effect on epidermis and gastric mucosa, EGF caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the size of the incisors. Because the mouse submandibular salivary gland is the major source of EGF the effect of sialoadenectomy on female reproductive functions was examined. Ablation of the submandibular gland had no effect on: length of estrus cycle, ability of the female to produce litters, length of the gestation period, litter size, and weight of the litter at birth. There was also no effect on survival of the offspring or on age at which the eyelids separated

1986-01-01

66

Growth and growth factors in diabetes mellitus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth of 79 children with diabetes was analysed at diagnosis and again after one to 10.7 years of treatment with insulin. Both sexes were tall at onset, whereas at the last observation boys alone showed significant growth retardation. Height standard deviation score (SDS), however, showed no significant fall either in 32 subjects reassessed after five years of disease or in 18 subjects examined at full stature. Skeletal maturity was not significantly impaired after treatment. Pubertal growth...

Salardi, S.; Tonioli, S.; Tassoni, P.; Tellarini, M.; Mazzanti, L.; Cacciari, E.

1987-01-01

67

On the influence of overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Streptomyces lividans on growth and production of human tumour necrosis factor-alpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptomyces lividans has shown potential as an expression system for heterologous proteins. Overexpression of proteic factors important for heterologous protein production is a valuable approach to improve yields of such proteins. Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed that several genes were differentially expressed in strains involved in heterologous protein production. For instance, the gene-encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed a significant twofold change in recombinant S. lividans producing human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (hTNF-?). The effect of pepck overexpression on S. lividans TK24 and its hTNF-? producing recombinant was thus investigated in bench-top fermenters. Results obtained revealed that pepck overexpression resulted into a twofold increase in specific PEPCK activity during growth. This overexpression is correlated with slower growth rate, reduced excretion of pyruvate and less alkalinisation of the growth medium when compared with the control strain. After 26 h of fermentation, hTNF-? yields were enhanced (up to 1.7-fold) in the pepck-overexpressing S. lividans TK24, demonstrating that this metabolic engineering approach is indeed promising for heterologous protein production. PMID:22797598

Lule, Ivan; Maldonado, Bárbara; D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Van Impe, Jan; Bernaerts, Kristel; Anné, Jozef

2012-10-01

68

Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, insulin-like growth factor (IGF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF, and transforming growth factor (TGF in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

Debashis Nandy

2011-02-01

69

The Influence of Education on Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In transition countries affected by uncertainty, the educational system usually suffers from lack of funds from the government and it is affected by various reforms. It is important to see how education influences economic growth and how this growth can be improved by investing in education. In this article, after a literature and econometric models review, the influence of primary, secondary and tertiary education over the GDP growth will be analyzed for Bulgaria, Czech Republic and the Netherlands, using regressions models, with the aid of computer software tool EViews. The models will be tested in order to obtain a good and reliable model.

?TEFAN CRISTIAN CIUCU

2014-05-01

70

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

Student Claudia MOIS?

2010-01-01

71

Inhibition of hepcidin transcription by growth factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin controls the duodenal absorption of iron, its storage and its systemic distribution. Hepcidin production is often insufficient in chronic hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease, leading to hyperabsorption of iron and its accumulation in the liver. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediate the hepatic regeneration after liver injury. We examined the effect of the growth factors on hepcidin synthesis by hepatocytes. Results: H...

Goodnough, Julia B.; Ramos, Emilio; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

2012-01-01

72

Relative influence of c-Kit expression and epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification on survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

c-Kit and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have critical roles in cell proliferation and differentiation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of c-Kit and/or EGFR expression in tumor tissue samples from 146 patients with NSCLC. c-Kit expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and the expression of EGFR was assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified that c-Kit is a significant negative prognostic factor. The expression of c-Kit was correlated with poor differentiation, pleura involvement and smoking history (P=0.043, 0.007 and 0.032, respectively). Furthermore, patients with c-Kit-positive expression were associated with a significantly lower overall survival compared with those exhibiting c-Kit-negative expression (P=0.048). The median follow-up time was 19 months post-surgery. EGFR gene amplification as a result of polysomy of chromosome 7 was found to be negatively correlated with poor differentiation and smoking history (P=0.023 and 0.044, respectively). The findings of the present study indicate that c-Kit and EGFR expression is a strong, independent, negative prognostic factor in NSCLC.

XIAO, HUI; WANG, JUAN; LIU, YANAN; LI, LI

2014-01-01

73

Influence of Transplantation of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Acute Injury Motor Function of the Spinal Cord and Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor of the Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose to research the therapeutic affect of the allograft of Bones Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs on the acute injury of the spinal nerve of the rat. Method: Take 1 Westar healthy rat, collect the bone marrow, adopt the adherence method to separate BMSCs and culture and mark them, cultivate the BMSCs culture solution with the cell population of about 5H104 ?L-1 for transplantation. Establish 40 westar rat models with the acute injury of the spinal cord, which shall be divided as the transplantation group and the control group, 20 pieces for each group. After a week of injury, inject BMSCs slowly to the injury center of the rat's spinal cord, inject the physiological saline to the control group and observe and inspect the rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function and the protein expression of the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF of the rats of two groups. Result: The rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function of the transplantation group is obvious better than that of the control group after 3-8 weeks of injury and the difference is of significance (p<0.05. Kill two groups of rats after 8 weeks and it is found that the transplantation group is obviously higher than the control group through inspection of the protein expression of NGF and BDNF. The difference is of significance (p<0.05. Conclusion the allograft of BMSCs can remarkably improve the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rats with acute injury of the spinal nerve, which is possibly related with that the transplantation of BMSCs can promote the regeneration and repair of the rat's spinal nerves. It is proven through the NGF and BDNF protein expression data from the experiment of the transplantation group and the control group that BMSCs transplantation can improve the expression of some NGF of the rats with spinal nerve injury. These nerve factors are beneficial for regeneration, growth and repair of the injured nerve tissue cells, so as to further confirm that the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rat's with acute injury of the spinal nerve thanks to the induced regeneration, growth and repair of the spinal nerve cells by BMSCs transplantation.

Zhen Li

2013-01-01

74

Expression of colonization factor antigen I fimbriae by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; influence of growth conditions and a recombinant positive regulatory gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) may spontaneously lose the positive regulatory cfaR gene and thereby the capacity to express colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I). A recombinant plasmid harbouring the cfaR gene was transformed into cfaR-negative mutant ETEC strains. CFA/I expression of wild-type and cfaR-transformed ETEC cultivated in different liquid media was quantified. At 37 degrees C, a high level of CFA/I expression from wild-type and cfaR-transformed strains was observed after growth in CFA broth. Transformation enhanced CFA/I expression only marginally. The transformant cultures showed a considerable variation in CFA/I expression which was paralleled by the proportion of individual bacteria producing CFA/I. This heterogeneity could be explained by a variable tendency to structural CFA/I gene loss among individual cfaR-transformed bacteria. PMID:9137521

Halvorsen, T; Valvatne, H; Grewal, H M; Gaastra, W; Sommerfelt, H

1997-03-01

75

Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

Ioan Pastor

2011-05-01

76

Genistein-mediated inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which corrects storage in cells of patients suffering from mucopolysaccharidoses, acts by influencing an epidermal growth factor-dependent pathway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are inherited metabolic disorders caused by mutations leading to dysfunction of one of enzymes involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Due to their impaired degradation, GAGs accumulate in cells of patients, which results in dysfunction of tissues and organs. Substrate reduction therapy is one of potential treatment of these diseases. It was demonstrated previously that genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone inhibits synthesis and reduces levels of GAGs in cultures of fibroblasts of MPS patients. Recent pilot clinical study indicated that such a therapy may be effective in MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome. Methods To learn on details of the molecular mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis, efficiency of this process was studied by measuring of incorporation of labeled sulfate, storage of GAGs in lysosomes was estimated by using electron microscopic techniques, and efficiency of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor was determined by using an ELISA-based assay with fluorogenic substrates. Results Effects of genistein on inhibition of GAG synthesis and accumulation in fibroblasts from patients suffering from various MPS types were abolished in the presence of an excess of EGF, and were partially reversed by an increased concentration of genistein. No such effects were observed when an excess of 17?-estradiol was used instead of EGF. Moreover, EGF-mediated stimulation of phsophorylation of the EGF receptor was impaired in the presence of genistein in both wild-type and MPS fibroblasts. Conclusion The results presented in this report indicate that the mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis operates through epidermal growth factor (EGF-dependent pathway.

Bara?ska Sylwia

2009-03-01

77

Stromal influences on breast cancer cell growth.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paracrine influences from fibroblasts derived from different sources of breast tissue on epithelial breast cancer cell growth in vitro were investigated. Medium conditioned (CM) by fibroblasts derived from tumours, adjacent normal breast tissue, and normal breast tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty or from skin tissue significantly stimulated the growth of the steroid-receptor positive cell lines MCF-7 and ZR 75.1. The proliferation index (PI) on MCF-7 cells with CM from fibroblasts de...

Roozendaal, C. E.; Ooijen, B.; Klijn, J. G.; Claassen, C.; Eggermont, A. M.; Henzen-logmans, S. C.; Foekens, J. A.

1992-01-01

78

Growth Factor Transgenes Interactively Regulate Articular Chondrocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. No single growth factor gene is likely to optimize these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte functions. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2 and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate a potentially tunable approach to articular chondrocyte regulation and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair.

Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J.; Trippel, Stephen B.

2014-01-01

79

Growth factor transgenes interactively regulate articular chondrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. Multiple growth factor genes regulate these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte activities. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate an approach to articular chondrocyte regulation that may be tailored to stimulate specific cell functions, and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair. PMID:23097312

Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

2013-04-01

80

Effects of Hepatocyte Growth Factor on Glutathione Synthesis, Growth, and Apoptosis is Cell Density-Dependent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent hepatocyte mitogen that exerts opposing effects depending on cell density. Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in mammalian cells that modulates growth and apoptosis. We previously showed that GSH level is inversely related to cell density of hepatocytes and is positively related to growth. Our current work examined whether HGF can modulate GSH synthesis in a cell density dependent manner and how GSH in turn influence HGF’s effects. We ...

Yang, Heping; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Xia, Meng; Lu, Shelly C.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2012-01-01

82

The influence of tropical adaptation on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in purebred and crossbred beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to determine whether tropical adaptation influences circulating concentrations of the growth-related hormone IGF-I, 3-breed diallel matings were conducted using temperate Bos taurus (Angus), tropical Bos indicus (Brahman), and tropical Bos taurus (Romosinuano). Purebred Angus, Braham, and Romosinuano and crossbred Angus-Braham, Angus-Romosinuano, and Braham-Romosinuano heifers and steers were evaluated in 2 separate calf crops from 2003 and 2004. Blood samples were obtained from 10 heifers of each breed group (n = 90) for each year at weaning and on d 0 and 84 of postweaning trials. Samples were also taken from 10 steers of each breed group (n = 90) at weaning and on d 0 and 60 of individual finishing phase feeding trials for each year. Concentrations of IGF-I were determined by RIA. Analyses included effects of sire breed, dam breed, year of record, the age of the dam of the calf in years, and interactions. Age of calf in days was investigated as a linear and quadratic covariate. Separate analyses were conducted for steers and heifers. The direct effect of Angus was to reduce (P < 0.03) heifer concentrations of IGF-I at d 84 and in the repeated measures analysis. In the repeated measures analysis, the direct effect of Romosinuano was to increase concentrations of IGF-I (P = 0.01). Relative to the temperate Bos taurus breed, plasma concentrations of IGF-I were numerically greater in male and female tropically adapted breed groups. PMID:21724947

Caldwell, L C; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Spicer, L J; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

2011-12-01

83

Transcription-Dependent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation by Hepatocyte Growth Factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mechanisms and biological implications of coordinated receptor tyrosine kinase coactivation remain poorly appreciated. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met are frequently coexpressed in cancers, including those associated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression, such as malignant astrocytoma. In a previous analysis of the HGF-induced transcriptome, we found that two EGFR agonists, transforming growth factor-? and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor–like grow...

2008-01-01

84

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nat...

Yanxia Sang

2010-01-01

85

Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil / Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos) de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches so [...] bre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 Abstract in english Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data [...] was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight (

Lander, Rebecca L.; Lander, Alastair G.; Houghton, Lisa; Williams, Sheila M.; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Barreto, Daniel L.; Mattos, Angela P.; Gibson, Rosalind S.

86

Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil / Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos) de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches so [...] bre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 Abstract in english Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data [...] was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight (

Lander, Rebecca L.; Lander, Alastair G.; Houghton, Lisa; Williams, Sheila M.; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Barreto, Daniel L.; Mattos, Angela P.; Gibson, Rosalind S.

87

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS IN CANADA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the factors that influence the working capital requirements (wcr in canada. a sample of 166 canadian firms listed on toronto stock exchange for a period of 3 years from 2008-2010 was selected. this study applied co-relational and non-experimental research design. overall results indicate that operating cycle (oc, return on assets (roa, internationalization of firm, firm’s growth, and firm size influence the wcr in canada. the study also found that oc, roa, leverage, internationalization of the firm, tobin's q, and firm size influence the working capital requirements in the canadian manufacturing industry. in addition, findings show that oc, roa, sales growth, and firm size affect the wcr in the canadian service industry. this study contributes to the literature on the factors that influence working capital requirements. the findings may be useful for the financial managers, investors, and financial management consultants.

Amarjit Gill

2011-10-01

88

Disruption of the latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-1 gene causes alteration in facial structure and influences TGF-beta bioavailability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Latent transforming growth factor-beta binding proteins are a family of extracellular matrix proteins comprising four isoforms (LTBP-1, -2, -3, -4) with different structures, tissue expression patterns and affinity for TGF-beta. So far, respective knockout models have highlighted some essential functions for LTBP-2, LTBP-3 and LTBP-4, while the physiological significance of LTBP-1 is only superficially known. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of a mouse model lacking both the long and short LTBP-1 isoform. Surprisingly, respective mice are viable and fertile. However, detailed X-ray analysis of the skull revealed a modified facial profile. In addition, the gene disruption induces a reduced biological activity of TGF-beta that became evident in an experimental model of hepatic fibrogenesis in which the LTBP-1 knockout animals were less prone to hepatic fibrogenesis. Furthermore, comparative cDNA microarray gene expression profiling of cultured hepatic stellate cells confirmed that respective nulls were less receptive to cellular activation and transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts. Therefore, we conclude that LTBP-1 has essential functions in the control of TGF-beta activation. PMID:17950478

Drews, Falko; Knöbel, Sebastian; Moser, Markus; Muhlack, Kai G; Mohren, Simone; Stoll, Christian; Bosio, Andreas; Gressner, Axel M; Weiskirchen, Ralf

2008-01-01

89

Factors affecting Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in peritoneal dialysis solutions.  

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Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We studied factors that might influence the growth of S. epidermidis in commercially available peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS). Test strains were inoculated into PDS and incubated overnight at 37 degrees C. Samples were removed at appropriate intervals, bacterial counts were performed, and growth curves were constructed. We studied the effects of various osmolarities...

Mcdonald, W. A.; Watts, J.; Bowmer, M. I.

1986-01-01

90

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature and society make up the outer environment for Huck’s growth. They have great effect on the development of his growth. On the other hand, his own instinct and his sound heart finally decide the direction of his growth.

Yanxia Sang

2010-09-01

91

The growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factors  

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Introduction Growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals with endogenous neuroendocrine responses to the genetic programs that determine the body plan. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are integral components of multiple systems controlling both growth and metabolism. The IGF system The IGF system is thought to be more complex than other endocrine systems, as genes for six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been identified so far. The IGFs play a critical role in bot...

Radosavljevi? Tatjana; Todorovi? Vera N.; Vu?evi? Danijela; Šiki? Branka

2005-01-01

92

Expression of transforming growth factor alpha, epidermal growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor in precursor lesions to gastric carcinoma.  

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Epidermal growth factor (EGF), its related peptide transforming growth factor (TGF-alpha) and their common receptor (EGFR) have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation in the gastrointestinal epithelium and may play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the immunohistochemical expression and topographic distribution of these peptides using Western blot analysis in gastric carcinoma precursor lesions and in non-cancer tissue. We observed: (i)...

1995-01-01

93

Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in bladder cancer and their relationship to epidermal growth factor receptor.  

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We have examined levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in neoplastic and non-neoplastic bladder tissue using a standard radioimmunoassay technique. Tumour samples had much higher TGF-alpha levels compared with EGF and TGF-alpha levels in malignant tissue were significantly higher than in benign bladder samples. There was, in addition, a difference in mean EGF levels from 'normal' bladder samples from non-tumour bearing areas of bladder in pat...

1996-01-01

94

Milk Epidermal Growth Factor and Gut Protection  

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Maternal milk is a complex fluid with multifunctional roles within the developing gastrointestinal tract. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) are members of the family of EGF-related peptides. Biological actions of these growth factors are mediated via interaction with the EGF-receptor (EGF-R). In the early postnatal period, breast milk is the major source of EGF for the developing intestinal mucosa. HB-EGF is also detected in breast milk, but in ...

2010-01-01

95

Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Comice'. I. Shoot growth and flower bud differentiation on trees sprayed with chlormequat and unsprayed ones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of trees sprayed in spring with chlormequat is weaker, and their elongation growth ends 2 - 3 weeks earlier than that of unsprayed trees. Trees with growth inhibited by chlormequat set flower buds on the spurs and in the subapical part of long shoots. The course of flower bud differentiation starts in the second half of July and is similar to that in the apple tree.

Franciszka Jaumie?

1983-12-01

96

The growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals with endogenous neuroendocrine responses to the genetic programs that determine the body plan. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are integral components of multiple systems controlling both growth and metabolism. The IGF system The IGF system is thought to be more complex than other endocrine systems, as genes for six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs have been identified so far. The IGFs play a critical role in both cell cycle control and apoptosis, two functions involved in regulation of tumorigenesis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I is essential for normal growth. Confirmation of the significance of IGF-I in human physiology was obtained by the discovery of a patient with intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with a mutation in the IGF-1 gene. Stages of evolution of the somatomedin hypothesis The original somatomedin hypothesis postulated that somatic growth was regulated by growth hormone's (GH's stimulation of hepatic IGF-1 production, with IGF-1 acting in an endocrine fashion to promote growth. The dual effectors theory proposed an alternative view, involving direct effects by GH on peripheral tissues not mediated by IGF-1 and GH-stimulated local IGF-1 production for autocrine/paracrine action. It is now clear that G H stimulates the formation of ternary IGF binding complex, which stabilizes IGF-I in the serum.

Radosavljevi? Tatjana

2005-01-01

97

Influences of incorporating detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) diet on the expression of growth hormone- and insulin-like growth factor-1-encoding genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub or small tree widespread all over the tropics and subtropics. The use of J. curcas (L) kernel meal in fish feed is limited owing to the presence of toxic and antinutritional constituents. In this study, it was detoxified using heat treatment and organic solvent extraction method. The detoxification process was carried out for 60?min to obtain the detoxified meal. Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings (n?=?180; avg. wt. 3.2?±?0.07?g) were randomly distributed in five treatment groups with four replicates and fed isonitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%) for 8?weeks. The inclusion levels of the detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM) and soybean meal (SBM) were as follows: control diet was prepared with fish meal (FM) and wheat meal, without any DJKM and SBM; diets S(50) and J(50) : 50% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively; diets S(75) and J(75) : 75% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively. Highest body mass gain and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression in brain, liver and muscle were observed for the control group, which were statistically similar to those for J(50) group and significantly (p?growth hormone gene expression in brain, liver and muscle exhibited opposite trend. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration in plasma did not differ significantly among the five groups. Conclusively, growth performance was in parallel with IGF-1 gene expression and exhibited negative trend with GH gene expression. PMID:22077318

Kumar, V; Khalil, W K B; Weiler, U; Becker, K

2013-02-01

98

Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence.

Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

2008-01-01

99

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer  

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Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is ov...

2011-01-01

100

Expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling substances in gastric mucosal cells influenced by serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints on the expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling substances phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1, protein kinase C (PKC and c-myc in gastric mucosal cells.Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into normal group, stomach meridian group, gallbladder meridian group, stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group. Water-immersion and restrained stress methods were adopted for inducing gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Gastric mucosal cells were separated by using pronase digestion method, and incubated by PD153035, a EGFR inhibitor, and 100 ml/L serum. The expression of PLC?-1 in the gastric mucosal cells was tested by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA, while the expression of PKC by isotope incorporate assay and the expression of c-myc by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR.Results: In gastric mucosal cells, weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the normal group, and relatively strong expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group, among which, the expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc in the stomach meridian group were the strongest, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group (P?0.01. Relative weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and the gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group (P?0.01.Conclusions: The serum derived from the rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints can activate the EGFR singling pathway, and this provides an evidence for the theory of "relative particularity between meridians and viscera" in traditional Chinese medicine.

Jie YAN

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

CHAPTER 4. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ... - ARCHIVE: Defra  

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE UPTAKE OF ... and company size is analysed, \\followed by a comparison by sector of ... by business type and region. Company \\Category. Region. Crops. Horti- culture ..... financed through bank borrowings.

102

Factors that determine the evolution of high-growth businesses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and management practices; in 2013, they were re-analyzed to investigate the factors that contributed to continued growth for certain companies. Contributions: Through diverse statistical techniques, business policies related to quality, innovation, internationalization and finance were shown to influence business growth and sustainability over time. Limitations of the Research: This study focuses on industrial businesses at least ten years old in Catalonia; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations and economic sectors, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical Implications: Because growth is a measure of business success, identifying variables that contribute to high growth and its sustainability is helpful for businesses that seek to adopt effective policies. Social Implications: Generating employment is one of the primary contributions by high-growth businesses. For years with high unemployment, authorities may be interested in corporate policies that strengthen high-growth businesses. Originality/Added Value: High-growth businesses have been studied throughout the world, but this is the first study to investigate the evolution of businesses after a high-growth phase.

Oriol Amat

2013-09-01

103

Chromatin binding of epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor in cells bearing the appropriate surface receptors.  

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We analyzed the uptake and intracellular distribution of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor in different cell lines that express or do not express the respective surface receptors for these factors. After 1 hr of incubation, all three growth factors were detected in the cytoplasmic fraction and in the nucleus, tightly bound to chromatin. The amount of chromatin-bound growth factors continued to increase during the incubation, and anal...

Rakowicz-szulczynska, E. M.; Rodeck, U.; Herlyn, M.; Koprowski, H.

1986-01-01

104

ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS  

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Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

2006-01-01

105

Growth factor parametrization in curved space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth rate of matter perturbation and the expansion rate of the Universe can be used to distinguish modified gravity and dark energy models in explaining cosmic acceleration. We explore here the inclusion of spatial curvature into the growth factor. We expand previous results using the approximation ?m? and then suggest a new form, fa=?m?+(?-4/7)?k, as an approximation for the growth factor when the curvature ?k is not negligible, and where the growth index ? is usually model dependent. The expression recovers the standard results for the curved and flat ?CDM and Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Using the best fit values of ?m0 and ?k0 to the expansion/distance measurements from Type Ia SNe, baryon acoustic oscillation, WMAP5, and H(z) data, we fit the growth index parameter to current growth factor data and obtain ??(?k?0)=0.65-0.15+0.17 and ?DGP(?k?0)=0.53-0.12+0.14. For the ?CDM model, the 1-? observational bounds are found consistent with theoretical value, unlike the case for the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. We also find that the current data we used is not enough to put significant constraints when the 3 parameters in fa are fit simultaneously. Importantly, we find that, in the presence of curvature, the analytical expression proposed for fa provides a better fit to the growth factor than other forms and should be useful for future high precision missions and studies.

2009-07-15

106

Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop application. At the end of the material presented methods to increase quality by tracking the influence factors during the development of mobile applications.

Alin ZAMFIROIU

2014-01-01

107

Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits dendritic cell maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGNand mature(CD83 dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb. Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.

Luciana Cavalheiro Marti

2005-03-01

108

Quantitative analysis of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in human colorectal cancer.  

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Tumour growth is angiogenesis dependent. Some authors suggest a prognostic role of microvessel count in colorectal cancer. We tested the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the switch to the angiogenic phenotype in 35 patients with colorectal cancer at different stages of disease. We evaluated the two angiogenic factors, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in tumour, peritumoral mucosa, pathological mesenteric and peripheral...

Landriscina, M.; Cassano, A.; Ratto, C.; Longo, R.; Ippoliti, M.; Palazzotti, B.; Crucitti, F.; Barone, C.

1998-01-01

109

Transcriptional modulation of transin gene expression by epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta.  

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Transin is a transformation-associated gene which is expressed constitutively in rat fibroblasts transformed by a variety of oncogenes and in malignant mouse skin carcinomas but not benign papillomas or normal skin. It has been demonstrated that, in nontransformed Rat-1 cells, transin RNA expression is modulated positively by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and negatively by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta); other peptide growth factors were found to have no effect on transin expressi...

1988-01-01

110

Hydroxamic Acid from Histoplasma capsulatum That Displays Growth Factor Activity  

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Growth factor(s) present in a spent liquid medium after culture of the yeast form of Histoplasma capsulatum enhanced both yeast and mycelial growth of nine isolates tested. Hydroxamic acid extracted from the culture fluid displayed growth factor activity.

Burt, Wayne R.; Underwood, Anthony L.; Appleton, Georgia L.

1981-01-01

111

Epidermal growth factor receptor and bladder cancer  

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Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality. The two main forms of treatment for this disease include radical cystectomy and radical radiotherapy, but five year survival after treatment remains low at 40%. Many clinical and molecular risk factors have been shown to be associated with poor prognosis. One such factor is the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by many epithelial tumours, including bladder ...

2002-01-01

112

Journal Impact Factor, Eigenfactor, Journal Influence and Article Influence  

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This paper examines the practical usefulness of two new journal performance metrics, namely the Eigenfactor score, which may be interpreted as measuring “Journal Influence”, and the Article Influence score, using the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science (hereafter ISI) data for 2009 for the 200 most highly cited journals in each of the Sciences and Social Sciences, and compares them with two existing ISI metrics, namely Total Citations and the 5-year Impact Factor (5YIF) of a journal (inclu...

Chang, C. L.; Mcaleer, M. J.; Oxley, L.

2013-01-01

113

Journal Impact Factor, Eigenfactor, Journal Influence and Article Influence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the practical usefulness of two new journal performance metrics, namely the Eigenfactor score, which may be interpreted as measuring “Journal Influence”, and the Article Influence score, using the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science (hereafter ISI) data for 2009 for the 200 most highly cited journals in each of the Sciences and Social Sciences, and compares them with two existing ISI metrics, namely Total Citations and the 5-year Impact Factor (5YIF) of a journal (inclu...

Chang, Chia-lin; Mcaleer, Michael; Oxley, Les

2012-01-01

114

[Factors influencing participation in colorectal screening].  

Science.gov (United States)

Participation of the target population in coloretal screening is generally low. In addition to demographic and socio-economic factors, the health care system and- in particular - family doctors play an important role. Further, the rate of participation is influenced by psychological, cognitive and behavioural factors, too. The paper analyses factors related to colorectal screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to screening uptake. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(27), 1051-1056. PMID:24974839

Döbr?ssy, Lajos; Kovács, Attila; Cornides, Agnes; Budai, András

2014-07-01

115

Research on Factors Influencing National Budget Balance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses factors influencing balance, explores importanceand significance of national budget. Firstly, to achieve thegoal, the conception of national budget is presented and mainfunctions are excluded. Thereinafter, the article examines nationalbudget revenues, their sources and national budget expensesand their classification. The correlation is accomplished, aimingto establish whether exists dependence of Lithuanian nationalbudget balance on the other factors. The analysis revealed that2 examined factors – level of unemployment and state debt –have hold over national budget balance.

Aivaras Senda

2014-04-01

116

Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…

Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur

2011-01-01

117

Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process.

Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

2006-01-01

118

On the Factors Influencing L1 Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For decades, the phenomenon of language transfer has been a focus of second language acquisition. The study of language transfer has experienced three stages. It has long been noted that the linguistic differences between L1 and L2 will affect the acquisition of L2, both positively and negatively. This paper aims at sorting out factors that are facilitating to L1 transfer. Seven categories of factors have been examined: Linguistic factors, Psycholinguistic factors, Sociolinguistic factors, Socio-psychological factors, Individual difference, Developmental factors, and Frequency of input. Giving the complexity of transfer phenomenon, though the above-mentioned factors are discussed separately, the need to investigate their co-influence on L1 transfer is suggested.

Aisong Yi

2012-11-01

119

Epidermal growth factor signalling and bone metastasis  

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Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling is well known for its multifaceted functions in development and tissue homoeostasis. The EGF family of ligands and receptors (ERBB family) have also been extensively investigated for their roles in promoting tumourigenesis and metastasis in a variety of cancer types. Recent findings indicate that EGF signalling is an important mediator of bone metastasis in breast, prostate and kidney cancers. The EGF signalling stimulates the growth of bone metastasis...

2010-01-01

120

Growth factor parametrization and modified gravity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth rate of matter perturbation and the expansion rate of the Universe can be used to distinguish modified gravity and dark energy models in explaining the cosmic acceleration. The growth rate is parametrized by the growth index ?. We discuss the dependence of ? on the matter energy density ? and its current value ?0 for a more accurate approximation of the growth factor. The observational data, including the data of the growth rate, are used to fit different models. The data strongly disfavor the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. For the dark energy model with a constant equation of state, we find that ?0=0.27±0.02 and w=-0.97±0.09. For the ?CDM model, we find that ?=0.64-0.15+0.17. For the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, we find that ?=0.55-0.13+0.14.

2008-12-15

 
 
 
 
121

Peptide growth factors: clinical and therapeutic strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature contains many accounts of studies in which tumour growth has been accelerated by administration of a particular mitogen and the response then inhibited by co-administration of the corresponding antagonist. Much effort has been focused on the development of cytokine or growth factor antagonists. Like most other cancer therapies, biological therapies will undoubtedly have undesirable toxicities because the proteins they target may not be unique to malignant cells. We reviewed the clinical and therapeutic potential of growth factor agonists and antagonists in some non urologic and urologic diseases. In a recent report we demonstrated that both androgen and antiandrogen treatments enhance the proliferation rate of the hormone-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, expressing a mutated androgen receptor. Simultaneous treatment with 1 nM R1881 and 100 nM OH-Flutamide, completely counteracted the androgen-induced increase of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) levels. Moreover we found that Testosterone, DHT and EGF are mainly concentrated in the periurethral zone in human BPH and long term treatment with Finasteride and with Flutamide modify the distribution and concentration of these factors. Some authors analyzed whether and addition of aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATA) can reduce the growth rate of basic FGF-dependent cells in a manner similar to suramin. PMID:9228827

Di Silverio, F; Sciarra, A; Di Nicola, S; Di Chiro, C

1997-06-01

122

Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min,...

Jovanovi? Snežana T.; Ma?ej Ognjen D.; Denin-?ur?evi? Jelena D.

2004-01-01

123

RNA ligands to human nerve growth factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High affinity RNA ligands to human nerve growth factor (NGF) were selected from pools of random RNA using SELEX [Tuerk, C. and Gold, L. (1990) Science, 249, 505-510]. Nerve growth factor, which is a protein required for the development of neurons, is not known to bind nucleic acids as part of its natural function. We describe two of the selected RNA molecules in detail. One of them is highly structured, folding into a pseudoknot with an additional hairpin-loop; this structure provides salt-re...

Binkley, J.; Allen, P.; Brown, D. M.; Green, L.; Tuerk, C.; Gold, L.

1995-01-01

124

Influence of semi-volatile species on particle hygroscopic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles are often related to their content of soluble material, on the basis of the Kohler theory. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that the role of aerosol particle semi-volatile fraction properties has been underestimated. In this study, we use a novel method based on a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA system combining particle volatilization and humidification conditioning (VH-TDMA to test the effect of the gentle volatilization of a small fraction of the atmospheric particles on the particle hygroscopic growth in several environments (urban to remote. Results show that the particle hygroscopic properties can either be enhanced or decreased after thermal conditioning of the particle at moderate temperatures (50 to 110°C. The hygroscopic growth factor changes induced by volatilization indicate that some volatile compounds, although present at low concentrations, drastically influence the hygroscopic growth of particles in the way that can not be predicted by the Kohler theory at equilibrium.

P. Villani

2009-01-01

125

Murine oligodendroglial cells express nerve growth factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The studies reported here present evidence for the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by an oligodendroglial cell line and of NGF by oligodendrocytes in mouse primary culture. An immortalized oligodendroglial cell line (N19) expressing markers for immature oligodendrocytes stimulated PC12 cells to elaborate processes. Polymerase chain reaction analysis with degenerate primers indicated that the N19 cells expressed the mRNAs for the neurotrophi...

Byravan, S.; Foster, L. M.; Phan, T.; Verity, A. N.; Campagnoni, A. T.

1994-01-01

126

Growth factors in Penaeid shrimp feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some nutrients known as non essential in vertebrates could be essential in invertebrates and could be related to some "unknown growth factors" which were evidenced or suspected, mainly in mollusc or crustacean flesh or meal, by several authors working on different species of crustaceans. A set of experiments was carried out in our laboratory in order to isolate one of these factors found in squid meal.

Guillaume, Julien; Cruz, R.; Cuzon, Gerard; Wormhoudt, A.; Revol, A.

1989-01-01

127

An overview of preharvest factors influencing mango fruit growth, quality and postharvest behaviour / Uma revisão dos fatores pré-colheita que influenciam o crescimento, qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de manga  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Manga, um fruto tropical de grande importância, é geralmente colhido verde e comercializado após um período de armazenamento. Infelizmente, a qualidade final da manga na prateleira é altamente heterogênea, em termos de tamanho do fruto, qualidade do paladar e comportamento pós-colheita. Tem-se obtid [...] o uma quantidade expressiva de informações sobre os efeitos do estádio de maturação e condições pós-colheita sobre a qualidade final da manga. Contudo, tem-se dado atenção consideravelmente menor à influência dos fatores ambientes sobre o crescimento da manga, características de qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita. Neste artigo, faz-se uma revisão dos estudos sobre manga, evidenciando-se como fatores ambientes afetam o acúmulo de água e de matéria seca estrutural e não-estrutural nos frutos durante o seu desenvolvimento. Discutem-se essas alterações com relação à evolução de atributos de qualidade dos frutos ainda nas plantas e após a colheita. Os fatores de pré-colheita abordados são luz, temperatura, disponibilidades de água e de carbono, raleio de frutos e manejo da irrigação. Discutem-se também recentes avanços sobre modelagem associada à função do fruto na planta, conforme as condições ambientes que, combinados com estudos experimentais, pode melhorar a nossa compreensão sobre como as condições de pré-colheita afetam o crescimento e a qualidade da manga. Abstract in english Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance, is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous, in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of [...] knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits, and postharvest behaviour. In this paper, we provide a review of studies on mango showing how environmental factors influence the accumulation of water, structural and non-structural dry matter in the fruit during its development. These changes are discussed with respect to the evolution of quality attributes on the tree and after harvest. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities, which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. We also discuss recent advances in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that, combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality.

Mathieu, Léchaudel; Jacques, Joas.

128

An overview of preharvest factors influencing mango fruit growth, quality and postharvest behaviour Uma revisão dos fatores pré-colheita que influenciam o crescimento, qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de manga  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance, is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous, in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits, and postharvest behaviour. In this paper, we provide a review of studies on mango showing how environmental factors influence the accumulation of water, structural and non-structural dry matter in the fruit during its development. These changes are discussed with respect to the evolution of quality attributes on the tree and after harvest. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities, which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. We also discuss recent advances in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that, combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality.Manga, um fruto tropical de grande importância, é geralmente colhido verde e comercializado após um período de armazenamento. Infelizmente, a qualidade final da manga na prateleira é altamente heterogênea, em termos de tamanho do fruto, qualidade do paladar e comportamento pós-colheita. Tem-se obtido uma quantidade expressiva de informações sobre os efeitos do estádio de maturação e condições pós-colheita sobre a qualidade final da manga. Contudo, tem-se dado atenção consideravelmente menor à influência dos fatores ambientes sobre o crescimento da manga, características de qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita. Neste artigo, faz-se uma revisão dos estudos sobre manga, evidenciando-se como fatores ambientes afetam o acúmulo de água e de matéria seca estrutural e não-estrutural nos frutos durante o seu desenvolvimento. Discutem-se essas alterações com relação à evolução de atributos de qualidade dos frutos ainda nas plantas e após a colheita. Os fatores de pré-colheita abordados são luz, temperatura, disponibilidades de água e de carbono, raleio de frutos e manejo da irrigação. Discutem-se também recentes avanços sobre modelagem associada à função do fruto na planta, conforme as condições ambientes que, combinados com estudos experimentais, pode melhorar a nossa compreensão sobre como as condições de pré-colheita afetam o crescimento e a qualidade da manga.

Mathieu Léchaudel

2007-12-01

129

A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

Naser Azad

130

Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

2008-01-01

131

Biotic and abiotic factors influencing growth rate and production of traps by the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans when induced by Cooperia oncophora larvae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A series of experiments on corn meal agar was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in different abiotic and biotic conditions which occur in cow pats. Above a concentration of 50 parasitic larvae (L-3) cm(-2) the fungus produced a maximum of between 500 and 600 nets cm(-2) at 20 degrees C in 2 days on the surface of corn meal agar. There were no differences in the trap-producing capacity of three strains of D. flagrans (CIII4, CI3 and Trol A). On agar at 30 degrees and 20 degrees C, the fungus responded to Coaperia oncophora L-3 very quickly producing a maximum of trapping nets 1 day after induction. At 10 degrees C, traps were produced slowly starting on day 4 after induction and continued over the following week. Duddingtonia flagrans (CI3) grew at a normal rate at least down to an oxygen concentration of 6 vol.% O-2, but it did not grow anaerobically. On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) did not produce trapping nets in an anaerobic atmosphere. Moreover, C. oncophora L-3 stopped migration under anaerobic conditions. When the fungal cultures were transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere, after 1 and 2 weeks under anaerobic conditions, the C. oncophora L-3 resumed migrating on the agar and, in response, D, flagrans produced traps in the same amount as when it had not been under anaerobic stress. Under microaerophilic conditions (6 vol.% O-2) D flagrans was able to grow, but the C, oncophora L-3 were not able to induce trapping nets in D, flagrans (Trol A) because of larval immobility. But, as under anaerobic conditions, the fungus could return to a nematode-trapping state when transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere within 1 or 2 weeks if migrating nematodes were present. Under natural conditions in the cow pat it is expected that the fungus will be ready to attack parasitic larvae, when the oxygen tension increases as a result of, for example the activity of the coprophilic fauna. Artificial light giving 3000-3400 Lux on the surface of the agar significantly depressed the growth rate and the production of trapping nets in D, flagrans (CI3). On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) could grow and produce trapping nets at pH levels of 6.3 to 9.3. Net-production has its optimum between pH 7 and 8. On dry faeces mycelial growth was 7-10 mm during a 15 day period while on moist faeces the fungus expanded 15-20 mm during the same period. Based on the parameters investigated, D. flagrans is expected to be especially active in the well aerated surface layer of a cow pat, an area which normally contains a high concentration of infective nematode parasite larvae, but also an area where the temperature can be high and the water content low.

1999-01-01

132

Growth factor signaling: implications for disease & therapeutics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cells possess complex growth factor networks that play vital roles in regulating fundamental life processes. Such protein factors exert their action by binding to cognate cell specific receptors resulting in regulation of cell division, differentiation, chemotaxis or apoptosis. Engagement of receptors by their respective ligands results in activation of sequential protein phosphorylation cascades, culminating downstream into activation of gene transcription. These factors are expressed ubiquitously under a variety of conditions by normal as well as transformed cells, thereby underpinning their function in autocrine and paracrine stimulation of cells under several physiological and pathological conditions. Despite major advances in our understanding of growth factors, their paradoxical roles in normal cellular homeostasis and pathologies underpin the need to examine their roles in disease and health. The goal of this special issue is to present emerging trends in the roles that growth factors play in inflammatory disease processes that include cardiovascular, cancer, stroke and neurodegenerative processes associated with aging, viral infection and substance abuse with the ultimate aim to pave the way for future therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:24610034

Buch, Shilpa

2014-03-01

133

Review of identified factors influencing contraceptive use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction It is necessary to know the factors that influence contraceptive behavior in order to overcome obstacles of contraceptive use by implementing modern family planning programs that have to be based on logistic management and directed to the client. The factor isolated till now are systematized into the two groups: the socio-demographic factors - to a greater extent associated with developing countries and the psychological factors -mainly related to developed countries. Socio-demographic f actors of the contraceptive use The most significant socio-demographic determinants of contraceptive behavior appear to be the age, women's educational level but even the educational level of the husband/partner, occupation, environment (urban/rural, some cultural factors, and high price of contraceptives. Psychological variables as a factor of contraceptive (nonuse In the group of psychological variables that influence contraceptive use it is possible to distinguish: the presence of illusion of fertility control, locus of control, level of Ego maturity, femininity and masculinity, i.e. the accepted gender roles, level of self-acceptance. The majority of the factors show that the presence of personal initiative and assertiveness are associated with higher level of contraception use.

Bjelica Artur

2008-01-01

134

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

?ilda Pe?ari?

2010-06-01

135

Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by 125I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes

1988-01-01

136

Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

Naser Azad

2012-04-01

137

Influence of organizational factors on safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

1990-01-01

138

Influence of organizational factors on safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1990-10-08

139

The factors influencing on city ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In article due to scientific methods is given the information about role of greenery in prevention of facts of nature, in regulation of oxygen balance in biosphere, reduction of quantity of harmful waste thrown out in an environment, ecological cleanliness pollution of the conservation of surroundings about selection of plants on stability to the ecological factors and decorative qualities, positive influence on health of the people with aesthetic and with the spiritual party use in various branches of the national economy. Except for that in clause it is considered measures of protection from harmful influence of high value of the acoustic tone created by various kinds of vehicles and flying devices

2007-01-01

140

Platelet-derived growth factors and fibroblast growth factors are mitogens for rat Schwann cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rat sciatic nerve Schwann cells in culture respond to a limited range of mitogens, including glial growth factor, transforming growth factors beta-1 and beta-2 (TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2), some cell membrane- associated factors, and to agents such as cholera toxin and forskolin which raise intracellular levels of cAMP. These responses require the presence of FCS, which exhibits little or no mitogenic activity in the absence of other factors. However, we recently found that forskolin greatly pote...

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha characteristics of human oral carcinoma cell lines.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) cell-surface receptors, the response to exogenous ligand and the autocrine production of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in normal and carcinoma-derived human oral keratinocytes. One of eight malignant cell lines overexpressed EGF receptors, while the remainder expressed receptor numbers similar to normal cells. Exogenous EGF stimulated incorporation of tritiated thymidine in a dose-dependent manner. In keratinoc...

1994-01-01

142

Role of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor ? in the developing stomach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS—To determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the related transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) may have a role in the developing human stomach; to substantiate the presence of EGF in human liquor in the non-stressed infant and whether EGF in amniotic fluid is maternally or fetally derived.?METHODS—The temporal expression and localisation of EGF, TGF?, and their receptors during fetal and neonatal life were examined in 20 fetal and five infant stomachs. Simultaneousl...

1997-01-01

143

Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acid soluble proteins from 23 samples of normal human gastrointestinal mucosa derived from four normal adult organ donors were extracted and subjected to specific radiommunoassays for transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and urogastrone epidermal growth factor (URO-EGF). All tissues were found to contain immunoreactive TGF alpha and levels ranged from 57 to 4,776 pg-1 wet weight of tissue. Although levels varied between tissue donors, the distribution of TGF alpha throughout the gastr...

1989-01-01

144

Hepatocyte growth factor induces epithelial cell motility through transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent inducer of motility in epithelial cells. Since we have previously found that activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an absolute prerequisite for induction of motility of corneal epithelial cells after wounding, we investigated whether induction of motility in response to HGF is also dependent on activation of the EGFR. We now report that HGF induces transactivation of the EGFR in an immortalized line of corneal epithelial cells,...

2007-01-01

145

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Ajith K. Siriwardena

2011-03-01

146

Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we have performed experiments to determine whether mechanical stimulation of cultured avian muscle cells alters their response to anabolic steroids or glucocorticoids. In static cultures, testosterone had no effect on muscle cell growth, but 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and the synthetic steroid stanozolol increased cell growth by up to 18% and 30%, respectively, after a three day exposure. We completed development of a new IBM-based mechanical cell stimulator system to provide greater flexibility in operating and monitoring our experiments. Our previous long term studies on myofiber growth were designed around a perfusion system of our own design. We have recently changed to performing these studies using a modified CELLCO cartridge bioreactor system Z since it has been certified as the ground-based model for the Shuttle's Space Tissue Loss (STL) F= Cell Culture Module. The current goals of this aspect of the project are three fold: 1) to design a Z cell culture system for studying avian skeletal myofiber atrophy on the Shuttle and Space Station; 0 2) to expand the use of bioreactors to cells which do not grow in either suspension or attached to the hollow fibers; and 3) to combine the bioreactor system with our computerized mechanical cell stimulator to have a better in vitro model to study tension/gravity/stretch regulation of skeletal muscle size. Preliminary studies also reported on involved : (1) how release of tension can induce rapid atrophy of tissues cultured avian skeletal muscle cells, and (2) a mechanism to transfer and maintain avian skeletal muscle organoids in modified cartridges in the Space Tissue Loss Module.

Vandenburgh, Herman H.

1994-01-01

147

Which factors most influence heartwood distribution and radial growth in plantation teak?
---
Quels facteurs influencent le plus la distribution du bois de cœur et la croissance radiale dans les plantations de teck ?
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

* To investigate the effect of climate on radial growth in young plantation grown teak (Tectona grandis L.), growth ring width was measured in 105 trees and correlated to precipitation and temperature data.* The social status of trees within the stand was also determined and cross-sectional area (CSA) for the trunk correlated to the proportion of heartwood (HW) within the tree. HW develops asymmetrically in leaning stems of some conifer species, but it is not known if this phenomenon also occ...

2010-01-01

148

Epidermal growth factor receptors in the oesophagus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quantity and distribution of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) in oesophageal mucosa was studied in the oesophagus in order to determine its role in oesophageal disease. Fifty five biopsies were taken from different levels of the oesophagus in 25 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopy. Another group of eight patients with histologically proven Barrett's oesophagitis had a biopsy taken from the area of columnar lined oesophagus. A peripheral, membranous pattern was seen predomin...

1992-01-01

149

Epidermal growth factor in the oesophagus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been implicated in mitogenesis and oncogenesis in the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the role of EGF in oesophageal disease, its quantity and distribution in the oesophageal mucosa of control subjects and patients with oesophageal disease were studied. Oesophageal biopsy specimens, taken 20-40 cm from the incisors in 72 patients, were graded histologically and adjacent specimens were taken for immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of EGF. In ...

1992-01-01

150

Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, C...

Jacobson Annica; Cunningham Janet L

2012-01-01

151

Fibroblast growth factor 23--et fosfatregulerende hormon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, fibrous dysplasia, and tumour-induced osteomalacia. In contrast, hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis is associated with accelerated degradation of FGF23. Measuring FGF23 serves as a differential diagnostic tool in elucidating conditions of long-lasting hypophosphatemia.

Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne Møller

2010-01-01

152

Lactoferrin – A Novel Bone Growth Factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein that belongs to the transferrin family. It is present in breast milk, in epithelial secretions, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. In healthy subjects lactoferrin circulates at concentrations of 2–7 x 10?6 g/ml. Lactoferrin is a pleiotropic factor with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Recently, we have shown that lactoferrin can also promote bone growth. At physiological concentrations, lactoferrin potently stimul...

Naot, Dorit; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R.; Cornish, Jillian

2005-01-01

153

Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

Jawahar Nesan

2012-11-01

154

Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

Nagarkoti, Bishal

2014-01-01

155

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...

Arman, S.; Soltani, M.

2003-01-01

156

Factors influencing creation of preschool child curriculum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In today’s changing and constantly improved Lithuanian system of education a significant part of attention is being devoted to the quality of child development, and therefore importance of the process of creation of preschool curriculum arose. This Master thesis analyses factors influencing creation of preschool child curriculum: Lithuanian education reform, needs of preschool development institutions’ societies (pedagogues, parents, children), pedagogues competence, motivation of pedagog...

2008-01-01

157

Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

Ceccon Eliane

2006-01-01

158

Factors influencing enrollment in preventive parenting interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigated factors influencing enrollment in a parenting intervention designed to prevent conduct problems. Predictors included sociodemographics, child disruptive behavior, parental intent, barriers to participation, and parent investment. Parents (n = 239) of 3- to 5-year-old children from economically disadvantaged preschools completed a telephone survey. Enrollment was defined as returning registration forms or requesting to participate in the intervention. Results showed inte...

2003-01-01

159

Does corruption influence the sustainability of economic growth?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is decreasing continuously and the main reason behind this is the change in peoples’ attitude and saturation to ethically questionable actions. Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. There are several factors that influence sustainable development. Among them are: government policies; management and organization; financial and economic factors. The main question for institutional sustainability may be formulated as the following: can the strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to the ultimate end-users? Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. Anticorruption strategies are related to the reform of state institutions. One advantage of the fundamental economic reform approach is that by linking anticorruption strategies to the reform of economic policies and institutions, the struggle against corruption can be seen as one of the issues in economic policy. Finally, all development assistance should be implemented with the aim of achieving sustainable benefits.

Polajeva T.

2011-01-01

160

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for myopic choroidal neovascularization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a vision-threatening complication in the eyes with pathological myopia, which is particularly prevalent among young and middle-aged Asians globally. To date, the verteporfin in photodynamic therapy study is the only randomized-controlled study in treatment of subfoveal myopic CNV. However, its long-term benefit is controversial. Recently, intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors have shown promising results. In the absence of randomized-controlled trial comparing the efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors with photodynamic therapy and placebo, the purpose of this article is to review the current studies on functional and anatomical outcomes in both subfoveal and juxtafoveal myopic CNV. Furthermore, the influences of various doses and frequencies, as well as age and previous photodynamic therapy treatment on its effect are described. PMID:21902785

Ng, Danny S; Kwok, Alvin K H; Chan, Clement W

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Environmental Factors Influence on Mobile Learning Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, there has been growing interest in m-learning consequently emerging m-learning technology is promising technological and educational business. Nevertheless, m-learning is a new business and the different actors are still trialing by ways of a diversity of business models to overcome in able to achieve a sustainable and profitable place in this market. Numbers of m-learning products providers do not succeed in supplying m-learning products. In this situation not only a suitable business model is vital but also environmental and external factors have impact on mobile learning business model. Overall objective of this study was to survey the business model framework of m-learning with effect of external and environmental factors. Approach: Methodical approach was based on a classification of m-learning actors and its environmental factors. Based on this, we analyzed case studies description and developed main environmental factors that constitute the m-learning environment. Factors were summarized in morphological boxes and then through out its three steps result came up. Results: The results indicated technology, market and regulation are three major environmental factors which were forcing m-learning business model and business model should react to changes of these three factors to keep sustainable business. The research further argued the external factors of m-learning environment in order to understanding and developing the m-learning business and the ways these factors influence the business model of m-learning as well. Conclusion/Recommendations: M-learning business is based on many factors such as technology, changes in society, educational drivers, demand for flexible learning and the new learning paradigm but only three major drivers(technology, market and regulation had considerable effect on m-learning business model and should be taken into account as a result if they change business model should be changed.

Alireza Nasiri

2009-01-01

162

Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF receptors) which were confined predominantly to the undifferentiated cells. The expression of this growth factor system in malignant cells may play a role in carcinogenesis and/or tumour growth. All carcinomas were positive for TGF-alpha and 12 were positive for EGF. In moderately-to-well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly detected in the cytologically more differentiated cells. Nine sections included both laryngeal stratified squamous epithelium of normal appearance and carcinoma. The immunoreactivity was here again localized in the cytologically more differentiated cells above the basal cell layer. The present investigation and our previous results confirm the existence of EGF receptors, TGF-alphaand EGF in laryngeal carcinomas. In addition, we conclude that the conditions do exist for growth factors to act through an autocrine system in poorly differentiated tumours and through a paracrine system in the moderately-to-well differentiated tumours.

Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H

1993-01-01

163

CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

Toth Jozsef

2012-12-01

164

Effects of Epidermal Growth Factor, Platelet Derived Growth Factor and Growth Hormone on Cultured Rat Keratinocytes Cells in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some growth factors, such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, Growth Hormone (GH and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF have beneficial effects on keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Although the mechanism of these factors is unclear. In response to injury, growth factors are secreted by kinds of cutaneous cells. The goal of this project is to investigate the factors that could cause proliferate of the keratinocyte cells in vitro. The keratinocytes were removed from rat pups (10 days. Cultured in media with different concentration of GH, PDGF and EGF separately. The proliferation of cells was evaluated by the method of MTT and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Proliferation of keratinocytes was significantly higher in experimental groups than in control group. EGF maximally stimulated at 10 and 25 ng mL-1. PDGF-BB maximally stimulated at 50 ng mL-1, respectively. And maximal stimulation of GH was 2.5 IU L-1. GH, PDGF-BB and EGF stimulate keratinocyte cells proliferation in different concentration. These growth factors could play in healing of the skin.

Manouchehr Safari

2014-01-01

165

Two independent mechanisms for escaping epidermal growth factor- mediated growth inhibition in epidermal growth factor receptor- hyperproducing human tumor cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines often possess increased levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. The growth of these EGF receptor-hyperproducing cells is usually inhibited by EGF. To investigate the mechanism of EGF-mediated inhibition of cell growth, variants displaying alternate responses to EGF were isolated from two squamous cell carcinoma lines, NA and Ca9-22; these cell lines possess high numbers of the EGF receptor and an amplified EGF receptor (EGFR) gene. The varian...

1988-01-01

166

Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

1975-04-05

167

Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15

Arkun, Alp

2010-02-01

168

Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17

Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne Møller

2010-01-01

169

Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

Jovanovi? Snežana T.

2004-01-01

170

Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study is to identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. A follow-up study was performed on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated form 1984-1998. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. The conclusion is that biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatis carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatment splits in radiation therapy. (R.P.)

1999-05-15

171

Differentiation factors that influence neuronal markers expression in vitro from human amniotic epithelial cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The differentiation of neural cells from embryonic stem cells is influenced by several growth factors. Amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) share many of the same characteristics as embryonic stem cells, and therefore those factors may similarly affect the derivation of neural cells from AECs. In this study, we examined the differentiation of neural cells in vitro from AECs following AECs treatment with retinoic acid (RA), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as well as investigation of bFGF wit...

2010-01-01

172

Bone regeneration based on growth factor releasing polymer composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Overall, this thesis clearly highlights the potential of polymeric composites as growth factor delivering scaffolds for bone regeneration. It shows that polymeric microspheres can be used to locally deliver growth factors from the composite while maintaining their bioactivity. The diversity of physicochemical properties of polymers allows tailoring of the growth factor release profile from the delivery vehicle and the creation of a construct capable of releasing two growth factors independent...

Kempen, D. H. R.

2011-01-01

173

Angiogenic growth factors: potential new treatment for acute myocardial infarction?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In models of hind-limb ischemia and progressive coronary artery occlusion, angiogenic growth factor proteins and genes expressing growth factors have been shown to induce the development of collateral vessels and remodeling of existing collaterals. The therapeutic potential of growth factors in the setting of acute myocardial infarction may be related to non-angiogenic properties of growth factors as well, and is the focus of this review.

Gonc?alves, L.

2000-01-01

174

Factors influencing breastfeeding for working mothers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to evaluate the relation between breastfeeding and working conditions a descriptive study was conducted on 301 working mothers. Seventy-seven percent of mothers breastfed their infants four months and longer, and the mean breastfeeding period was 6.2 +/- 3.4 months. Forty-one percent of mothers started weaning before four months of age. The multifactorial analysis of independent factors significantly influencing breastfeeding time were, in decreasing order of significance, breastfeeding conditions at work, maternal leave period, mother's smoking habit and the use of breastpump. For weaning period, these factors were the use of breastpump, breastfeeding leave at work and maternal leave period. In conclusion, in order to support breastfeeding at work, maternal leave period must be prolonged, and breastfeeding conditions at work must be improved. PMID:11858376

Yilmaz, Gonca; Gürakan, Berkan; Akgün, Seval; Ozbek, Namik

2002-01-01

175

Epidermal growth factor as a biologic switch in hair growth cycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hair growth cycle consists of three stages known as the anagen (growing), catagen (involution), and telogen (resting) phases. This cyclical growth of hair is regulated by a diversity of growth factors. Although normal expression of both epidermal growth factor and its receptor (EGFR) in the outer root sheath is down-regulated with the completion of follicular growth, here we show that continuous expression of epidermal growth factor in hair follicles of transgenic mice arrested follicular...

2003-01-01

176

Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

McCourt, M

2012-02-03

177

Antibodies to the epidermal growth factor receptor block the biological activities of sarcoma growth factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor system in mediating the biological activities of sarcoma growth factor (SGF) has been assessed by using specific anti-EGF receptor antibodies. There are two classes of anti-EGF receptor antibodies, those that block binding of 125I-labeled EGF (125I-EGF) and those that do not block binding but do interact with a portion of the EGF receptor on the surface of intact cells. Antisera of both types have been assayed for their capacity to affect...

1983-01-01

178

Interactions between the receptors for platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preincubation of Swiss 3T3 cells or human fibroblasts with purified platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C rapidly inhibits subsequent binding of 125I-epidermal growth factor (125I-EGF). The effect does not result from competition by PDGF for binding to the EGF receptor since (a) very low concentrations of PDGF are effective, (b) cells with EGF receptors but no PDGF receptors are not affected, and (c) the inhibition persists even if the bound PDGF is eluted befor...

1983-01-01

179

Murine oligodendroglial cells express nerve growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The studies reported here present evidence for the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by an oligodendroglial cell line and of NGF by oligodendrocytes in mouse primary culture. An immortalized oligodendroglial cell line (N19) expressing markers for immature oligodendrocytes stimulated PC12 cells to elaborate processes. Polymerase chain reaction analysis with degenerate primers indicated that the N19 cells expressed the mRNAs for the neurotrophic factors NGF and BDNF. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the N19 cells expressed the 1.3-kb NGF mRNA and the 1.4- and 4-kb BDNF mRNAs. In situ hybridization histochemistry identified the presence of NGF mRNAs in 9-day primary oligodendroglial cultures. Combined immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization histochemistry colocalized NGF mRNA within primary cultured cells that immunostained for the oligodendrocyte marker galactocerebroside (GC). Double-immunofluorescence analysis also colocalized NGF protein within GC+ cells and within A2B5+ cells, a marker for oligodendrocyte progenitors. These results show that oligodendroglia and their precursor cells can express the neurotrophic factor NGF. They suggest that cells in the oligodendrocyte lineage may play an active role in neurite extension through fiber tracts in addition to myelination. PMID:8090729

Byravan, S; Foster, L M; Phan, T; Verity, A N; Campagnoni, A T

1994-09-13

180

Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in tissue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract: A peptide purified from the salivary gland of a mouse was shown few years ago to accelerate incisor eruption and eyelid opening in newborn mice, and was named epidermal growth factor (EGF). The members of this family of peptide growth factors had been identified in numerous physiological and pathological contexts. EGF binds to a cell surface EGF receptor, which induces a biochemical modification (phosphorylation) of the receptor's cytoplasmic tail. There is a growing consensus in the research community that, in addition to cellular and molecular studies, the dynamics of the EGFR network and its operation must be examined in tissues. A key challenge is to integrate the existing molecular and cellular information into a system-level description of the EGFR network at the tissue and organism level. In this paper, the two examples of EGFR signaling in tissues are described, and the recent efforts to model EGFR autocrine loops, which is a predominant mode of EGFR activation in vivo, are summarized.

Shvartsman, Stanislav; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

2004-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Radioreceptor assay for epidermal growth factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An established cell line of human lung fibroblasts with a high number of surface receptors for mouse epidermal growth factor (mEGF) was used to deveop a simple and highly sensitive radioreceptor assay for EGF. 125I-Labeled mEGF competed mole for mole with unlabeled mEGF for specific receptors. Optimal range for discriminating EGF concentrations in body fluids and tissue extracts by a competitive binding assay was between 5 and 100 ng/ml. Interassay correlation of variation was 8.47% and the recovery of highly purified mEGF added to serum and urine samples was greater than 95%. Human serum and amniotic fluids contained about 24 and 4 ng/ml, respectively, of mEGF equivalents. Concentrations of mEGF in mouse urine and serum were highly variable and were 2- to 10-fold greater than that previously detected by radioimmune assay. Hypophysectomy nearly abolished submaxillary mEGF content in both male and female mice, but testosterone treatment of hypophysectomized animals restored normal concentrations of mEGF to the glands. mEGF added to culture medium disappeared with time as a function of the number of cellular EGF receptors indicating cellular degradation of the growth factor. The radioreceptor assay for EGF is based on the close biologic relationship between the cell receptor site and the native hormone and should prove to be a useful complementary tool to characterize the physiological role of EGF

1979-01-01

182

Keratinocyte growth factor promotes melanosome transfer to keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanogenesis and melanosome transfer from the melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes are induced by ultraviolet radiation and modulated by autocrine and paracrine factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/fibroblast growth factor (FGF)7) is a paracrine mediator of human keratinocyte growth and differentiation. We evaluated the influence of KGF on melanosome transfer in co-cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes. Immunofluorescence analysis using anti-tyrosinase and anti-human cytokeratin antibodies, phagocytic assays using fluorescent latex beads, and ultrastructural analysis indicated that KGF is able to induce melanosome transfer acting only on the recipient keratinocytes and as a consequence of a general role of KGF in the promotion of the phagocytic process. Inhibition of proteinase-activated receptor-2, to block the Rho-dependent phagocytic pathway, or of the Src family tyrosine kinases, to inhibit the Rac-dependent pathway, showed that KGF promotes phagocytosis through both mechanisms. Increased expression of the KGF receptor (KGFR) on the keratinocytes by transfection led to increased phagocytosis of latex beads following KGF treatment, suggesting that the KGF effect is directly mediated by KGFR expression and activation. Moreover, confocal microscopic analysis revealed that KGFR localize in phagosomes during KGF-induced phagocytosis, suggesting a direct role of the receptor in regulating both the early steps of uptake and the intracellular traffic of the phagosomes. PMID:16354189

Cardinali, Giorgia; Ceccarelli, Simona; Kovacs, Daniela; Aspite, Nicaela; Lotti, Lavinia Vittoria; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Picardo, Mauro

2005-12-01

183

Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor receptors in meningioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were localized and characterized in eight samples of human meningioma (four fibrous, two meningothelial, and two angioblastic types), using quantitative autoradiographic techniques. Effects of both growth factors on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in the cultured meningioma cells were examined. High numbers of specific binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF were homogeneously present in tissue sections derived from fibrous and meningothelial types of meningiomas, whereas binding sites for these growth factors were not detectable in adjacent leptomeninges. While relatively large numbers of IGF-I binding sites were located in the wall of the intratumoral vasculature, the number of binding sites in the stromal component was lower in angioblastic-type meningiomas, including a low number of EGF binding sites detected only in the stromal portion. Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF in the meningiomas examined (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.6 to 2.9 nM, and the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) = 16 to 80 fmol/mg for IGF-I; and Kd = 0.6 to 4.0 nM, Bmax = 3 to 39 fmol/mg for EGF). Both growth factors increased the synthesis of DNA, in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The combination of IGF-I and EGF synergistically stimulated the synthesis of DNA, and the effects seen with 10% fetal bovine serum could be reproduced at a concentration of 10(-10) M. These observations can be interpreted to mean that both IGF-I and EGF may be involved in the growth modulation of meningiomas, possibly through paracrine or autocrine mechanisms

1989-01-01

184

Opioid growth factor (OGF) inhibits anchorage-independent growth in human cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opioid growth factor (OGF) is a native endogenous opioid peptide ([Met5]-enkephalin) that interacts with the OGF receptor (OGFr), and serves as a tonically active negative growth factor in neoplasia. To inquire whether OGF modulates anchorage-independent growth, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were grown in soft agar and subjected to this peptide. In contrast to controls, HT-29 cells exposed to OGF had 57% fewer colonies, and these colonies were reduced in area by 75%. The changes induced by OGF were abolished by concomitant treatment with naloxone, indicating a receptor-mediated mechanism for peptide activity. Continuous blockade of opioid-receptor interactions with the potent and long-acting opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), revealed an increase of 81 and 49% in the number and area, respectively, of colonies compared to control levels. These data suggest that OGF is tonically active in neoplastic cells growing in soft agar medium. HT-29 cells studied under anchorage-independent conditions were not influenced in growth by a variety of natural and synthetic opioids, including those selective for micro, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. Similar effects on anchorage-independent growth by OGF and NTX observed for HT-29 cells were recorded in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (Mia PaCa-2, Panc-1) and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CAL-27). These results using anchorage-independent conditions are consistent with previous data showing that OGF can markedly influence tumor growth in xenografts, and suggest that clonogenic assays can be utilized as indicators of tumorigenicity when tumor transplantation experiments are restricted. PMID:15138586

Zagon, Ian S; McLaughlin, Patricia J

2004-06-01

185

Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

2009-08-01

186

THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE BIRTH RATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.

SAVU MIHAELA

2013-02-01

187

Human epidermal growth factor receptor residue covalently cross-linked to epidermal growth factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor monoclonal antibody (mAb), mAb LA22, was used to analyze the covalent coupling of human EGF receptors to mouse EGF by the amine-reactive cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate. A soluble Mr 105,000 truncated form of the receptor secreted by A-431 epidermoid carcinoma cells and consisting of the ligand-binding extracellular domain was cross-linked to 125I-labeled EGF. Digestion of this complex with an endoproteinase that specifically cleaves at the COOH side of glutamyl residue released a single radiolabeled glycosylated fragment of Mr18,000 that reacted with mAb LA22. The receptor residue(s) involved in the covalent coupling of rat 125I-labeled transforming growth factor ? was similarly localized to this region of the receptor. This receptor interval, which included two glycosylated asparaginyl residues at positions 328 and 337, contained but three amino acid residues that were potentially reactive with disuccinimidyl suberate: Lys-332, Lys-333, and Lys-336. These results indicated that disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked the NH2 group of EGF residue Asn-1 to the human EGF receptor residue Lys-336. The results further suggest that EGF and transforming growth factor ?, two members of the EGF family of peptide growth factors, interact with closely apposed or identical features of the receptor

1990-01-01

188

Epidermal growth factor: a new therapeutic target in glomerular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glomerular kidney diseases are of major public health importance because of their strong impact on the quality of life of patients and of their costly management. A relatively neglected area of study is the local factors that influence development of glomerular demolition. The involvement of a glomerular factor has been now demonstrated in glomerulonephritis with cell proliferation such as crescentic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). Various unrelated immune disorders promote RPGN, such as antibodies directed against the glomerular basement membrane, deposition of immune complexes or antibodies directed against neutrophils. Despite the heterogeneity of these causing diseases, RPGNs share similar histopathological features, which suggest involvement of common final pathways. De novo expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in glomerular epithelial cells is found specifically in human glomerulonephritis with proliferation of these cells and dedifferentiation of podocytes. A receptor for HB-EGF, the EGF receptor (EGFR), is expressed by parietal epithelial cells and podocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of RPGN, HB-EGF deficiency or conditional targeting of the Egfr alleles in podocytes markedly alleviated RPGN, renal failure and death. This indicates that the HB-EGF/EGFR pathway plays a pivotal role in RPGN and opens therapeutic perspectives as EGFR inhibitors are clinically available. PMID:22467748

Flamant, Martin; Bollée, Guillaume; Hénique, Carole; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis

2012-04-01

189

Growth without growth hormone: evidence for a potent circulating human growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A potent growth factor was detected in the serum of a child with growth hormone (GH) deficiency and early growth delay whose growth velocity spontaneously increased to supranormal levels despite persistent GH deficiency by both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and radioreceptor assay. Thyroid function, prolactin, insulin response to oral glucose, glucose response to intravenous insulin, and computerised tomography of the head were all normal. Whilst somatomedin-C levels measured by RIA were low or low-normal, in vitro somatomedin bioactivity measured by bioassay was normal, suggesting the presence of a growth factor other than somatomedin-C. By way of confirmation, the patient's serum was incubated with erythroid progenitor cells from peripheral blood of a normal individual and a Laron dwarf. In this system, proliferation of normal erythroid progenitors was almost double that obtained with physiological concentrations of GH or control sera, and Laron erythroid progenitors, which were completely resistant to added GH, also responded strongly to the patient's serum. The patient's growth is therefore independent of GH and other known growth factors. PMID:2868295

Geffner, M E; Lippe, B M; Bersch, N; Van Herle, A; Kaplan, S A; Elders, M J; Golde, D W

1986-02-15

190

Regulation of glial glutamate transporter expression by growth factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injuries to the brain result in the decline of glial glutamate transporter expression within hours and a recovery after several days. One consequence of this disturbed expression seems to consist in the temporary accumulation of toxic extracellular glutamate levels followed by secondary neuronal cell death. Whereas evidence exists that the decline in glutamate transporter expression results from a loss of neuronal PACAP influences on astroglia, the mechanism(s) inducing the reexpression of glial glutamate transporters is presently unknown. We now demonstrate that the injury-induced growth factors EGF, TGFalpha, FGF-2, and PDGF all promote the expression of the glutamate transporters GLT-1 and/or GLAST in cultured cortical astroglia. In contrast, similar stimulatory influences were absent with GDNF and BDNF, growth factors not affected by brain injuries. The effects of EGF, TGFalpha, FGF-2, and PDGF on glial glutamate transport were only partly redundant and involved distinctly different signaling pathways. Unlike EGF, TGFalpha, and FGF-2, PDGF promoted GLT-1, but not GLAST expression and further failed to increase the maximal velocity of sodium-dependent glutamate uptake. Moreover, FGF-2 only affected glial glutamate transport when the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was concomitantly inhibited with PD98059. Depending on the extracellular growth factor and glutamate transporter subtype, the observed stimulatory effects required the activation of PKA, PKC, and/or AKT. We suggest that after brain injury, reactive processes may limit secondary neuronal cell death by promoting glial glutamate transport. The detailed knowledge of these compensatory mechanisms will eventually allow us to therapeutically interfere with glutamate-associated neuronal cell death in the brain. PMID:12957496

Figiel, Maciej; Maucher, Tobias; Rozyczka, Joanna; Bayatti, Nadhim; Engele, Jürgen

2003-09-01

191

Cheiradone: a vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor antagonist  

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Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is associated with physiological (for example wound healing) and pathological conditions (tumour development). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are the major angiogenic regulators. We have identified a natural product (cheiradone) isolated from a Euphorbia species which inhibited in vivo...

Hussain Sajjad; Slevin Mark; Mesaik Mohammad A; Choudhary Mohammad I; Elosta Abdul H; Matou Sabine; Ahmed Nessar; West David; Gaffney John

2008-01-01

192

Aldosterone as a renal growth factor.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Aldosterone regulates blood pressure through its effects on the cardiovascular system and kidney. Aldosterone can also contribute to the development of hypertension that leads to chronic pathologies such as nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Aldosterone directly modulates renal cell proliferation and differentiation as part of normal kidney development. The stimulation of rapidly activated protein kinase cascades is one facet of how aldosterone regulates renal cell growth. These cascades may also contribute to myofibroblastic transformation and cell proliferation observed in pathological conditions of the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that is accelerated by hypertension. EGFR-dependent proliferation of the renal epithelium is a factor in cyst development and trans-activation of EGFR is a key feature in initiating aldosterone-induced signalling cascades. Delineating the components of aldosterone-induced signalling cascades may identify novel therapeutic targets for proliferative diseases of the kidney.

Thomas, Warren

2011-04-05

193

Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reference: de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PLJ, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2010;95:63-77. Clinical Question: The authors of this systematic review evaluated the literature to critically consider the effects of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections in managing wrist-flexor and -extensor tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, and patellar tendinopathy. The primary question was, according to the published literature, is there sufficient evidence to support the use of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and PRP injections for chronic tendinopathy? Data Sources: The authors performed a comprehensive, systematic literature search in October 2009 using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library without time limits. The following key words were used in different combinations: tendinopathy, tendinosis, tendinitis, tendons, tennis elbow, plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma, platelet transfusion, and autologous blood or injection. The search was limited to human studies in English. All bibliographies from the initial literature search were also viewed to identify additional relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) Articles were suitable (inclusion criteria) if the participants had been clinically diagnosed as having chronic tendinopathy; (2) the design had to be a prospective clinical study, randomized controlled trial, nonrandomized clinical trial, or prospective case series; (3) a well-described intervention in the form of a growth factor injection with either PRP or autologous whole blood was used; and (4) the outcome was reported in terms of pain or function (or both). Data Extraction: All titles and abstracts were assessed by 2 researchers, and all relevant articles were obtained. Two researchers independently read the full text of each article to determine if it met the inclusion criteria. If opinions differed on suitability, a third reviewer was consulted to reach consensus. The data extracted included number of participants, study design, inclusion criteria, intervention, control group, primary outcome measures (pain using a visual analog or ordinal scale or function), time of follow-up, and outcomes for intervention and control group (percentage improvement) using a standardized data-extraction form. Function was evaluated in 9 of the 11 studies using (1) the Nirschl scale (elbow function) or the modified Mayo score for wrist flexors and extensors, (2) the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Patella score, a validated outcome measure for patellar tendinopathy, or the Tegner score for patellar tendinopathy, and (3) the rearfoot score from the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Scale for plantar fasciopathy. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale contains 11 items; items 2-11 receive 1 point each for a yes response. Reliability is sufficient (0.68) for the PEDro scale to be used to assess physiotherapy trials. A score of 6 or higher on the PEDro scale is considered a high-quality study; below 6 is considered a low-quality study. The PEDro score results determined the quality of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), nonrandomized clinical trial, or prospective case series (?6 or <6). A qualitative analysis was used with 5 levels of evidence (strong, moderate, limited, conflicting, or no evidence) to determine recommendations for the use of the intervention. The number of high-quality or low-quality RCT or nonrandomized clinical trial studies with consistent or inconsistent results determined the level of evidence (1-5). Main Results: Using the specific search criteria, the authors identified 418 potential sources. After screening of the title or abstract (or both), they excluded 405 sources, which left 13 studies. After viewing the full text, they excluded 2 additional sources (a case report and a study in which the outcome measure was remission of symptoms and not pain o

Sandrey, Michelle A

2014-06-01

194

Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that constitutes one of four members of the erbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Binding of EGFR to its cognate ligands leads to autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways that are involved in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Although present in normal cells, EGFR is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell lines and has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. EGFR activation also plays a role in resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatment in tumor cells. Over the past two decades, much effort has been directed at developing anticancer agents that can interfere with EGFR activity. The most common pharmacologic approaches to inhibiting EGFR have been to develop monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors. Monoclonal antibodies block ligand binding to the extracellular domain, whereas the small-molecule inhibitors exert their effects at the intracellular portion of the receptor to prevent tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways. A number of EGFR inhibitors have been developed that can arrest tumor growth and, in some cases, cause tumor regression. When used in combination with cytotoxic treatments, chemotherapy, and radiation, EGFR inhibitors have been able to potentiate their anticancer activity

2004-06-01

195

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

S ARMAN

2003-03-01

196

Factors influencing radiation carcinogenesis in bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the pioneer observations on the induction of osteogenic sarcoma in the radium dial painters, much information has been available in the literature on the carcinogenic effects of internal irradiation by homologues of calcium on the bones of several species including man. Most of these radionuclides are bone volume seekers, but more recently there has been increasing concern with the carcinogenic potential of bone surface seekers, especially plutonium. At the same time the possibility of induction of osteogenic sarcoma by external radiation delivered during the treatment of patients with other types of malignant disease have become more evident because of the increasing survival rate of such patients. This paper will attempt to quantitate factors influencing the relative risks from such agents. (author)

1978-12-01

197

Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development  

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Full Text Available Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.71 and 1955 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. Using principal component analysis, the study has detected six factors including customer’s information, building trust, secure internet access, having good internet infrastructure and internet users.

Vahid Abbas Zadeh

2014-01-01

198

Factors influencing degradation of pesticides in soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation and sorption of six acidic pesticides (2,4-D, dicamba, fluroxypyr, fluazifop-P, metsulfuron-methyl, and flupyrsulfuron-methyl) and four basic pesticides (metribuzin, terbutryn, pirimicarb, and fenpropimorph) were determined in nine temperate soils. Results were submitted to statistical analyses against a wide range of soil and pesticide properties to (i) identify any commonalities in factors influencing rate of degradation and (ii) determine whether there was any link between sorption and degradation processes for the compounds and soils studied. There were some marked differences between the soils in their ability to degrade the different pesticides. The parameters selected to explain variations in degradation rates depended on the soil-pesticide combination. The lack of consistent behavior renders a global approach to prediction of degradation unrealistic. The soil organic carbon content generally had a positive influence on degradation. The relationship between pH and degradation rates depended on the dominant mode of degradation for each pesticide. There were positive relationships between sorption and rate of degradation for metsulfuron-methyl, pirimicarb, and all acidic pesticides considered together (all P < 0.001) and for dicamba and all bases considered together (P < 0.05). No relationship between these processes was observed for the remaining seven individual pesticides. PMID:17488087

Kah, Melanie; Beulke, Sabine; Brown, Colin D

2007-05-30

199

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 differentially inhibits growth factor-induced angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An in-depth understanding of the molecular and cellular complexity of angiogenesis continues to advance as new stimulators and inhibitors of blood vessel formation are uncovered. Gaining a more complete understanding of the response of blood vessels to both stimulatory and inhibitory molecules will likely contribute to more effective strategies to control pathological angiogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that endothelial cell interactions with structurally altered collagen type IV may suppress the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), a well documented inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling axis. We report for the first time that IGFBP-4 differentially inhibits angiogenesis induced by distinct growth factor signaling pathways as IGFBP-4 inhibited FGF-2- and IGF-1-stimulated angiogenesis but failed to inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The resistance of VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis to IGFBP-4 inhibition appears to depend on sustained activation of p38 MAPK as blocking its activity restored the anti-angiogenic effects of IGFBP-4 on VEGF-induced blood vessel growth in vivo. These novel findings provide new insight into how blood vessels respond to endogenous inhibitors during angiogenesis stimulated by distinct growth factor signaling pathways. PMID:22134921

Contois, Liangru W; Nugent, Desiree P; Caron, Jennifer M; Cretu, Alexandra; Tweedie, Eric; Akalu, Abebe; Liebes, Leonard; Friesel, Robert; Rosen, Clifford; Vary, Calvin; Brooks, Peter C

2012-01-13

200

Vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular homeostasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the angiogenic factor promoting and orchestrating most, if not all, processes of neovascularization taking place in the embryo and the adult. VEGF is also required to sustain newly formed vessels and plays additional multiple roles in the maintenance and function of certain mature vascular beds. Correspondingly, perturbations in VEGF signaling may impact organ homeostasis in multiple ways. Here we briefly review potential consequences of VEGF loss of function in adult organs. Different vascular beds display highly variable dependencies on VEGF for survival, and its loss of function may trigger the regression of many VEGF-dependent vasculatures. Normal turnover of blood vessels, in conjunction with the fact that VEGF is indispensable for compensatory angiogenesis to restore adequate perfusion, accounts for progressive vascular rarefaction under conditions of chronic VEGF inhibition of even vasculatures that are not intrinsically dependent on VEGF. Because blood vessels may have paracrine functions other than their traditional role in tissue perfusion, vascular regression resulting from VEGF withdrawal may cause substantial collateral tissue damage. VEGF may also impact tissue homeostasis via acting directly on nonvascular cells expressing cognate receptors. In the particular case of the lung, constitutive abundant expression of VEGF together with the fact that its receptors are distributed on both endothelial and epithelial cells is compatible with multiple homeostatic VEGF functions in the adult lung. Indeed, experimental inhibition of VEGF in the mature lung produces lesions resembling common lung pathologies, including emphysema and respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22052928

Lazarus, Alon; Keshet, Eli

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in disc herniation tissue: an immunohistochemical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Angiogenesis is essential in tissue growth and regeneration. There are several factors that are able to stimulate vascular endothelial cell growth, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Disc herniation tissue (DHT) contains vascular ingrowth, which promotes granulation tissue formation. In this study we observed 50 disc herniations for PDGF and VEGF immunoreactivity. PDGF immunopositivity was detected in 38 samples (78%). In 28 samples ...

1997-01-01

202

Ionic responses and growth stimulation induced by nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells  

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Rat pheochromocytoma cells (clone PC12) respond to nerve growth factor (NGF) by the acquirement of a phenotype resembling neuronal cells. In an earlier study we showed that NGF causes an increase in Na+,K+ pump activity, as monitored by ouabain-sensitive Rb+ influx. Here we show that addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to PC12 cells resulted in a stimulation of Na+,K+ pump activity as well. The increase of Na+,K+ pump activity by NGF or EGF was due to increased Na+ influx. This increase...

1983-01-01

203

Push Vs Pull: Factors Influence Student Retention  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Student retention becomes one of the most significant issues that administrators of colleges and universities must deal with in today?s highly competitive market. Approach: In fact retaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out its mission. A high rate of attrition is not only a fiscal problem for schools, but a symbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose. Results: There are many ways to keep students retain at the same college until graduation, some easier than people may think but great changes will have to be made in order for schools to complete these transformations. This study is a descriptive study about the factors that influence student retention rate at a higher educational institution. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the previous studies of the similar topic and a random sample survey, this study identifies the possible push and pull factors that promote student leave from a specific college and transfer to other colleges to continue their college studies, it probes the implementable solutions to help the college to maintain and increase the student retention rate.

Matthew Leone

2009-01-01

204

A Prospective Study of Factors Influencing Wound Dehiscence after Midline Laparotomy  

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Aim: To evaluate the factors influencing fascial wound dehiscence after midline laparotomy in the patients of perforation peritonitis with an emphasis on measurement of “intra-abdominal” pressure (IAP) and fascial transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Methods: Hundred eligible adult patients with the ...

Kusum Meena; Shadan Ali; Awneet Singh Chawla; Lalit Aggarwal; Suhani Suhani; Sanjay Kumar; Rehan Nabi Khan

2013-01-01

205

Fibroblast growth factor 15 deficiency impairs liver regeneration in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 (human homolog, FGF19) is an endocrine FGF highly expressed in the small intestine of mice. Emerging evidence suggests that FGF15 is critical for regulating hepatic functions; however, the role of FGF15 in liver regeneration is unclear. This study assessed whether liver regeneration is altered in FGF15 knockout (KO) mice following 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PHx). The results showed that FGF15 KO mice had marked mortality, with the survival rate influenced by genetic background. Compared with wild-type mice, the KO mice displayed extensive liver necrosis and marked elevation of serum bile acids and bilirubin. Furthermore, hepatocyte proliferation was reduced in the KO mice because of impaired cell cycle progression. After PHx, the KO mice had weaker activation of signaling pathways that are important for liver regeneration, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, nuclear factor-?B, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Examination of the KO mice at early time points after PHx revealed a reduced and/or delayed induction of immediate-early response genes, including growth-control transcription factors that are critical for liver regeneration. In conclusion, the results suggest that FGF15 deficiency severely impairs liver regeneration in mice after PHx. The underlying mechanism is likely the result of disrupted bile acid homeostasis and impaired priming of hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:24699334

Kong, Bo; Huang, Jiansheng; Zhu, Yan; Li, Guodong; Williams, Jessica; Shen, Steven; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Richardson, Jason R; Apte, Udayan; Rudnick, David A; Guo, Grace L

2014-05-15

206

Purification and characterization of native human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6  

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Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are key regulators of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) mediated signal transduction and thereby can profoundly influence cellular phenotypes and cell fate. Whereas IGFBPs are extracellular proteins, intracellular activities were described for several IGFBP family members, such as IGFBP-3, which can be reinternalized by endocytosis and reaches the nucleus through routes that remain to be fully established. Within the family of IGFBPs, IGFBP-...

2011-01-01

207

Challenges and opportunities in the targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer  

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Activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor pathway is a common event in many cancer types. Here we review the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling in breast cancer, from SNPs in FGFR2 that influence breast cancer risk and SNPs in FGFR4 that associate with breast cancer prognosis, and potential therapeutic targets such as receptor amplification and aberrant autocrine and paracrine ligand expression. We discuss the multiple therapeutic strategies in preclinical and clin...

Jain, Vikram K.; Turner, Nicholas C.

2012-01-01

208

Influence of substrate morphology on Pb growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crystallographic structure and morphology of Pb layers in their early stage of growth on Si(3 3 5) surface are studied with Reflection High Electron Energy Diffraction (RHEED) and specific resistivity techniques. The vicinal Si(3 3 5), with different surface morphology controlled by the amount of predeposited Au, was used as a substrate. Changes in the substrate morphology, from disordered step distribution through a perfectly ordered Si(3 3 5) to a hill-and-valley structure consisting of wide (1 1 1) terraces and high Miller index facets, cause switching between one- and two-dimensional growth of the Pb structures

2008-05-15

209

Factors of Influence on the Insurance Market Financial Security ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies the basic factors of influence on the level of insurance market financial security, sources of its emergence and their basic interconnections. It characterizes the peculiarities of some determinants of influence on insurance market financial security and suggests its own classification of the basic factors of influence on the state of insurance market financial security.??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????. ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????.

Derkach Aleksandr N.

2012-06-01

210

Factors of Influence on the Insurance Market Financial Security ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article studies the basic factors of influence on the level of insurance market financial security, sources of its emergence and their basic interconnections. It characterizes the peculiarities of some determinants of influence on insurance market financial security and suggests its own classification of the basic factors of influence on the state of insurance market financial security.??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????...

Derkach Aleksandr N.

2012-01-01

211

Opioid growth factor - opioid growth factor receptor axis inhibits proliferation of triple negative breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents approximately 15% of the newly diagnosed cancers worldwide and is characterized by tissue lacking in estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors. TNBC disproportionately affects younger women and women of colour, and new treatments are needed. The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a determinant of cell proliferation in neoplasia, and OGF is an endogenously produced pentapeptide that inhibits cell replication by interacting with OGFr and upregulating cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways thus reducing DNA synthesis. In these studies we investigated the presence and function of the OGF-OGFr axis in two human TNBC cell lines, as well as in breast cancer cell lines containing hormonal receptors. TNBC cell lines MDA-MD-231 and BT-20, as well as human breast cancer cells SK-BR-3 and MCF-7, were examined for the presence of pentapeptide and receptors, as well as their response to OGF. Specificity of peptide and receptor was confirmed by antibody neutralization and molecular studies to knockdown classical receptor protein. The requirement for protein transcription and translation and RNA transcription were investigated. Growth of TNBC cells in the presence of OGF and standard of care chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel was evaluated to determine both efficacy and protective effects against toxicity. OGF treatment inhibited TNBC cells in a dosage related, receptor mediated, and reversible manner. OGF was the specific endogenous opioid to inhibit cell proliferation, and this was mediated by p21 cyclin dependent inhibitory kinase pathways, and required protein and RNA synthesis. OGFr was the specific receptor involved; both peptide and receptor were detected in all four cell lines. OGF treatment inhibited growth of all cancer cell lines evaluated, and reduced cell death in cultures exposed to paclitaxel. The OGF-OGFr axis is present and functioning in TNBC cell lines, and provides a novel biological pathway as potential therapy. PMID:23918871

Zagon, Ian S; Porterfield, Nancy K; McLaughlin, Patricia J

2013-06-01

212

Correlation between hepatocyte growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor-A in breast carcinoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-met expressions in homogenous group of breast cancer patients. Tumor samples were collected from 98 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma stage II treated with primary surgery. We have observed a strong correlation between VEGF-A and c-met. No correlations were found between VEGF-A or HGFR expressions and clinical parameters (tumor size, grade, axillary lymph node status, age, 5- and 10-years DFS or OS. Our study did not reveal any prognostic value of c-met or VEGF. In addition they are not useful to separate a patients' subgroup with poor prognosis. Unlike in other authors' studies, our patients' group is very homogenous which might tribute to obtained results.

Aleksandra ?acko

2010-06-01

213

Factors influencing induction of adaptive response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

1999-10-20

214

Factors influencing induction of adaptive response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

Misonoh, Jun [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio

2000-07-01

215

Role of platelet-derived growth factor in wound healing: synergistic effects with other growth factors.  

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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in vitro stimulates DNA synthesis and chemotaxis of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and stimulates collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and collagenase production by fibroblasts. These in vitro properties suggest that PDGF, delivered by platelets to the site of injury in vivo, may play an important role in the initiation of the wound repair process. Studies presented here show that the addition of pure PDGF to a wound site involving the epidermis and dermis h...

1987-01-01

216

Factors Driving Biofuel Crops' Influence on Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

Large scale deployment of new biofuel crops has the potential to influence climate through biogeophysical and biogeochemical mechanisms operating at the land surface. In turn, climatic variability influences the productivity of biofuel crops and thus their potential contribution as a source of energy. In order to characterize this two-way interaction between biofuels and climate, we are conducting a series of modeling experiments within the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM). Key questions that this study attempts to address include 1) In what ways (e.g. at what spatial and temporal scales, under what land cover and management scenarios) does a transition to biofuel crops represent a climate stabilizing versus a climate destabilizing endeavor? 2) Which vegetation properties and management choices are most influential in determining key climatic outcomes associated with biofuels? 3) Are biofuel crop yields robust to changing climatic conditions? Our approach is to develop new biofuel plant functional types (PFTs) for the land surface component of CESM - the Community Land Model (CLM) - and to examine climatic implications of future biofuel deployment scenarios within the coupled land-atmosphere framework of CESM. We are focusing initially on c4 grass crops - i.e. switchgrass, miscnathus, sugarcane, and maize. CLM represents plant functional types with more than 50 parameters that describe aerodynamic, physiological, optical, and biogeochemical properties etc. We are also making structural modification to the model in order to represent unique features of biofuel crops and their management, such as changes to the phenology and carbon allocation schema for c4 grasses. Detailed observational data from new biofuel crops such as switchgrass and miscanthus is limited and offers a weak constraint on the full set of PFT parameters. To address this problem, we are conducting systematic sensitivity analysis on the default c4 grass parameters in CLM in order to identify a smaller set of parameters that exerts the most control on climatically relevant terms such as energy and carbon fluxes. By revealing those parameters that are most and least influential in terms of climate forcing, systematic sensitivity analysis helps to prioritize the search for observational data, constrains the process of tuning parameters to limited data, and leads the way to characterizing the uncertainty in biofuel crops’ influence on climate. Furthermore, due to similarities across managed ecosystems, these results offer general insight into those plant physiological properties and management factors that must be well-characterized in order to model changes in energy and carbon fluxes resulting from human land use.

Jones, A.; Torn, M. S.; Riley, W. J.; Collins, W.

2010-12-01

217

Vascular endothelial growth factor in heart failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart failure is a devastating condition, the progression of which culminates in a mismatch of oxygen supply and demand, with limited options for treatment. Heart failure has several underlying causes including, but not limited to, ischaemic heart disease, valvular dysfunction, and hypertensive heart disease. Dysfunctional blood vessel formation is a major problem in advanced heart failure, regardless of the aetiology. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the cornerstone cytokine involved in the formation of new vessels. A multitude of investigations, at both the preclinical and clinical levels, have garnered valuable information on the potential utility of targeting VEGF as a treatment option for heart failure. However, clinical trials of VEGF gene therapy in patients with coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease have not, to date, demonstrated clinical benefit. In this Review, we outline the biological characterization of VEGF, and examine the evidence for its potential therapeutic application, including the novel concept of VEGF as adjuvant therapy to stem cell transplantation, in patients with heart failure. PMID:23856679

Taimeh, Ziad; Loughran, John; Birks, Emma J; Bolli, Roberto

2013-09-01

218

Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????????  

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The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ...

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

2013-01-01

219

Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? – ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.

2013-01-01

220

Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

Miyoshi,Ko

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

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Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01. Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01. Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01 influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01. The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

222

Radiotherapy and receptor of epidermal growth factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The expression level of the receptor of the epidermal growth factor is in correlation with the tumor cells radiosensitivity. An overexpression of the E.G.F.R. is often present in the bronchi cancer, epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere, esophagus, uterine cervix, and anal duct but also in the rectum cancers and glioblastomas. At the clinical level, the E.G.F.R. expression is in correlation with an unfavourable prognosis after radiotherapy in numerous tumoral localizations. In the rectum cancers it is an independent prognosis factor found in multifactorial analysis: increase of the rate of nodes and local recurrence when the E.G.F.R. is over expressed. In the uterine cervix cancers, the survival is is negatively affected in multifactorial analysis by the E.G.F.R. membranes expression level. At the therapy level, the development of anti E.G.F.R. targeted therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies) opens a new therapy field at radio-sensitivity potentiality. The irradiation makes an activation of the E.G.F.R. way that would be partially responsible of the post irradiation tumoral repopulation. This activation leads the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase ways and M.A.P. kinase ones, then the Akt protein one that acts an apoptotic modulator part. It has been shown that blocking the E.G.F.R. way acts on three levels: accumulation of ells in phase G1, reduction of the cell repair and increasing of apoptosis. he inhibition of post irradiation action of the E.G.F.R. signal way is a factor explaining the ionizing radiation - anti E.G.F.R. synergy. The preclinical data suggest that the E.G.F.R. blocking by the monoclonal antibodies is more important than the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A first positive randomized study with the cetuximab, published in 2006 in the epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere lead to its authorization on the market with the radiotherapy for this localization. The use of cetuximab in other indication with or in chemoradiotherapy association is for the moment kept to the clinical research. Several tests are running in France: the cetuxicol test concerning the locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas with pelvis irradiation associated to cisplatin, the anal duct cancers in chemoradiotherapy association, rectum cancers in preoperative situation or O.R.L. carcinomas in chemoradiotherapy association from the oncology group of head and neck radiotherapy. Among the expected data of these tests, besides the elements of tumor response, the data on sane tissues toxicity will be key elements. (N.C.)

2009-10-01

223

Active synthesis of epidermal growth factor in human mammary glands  

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Background. Human milk contains considerable number of growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). There are no data comparing the EGF and IGF-1 levels in the serum and milk of breast-feeding women. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess a possible relationship between the concentrations of these growth factors. Material and methods. Thirty-nine women in child-birth were included in the study. All women provided blood and...

2010-01-01

224

Transforming growth factor-? in graft vessels: histology and immunohistochemistry  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The biological functions of transforming growth factor-? signaling that involves Smad proteins have not been previously investigated with respect to coronary artery bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to observe the immunostaining of proteins that are related to this signaling pathway. METHODS: Fifteen remnants of coronary artery bypass grafts, including nine saphenous veins, three radial arteries and three mammary arteries, were collected from 12 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 were performed. RESULTS: The saphenous veins showed more severe intimal degeneration, more severe smooth muscle cell proliferation and more collagen deposition than the arterial grafts, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that the majority of the transforming growth factor-?1 signaling cytokines were primarily localized in the cytoplasm in the medial layers of all three types of grafts, whereas ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the interstices were observed particularly in the saphenous vein and radial arterial grafts. CONCLUSION: Enhanced transforming growth factor-?1 signal transduction with medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, the presence of the type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the extracellular matrix may provide primary evidence for early or late graft failure.

Shi-Min Yuan

2011-01-01

225

Heparin affinity of anionic and cationic capillary endothelial cell growth factors: analysis of hypothalamus-derived growth factors and fibroblast growth factors.  

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Bovine hypothalamus-derived growth factors (HDGF), pituitary fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and brain FGF were analyzed by chromatography on immobilized heparin and tested for the ability to stimulate the proliferation of capillary endothelial (CE) cells. Two distinct CE cell growth factors were found in hypothalamus, one anionic (aHDGF; pI of about 5) and one cationic (cHDGF; pI of about 8). Both aHDGF and cHDGF adhered tightly to immobilized heparin. They were eluted with 0.9-1.1 M NaCl an...

Klagsbrun, M.; Shing, Y.

1985-01-01

226

Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect  

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Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine exogenous and endogenous factors have been analyzed; - reflexive and elastic economic growth factors have been determined; - economic policy was given the role of reflective element within the system to ensure economic growth. The system of factors should be considered within the system that ensures economic growth. It comprises two important elements which enlist the economic growth factors system, economic growth rates system and two reflexive elements – the state economic policy and economic growth models system. While analyzing the economic growth factors, their quality and impact upon the economy should be considered. Economic growth depends on the factors, consideration of which is one of the most important aspects of the economic growth theory. Economic growth reasons are the factors that cause this growth. These are phenomena and processes that can increase the production output, improve efficiency and quality. Factors classification completeness and their diversity do not necessarily mean the dead end of the study. Any classification has the sense only if it fulfills the certain function. If we take into account economic growth modeling, factors diversification and their characteristics classification it implies that models are becoming more complex, the range of their parameters expands, however it does not necessarily lead to more accurate prognosis. All the factors have different impact upon the economic development. Their first type is elastic ones. These factors directly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand. For instance, net export means the increasing foreign demand for our national products; favorable weather conditions lead to the agricultural produce growing supply without any significant change in the economy. These factors rates can be measured and their impact upon economic growth can be easily determined. Another group of factors that indirectly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand are the reflexive factors. They function through structural changes, distribution and motivation system, insignificant restrictions and stimulus. These factors can only be characterized by indirect rates (human development index to measure human capital and their impact upon economic growth, supply and demand is minor in the long run. This group enlists institutional and social factors that become more and more important in post industrial economy. Taking into account economic growth factors impact upon the supply and demand, we can sate that analysis that has been carried out provides good grounds to improve the research methodology in the field of economic growth modeling. We cannot definitely say if there are certain economic growth factors that are entirely independent from the state regulation. Firstly, government itself indirectly impacts the economic growth, by adopting new laws, for instance. Secondly, the main function of the state is to administratively regulate the economic system. This processit can lead to a significant development. Consequently the state plays one of the major roles in the economic factors development. Conclusions and directions of further researches. To ensure Ukraine’s constant economic development and to establish corresponding strategies to reach that goal it is of utmost importance to classify the economic growth factors and to study carefully their impact on the economic processes as the whole.

H.Ya. Hlukha

2014-03-01

227

Transforming Growth Factor ? Levels in Liver and Blood Correlate Better than Hepatocyte Growth Factor with Hepatocyte Proliferation during Liver Regeneration  

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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are mitogens for hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo, produced by hepatocytes or nonparenchymal cells such as stellate cells in the liver. It is still uncertain whether TGF? and HGF are essential for liver regeneration. To assess the role of these growth factors in liver regeneration, their circulating and hepatic levels were studied in various rat models of liver regeneration. Hepatic and plasma HGF levels were increased ...

Tomiya, Tomoaki; Ogata, Itsuro; Fujiwara, Kenji

1998-01-01

228

Epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor receptors collaborate to induce multiple biological responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells  

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The aim of this work was to explore whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) could increase the biological responses of a mammary epithelial cell line of bovine origin when added simultaneously. We also investigated a possible molecular mechanism underlying this cooperation. The development of mammary gland requires several circulating and locally produced hormones. Hepatocyte growth factor and its tyrosine kinase receptor, mesenchymal-epithelial transition fac...

Baratta, Mario; Miretti, Silvia; Martignani, Eugenio; Accornero, Paolo; Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura

2009-01-01

229

Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata seedling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugiyarto, Wardani PK, Setyono P, Mahajoeno E, Sunarto. 2013. Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata seedling. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 57-62. The purpose of this research was to find out the influence of mycorrhiza, organic fertilizer and their combination to the growth of seedlings matoa. The reseach was arranged on Completely Randomized design with two treatments factor; i.e. giving mycorrhiza (0 g, 5 g, 10 g/polybag and giving organic fertilizer (0 mL, 1 mL, 2 mL/polybag respectively each in 6 replications. The observed treatments were plant height, leaf number and plant biomass. The observation datas were analyzed by multivariate analysis level of 5 %, continued with LSD test. The result showed that there was no significant influence on given mycorrhiza for matoa seedling growth for all of the growth parameters. There was no influence of organic fertilizer for plant height parameter, but significantly influence for the number of leaf and biomass. The best increase of the number of leaf and biomass was on organic fertilizer treatment at 2 mL dosage. There were no influence in the growth of matoa by the combination treatments betwen mycorrhyza and organik fertilizer.

EDWI MAHAJOENO

2013-11-01

230

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer  

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Introduction. Testing for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in breast cancer at the time of primary diagnosis is now the standard of care. Positivity for epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in breast cancer is a prognostic factor regarding tumor aggressiveness and a predictive factor for response to Herceptin. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure that all patients who may benefit from Herceptin are correctly identified. Assay method. The principal testing methods used for determin...

Ivkovi?-Kapicl Tatjana; Kneževi?-Ušaj Slavica

2010-01-01

231

Vascular endothelial growth factor in tuberculous meningitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is linked to brain edema and infarction, but there is paucity of studies correlating VEGF level with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to measure serum VEGF level in TBM and correlate it with clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings. Forty patients with TBM underwent cranial evaluation, cranial MRI, and MR angiography (MRA). Presence of exudates, hydrocephalous, infarction, tuberculoma, and MRA abnormalities was noted. Serum VEGF level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared in patients and controls. The VEGF level was also correlated with clinical, MRI, and MRA findings. The median age of the patients was 26.5 years. There was a trend towards higher serum VEGF level in TBM patients (100.7 ± 110.6 pg/ml) compared to the controls (60.6 ± 20.3 pg/ml). There was also a trend towards higher VEGF level in patients with shorter duration of illness (127.5 ± 152.4 pg/ml vs 76.5 ± 40.9 pg/ml), MRI evidence of infarction (131.4 ± 150.7 pg/ml vs. 73.0 ± 41.4 pg/ml), and paradoxical response (122.3 ± 157.6 pg/ml vs. 88.8 ± 50.8 pg/ml). Five patients died, and death was not related to VEGF level. It can be concluded that serum VEGF level in TBM patients is insignificantly higher in those with shorter duration of illness and infarction. PMID:23098361

Misra, Usha K; Kalita, Jayantee; Singh, Avadhesh P; Prasad, Sreeram

2013-02-01

232

Adsorption and release properties of growth factors from biodegradable implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation was performed to study the adsorption behavior of growth factors and their release characteristics from biodegradable implants in an in vitro study. We investigated the stability of growth factors administered on various scaffolds. We used porous tricalcium phosphate ceramics (alpha-TCP), a neutralized glass-ceramics (GB9N), a composite (polylactid/-glycolid/GB9N), and solvent dehydrated human bone as carriers. Block shaped scaffolds (sized: 7 x 7 x 10 mm) were loaded with 5 microg of either bone morphogenetic protein (rxBMP-4), basic fibroblast growth factor (rh-bFGF), or vascular endothelial growth factor (rh-VEGF) solved in 150 microL PBS. The growth factors were labeled with Iodine125 (I-125) for detecting the adsorbed and released amount of growth factors by counting the samples for total I-125 activity. We observed that the adsorption of these growth factors seems to depend on two different parameters: first on the nature of the tested material, and second on the growth factors on their own. The release kinetics of the growth factors from the biodegradable implants can be described as a two phase process-a very rapid release during the first hours by an elution of not adsorbed protein, followed by a specific release, which depends upon the chemical/physical interaction of the material and the growth factor used. Analyzing the eluted proteins on SDS-PAGEs rh-VEGF was degraded into a smaller fragment with a size of around 15 kDa, while rxBMP-4 and rh-bFGF showed a complete degradation into fragments smaller than 3 kDa after more than 3 days. Although this in vitro study suggests that biodegradable implants might be successfully used as carriers for osteogenic growth factors, the different release kinetics as well as the alteration of their molecular structure including loss of biological activity should be considered. PMID:11774299

Ziegler, J; Mayr-Wohlfart, U; Kessler, S; Breitig, D; Günther, K-P

2002-03-01

233

THE FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF MANAGING SUBJECTS ???????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article the author's approach to consideration of the factors influencing innovative activity of managing subjects is presented. Innovations, as one of the major factors, are presented.

Sobchenko N. V.

2011-09-01

234

Factors influencing breast-feeding among adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

During a 15-month study period, 244 adolescent mothers under 18 years of age were surveyed, of whom 53% elected to breast-feed. A subset of 60 primiparous breast-feeding adolescents were studied regarding the influence of several factors on the duration of breast-feeding. An attitude questionnaire was administered in the hospital within 48 hours of delivery. Follow-up interviews were obtained by telephone or in person at approximately 2 weeks and 2 months after birth. Eighty-three percent made the decision to breast-feed before the third trimester. Thirty-five percent discontinued breast-feeding within the first postpartum month, the most common reason being "nipple confusion" in the infant; 22% nursed for more than 1 month but less than 2 months, and 43% breast-fed for 2 months or more. None of the variables examined (maternal age, ethnic group, education level, involvement of the baby's father, timing of the breast-feeding decision, intended duration of breast-feeding, age at which formula supplementation was started, or availability of maternal support) was predictive of the duration of breast-feeding. Contrary to adolescent stereotypes, 65% of mothers chose breast-feeding because it was "good for the baby," and 67% identified the "closeness" of the nursing relationship as the most enjoyable part of breast-feeding. Twenty-eight percent cited modesty issues about breast-feeding as the greatest disadvantage, and 17% returned to work or school within the first 2 postpartum months, posing additional obstacles to breast-feeding. Our data suggest that adolescents are receptive to breast-feeding, but they may require close follow-up and anticipatory guidance tailored to their individual needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3182360

Neifert, M; Gray, J; Gary, N; Camp, B

1988-11-01

235

On the Factors Influencing L1 Transfer  

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For decades, the phenomenon of language transfer has been a focus of second language acquisition. The study of language transfer has experienced three stages. It has long been noted that the linguistic differences between L1 and L2 will affect the acquisition of L2, both positively and negatively. This paper aims at sorting out factors that are facilitating to L1 transfer. Seven categories of factors have been examined: Linguistic factors, Psycholinguistic factors, Sociolinguistic factors, So...

Aisong Yi

2012-01-01

236

Human epidermal growth factor receptor residue covalently cross-linked to epidermal growth factor.  

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An epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor monoclonal antibody (mAb), mAb LA22, was used to analyze the covalent coupling of human EGF receptors to mouse EGF by the amine-reactive cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate. A soluble Mr 105,000 truncated form of the receptor secreted by A-431 epidermoid carcinoma cells and consisting of the ligand-binding extracellular domain was cross-linked to 125I-labeled EGF. Digestion of this complex with an endoproteinase that specifically cleaves at th...

1990-01-01

237

A nonmitogenic analogue of epidermal growth factor induces early responses mediated by epidermal growth factor  

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Cyanogen bromide-cleaved epidermal growth factor (CNBr-EGF) binds to EGF receptors with reduced affinity compared to the native hormone but fails to induce DNA synthesis. However, at similar receptor occupancy, CNBr-EGF is as potent as EGF in activating early cell responses to the hormone. The phosphorylation of membrane proteins, the stimulation of Na+-K+-ATPase as reflected by the ouabain-sensitive uptake of 86Rb of fibroblasts, changes in the organization of microfilaments and in cell- mor...

1982-01-01

238

Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.

Sands, Michelle

2011-01-25

239

Transforming Growth Factor Beta, Bioenergetics and Mitochondria in Renal Disease  

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The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-? ) family is comprised of over 30 family members that are structurally related secreted dimeric cytokines, including TGF-?, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)/growth and differentiation factors (GDFs). TGF-? are pluripotent regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion of many different cell types. TGF-? pathways are highly evolutionarily conserved and control embryogenesis, tissue repair, and ...

Gabriella, Casalena; Ilse, Daehn; Erwin, Bottinger

2012-01-01

240

Iron status and fibroblast growth factor-23 in Gambian children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A relationship between iron and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) metabolic pathways has been proposed. Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in The Gambia and concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 FGF23 are elevated in a large percentage of Gambian children with rickets-like bone deformity.

Braithwaite, Vickie; Jarjou, Landing M. A.; Goldberg, Gail R.; Prentice, Ann

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Does corruption influence the sustainability of economic growth?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is...

Polajeva, Tanya

2011-01-01

242

Mitochondrial Haplotype Influences Mycelial Growth of Agaricus bisporus Heterokaryons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated the influence of mitochondrial haplotype on growth of the common button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Ten pairs of heterokaryon strains, each pair having the same nuclear genome but different mitochondrial genomes, were produced by controlled crosses among a group of homokaryons of both wild and commercial origins. Seven genetically distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were evaluated in different nuclear backgrounds. The growth of heterokaryon pairs differing only in their...

La Bastide, P. Y.; Sonnenberg, A.; Griensven, L.; Anderson, J. B.; Horgen, P. A.

1997-01-01

243

Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in kidney development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) consist of four signaling family members and one nonsignaling “decoy” receptor, Fgfr-like 1 (Fgfrl1), all of which are expressed in the developing kidney. Several studies have shown that exogenous fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) affect growth and maturation of the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and ureteric bud (UB) in cultured tissues. Transgenic and conditional knockout approaches in whole animals have shown that Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 (predominantly th...

Bates, Carlton M.

2011-01-01

244

Enhancement of epidermal regeneration by biosynthetic epidermal growth factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidermal regeneration depends on mitosis and migration of keratinocytes. Epidermal growth factor is known to stimulate growth of keratinocytes in vitro, thus it might be expected to promote wound healing. The results of this study show that topical application of biosynthetic human epidermal growth factor accelerates epidermal regeneration in split-thickness wounds and partial-thickness burns. The significant enhancement of epidermal regeneration suggests the potential for clinical use of ep...

1986-01-01

245

A unique growth factor in patients with acromegaloidism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acromegaloidism is a syndrome characterized by features of acromegaly without biochemical evidence of excessive GH or somatomedin production. We searched for a growth factor in the serum of patients with this syndrome. Growth-promoting activity was measured by determining the stimulatory effect of whole and fractionated serum on colony formation by human erythroid progenitors in vitro. Sera from five subjects with acromegaloidism gave a mean (+/- SEM) stimulated colony growth of 211 +/- 4.0 colonies, in contrast to normal sera which yielded a mean colony growth of 100 +/- 11.0 (n = 9; P less than 0.001). When serum was chromatographed on a Sephadex G-200 column, the maximal stimulation of colony growth was found in the fractions coinciding with the descending slope of the second protein peak. Based on gel filtration chromatography, the estimated molecular weight was 70,000 daltons. Epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor resulted in no substantial stimulation of colony growth under the conditions used. Although the erythroid progenitor cells of a Laron dwarf were unresponsive to 200 ng/ml human GH, they were clearly stimulated by serum from a patient with acromegaloidism. The present study describes the presence of a heretofore unidentified growth factor in the serum of subjects with acromegaloidism. This factor also stimulated the erythroid precursor cells of a Laron dwarf whose cells were unresponsive to GH. The physiological role of this growth factor in normal man as well as its pathogenic role in subjects with acromegaloidism remain to be established. PMID:6863475

Ashcraft, M W; Hartzband, P I; Van Herle, A J; Bersch, N; Golde, D W

1983-08-01

246

Antidepressant drugs modulate growth factors in cultured cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Different classes of antidepressant drugs are used as a treatment for depression by activating the catecholinergic system. In addition, depression has been associated with decrease of growth factors, which causes insufficient axonal sprouting and reduced neuronal damage repair. In this study, antidepressant treatments are analyzed in a cell culture system, to study the modulation of growth factors. Results We quantified the transcription of several growth factors in three cell lines after application of antidepressant drugs by real time polymerase chain reaction. Antidepressant drugs counteracted against phorbolester-induced deregulation of growth factors in PMA-differentiated neuronal SY5Y cells. We also found indications in a pilot experiment that magnetic stimulation could possibly modify BDNF in the cell culture system. Conclusion The antidepressant effects antidepressant drugs might be explained by selective modulation of growth factors, which subsequently affects neuronal plasticity.

Maler Juan M

2008-03-01

247

Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.

I. Hruzina

2010-09-01

248

Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

Masud, E. [ed.

1977-01-01

249

Influence of mass transfer in liquid on growth of phase layer between solid and liquid metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of components mass transfer character in liquid on the phase layer growth kinetics during solid and liquid metals interaction is investigated. Differential equation taking into account various mechanisms of transfer in liquid, such as diffusion process and convective flow, as well as the possibility of phase dissolution in a melt, is derived for phase layer growth. A new method of determination of mass transfer parameters in liquid, namely, diffusion factor in liquid (D) and diffusion layer thickness (delta), from the experiments on solid/liquidphase metal interaction is described. The numeric analysis of WAl4 phase growth conditions during interaction of W with liquid Al is conducted

1985-01-01

250

Guanine is a growth factor for Legionella species.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evaluation of previously described chemically defined media for the growth of Legionella pneumophila showed that these media supported poor growth of several strains of L. pneumophila and did not support growth of certain of the Legionella species described later. Growth was stimulated by the dialysate from yeast extract but not by the nondialyzable fraction. Further investigations indicated that the active factors from the yeast extract dialysate were purine or pyrimidine derivatives, and ce...

1986-01-01

251

Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected with a monoclonal mouse antibody and EGF with polyclonal rabbit antiserum. Thirty-five of the tumours were positive for TGF-alpha and 26 of the tumours for EGF. None of the poorly differentiated tumours was positive for EGF, but they all were for TGF-alpha. In sections including normal differentiated oral mucosa, the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus paralleling the situation observed in the normal differentiated oral mucosa. In four cases, material was available from both a primary tumour and a metastasis. Three of these were positive for TGF-alpha and EGF with the same staining pattern as that of the primary tumours. This investigation together with our previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases.

Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

1993-01-01

252

Targeting the opioid growth factor: opioid growth factor receptor axis for treatment of human ovarian cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a biological pathway that is present in human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. OGF, chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is an endogenous opioid peptide that interfaces with OGFr to delay cells moving through the cell cycle by upregulation of cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways. OGF inhibitory activity is dose dependent, receptor mediated, reversible, protein and RNA dependent, but not related to apoptosis or necrosis. The OGF-OGFr axis can be targeted for treatment of human ovarian cancer by (i) administration of exogenous OGF, (ii) genetic manipulation to over-express OGFr and (iii) use of low dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, which stimulates production of OGF and OGFr for subsequent interaction following blockade of the receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis may be a feasible target for treatment of cancer of the ovary (i) in a prophylactic fashion, (ii) following cytoreduction or (iii) in conjunction with standard chemotherapy for additive effectiveness. In summary, preclinical data support the transition of these novel therapies for treatment of human ovarian cancer from the bench to bedside to provide additional targets for treatment of this devastating disease. PMID:23856908

Zagon, Ian S; Donahue, Renee; McLaughlin, Patricia J

2013-05-01

253

Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.

K. R. Sowmya

2011-01-01

254

The impact of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on cardiac fibroblasts grown under altered gravity conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Myocardium is very sensitive to gravitational changes. During a spaceflight cardiovascular atrophy paired with rhythm problems and orthostatic intolerance can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on cardiac fibroblasts (CF) grown under altered gravity conditions.

Ulbrich, Claudia; Leder, Annekatrin

2010-01-01

255

TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)  

Science.gov (United States)

TITLE: TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

256

Expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in breast fibroadenomas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Aim—Fibroadenomas are benign tumours composed of both glandular and fibrous tissue. The mechanisms regulating the growth of these tumours and the relation between the stromal and epithelial cells are poorly understood. Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) is a well known fibroblast activator, which acts through four specific cell surface receptors, among which, fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is highly specific. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution...

Rosa, S.; Sessa, F.; Colombo, L.; Tibiletti, M.; Furlan, D.; Capella, C.

2001-01-01

257

Stimulation of tumour growth by wound-derived growth factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this work was to determine the molecular basis for the induction of tumour vascularization and progression by injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated that administration of wound fluid derived from cutaneous injuries in pigs reduced the lag for vascularization and initiation of growth of C6 glioma spheroids, implanted in nude mice, and accelerated tumour doubling time. The former effect can be attributed to the angiogenic capacity of wound fluid as detected i...

Abramovitch, R.; Marikovsky, M.; Meir, G.; Neeman, M.

1999-01-01

258

Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Tunisia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services in
Tunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoption
of internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bank
users, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study the
relat...

Wadie Nasri

2011-01-01

259

Financial influence factors on innovative activity ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article the financial factors affecting innovation, and examined the structure of industries industrial complex of Ukraine on technological structure of production.? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????, ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ???????...

Marchenko Olga I.

2012-01-01

260

Financial influence factors on innovative activity ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the financial factors affecting innovation, and examined the structure of industries industrial complex of Ukraine on technological structure of production.? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????, ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????.

Marchenko Olga I.

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ?. Whereas transforming growth factor ? reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated

1988-01-01

262

Tunisian Financial System: A Growth Factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth were the subject of many recent theoretical and empirical works. These works generally focused on link between finance and growth according to the maturity of financial systems. The Tunisian economy knew a long period of financial repression before starting several phases of liberalization. The aim of the paper is to determinate the impact of the development of the Tunisian financial system on economic growth. We identified economic and financial development indicators of Tunisian economy. The empirical study on Tunisia is based on causality tests within B-VAR framework. Reciprocal relationships are only finding between the ratio of investment on GDP and the loans granted to private and public sectors. The economic role of government is highlighted, over the pre-reforms period as well as during the recent time.

Imène Ben Fredj

2010-10-01

263

Influence of coagulation factors and tissue factor concentration on the thrombin generation test in plasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thrombin generation test is used to study coagulation in patients with haemorrhagic diseases or with high thrombotic risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the relative influence of coagulation factors on thrombin generation in plasma. The aim was to investigate the influence of coagulant factors, anticoagulant factors, and tissue factor (TF) on three parameters: endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), peak thrombin concentration, and lag time for the appearance of thrombin. At a low TF concentration, all factors except factor XI influenced thrombin generation. At a high TF concentration, only the factors of the extrinsic pathway exerted an influence. ETP and peak thrombin were linearly correlated to factor II concentration. Factor V and factor VII effects increased hyperbolically with factor concentration. The influence of factor X on thrombin generation depended on TF concentration. In the absence of factor VIII and factor IX, ETP fell to 60-70% of the normal when peak thrombin fell to 25-30% of the normal. Fibrinogen concentration influenced ETP and peak thrombin and decreasing fibrinogen levels shortened the lag time. As expected, decreasing antithrombin concentration caused dramatic increases in thrombin generation. Protein S prolonged the lag time, especially at a low TF concentration. No effect of protein C was observed, likely due to the absence of thrombomodulin. The thrombin generation test was more sensitive to factor deficiencies at low than at high TF concentration. ETP was not the most critical parameter for studying coagulation factor deficiencies. Instead, peak thrombin was the most sensitive parameter. PMID:18392335

Duchemin, Jérôme; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Arnaud, Bertrand; Blouch, Marie-Thérèse; Abgrall, Jean-François

2008-04-01

264

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor accelerates growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has not been found to exert any influence on the proliferation of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in vitro. Nevertheless, when administered intraperitoneally, GM-CSF accelerated the growth of subcutaneously growing LLC in mice. PMID:8620469

Feleszko, W; Giermasz, A; Go?atb, J; Lasek, W; Kuc, K; Szperl, M; Jakóbisiak, M

1996-03-29

265

Transforming growth factor-? in graft vessels: histology and immunohistochemistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The biological functions of transforming growth factor-? signaling that involves Smad proteins have not been previously investigated with respect to coronary artery bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to observe the immunostaining of proteins that are related to this sig [...] naling pathway. METHODS: Fifteen remnants of coronary artery bypass grafts, including nine saphenous veins, three radial arteries and three mammary arteries, were collected from 12 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 were performed. RESULTS: The saphenous veins showed more severe intimal degeneration, more severe smooth muscle cell proliferation and more collagen deposition than the arterial grafts, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that the majority of the transforming growth factor-?1 signaling cytokines were primarily localized in the cytoplasm in the medial layers of all three types of grafts, whereas ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the interstices were observed particularly in the saphenous vein and radial arterial grafts. CONCLUSION: Enhanced transforming growth factor-?1 signal transduction with medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, the presence of the type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the extracellular matrix may provide primary evidence for early or late graft failure.

Yuan, Shi-Min; Wang, Yan-Qing; Shen, Yi; Jing, Hua.

266

Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.

Laurie Drozdowski, Alan BR Thomson

2009-01-01

267

Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)

2009-10-06

268

Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)

2012-04-24

269

Epidermal growth factor receptor targeted molecularly therapies of cancers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been known to be a significant factor in the development and growth of many types of cancers. It is now accepted that the EGFR signal transduction net work plays an important role in multiple tumorigenic processes, contributing to cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as protection from apoptosis. Recently, EGFR monoclonal antibodies (McAb) and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors have been validated as new treatment approach for those EGFR-positive cancers and have shown activity aginst advanced, chemofractory cancers in clinical trials. This article focuses on three EGFR targeted molecularly therapies of cancers. (authors)

2007-01-01

270

Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.

Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjaer, Anni

2013-01-01

271

Factors Influencing Ship Repair Part Consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was made of possible linear relationships between several specific factors concerning ships of the Navy and the actual repair part consumption dollar figures for a two year period for the purpose of using such relationships for planning a...

R. A. Lippert W. T. Lee

1973-01-01

272

Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impa...

2006-01-01

273

Factors influencing successful radioiodine therapy of thyroid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13), operated during the yea...

Popadi? Silvija M.; Voji?i? Jelena V.; Peter Andrea; Maleševi? Milica ?.; Mihailovi? Jasna; Kermeci Katarina

2003-01-01

274

Influencing Factors of Collaboration with Industry of Chinese Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the view of university character, this study discussed the influencing factors of University-Industry collaboration. Using negative binomial regression and quantile regression model, the study empirically analyzed the U-I collaboration of 431 Universities in China. The results showed that: There are differences of influencing factors between high-quality and medium-quality universities and under the control of area and university type, the research quality and commercialization tendency are main influencing factors for university to collaborate with industry.

Caihong Chen

2013-01-01

275

Interrelated influence of light and Ni on Trichodesmium growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our previous laboratory study revealed that insufficient Ni supply can limit nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium, a primary diazotrophic phytoplankton in the tropical and subtropical oceans. Here we show that light intensity and Ni availability interrelate to influence Trichodesmium growth. Trichodesmium growth is severely inhibited under high light (670 uE m-2 s-1 and insufficient Ni condition. On the contrary, the sufficient supply of Ni in seawater can sustain the growth of Trichodesmium under either high or low light conditions. We also observed elevated intracellular Ni uptake in Trichodesmium grown under relatively high light condition, supporting that the Ni requirement is used for removing superoxide generated through photosynthetic electron transport. This study shows that light saturation condition for Trichodesmium growth is Ni concentration dependent. This finding may exhibit implications for interpreting temporal and spatial distributions and activities of Trichodesmium in both modern and ancient oceans when light intensity and Ni concentrations have significantly varied.

Tung-YuanHo

2013-05-01

276

Based on factor analysis of influencing factors of port throughput  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughput of port is an important quantitative indicator reflecting the port producing and managing results, while it's also an important quantitative indicator of the construction of international shipping center of Shanghai. Besides, throughput of port is a quantitative reference measuring the level of development and construction of a country, region or a city. There are many factors affecting the. From several throughput of port affecting factors, in this article, with the help of SSRS13.0, we used factor analysis based on empirical analysis of Shanghai to extract fatal factors and analyze the inherent mechanism of throughput of port, and aimed to make some suggestions for the establishment of international shipping center of Shanghai.

Yuan, Xiang

2011-10-01

277

ENOD40 encodes a peptide growth factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhizobium bacteria induce the formation of nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. The nodules create the right biological niche for the rhizobia to carry out biological nitrogen fixation by which atmospheric nitrogen is reduced to ammonia. The nodule is a new organ that provides the plant with a nitrogen source for its growth and development. The formation of a nitrogen fixing root nodule is the final result of an extensive collaboration between the plant and the bacterium, which starts w...

Sande, G. P. C. M.

1997-01-01

278

Tyrosine Kinase Domain Gene Polymorphism of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Gastric Cancer in Northern Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most common diseases of digestive system with a low 5-year survival rate and metastasis is the main cause of death. Multi-factors, such as changes in molecular pathways and deregulation of cells are involved in the disease development. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway (EGFR) which is associated with cell proliferation and survival can influence cancer development. EGFR function is governed by its genetic polymorphism; thus, we aimed to study th...

Jeivad F; Abediankenari S; Shokrzadeh M; Ghasemi M; Taghvaei T; Ansari Z; Najafi Fard M; Hassannia H; Sayiari Mazandarani M; Biranvand E

2012-01-01

279

Neonatal thyroid function: influence of perinatal factors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indices of thyroid function were measured in 229 healthy term neonates at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Results were analysed to assess whether maternal diabetes mellitus, toxaemia of pregnancy, intrapartum fetal distress, duration of labour, method of delivery, asphyxia at birth, race, sex, birthweight, birth length, head circumference, or method of feeding influenced any index. Thyroxine, the free thyroxine index, and free thyroxine concentrations at birth correlated with birthwei...

Franklin, R. C.; Carpenter, L. M.; O Grady, C. M.

1985-01-01

280

Hepatoma-derived growth factor stimulates smooth muscle cell growth and is expressed in vascular development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is the first member identified of a new family of secreted heparin-binding growth factors highly expressed in the fetal aorta. The biologic role of HDGF in vascular growth is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that HDGF mRNA is expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), most prominently in proliferating SMCs, 8–24 hours after serum stimulation. Exogenous HDGF and endogenous overexpression of HDGF stimulated a significant increase in SMC number and DNA synthesi...

Everett, Allen D.; Lobe, David R.; Matsumura, Martin E.; Nakamura, Hideji; Mcnamara, Coleen A.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Progress in Relevant Growth Factors Promoting the Growth of Hair Follicle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hair is a protective appendage on the body that is considered accessory structure of the integument. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. The morphological changes of the hair cycle have been very clear that hair morphogenesis and epidermal development are orchestrated by an array of growth factors. In this review, we summarize the major growth factors involved in promoting growth of hair follicles

J. M. Wang

2012-01-01

282

Progress in Relevant Growth Factors Promoting the Growth of Hair Follicle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hair is a protective appendage on the body that is considered accessory structure of the integument. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. The morphological changes of the hair cycle have been very clear that hair morphogenesis and epidermal development are orchestrated by an array of growth factors. In this review, we summarize the major growth factors involved in promoting growth of hair follicles

Wang, J. M.; Zhang, J. T.

2012-01-01

283

ROLE OF STATISTICS IN RESEARCH FOR DATA ANALYSIS: FOCUS ON CORRELATION OF VARIABLES, INFLUENCING THE GROWTH OF POPULATION: CASE STUDY IN AHMEDNAGAR DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of population is influenced by the number of factors in a particular region. The important factors such as the demographic, economic, social and physical factors have great bearing upon the growth of population. Now a day, Geography is not merely descriptive subject.

Narke Sunil Yuvaraj

2014-05-01

284

Factors influencing the implementation of electronic data interchange (EDI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic Data Interchange (EDI implementation is viewed as an important tool for transmission of business data. Yet, its implementation has not reached the predicted level whereby the implementation is often stalled at infancy stage. Many factors were pinpointed as inhibitors or barriers for success of EDI implementation. This study examines key EDI influencing factors and their relationship with implementation level, firm size and type of users. Mail surveys on 108 manufacturers were the main data collection method. Findings indicate that implementation level differs based on influencing factors, while these factors differ based on type of users and do not differ based on firm size. Relatively, internal factors were found to be more significant than external factors. This study also recommends future research to further examine influences of users’ type with different EDI aspects.

Gengeswari K.

2008-06-01

285

Circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin - like growth factor - I (IGF-I) in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin - like growth factor - I (EGF-I) were estimated in 58 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and were correlated with clinically and biochemically important prognosticators. EGF-I levels were significantly low in patients as compared to controls. The relation of growth factors with clinically important prognosticators was non - significant. Moreover, the levels of EGF and IGF - I in ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- groups and in the low and high EGFR + tumors did not differ significantly. Patients with EGF1.0 ng/ml. (author)

1994-01-01

286

Mutagenesis of the crystal contact of acidic fibroblast growth factor  

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Several mutations at Glu81 located on the crystal contact of human acidic fibroblast growth factor were studied in an effort to improve crystal growth. Mutation to Ser and Thr resulted in crystallization of a rather bulky form of the wild type, whereas mutation to Val prohibited crystallization. These results suggest that crystal growth may be controlled by designing a new interface by protein engineering.

Honjo, Eijiro; Tamada, Taro; Adachi, Motoyasu; Kuroki, Ryota; Meher, Akshaya; Blaber, Michael

2008-01-01

287

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 effects on proliferation and telomerase activity in sheep growth plate chondrocytes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) inhibits growth-plate chondrocyte proliferation and limits bone elongation. Gain-of-function FGFR3 mutations cause dwarfism, reduced telomerase activity and shorter telomeres in growth plate chondroyctes suggesting that FGFR3 reduces proliferative capacity, inhibits telomerase, and enhances senescence. Thyroid hormone (T3) plays a role in cellular maturation of growth plate chondrocytes and a known tar...

Smith Logan B; Belanger Janelle M; Oberbauer Anita M

2012-01-01

288

Chemical Influences on Ice Crystal Growth from Vapor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an investigation of chemical influences on the growth of ice crystals from water vapor. In one set of experiments, we grew ice crystals in a vapor diffusion chamber, observing crystal morphologies at temperatures from 0 C to -25 C in different background gases and with a variety of gaseous chemical additives. In a second set of experiments, we measured ice crystal growth rates at -5 C and -15 C in a free-fall flow chamber, using normal laboratory air and ultra-cle...

Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Bell, Robert

2010-01-01

289

Human basic fibroblast growth factor: nucleotide sequence and genomic organization.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clones encoding the angiogenic endothelial cell mitogen, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), have been isolated from human cDNA libraries made from kidney, fetal heart, fetal liver, term placenta, and a breast carcinoma. Basic FGF cDNA clones are present in these libraries at very low levels when compared to the quantity of the growth factor in the tissues. This observation, combined with the fact that several of the clones represent unspliced transcripts, suggests that cytoplasmic basic FG...

Abraham, J. A.; Whang, J. L.; Tumolo, A.; Mergia, A.; Friedman, J.; Gospodarowicz, D.; Fiddes, J. C.

1986-01-01

290

Antidepressant drugs modulate growth factors in cultured cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Different classes of antidepressant drugs are used as a treatment for depression by activating the catecholinergic system. In addition, depression has been associated with decrease of growth factors, which causes insufficient axonal sprouting and reduced neuronal damage repair. In this study, antidepressant treatments are analyzed in a cell culture system, to study the modulation of growth factors. Results We quantified the transcription of s...

Henkel Andreas W; Sperling Wolfgang; Rotter Andrea; Reulbach Udo; Reichardt Cornelia; Bönsch Dominikus; Maler Juan M; Kornhuber Johannes; Wiltfang Jens

2008-01-01

291

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is required for postnatal thymic regeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family that mediates epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation in a variety of tissues, including the thymus. We studied the role of KGF in T-cell development with KGF-/- mice and demonstrated that thymic cellularity and the distribution of thymocyte subsets among KGF-/-, wildtype (WT), and KGF+/- mice were similar. However, KGF-/- mice are more vulnerable to sublethal irradiation (450 cGy), and a significant...

Alpdogan, O?nder; Hubbard, Vanessa M.; Smith, Odette M.; Patel, Neel; Lu, Sydney; Goldberg, Gabrielle L.; Gray, Daniel H.; Feinman, Jared; Kochman, Adam A.; Eng, Jeffrey M.; Suh, David; Muriglan, Stephanie J.; Boyd, Richard L.; Den Brink, Marcel R. M.

2006-01-01

292

Factor Prices and Productivity Growth During the British Industrial Revolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents new estimates of total factor productivity growth in Britain for the period 1770–1860. We use the dual technique and argue that the estimates we derive from factor prices are of similar quality to quantity-based calculations. Our results provide further evidence, calculated on the basis of an independent set of sources, that productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution was relatively slow. The Crafts–Harley view of the Industrial Revolution is thus rein...

2003-01-01

293

Growth factors and vitamin E modify neuronal glutamate toxicity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sympathetic nerve cell line PC-12 is killed by glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. Although glycine and the deletion of magnesium weakly potentiate glutamate toxicity and PC-12 cells express N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor mRNA, most toxicity is mediated by means of a mechanism independent of typical N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Glutamate toxicity is, however, greatly enhanced by prior exposure to nerve growth factor or basic fibroblast growth factor. Glutamate killing is bloc...

Schubert, D.; Kimura, H.; Maher, P.

1992-01-01

294

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 directly regulates murine neurogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are slowly dividing astrocytes that are intimately associated with capillary endothelial cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. Functionally, members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family can stimulate neurogenesis as well as angiogenesis, but it has been unclear whether they act directly via VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) expressed by neural cells, or indirectly via the release of growth factors from angiogenic capillaries. Here, we show that...

Calvo, Charles-fe?lix; Fontaine, Romain H.; Soueid, Jihane; Tammela, Tuomas; Makinen, Taija; Alfaro-cervello, Clara; Bonnaud, Fabien; Miguez, Andres; Benhaim, Lucile; Xu, Yunling; Barallobre, Maria-jose?; Moutkine, Imane; Lyytikka?, Johannes; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Pytowski, Bronislaw

2011-01-01

295

Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in th...

Saayman, Melville; Du Plessis, Engelina

2011-01-01

296

Factors Influencing Selection of Treatment for Colorectal Cancer Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Sweden and elsewhere there is evidence of poorer cancer survival for patients of low socioeconomic status (SES), and in some settings differences in treatment by SES have been shown. The aim of this thesis was to explore factors which influence cancer treatment decisions, such as knowledge reaped from clinical trials, patient-related factors, and physician-related factors. In a register study of colorectal cancer, all stages, patients were stratified for SES-factors. Differences were seen ...

Cavalli-bjo?rkman, Nina

2012-01-01

297

THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/to...

Lacatus Viorel-Dorin; Vaidean Viorela-Ligia; Cuceu Ionut-Constantin

2013-01-01

298

Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life. PMID:24028035

Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

2013-01-01

299

The influence of the effective physical properties of tin electrodeposited films on the growth of tin whiskers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present study was to characterize and calculate the effective film properties of electrodeposited tin films to determine factors influencing the growth of tin (Sn) whiskers. The growth of Sn whiskers represents an increased risk to the reliability of electronic devices, and is a particular concern in the high reliability environments demanded in aerospace and defense applications. Efforts to prevent whisker growth have proven difficult, in part, due to the lack of understan...

2011-01-01

300

Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads. PMID:21476837

Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Factors which influence necropsy requests: a psychological approach.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS: To determine which factors influence a clinician's decision to request a necropsy. METHODS: Patient age, confidence in premortem diagnosis, relatives' attitudes, and conditions of necropsy practice were combined factorially (two levels each) in separate medical and surgical questionnaires based on clinical case histories. The interactions between the factors were measured by a repeated measures factorial analysis of variance for each of the two clinical groups. The influence of the clin...

Start, R. D.; Hector-taylor, M. J.; Cotton, D. W.; Startup, M.; Parsons, M. A.; Kennedy, A.

1992-01-01

302

Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the...

2011-01-01

303

Factors that could influence the ethical behaviour of tax professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an attempt to enhance the core professional values of tax practitioners in South Africa, the South African Revenue Service has proposed the regulation of tax practitioners’ services. It is arguable whether or not this would be the only factor to influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. A literature review was conducted to identify factors that could influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. Numerous possibilities emerged. It is therefore recommended that if regul...

2010-01-01

304

Factors that Influence Customers’ Buying Intention on Shopping Online  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to study
the factors influencing student’s buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning in
Malaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs and
attitude that influence student’s buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studyin...

Yulihasri Eri; Md. Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud

2011-01-01

305

Factors influencing job satisfaction of managers at state owned enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding the factors that influence Job Satisfaction of managers is vital because satisfied managers will improve overall effectiveness of an organisation. State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) play a crucial role within economies, however a lack of attention has been focussed on understanding the concept of job satisfaction within this context. The main objective of this research was to identify the factors which are most important to influencing job satisfaction of managers at SOEs and to ver...

2011-01-01

306

Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

2011-01-01

307

Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palli...

Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

1998-01-01

308

Factors that influence practice nurses to promote physical activity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate what factors may influence practice nurses to promote physical activity. METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent to all practice nurses in the county of Avon, UK in 1994. Specifically, the questionnaire survey explored whether patient, provider, and practice factors influenced practice nurses promotion behaviour. In addition, the stages of change model was used to measure current levels of promoting behaviour. RESULTS: A response rate of 80.9% was achieved. Over 80%...

Mcdowell, N.; Mckenna, J.; Naylor, P. J.

1997-01-01

309

Periodontal regeneration: focus on growth and differentiation factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several growth and differentiation factors have shown potential as therapeutic agents to support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, although optimal dosage, release kinetics, and suitable delivery systems are still unknown. Experimental variables, including delivery systems, dose, and the common use of poorly characterized preclinical models, make it difficult to discern the genuine efficacy of each of these factors. Only a few growth and differentiation factors have reached clinical evaluation. It appears that well-defined discriminating preclinical models followed by well-designed clinical trials are needed to further investigate the true potential of these and other candidate factors. Thus, current research is focused on finding relevant growth and differentiation factors, optimal dosages, and the best approaches for delivery to develop clinically meaningful therapies in patient-centered settings.

Lee, Jaebum; Stavropoulos, Andreas

2010-01-01

310

Influence of a layer-by-layer-assembled multilayer of anti-CD34 antibody, vascular endothelial growth factor, and heparin on the endothelialization and anticoagulation of titanium surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endothelialization of the metal surface of vascular stents came into focus as a new method for improving the biocompatibility of intravascular stents. This article has its focus on building a biofunctional layer on the activated titanium surface with anti-CD34 antibody, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and heparin by a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique, to promote the endothelialization of the surface. When compared with titanium surface, the number of adhered endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on LBLs increased 47.1% after 5 days culture, meanwhile the proliferation rate of EPCs on LBLs during 5 days culture also exhibit significantly improvement. The results of blood compatibility evaluation clearly show that the LBLs reduce the number of adhered and activated blood platelets (adhered: Ti 83% vs. LBL multilayer of anti-CD34, VEGF, and heparin on titanium can significantly improve the blood compatibility and the endothelialization of a medical device. The biofunctional layer supports generation of a new endothelium onto titanium surface by capturing EPCs and oriented differentiation. PMID:23045161

Liu, Shihui; Liu, Tao; Chen, Junying; Maitz, Manfred; Chen, Cheng; Huang, Nan

2013-04-01

311

Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We have used rats with epidermal growth factor (EGF) autoantibodies to study the role of EGF deficiency during perinatal development. The study was focused on organs known to contain EGF or its receptor. Compared with controls, the offspring of autoimmune rats had a higher perinatal mortality and a lower birth weight. The weight of the lungs was particularly low in the offspring of EGF-immunized rats, and morphologically the lungs from the surviving pups seemed atelectatic and had alveolar duct dilatation, which indicates mild respiratory distress syndrome. Judged from immunohistochemical studies, the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio was lower in pups from EGF-immunized rats. This difference was, however, not significant (p = 0.07), but flow cytometric analyses showed a significantly lower proportion of the liver cells from newborn EGF-deficient pups to be in S-phase and indicated that these cells were larger than liver cells from controls. To study possible alterations in EGF binding, 125I-EGF was injected i.v. in newborn rats. 125I-EGF bound in all the organs investigated. The binding is listed in decreasing order: liver, gut, skin, kidney, and lungs. In the pups from EGF-immunized rats, the lungs and the skin bound a significantly higher amount than the controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba

1995-01-01

312

Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

2012-01-01

313

Factors influencing amblyopia rehabilitation in occlusive therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Amblyopia develops in an early period and is a decrease of visual acuity (unilateral or bilateral) caused by a deprivation of vision or abnormal binocular interaction. Prognosis of Amblyopia is better when occlusive treatment is implemented in an early stage. Visual acuity of amblyopic eye does not improve without effective occlusive therapy. The aim of this study is to identify potential risk factors of noncompliance

Lanc?a, Carla Costa; Carolino, Elisabete

2009-01-01

314

Influence of CS2 on the growth of carbon nanotubes  

Science.gov (United States)

The current work is focused on the impact of sulphur on the growth of carbon nanostructures by the decomposition of benzene in the presence of ferrocene at reduced pressure. The influence has been studied for a wide range of sulphur concentrations. Its effect on the processes taking place inside the reactor, beginning from the decomposition of the chemical compounds up to the formation of the different structures is shown.

Devaux, X.; Tsareva, S. Yu.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Zaramenskih, K. S.; McRae, E.; Zharikov, E. V.

2012-03-01

315

Trafficking of nuclear heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor into an epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent autocrine loop in response to oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF) accumulates in the nucleus in aggressive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cells and this histologic feature is a marker of poor prognosis in human bladder cancer tissues. Here we report that HB-EGF can be exported from the nucleus during stimulated processing and secretion of the growth factor. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulted in mobilization of the HB-EGF precursor, proHB-EGF, from the nucleus of TCCSUP bladder cancer cells to a detergent-resistant membrane compartment, where the growth factor was cleaved by a metalloproteinase-mediated mechanism and shed into the extracellular space. Inhibition of nuclear export suppressed HB-EGF shedding. Production of ROS resulted in EGF receptor (EGFR) and Akt1 phosphorylation in HB-EGF-expressing cells. HB-EGF also stimulated cell proliferation and conferred cytoprotection when cells were challenged with cisplatin. These findings show that the nucleus can serve as an intracellular reservoir for a secreted EGFR ligand and, thus, can contribute to an autocrine loop leading to cell proliferation and protection from apoptotic stimuli. PMID:16166300

Kim, Jayoung; Adam, Rosalyn M; Freeman, Michael R

2005-09-15

316

Cell surface fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptors are permanently lost during skeletal muscle terminal differentiation in culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One characteristic of skeletal muscle differentiation is the conversion of proliferating cells to a population that is irreversibly postmitotic. This developmental change can be induced in vitro by depriving the cultures of specific mitogens such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Analysis of cell surface FGF receptor (FGFR) in several adult mouse muscle cell lines and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mouse MM14 cells reveals a correlation between receptor loss and the acquisition o...

1988-01-01

317

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, a v-Jun target gene, induces oncogenic transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jun is a transcription factor belonging to the activator protein 1 family. A mutated version of Jun (v-Jun) transduced by the avian retrovirus ASV17 induces oncogenic transformation in avian cell cultures and sarcomas in young galliform birds. The oncogenicity of Jun probably results from transcriptional deregulation of v-Jun-responsive target genes. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a growth-related v-Jun target, a homolog of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-...

Fu, Shu-ling; Bottoli, Ivan; Goller, Martin; Vogt, Peter K.

1999-01-01

318

Uptake and Intracellular Transport of Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor: Evidence for Free and Cytoskeleton-anchored Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endocytic uptake and intracellular transport of acidic FGF was studied in cells transfected with FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4). Acidification of the cytosol to block endocytic uptake from coated pits did not inhibit endocytosis of the growth factor in COS cells transfected with FGFR4, indicating that it is to a large extent taken up by an alternative endocytic pathway. Fractionation of the cells demonstrated that part of the growth factor receptor was present in a low-density, caveolin-containing fr...

Citores, Luci?a; Wesche, Jørgen; Kolpakova, Elona; Olsnes, Sjur

1999-01-01

319

Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Promotes in Vitro Mitral Valve Interstitial Cell Repair through Transforming Growth Factor-?/Smad Signaling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 both promote repair in valve interstitial cell (VIC) injury models; however, the relationship between TGF-? and FGF-2 in wound repair are not well understood. VIC confluent monolayers were wounded by mechanical injury and incubated separately or in combination with FGF-2, neutralizing antibody to FGF-2, neutralizing antibody to TGF-?, and betaglycan antibody for 24 hours after wounding. Phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3...

Han, Li; Gotlieb, Avrum I.

2011-01-01

320

Insulin like growth factor-I, insulin like growth factor binding protein-1, and insulin in childhood Crohn's disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty nine children with Crohn's disease were studied before and after treatment with steroids or an elemental diet to assess the effect of disease activity and treatment on serum insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-1), and insulin concentrations. The median serum IGF-I concentration was lower in patients with active disease than in matched controls, and lower in stunted than well grown patients, but insulin and IGFBP-1 concentrations were ...

Thomas, A. G.; Holly, J. M.; Taylor, F.; Miller, V.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 binds to immobilized fibronectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have characterized the interaction of homodimeric porcine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) with affinity-purified human plasma fibronectin. Using a solid-phase binding assay, we have demonstrated that TGF-beta 1 binds to fibronectin immobilized on Immunlon ITM microtiter plates. TGF-beta 1 binding increased with time, reaching a plateau after 4-6 h, and was dependent upon the concentration of both labeled TGF-beta 1 and immobilized fibronectin present. The binding of radiolabeled TGF-beta 1 to fibronectin was saturable and was reduced 75% in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled TGF-beta 1. TGF-beta 1 bound to fibronectin with an association rate constant (Ka) of 2.96 x 10(3) M-1 s-1 and did not readily dissociate under various conditions. The binding of TGF-beta 1 to fibronectin was insensitive to variations in ionic strength over a range of 0.1-1.0 M NaCl and was relatively insensitive to divalent cation concentration in the range of 0.1-10.0 mM as well. These data suggest that the binding of TGF-beta 1 to fibronectin may not be dependent upon the interaction of charged amino acids within these two molecules. However, the binding of TGF-beta 1 to fibronectin was strongly pH-dependent and binding decreased dramatically below pH 4.0 and above pH 10.0, suggesting that charged amino acids may influence TGF-beta 1/fibronectin interactions. The association of TGF-beta 1 with immobilized fibronectin or other extracellular matrix components and subsequent dissociation under acidic conditions or by an as-yet-unidentified mechanism may play a role in the distribution and/or activity of this potent growth regulator at sites of tissue injury and inflammation in vivo. PMID:2625433

Mooradian, D L; Lucas, R C; Weatherbee, J A; Furcht, L T

1989-12-01

322

Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

Unsia HABIB

2013-12-01

323

Intracellular growth factors in polycythemia vera and other myeloproliferative disorders.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In polycythemia vera, idiopathic myelofibrosis, and essential thrombocytosis, hematopoietic cell proliferation is increased in the absence of a recognizable stimulus, suggesting the autonomous production of growth factors in these disorders. Sonicates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with polycythemia vera, idiopathic myelofibrosis, and essential thrombocytosis contained soluble factors that stimulated the proliferation of quiescent-confluent 3T3 cells. PBMNC sonica...

Eid, J.; Ebert, R. F.; Gesell, M. S.; Spivak, J. L.

1987-01-01

324

Local expression of epidermal growth factor-like growth factors in human testis and its role in spermatogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) has revealed that spermatogenesis in nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients is heterogeneous, even in the same testis, but there is no information regarding growth factors to support spermatogenesis. We investigated the involvement of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors, which play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation in NOA patients who underwent micro-TESE. Testicular samples were obtained from 5 fertile men (15 samples), 5 prostate cancer patients receiving maximum androgen blockade (10 samples), and 13 NOA patients who underwent micro-TESE (50 samples). The expression of the mRNA for EGF, heparin binding (HB)-EGF, amphiregulin, epiregulin, betacellulin, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and adjusted using the expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Heterogeneous expression of these EGF-like growth factors were observed even in the same testis. The expression of HB-EGF, amphiregulin and TGF-? in NOA and prostate cancer patients was significantly lower than observed in fertile controls. In NOA patients, expression in the testicular sample comprising mature sperm was significantly higher than those without mature sperm, indicating that HB-EGF, amphiregulin, and TGF-? are considered to participate in creating a suitable niche for spermatogenesis. Considering the findings that ablation of gonadotropin inhibited and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation increased these EGF-like growth factors, the expressions are presumably under gonadotropin regulation. PMID:21273504

Shiraishi, Koji; Matsuyama, Hideyasu

2012-01-01

325

Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Dynamics of National Savings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National savings as a basic investment resource are viewed in modern economic literature not only at the level of national economy but at the level of world economy as well.When the income level is decreased people do not reduce the consumption level but they reduce their level of savings.Having analysed this problem, the following conclusion can be drawn:savings can be negative when income level is low under the condition that the previous income level was higher than the current one;in a short run, by increasing income savings grow in an absolute as well as in a relative expression;in a long run, by increasing income savings grow only in an absolute expression and in a relative expression they remain stable (norm of savings is a ratio of the part of income that is saved to the income itself.Factors that may have influence on the norm of net national savings are as following:Monetization index as a ratio of a monetary aggregate M2 to GDP;Growth rate of GDP per capita;Consumer Price Index;Effective rate of interest;Currency exchange rate;Balance of payments;Level of unemployment;Part of population over 60 years old.

L. Kukhtiy

2011-03-01

326

Nerve growth factor potentiates the neurotoxicity of beta amyloid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of growth factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease is unknown. The beta-amyloid protein accumulates abnormally in the brain in Alzheimer disease and is neurotoxic to differentiated hippocampal neurons in culture. Nerve growth factor (NGF) increased the neurotoxic potency of a beta-amyloid polypeptide by a factor of approximately 100,000, which resulted in a reduction of the beta-amyloid neurotoxic EC50 from 0.1 microM to 1 pM. This potentiating effect of NGF was reversed by a...

Yankner, B. A.; Caceres, A.; Duffy, L. K.

1990-01-01

327

Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

2011-01-01

328

Factors influencing surface roughness of polyimide film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)

2011-07-01

329

Factors influencing antibiotics adsorption onto engineered adsorbents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study evaluated the adsorption of two antibiotics by four engineered adsorbents (hypercrosslinked resin MN-202, macroporous resin XAD-4, activated carbon F-400, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)) from aqueous solutions. The dynamic results demonstrated the dominant influence of pore size in adsorption. The adsorption amounts of antibiotics on XAD-4 were attributed to the hydrophobic effect, whereas steric hindrance or micropore-filling played a main role in the adsorption of antibiotics by F-400 because of its high microporosity. Aside from F-400, similar patterns of pH-dependent adsorption were observed, implying the importance of antibiotic molecular forms to the adsorption process for adsorbents. Increasing the ionic concentration with CaC12 produced particular adsorption characteristics on MWCNT at pH 2.0 and F-400 at pH 8.0, which were attributed to the highly available contact surfaces and molecular sieving, respectively. Its hybrid characteristics incorporating a considerable portion of mesopores and micropores made hypercross linked MN-202 a superior antibiotic adsorbent with high adsorption capacity. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of MWCNT on the basis of surface area was more advantageous than that of the other adsorbents because MWCNT has a much more compact molecular arrangement. PMID:24218839

Xia, Mingfang; Li, Aimin; Zhu, Zhaolian; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Weiben

2013-07-01

330

Fatigue crack growth in nodular cast iron - Influences of graphite spherical size and variable amplitude loading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations of constant and variable amplitude loading, including a variety of overloads, were carried out experimentally as well as numerically in order to characterize the fatigue crack growth behaviour of nodular cast iron with a ferritic matrix. Under constant cyclic loading the crack growth rate, which depends on the graphite size can be described well by the NASGRO equation. The mean distance between the graphite particles and the shape factor also influence the fracture behaviour. The experimental investigations show that overloads yield to acceleration effects in fatigue crack growth. The calculation of the a-N curves based on different usual life prediction models yields non-conservative results. Therefore, a modified strip yield model is presented which allows the prediction of the crack growth acceleration after overloads in nodular cast iron.

2010-07-01

331

Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

1991-10-01

332

A protein tyrosine phosphatase activity associated with the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor receptor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The receptor for the growth and motility factor, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase encoded by the MET oncogene. Previous work has shown that receptor phosphorylation on tyrosine is critical for both kinase activation and association with intracellular signal transducers. In this paper, we report that a protein tyrosine phosphatase activity (PTP) coprecipitates with the HGF/SF receptor. The associated PTP activity correlates with the kinase ac...

Comoglio, Paolo

1993-01-01

333

NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

Michael Wall

2003-03-01

334

Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.  

Science.gov (United States)

In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

2014-01-01

335

An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. Using simple regression analysis, the study has detected that all mentioned factors influence organizational change, positively. In addition, Freedman test indicates that partnership maintains the highest impact followed by believe in change, communication, organizational commitment and training.

Abbas Saleh Ardestani

2014-06-01

336

Thrombin-mediated impairment of fibroblast growth factor-2 activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin generation increases in several pathological conditions, including cancer, thromboembolism, diabetes and myeloproliferative syndromes. During tumor development, thrombin levels increase along with several other molecules, including cytokines and angiogenic factors. Under such conditions, it is reasonable to predict that thrombin may recognize new low-affinity substrates that usually are not recognized under low-expression levels conditions. In the present study, we hypothesized that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 may be cleaved by thrombin and that such action may lead to an impairment of its biological activity. The evidence collected in the present study indicates that FGF-2-induced proliferation and chemotaxis/invasion of SK-MEL-110 human melanoma cells were significantly reduced when FGF-2 was pre-incubated with active thrombin. The inhibition of proliferation was not influenced by heparin. Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethyl ketone, a specific inhibitor of the enzymatic activity of thrombin, abolished the thrombin-induced observed effects. Accordingly, both FGF-2-binding to cell membranes as well as FGF-2-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation were decreased in the presence of thrombin. Finally, HPLC analyses demonstrated that FGF-2 is cleaved by thrombin at the peptide bond between residues Arg42 and Ile43 of the mature human FGF-2 sequence. The apparent k(cat)/K(m) of FGF-2 hydrolysis was 1.1 x 10(4) M(-1) x s(-1), which is comparable to other known low-affinity thrombin substrates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that thrombin digests FGF-2 at the site Arg42-Ile43 and impairs FGF-2 activity in vitro, indicating that FGF-2 is a novel thrombin substrate. PMID:19438723

Totta, Pierangela; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Giampietri, Claudia; Aguzzi, Maria S; Faraone, Debora; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

2009-06-01

337

An evaluation of factors influencing Bayesian learning systems.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the influences of situational and model factors on the accuracy of Bayesian learning systems. DESIGN: This study examines the impacts of variations in two situational factors, training sample size and number of attributes, and in two model factors, choice of Bayesian model and criteria for excluding model attributes, on the overall accuracy of Bayesian learning systems. MEASUREMENTS: The test data were derived from myocardial infarction patients who were admitted to eig...

Eisenstein, E. L.; Alemi, F.

1994-01-01

338

An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

Arash Hosseinzadeh

2013-05-01

339

Controlled Release of Growth Factors on Allograft Bone in vitro  

Science.gov (United States)

Allografts are important alternatives to autografts for treating defects after major bone loss. Bone growth factors have both local autocrine and paracrine effects and regulate the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. To study the effects of prolonged, continuous, local delivery of growth factors on bone growth, we developed a new microelectromechanical system (MEMS) drug delivery device. Bone marrow cells from mice were seeded on mouse allograft discs and cultured in osteogenic media with osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1) and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) delivered from MEMS devices for 6 weeks. We monitored bone formation by changes of bone volume using micro-CT scanning and release of osteocalcin using ELISA. The data suggest the MEMS devices delivered constant concentrations of OP-1 and FGF-2 to the media. Bone marrow cells grew on the allografts and increased bone volume. Addition of OP-1 increased bone formation whereas FGF-2 decreased bone formation. Local delivery of growth factors over a prolonged period modulated the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells on allograft bone.

Ryu, WonHyoung; Ren, Peigen; Fasching, Rainer; Goodman, Stuart B.

2008-01-01

340

Factors influencing audiovisual fission and fusion illusions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information processing in auditory and visual modalities interacts in many circumstances. Spatially and temporally coincident acoustic and visual information are often bound together to form multisensory percepts [B.E. Stein, M.A. Meredith, The Merging of the Senses, A Bradford Book, Cambridge, MA, (1993), 211 pp.; Psychol. Bull. 88 (1980) 638]. Shams et al. recently reported a multisensory fission illusion where a single flash is perceived as two flashes when two rapid tone beeps are presented concurrently [Nature 408 (2000) 788; Cogn. Brain Res. 14 (2002) 147]. The absence of a fusion illusion, where two flashes would fuse to one when accompanied by one beep, indicated a perceptual rather than cognitive nature of the illusion. Here we report both fusion and fission illusions using stimuli very similar to those used by Shams et al. By instructing subjects to count beeps rather than flashes and decreasing the sound intensity to near threshold, we also created a corresponding visually induced auditory illusion. We discuss our results in light of four hypotheses of multisensory integration, each advocating a condition for modality dominance. According to the discontinuity hypothesis [Cogn. Brain Res. 14 (2002) 147], the modality in which stimulation is discontinuous dominates. The modality appropriateness hypothesis [Psychol. Bull. 88 (1980) 638] states that the modality more appropriate for the task at hand dominates. The information reliability hypothesis [J.-L. Schwartz, J. Robert-Ribes, P. Escudier, Ten years after Summerfield: a taxonomy of models for audio-visual fusion in speech perception. In: R. Campbell (Ed.), Hearing by Eye: The Psychology of Lipreading, Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Hove, UK, (1998), pp. 3â??51] claims that the modality providing more reliable information dominates. In strong forms, none of these three hypotheses applies to our data. We re-state the hypotheses in weak forms so that discontinuity, modality appropriateness and information reliability are factors which increase a modality's tendency to dominate. All these factors are important in explaining our data. Finally, we interpret the effect of instructions in light of the directed attention hypothesis which states that the attended modality is dominant [Psychol. Bull. 88 (1980) 638]. Keyword: Modality appropriateness,Illusory flashes Sensory systems,Directed attention,Multisensory,Discontinuity hypothesis,illusions,Information reliability

Andersen, Tobias; Tiippana, Kaisa

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Transforming growth factor beta modulates the expression of collagenase and metalloproteinase inhibitor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exposure of quiescent MRC-5 human fibroblasts to growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor or embryonal carcinoma-derived growth factor resulted in the induction of mRNA transcripts encoding the metalloproteinases collagenase and stromelysin and the specific metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP, whilst expression of collagen and fibronectin was relatively unaffected. Exposure of quiescent cells to growth factors in the presence of transforming growth factor be...

Edwards, D. R.; Murphy, G.; Reynolds, J. J.; Whitham, S. E.; Docherty, A. J.; Angel, P.; Heath, J. K.

1987-01-01

342

Factors Influencing Dropouts' GED & Diploma Attainment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.

Jeffrey C. Wayman

2001-02-01

343

Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-?) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and tumor control.

2009-05-01

344

Lymphatic Endothelial Heparan Sulfate Deficiency Results in Altered Growth Responses to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (VEGF-C)*?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth and remodeling of lymphatic vasculature occur during development and during various pathologic states. A major stimulus for this process is the unique lymphatic vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). Other endothelial growth factors, such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) or VEGF-A, may also contribute. Heparan sulfate is a linear sulfated polysaccharide that facilitates binding and action of some vascular growth factors such as FGF-2 and VEGF-A. However, a direct role for ...

Yin, Xin; Johns, Scott C.; Lawrence, Roger; Xu, Ding; Reddi, Krisanavane; Bishop, Joseph R.; Varner, Judith A.; Fuster, Mark M.

2011-01-01

345

Real Exchange Rate Undervaluation and Growth: Is there a Total Factor Productivity Growth Channel?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Undervaluation of the currency is generally believed to affect growth through two main transmission channels: the "capital accumulation channel" and the "total factor productivity (TFP) growth channel". This paper carries out the first empirical investigation on the TFP growth channel. More specifically, we provide answers to the three following questions: Does undervaluation of the currency boost the overall productivity level in the economy? If so, does this "undervaluat...

2012-01-01

346

Identification of Factors Influencing the Restoration of Cyanobacteria-Dominated Biological Soil Crusts  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover >35% of the Earth’s land area and contribute to important ecological functions in arid and semiarid ecosystems, including erosion reduction, hydrological cycling, and nutrient cycling. Artificial rapid cultivation of BSCs can provide a novel alternative to traditional biological methods for controlling soil and water loss such as the planting of trees, shrubs, and grasses. At present, little is known regarding the cultivation of BSCs in the field due to lack of knowledge regarding the influencing factors that control BSCs growth. Thus, we determined the effects of various environmental factors (shade; watering; N, P, K, and Ca concentrations) on the growth of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs from the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States. The soil surface changes and chlorophyll a concentrations were used as proxies of BSC growth and development. After 4 months, five factors were found to impact BSC growth with the following order of importance: NH4NO3 ? watering frequency>shading>CaCO3 ? KH2PO4. The soil water content was the primary positive factor affecting BSC growth, and BSCs that were watered every 5 days harbored greater biomass than those watered every 10 days. Groups that received NH4NO3 consistently exhibited poor growth, suggesting that fixed N amendment may suppress BSC growth. The effect of shading on the BSC biomass was inconsistent and depended on many factors including the soil water content and availability of nutrients. KH2PO4 and CaCO3 had nonsignificant effects on BSC growth. Collectively, our results indicate that the rapid restoration of BSCs can be controlled and realized by artificial “broadcasting” cultivation through the optimization of environmental factors.

Bu, Chongfeng; Wu, Shufang; Yang, Yongsheng; Zheng, Mingguo

2014-01-01

347

Identification of factors influencing the restoration of cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover >35% of the Earth's land area and contribute to important ecological functions in arid and semiarid ecosystems, including erosion reduction, hydrological cycling, and nutrient cycling. Artificial rapid cultivation of BSCs can provide a novel alternative to traditional biological methods for controlling soil and water loss such as the planting of trees, shrubs, and grasses. At present, little is known regarding the cultivation of BSCs in the field due to lack of knowledge regarding the influencing factors that control BSCs growth. Thus, we determined the effects of various environmental factors (shade; watering; N, P, K, and Ca concentrations) on the growth of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs from the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States. The soil surface changes and chlorophyll a concentrations were used as proxies of BSC growth and development. After 4 months, five factors were found to impact BSC growth with the following order of importance: NH4NO3 ? watering frequency>shading>CaCO3 ? KH2PO4. The soil water content was the primary positive factor affecting BSC growth, and BSCs that were watered every 5 days harbored greater biomass than those watered every 10 days. Groups that received NH4NO3 consistently exhibited poor growth, suggesting that fixed N amendment may suppress BSC growth. The effect of shading on the BSC biomass was inconsistent and depended on many factors including the soil water content and availability of nutrients. KH2PO4 and CaCO3 had nonsignificant effects on BSC growth. Collectively, our results indicate that the rapid restoration of BSCs can be controlled and realized by artificial "broadcasting" cultivation through the optimization of environmental factors. PMID:24625498

Bu, Chongfeng; Wu, Shufang; Yang, Yongsheng; Zheng, Mingguo

2014-01-01

348

Heparin-II Domain of Fibronectin Is a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Binding Domain: Enhancement of VEGF Biological Activity by a Singular Growth Factor/Matrix Protein Synergism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe extracellular interactions between fibronectin (Fn) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that influence integrin-growth factor receptor crosstalk and cellular responses. In previous work, we found that VEGF bound specifically to fibronectin (Fn) but not vitronectin or collagens. Herein we report that VEGF binds to the heparin-II domain of Fn and that the cell-binding and VEGF-binding domains of Fn, when physically linked, are necessary and sufficient to promote VEGF-induc...

Wijelath, Errol S.; Rahman, Salman; Namekata, Mayumi; Murray, Jacqueline; Nishimura, Tomoaki; Mostafavi-pour, Zohreh; Patel, Yatin; Suda, Yasuo; Humphries, Martin J.; Sobel, Michael

2006-01-01

349

Suramin prevents neovascularisation and tumour growth through blocking of basic fibroblast growth factor activity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inhibition of angiogenesis through blocking of growth factors involved in this process could be a novel therapeutic approach in several important pathologies, neoplasia among them. Suramin has recently been described to possess antineoplastic activity in animals and humans, and it has been proposed that an important role in this activity is played by antagonism of growth factors and especially bFGF. To investigate this hypothesis in vivo, we used gelatin sponges loaded with bFGF and implanted...

Pesenti, E.; Sola, F.; Mongelli, N.; Grandi, M.; Spreafico, F.

1992-01-01

350

Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor thymidine phosphorylase in tumour growth and response to therapy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth and metastasis of solid tumours. Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) is known to be chemotactic for endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenic in vivo. It is also known as gliostatin, a factor promoting neuronal survival, and thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase), which catalyses the reversible phosphorylation of thymidine to thymine and 2-deoxyribose-1-phosphate. This enzymatic activity is critical for angiogenic activity. ...

Griffiths, L.; Stratford, I. J.

1997-01-01

351

Insulin-like growth factors and insulin: comparative aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

IGF I and IGF II are two insulin-like growth factors resembling insulin in many respects. They stem from a common precursor, act through receptors similar to the insulin receptor with which they cross-react. When administered in large amounts they produce hypoglycemia. Their major effects, however, are on replication and differentiation of cells of mesodermal origin. IGF I is the major growth promoting factor in vivo. The synthesis and secretion of IGF I by the liver depend on the growth hormone status, insulin and nutrition. In contrast to insulin, the IGFs circulate in blood bound to the carrier proteins. Their half-life in man is in the order of 16 h. IGF I deficiency results in dwarfism (pygmy, Laron dwarf, toy poodle) despite normal or elevated growth hormone secretion. The anabolic actions of insulin and of the IGFs appear to complement each other as shown in Figure 7. PMID:3902539

Froesch, E R; Zapf, J

1985-08-01

352

Urinary transforming growth factors in neoplasia: separation of 125I-labeled transforming growth factor-alpha from epidermal growth factor in human urine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purified human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) from urine promotes anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar medium. This growth is enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and is specifically inhibited by hEGF antiserum. Transforming growth factors of the alpha type (TGF-alpha), potentially present in normal human urine or urine from tumor-bearing patients, also promote anchorage-independent cell growth and compete with EGF for membrane receptor binding. Consequently, TGF-alpha cannot be distinguished from urinary hEGF by these two functional assays. Therefore, a technique for separation of TGF-alpha and related peptides from urinary EGF based on biochemical characteristics would be useful. Radioiodination of characterized growth factors [mouse EGF (mEGF), hEGF, and rat TGF-alpha (rTGF-alpha)], which were then separately added to human urine, was used to evaluate a resolution scheme that separates TGF-alpha from the high level of background hEGF present in human urine. Methyl bonded microparticulate silica efficiently adsorbed the 125I-labeled mEGF, 125I-labeled hEGF, and 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha that were added to 24-h human urine samples. Fractional elution with acetonitrile (MeCN) of the adsorbed silica released approximately 70 to 80% of the 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF between 25 and 30% MeCN, and over 80% of the 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha between 15 and 25% MeCN, with retention after dialysis of less than 0.2 and 1.7% of the original urinary protein, respectively. A single-step enrichment of about 400-fold for mEGF and hEGF, and 50-fold for rTGF-alpha were achieved rapidly. 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF eluted later than would be predicted on the basis of their reported molecular weight of approximately 6000, whereas 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha eluted from Bio-Gel P-10 at an approximate molecular weight of 8000 to 9000

1986-01-01

353

Analysis of a factor that influences cancer outpatient fatigue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fatigue seen in many cancer cases is considered to be decrease quality of life. We clarified factors related to such fatigue and used out result to relieve fatigue. We conducted a questionnaire using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) on 204 cancer outpatients at the A hospital. We studied 16 factors influencing fatigue and analyzed the relationships among these factors and CFS scores. The mean of total fatigue scores was 23.0 points (standard deviation: 10.0). The fatigue is strong by higher than 19 points of the CFS scores. That frequency was 64.7%. The logistic regression analysis was conducted the influence factors of fatigue. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for items showing a significant difference Performance States (PS), loneliness, hormonal therapy, and radiation therapy. The conclusion of this study was to reduce fatigue in outpatient cancer treatment, it was suggested to that importance to assess a related factor of fatigue. (author)

2008-02-01

354

A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

Hamidreza Kheirkhah

2014-04-01

355

Factors Influencing Nursing-Sensitive Outcomes in Taiwanese Nursing Homes.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Outcomes research needs to be conducted in countries beyond the USA if nursing classification is to move into visibility and acceptance in health care delivery around the world. Clinical outcomes that reflect nursing interventions have not been well documented. Recent socioeconomic changes in Taiwan have provided a unique opportunity to measure nursing-sensitive outcomes in nurse-managed nursing homes. The purpose of recently completed research conducted in eight selected nursing homes in Taiwan was to explore factors influencing two nursing-sensitive outcomes, namely, biopsychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. Nursing-sensitive outcomes are defined as changes in health status upon which nursing care has had a direct influence. The researchers considered the impact of both individual patient factors and organizational factors on the care outcomes. Individual patient factors were found to be significantly more important than organizational factors in determining biopsychosocial function.

Yang, Ke-Ping A., Simms, Lillian M., Yin, Jeo-Chen T

1999-08-01

356

An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

Naser Azad

2013-07-01

357

Growth factor delivery for oral and periodontal tissue engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The treatment of oral and periodontal diseases and associated anomalies accounts for a significant proportion of the healthcare burden, with the manifestations of these conditions being functionally and psychologically debilitating. Growth factors are critical to the development, maturation, maintenance and repair of craniofacial tissues, as they establish an extracellular environment that is conducive to cell and tissue growth. Tissue-engineering principles aim to exploit these properties in...

Kaigler, Darnell; Cirelli, Joni A.; Giannobile, William V.

2006-01-01

358

A comprehensive pathway map of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways that regulate growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation in mammalian cells. Reflecting this importance, it is one of the best-investigated signaling systems, both experimentally and computationally, and several computational models have been developed for dynamic analysis. A map of molecular interactions of the EGFR signaling system is a valuable resource for research in this area. I...

Oda, Kanae; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Funahashi, Akira; Kitano, Hiroaki

2005-01-01

359

Molecular Mechanisms that Regulate Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inactivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is the prototypical receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). These cell surface receptors are integral membrane proteins that bind ligands on their extracellular domain and relay that information to within the cell. The activated EGFR regulates diverse cell fates such as growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. These signaling properties are important for the appropriate development and maintenance of an organism. However, when inapp...

2008-01-01

360

Growth-hormone-releasing factor immunoreactivity in human endocrine tumors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seventy-three human tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic tissues were analyzed immunohistochemically for the presence of growth-hormone-releasing factor (GRF). Four of 9 pancreatic endocrine tumors, 2 of 3 appendiceal carcinoids, and 1 of 5 cecal carcinoids were immunoreactive for GRF. One of the GRF-containing pancreatic tumors was associated with acromegaly. Histologically, the growth patterns of these tumors were variable, and the distribution of immunoreactive cells was patchy and irregular....

Bostwick, D. G.; Quan, R.; Hoffman, A. R.; Webber, R. J.; Chang, J. K.; Bensch, K. G.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The Insulin-like Growth Factor System: Towards Clinical Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and II) are important endocrine, paracrine and autocrine mediators of physiological growth. They promote cellular proliferation, survival and differentiation. Their effects are mediated mainly through the IGF-I receptor, but IGFs also bind to the IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate and insulin receptors. IGF activity is modulated by a family of six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs); in most situations, IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions but they may also enhance th...

Bach, Leon A.

2004-01-01

362

Mineral coatings modulate ?-TCP stability and enable growth factor binding and release.  

Science.gov (United States)

?-Tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) is an attractive ceramic for bone tissue repair because of its similar composition to bone mineral and its osteoconductivity. However, compared with other ceramics ?-TCP has a rapid and uncontrolled rate of degradation. In the current study ?-TCP granules were mineral coated with the aim of influencing the dissolution rate of ?-TCP, and also to use the coating as a carrier for controlled release of the growth factors recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF), modular VEGF peptide (mVEGF), and modular bone morphogenetic protein 2 peptide (mBMP2). The biomineral coatings were formed by heterogeneous nucleation in aqueous solution using simulated body fluid solutions with varying concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO(3)). Our results demonstrate that we could coat ?-TCP granules with mineral layers possessing different dissolution properties. The presence of a biomineral coating delays the dissolution rate of the ?-TCP granules. As the carbonate (CO(3)(2-)) content in the coating was increased the dissolution rate of the coated ?-TCP also increased, but remained slower than the dissolution of uncoated ?-TCP. In addition, we showed sustained release of multiple growth factors, with release kinetics that were controllable by varying the identity of the growth factor or the CO(3)(2-) content in the mineral coating. Released rhVEGF induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, and mVEGF enhanced migration of mouse embryonic endothelial cells in a scratch wound healing assay, indicating that each released growth factor was biologically active. PMID:22154864

Suárez-González, Darilis; Lee, Jae Sung; Lan Levengood, Sheeny K; Vanderby, Ray; Murphy, William L

2012-03-01

363

FOOD MICROORGANISMS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some 870 cultures of predominating micro-organisms were isolated from market samples of hamburger, fresh pork sausage, fresh fish fillets, stewing beef, frozen chicken pot pie, frozen corn, frozen peas, and pasteurized and raw milk, before and after storage at different temperatures. The isolates were screened for their ability to influence the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strain 196E by means of spot-plate tests on APT and nutrient agars at 25 C. The 438 cultures that influenced the growth of S. aureus were retested on spot plates at 15, 30, and 42 C. After elimination of replicates, the 143 remaining cultures were classified into species, genera, or groups, and 14 different cultures were tested for their influence on the growth of S. aureus in APT broth at 25 C. Over half of the effective cultures inhibited S. aureus and less than half were stimulatory. Pork sausage had the highest proportion of inhibitory cultures, and stewing beef had the lowest. APT agar was better than nutrient agar for screening, and incubation at 15 C gave more effector organisms than at 30 and 42 C. Most of the lactic acid bacteria were inhibitory, but other groups of bacteria contained more stimulatory cultures than inhibitory ones. The three Escherichia coli cultures were stimulatory, but most other Escherichia cultures were inhibitory. Aerobacter and Paracolobactrum isolates were mostly stimulatory. Cultures of other kinds of bacteria were more or less evenly distributed between inhibitory ones and stimulatory ones. Genera containing mostly inhibitory bacteria were Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus. Inhibitory species were E. freundii and E. intermedia. Tests with S. aureus in broth indicated that all cultures inhibitory according to spot plates were inhibitory in broth, but stimulation on spot plates did not always indicate the same phenomenon in broth. PMID:14075051

GRAVES, R R; FRAZIER, W C

1963-11-01

364

Influence of external magnetic fields on growth of alloy nanoclusters  

CERN Document Server

Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the influence of external magnetic fields on the growth of magnetic fcc binary alloy nanoclusters with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The underlying kinetic model is designed to describe essential structural and magnetic properties of CoPt_3-type clusters grown on a weakly interacting substrate through molecular beam epitaxy. The results suggest that perpendicular magnetic anisotropy can be enhanced when the field is applied during growth. For equilibrium bulk systems a significant shift of the onset temperature for L1_2 ordering is found, in agreement with predictions from Landau theory. Stronger field induced effects can be expected for magnetic fcc-alloys undergoing L1_0 ordering.

Einax, M; Maass, P; Majhofer, A; Dieterich, W; Einax, Mario; Heinrichs, Stefan; Maass, Philipp; Majhofer, Andrzej; Dieterich, Wolfgang

2006-01-01

365

Influence of initial conditions on large scale dynamo growth rate  

CERN Document Server

To investigate the effect of energy and helicity on the growth of large scale magnetic field, helical kinetic forcing was applied to the magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) system that had a specific distribution of energy and helicity as an initial condition. Simulation results show the saturation of a system is not influenced by the initial conditions, but the growth rate of large scale magnetic field is proportionally dependent on the initial large scale magnetic energy and helicity. Comparison of the profiles of evolving magnetic and kinetic energy implies that the large scale kinetic energy plays a preceding role in the MHD dynamo in the early time regime. Kinetic energy was observed to migrate backward when the external energy flew into the three dimensional MHD system. The data were analyzed and interpreted using the equations from quasi normal approximation and two scale mean field method.

Park, Kiwan

2013-01-01

366

Influence Of Dilution Factor For Activity Measurement Of 60CO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)

2003-01-01

367

Forest edges in boreal landscapes - factors affecting edge influence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The boreal forest in Fennoscandia has been subjected to major loss and fragmentation of natural forests due to intensive forestry. This has resulted in that forest edges are now abundant and important landscape features. Edges have documented effects on the structure, function and biodiversity in forests. Edge influence on biodiversity is complex and depends on interactions between many local and regional factors. This thesis focuses on sharp forest edges and their potential to influence biod...

Jansson, Ulrika

2009-01-01

368

Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal?based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. ...

2007-01-01

369

Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and t...

Bornschein, R. L.

1985-01-01

370

Oncogenic Ras modulates epidermal growth factor responsiveness in endometrial carcinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the majority of endometrial carcinomas do not contain any detectable ras mutations, the precise contribution of aberrant Ras function, if any, to endometrial carcinoma development remains to be determined. Since there is considerable evidence that Ras transformation is associated with a decreased requirement for growth factors, we compared the growth response of endometrial carcinoma cells harbouring wild-type (Ishikawa cells) or mutated (HHUA cells) K-ras to epidermal growth factor (EGF). K-ras mutation did not significantly affect the level of the EGF receptor (EGFR) expressed in these carcinoma cells. EGF could stimulate the growth of Ishikawa, but not HHUA cells. Furthermore, EGF caused elevation of Ras-GTP levels in Ishikawa, but not HHUA cells. However, the introduction of mutated, but not normal, K-ras into Ishikawa cells rendered them non-responsive to EGF growth stimulation. Thus, the presence of mutated K-ras alone modulated the growth response of endometrial carcinoma cells to EGF. An inhibitor of the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity could prevent soft agar colony formation of Ishikawa cells, but not HHUA or mutant K-ras(12V)-transfected Ishikawa cells. Taken together, these results suggest that mutated K-ras causes a loss of responsiveness to EGF stimulation and that EGFR function is dispensable for the growth of mutant Ras-positive endometrial carcinoma cells. PMID:9713283

Kato, K; Ueoka, Y; Kato, K; Tamura, T; Nishida, J; Wake, N

1998-04-01

371

Signaling By Fibroblast Growth Factors: The Inside Story  

Science.gov (United States)

Polypeptide growth factors bind to the extracellular domains of cell surface receptors, triggering activation of receptor-intrinsic or receptor-associated protein kinases. Although this central thesis is widely accepted, one family of proteins, the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), have for more than a decade attracted a research "counterculture" looking for direct FGF actions inside cells. Goldfarb discusses how the search for alternative signaling pathways is moving mainstream with the help of two recent publications reporting specific intracellular targets for FGF and FGF-like proteins.

Mitchell Goldfarb (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV)

2001-10-30

372

Epidermal growth factor system regulates mucin production in airways  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Goblet-cell hyperplasia is a critical pathological feature in hypersecretory diseases of airways. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown, and no effective therapy exists. Here we show that stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) by its ligands, EGF and transforming growth factor ? (TGF?), causes MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells both in in vitro and in vivo. We found that a MUC5AC-inducing epithelial cell line, NCI-H292, expresses EGF-R constitutively; EG...

1999-01-01

373

Upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor 4 in oral leukoplakia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, we investigate the expression profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, which comprises EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4 in oral leukoplakia (LP). The expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family genes and their ligands were measured in LP tissues from 14 patients and compared with levels in 10 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 14 healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reacti...

2013-01-01

374

Influence of Experimental Parameters on Fatigue Crack Growth and Heat Build-Up in Rubber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Loading parameters (frequency, amplitude ratio and waveform are varied to determine their influence on fatigue crack growth in rubber. Up to three different rubber blends are investigated: one actual engineering material and two model materials. Fatigue crack growth curves and strain distributions of pure shear and faint waist pure shear samples are compared for a model material. Fatigue behavior is studied for three different frequencies (1 Hz, 3 Hz and 5 Hz. Amplitude ratio appears to be another important influence factor concerning fatigue crack growth in rubber. The beneficial effect of positive amplitude ratios (tensional loading conditions is shown for different materials. However, fatigue crack growth is considerably increased for negative amplitude ratios (tensional-compressional loading conditions. Furthermore, the influence of the waveform is determined for three different waveform shapes. One is sinusoidal, and two have a square shape, including dwell periods and sinusoidal slopes. Special focus lies on heat build-up, which is substantial, especially for large loads, high frequencies and/or highly filled rubber blends. Plateau temperatures are determined for various loading conditions and rubber blends. A very simple linear relationship with dissipated energy per time and unit area is obtained. Results gathered with dynamic mechanical analyses show, likewise, a linear trend, but the heat build-up is very small, due to different sample geometries.

Franziska Stadlbauer

2013-11-01

375

Influence of environment on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, the influence of different environments on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steam turbine blade steel is investigated. Fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) in the near threshold regime are measured with ultrasonic fatigue testing technique. Fatigue tests are performed in vacuum, air and different aqueous environments with defined chloride and oxygen content. Furthermore, the influence of different stress ratios is investigated. It is found that crack propagation is not necessarily enhanced with increasing corrosiveness. In the aqueous environments, the FCGRs below 10?? m/cycle are lower than in air. The threshold stress intensity factor ranges are higher or equal. Observation of the fracture surfaces shows oxide formation and partly intergranular fracture for specimens tested in aqueous environments. Crack closure effects seem to be responsible for this unexpected behaviour. PMID:23490013

Schönbauer, Bernd M; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E

2013-12-01

376

Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

2010-06-01

377

Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

Fratu, D.

2011-01-01

378

Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor and insulin-like growth factor on cultured cartilage cells from skate Raja porasa  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) on cartilage cells from proboscis of skate, Raja porasa Günther, were investigated in this study. The cartilage cells were cultured in 20% FBS-supplemented MEM medium at 24°C. Twelve hours after culture initiation, the cartilage cells were treated with bFGF and IGF-II at different concentration combinations. It was found that 20 ng/ml of bFGF or 80 ng/ml of IGF-II was enough to have obvious stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. Test of bFGF and IGF-II together, revealed that 20 ng/ml of bFGF and 80 ng/ml of IGF-II together had the best stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. The cartilage cells cultured could form a monolayer at day 7.

Fan, Tingjun; Jin, Lingyun; Wang, Xiaofeng

2003-12-01

379

The Effect of Insulin-Like Growth Factor System on Embryo Growth and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insulin like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II are expressed in embryos and reproductive tracts of several species including cow, sheep and swine. They are mitogenic and have endocrine, paracrine and autocrine function infusing cell division, blastocyst formation, implantation and embryo growth. Increase in embryo growth will probably result with a higher implantation rates leading to consequent increases in the number of live offspring. In this review, insulin, IGFs, their receptors and their physiology and function in embryonic growth development were concerned.

H.B. Ciftci

2011-10-01

380

Regulation of nerve growth factor receptor gene expression by nerve growth factor in the developing peripheral nervous system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a target-derived neurotrophic protein that promotes the survival and growth of developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. We have examined NGF receptor gene expression in these neurons after NGF administration. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that NGF given systemically to neonatal rats increased levels of NGF receptor mRNA in sympathetic neurons within the superior cervical ganglion. This increase was accompanied by a differential r...

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Plays a Significant Role in Hepatocyte Growth Factor Mediated Biological Responses in Mammary Epithelial Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Breast cancers often have deregulated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and c-Met signaling that results in increased tumor growth and invasion. Elucidating the mechanism responsible for HGF/c-Met action in breast cancer progression has been difficult as c-Met communicates with a number of secondary receptors that can lead to various pathological outcomes. Understanding how these secondary receptors facilitate HGF/c-Met cellular responses will aid in the development of better therapeutic treatme...

2007-01-01

382

The opioid growth factor-opioid growth factor receptor axis regulates cell proliferation of human hepatocellular cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with a mortality rate approximating its incidence. Understanding the biology of these tumors, as well as treatment modalities, has been challenging. The opioid growth factor (OGF; [Met5]-enkephalin) and the OGF receptor (OGFr) form an endogenous growth-regulating pathway in homeostasis and neoplasia. In this investigation, we examined the relationship of the OGF-OGFr axis in HCC and define its presence, func...

Avella, Diego M.; Kimchi, Eric T.; Donahue, Renee N.; Tagaram, Hephzibah Rani S.; Mclaughlin, Patricia J.; Zagon, Ian S.; Staveley-o Carroll, Kevin F.

2010-01-01

383

Organizational Structure: Influencing Factors and Impact on a Firm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on organizational structure has been in researchers’ focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Many of these factors are from the environment where traditional view commonly divided into internal and external factors. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate the influencing factors and impact on organizational structure of a sample of firms located in Hanoi, Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were administered with respect to these factors. The variables studied were identified from among the factors considered in contingency theory and by incorporating elements of the strategic choice approach. After grouping the variables into two factors (related to external and internal respectively, the results revealed three groups of firms according to how they regarded the impact of these factors on organizational structures. In those groups that consider the variables of internal factors to be modifiers of structure the organizational structures are of the “complex classical” type, whereas simple forms predominate in the group that believes these variables do not modify their structure.

Quangyen Tran

2013-04-01

384

The Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Polymorphisms in Breast Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females and the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), the key modulator of angiogenesis, is highly expressed in cancer tissue and correlates with its more aggressive features. Polymorphisms of VEGFA alter the levels of expression and subsequently influence the suscepti...

Doonyapat Sa-nguanraksa; Pornchai O-charoenrat

2012-01-01

385

Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75NTR are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, befo...

Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-montalcini, Rita

2012-01-01

386

Fibroblast-secreted hepatocyte growth factor plays a functional role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Squamous cell cancers comprise the most common type of human epithelial cancers. One subtype, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and metastasis. Factors derived from the extracellular matrix (ECM) create an environment conducive to tumor growth and invasion. Specialized cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the ECM influence tumorigenesis. We have shown previously that the nature and activation state of fibroblasts ar...

Grugan, Katharine D.; Miller, Charles G.; Yao, Yao; Michaylira, Carmen Z.; Ohashi, Shinya; Klein-szanto, Andres J.; Diehl, J. Alan; Herlyn, Meenhard; Han, May; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Rustgi, Anil K.

2010-01-01

387

Epidermal growth factor upregulates serotonin transporter in human intestinal epithelial cells via transcriptional mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular availability of serotonin and is a potential pharmacological target for gastrointestinal disorders. A decrease in SERT has been implicated in intestinal inflammatory and diarrheal disorders. However, little is known regarding regulation of SERT in the intestine. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to influence intestinal electrolyte and nutrient transport processes and has protective effects on intestinal mucosa. Whether EGF regulates SE...

Gill, Ravinder K.; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu Natarajan; Esmaili, Ali; Kumar, Anoop; Nazir, Saad; Malakooti, Jaleh; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Saksena, Seema

2011-01-01

388

The Aromatase Gene (CYP19A1) Variants and Circulating Hepatocyte Growth Factor in Postmenopausal Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Estrogen and androgen have been linked to the regulation of circulating hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an adipose tissue-derived cytokine. It is possible that the CYP19A1 gene which alters sex hormones production may influence HGF levels. We examined the association between the CYP19A1 gene variants and plasma HGF concentrations. Design We evaluated 45 common and putative functional variants of CYP19A1 and circulating levels of HGF among 260 postmenopausal women who later devel...

Gunter, Marc J.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Lin, Jennifer H.; Manson, Joann Elisabeth; Rexrode, Kathryn Marian; Cook, Nancy Romanowicz; Kraft, Peter; Ho, Gloria Y. F.; Zhang, Shumin

2012-01-01

389

Cross talk among tyrosine kinase receptors in PC12 cells: desensitization of mitogenic epidermal growth factor receptors by the neurotrophic factors, nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have studied the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding to PC12 cells. We show that NGF and bFGF rapidly induce a reduction in 125I-EGF binding to PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This decrease amounts to 50% for NGF and 35% for bFGF. Both factors appear to act through a protein kinase C(PKC)-independent pathway, because their effect persists in PKC-downregulated PC12 cells. Scatchard analysis indicates ...

Mothe, I.; Ballotti, R.; Tartare, S.; Kowalski-chauvel, A.; Obberghen, E.

1993-01-01

390

Growth and differentiation factors for periodontal regeneration : a review on factors with clinical testing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A large body of evidence implies that growth and differentiation factors, based on their ability to regulate various functions of cells originating in the periodontal tissues, may support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, creating an environment conducive to and/or immediately inducing de novo tissue formation. This study presents a short systematic overview on growth and differentiation factor technologies evaluated in the clinic for their potential to enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration.

Stavropoulos, A; Wikesjö, U M E

2012-01-01

391

Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor expression in human mammary epithelium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports expression of mRNA for the growth modulator hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) in both benign and malignant human mammary epithelium by in situ hybridization. In benign breast tissue expression was prominent in areas of adenosis and in peripheral acinic cells in lactating breast; in malignant epithelium expression was seen in 15 of 21 cases of in situ and invasive breast cancer. In some cases of invasive ductal carcinoma stronger labeling appeared to be associ...

Wang, Y.; Selden, A. C.; Morgan, N.; Stamp, G. W.; Hodgson, H. J.

1994-01-01

392

Biodegradable Elastomeric Scaffolds with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Release  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scaffolds that better approximate the mechanical properties of cardiovascular and other soft tissues might provide a more appropriate mechanical environment for tissue development or healing in vivo. An ability to induce local angiogenesis by controlled release of an angiogenic factor, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), from a biodegradable scaffold with mechanical properties more closely approximating soft tissue could find application in a variety of settings. Toward this end bi...

Guan, Jianjun; Stankus, John J.; Wagner, William R.

2007-01-01

393

Proinflammatory functions of vascular endothelial growth factor in alloimmunity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an established angiogenesis factor, is expressed in allografts undergoing rejection, but its function in the rejection process has not been defined. Here, we initially determined that VEGF is functional in the trafficking of human T cells into skin allografts in vivo in the humanized SCID mouse. In vitro, we found that VEGF enhanced endothelial cell expression of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and IL-8, and in combination with IFN-...

Reinders, Marlies E. J.; Sho, Masayuki; Izawa, Atsushi; Wang, Ping; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Koss, Kerith E.; Geehan, Christopher S.; Luster, Andrew D.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Briscoe, David M.

2003-01-01

394

Epidermal growth factor mediates spermatogonial proliferation in newt testis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The complex processes of spermatogenesis are regulated by various factors. The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on spermatogonial proliferation and clarify the mechanism causing the proliferation in newt testis. In the organ culture, EGF stimulated spermatogonial proliferation, but not their differentiation into spermatocytes. cDNA cloning identified 3 members of the EGF receptors, ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4, in the testis. R...

2008-01-01

395

Ranking different factors influencing on development of tourism industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism industry plays an essential role on development of economy and it is considered as one of green industries. Many countries try to promote investment on tourism to create various job opportunities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on tourism industry in city of Yazd, Iran. The proposed study uses three multiple criteria decision making techniques namely, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW and Taxonomy to rank 40 factors. The results indicate that factors such as Being located in the center axis of communication, Strengths in transportation, The ease of access to tourism destinations and Sufficient knowledge of some historical attractions are among important factors influencing tourism industry.

Mojtaba Khalesi Ardakani

2014-05-01

396

Study Of Some Maternal Risk Factors Influencing Early Neonatal Mortality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research question: What is the extent of early neonatal mortality (0-7 days) amongst neonates delivered in a city hospital and its association with maternal factors. Objectives: 1. To find out the extent of early neonatal mortality amongst the neonates delivered in a city hospital of Calcutta. 2. To identify the maternal and biosocial factors influencing the early neonatal mortality. Setting :Obstetric and nursery wards of Eden Hospital of Medical college, Calcutta. Study design: Case-control...

1998-01-01

397

Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class) on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of t...

Goldani, M. Z.; Haeffner, L. S. B.; Agranonik, M.; Barbieri, M. A.; Bettiol, H.; Silva, A. A. M.

2007-01-01

398

Research on Knowledge Transfer Influencing Factors in Software Process Improvement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge transfer model of software process improvement (SPI) and the conceptual framework of influencing factors are established. The model includes five elements which are knowledge of transfer, sources of knowledge, recipients of knowledge, relationship of transfer parties, and the environment of transfer. The conceptual framework includes ten key factors which are ambiguity, systematism, transfer willingness, capacity of impartation, capacity of absorption, incen-tive mechanism, culture,...

2010-01-01

399

The influence of motivational factors on choice behaviour:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we investigate if and how motivational factors influence choice behaviour. We study four motivational factors: attitude towards car use, personal norm to reduce car use, car use habit, and perceived behavioural control to change car use to explain the choice behaviour of respondents in a stated choice experiment on the behavioural responses of road pricing. We estimate multinomial logit, latent class, and panel mixed logit models, and compare model types and models including soc...

Amelsfort, D. H.; Steg, L.; Bliemer, M. C. J.; Schuitema, G.

2010-01-01

400

Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor/Diphtheria Toxin Receptor in Normal and Neoplastic Hematopoiesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF belongs to the EGF family of growth factors. It is biologically active either as a molecule anchored to the membrane or as a soluble form released by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. HB-EGF is involved in relevant physiological and pathological processes spanning from proliferation and apoptosis to morphogenesis. We outline here the main activities of HB-EGF in connection with normal or neoplastic differentiative or proliferative events taking place primitively in the hematopoietic microenvironment.

Fabrizio Vinante

2013-06-01