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Sample records for factors influencing growth

  1. Factors influencing graphene growth on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphene forms from a relatively dense, tightly bound C-adatom gas when elemental C is deposited on or segregates to the Ru(0001) surface. Nonlinearity of the graphene growth rate with C-adatom density suggests that growth proceeds by addition of C atom clusters to the graphene edge. The generality of this picture has now been studied by use of low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to observe graphene formation when Ru(0001) and Ir(111) surfaces are exposed to ethylene. The finding that graphene growth velocities and nucleation rates on Ru have precisely the same dependence on adatom concentration as for elemental C deposition implies that hydrocarbon decomposition only affects graphene growth through the rate of adatom formation. For ethylene, that rate decreases with increasing adatom concentration and graphene coverage. Initially, graphene growth on Ir(111) is like that on Ru: the growth velocity is the same nonlinear function of adatom concentration (albeit with much smaller equilibrium adatom concentrations, as we explain with DFT calculations of adatom formation energies). In the later stages of growth, graphene crystals that are rotated relative to the initial nuclei nucleate and grow. The rotated nuclei grow much faster. This difference suggests firstly, that the edge-orientation of the graphene sheets relative to the substrate plays an important role in the growth mechanism, and secondly, that attachment of the clusters to the graphene is the slowest step in rs to the graphene is the slowest step in cluster addition, rather than formation of clusters on the terraces.

  2. Growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golde, D.W.; Herschman, H.R.; Lusis, A.J.; Groopman, J.E.

    1980-05-01

    Humoral regulation of somatic and hematopoietic cell growth has been intensely investigated during the past decade. Growth hormone is unique because it regulates the size of the person within the constraints of the genetic program. The somatomedins and insulin growth factors are low molecular weight polypeptides believed to mediate some functions of growth hormone. Epithelial growth factor and nerve growth factor are well-characterized polypeptides that influence the growth and differentiation of epithelial and neural tissues and interact with specific cell surface receptors. The hematopoietins are a family of polypeptide hormones that specifically regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells giving rise to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. Platelet-derived growth factor modulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro and may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis and myelofibrosis. New knowledge on the biochemistry and physiology of growth factors will probably have a substantial impact on our understanding of human diseases involving abnormal cell growth.

  3. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2013-01-01

    Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials). We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique ...

  4. Influence of nerve growth factor in endometriosis-associated symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena de Arellano, Maria L; Arnold, Julia; Vercellino, Giuseppe F; Chiantera, Vito; Ebert, Andreas D; Schneider, Achim; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the role of the nerve growth factor (NGF) in the development of dysmenorrhea/pelvic pain in patients with endometriosis, we performed a prospective, clinical, blind study. Peritoneal fluids (PFs) were obtained from patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Patients with endometriosis were divided into 7 different groups depending on their preoperative pain score and symptomatology: patients with no pain, patients with minimal pain (dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, or both), and patients with severe pain (dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, or both) and were used for the neuronal growth assay with cultured chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and for Western blot analyses. Dorsal root ganglia were stained with anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and anti-growth-associated protein 43 (GAP 43). Peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis induce neurite outgrowth. There was no significant difference in the outgrowth between the 7 pain groups. Western blot analyses showed a moderate NGF expression in the PFs from patients with endometriosis, without significant differences in the 7 pain groups. The present study suggests that the neurotrophic properties of endometriotic tissues are endometriosis- and not pain-associated. PMID:21673280

  5. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871) and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812). A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614) were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.

  6. Growth Factors Can Influence Cell Growth and Survival through Effects on Glucose Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Plas, David R.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.; Fox, Casey J.; Harris, Marian H.; Thompson, Craig B.

    2001-01-01

    Cells from multicellular organisms are dependent upon exogenous signals for survival, growth, and proliferation. The relationship among these three processes was examined using an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line. No fixed dose of IL-3 determined the threshold below which cells underwent apoptosis. Instead, increasing growth factor concentrations resulted in progressive shortening of the G1 phase of the cell cycle and more rapid proliferative expansion. Increased growth factor concent...

  7. Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Niva Ongachi; Bwisa, Henry M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with s...

  8. Influence of Transforming Growth Factor-? on Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Mouse Blastocysts

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Hong, Seok Ho; Nah, Hee Young; Lee, Ji Yun; Chae, Hee Dong; Kim, Chung Hoon; Kang, Byung Moon; Bae, In Ha

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out to investigate the influence of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) on the expression of mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mouse blastocysts and the effect on the production and activation of MMP-2 and MMP- 9 during blastocyst outgrowth.

  9. THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ROMANIA’S ECONOMICAL GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena VOICA (CHIRTOC

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the world’s economical development demonstrate that, in all times, the welfare of an nation was generated by the gross internal product’s level, which represents “the gross value of the final production of goods and services produced, in a specific period of time, by the economical agents which activates between the national borders”. The economical grow process is a complex process of increasing the national economy results, based on the combination and the using of the production direct factors: the work force, the fix capital and the consumption of floating material goods. The economical grow is desirable in any country because it gives to population the possibility to consume more goods and services and in the same time it contribute to the insurance of a big quantity of goods and social services, like health, education etc., generating in this way a real grow of the life quality.

  10. Genetic and Environmental Factors Influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) Variation in Two Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa; Aversano, Mario; Husemoen, Lotte; Linneberg, Allan; Bourgain, Catherine; Leutenegger, Anne-louise; Ciullo, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has bee...

  11. Factors influencing crystal growth rates from undercooled liquids of pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasi, Niraj S; Baird, Jared A; Kestur, Umesh S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2014-08-21

    Amorphous forms of drugs are increasingly being used to deliver poorly water-soluble compounds. Therefore, understanding the magnitude and origin of differences in crystallization kinetics is highly important. The goal of this study was to better understand the factors that influence crystal growth rates from pharmaceutically relevant undercooled liquids and to evaluate the range of growth rates observed. The crystal growth rates of 31 drugs were determined using an optical microscope in the temperature region between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm). Thermodynamic parameters such as Tm, melting enthalpy, and Tg were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Selected viscosity values for the undercooled liquid were taken from the literature. The growth rates of the different compounds were found to be very different from each other with a variation of about 5 orders of magnitude between the fastest growing compounds and the slowest growing compounds. A comparison of the physicochemical properties showed that compounds that had fast crystal growth rates had smaller molecular weights, higher melting temperatures, lower melt entropies, lower melt viscosities, and higher crystal densities. Variations in the growth rates of the compounds could be rationalized to a large extent by considering the thermodynamic driving force for crystallization, the viscosity, and the entropy difference between the melt and undercooled liquid. This study therefore provides important insight into factors that may compromise the stability of amorphous pharmaceuticals. PMID:25076138

  12. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 influences pancreatic cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Johnson, Randy S Haun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the functional significance of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5 overexpression in pancreatic cancer (PaC.METHODS: The effects of IGFBP-5 on cell growth were assessed by stable transfection of BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cell lines and measuring cell number and DNA synthesis. Alterations in the cell cycle were assessed by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. Changes in cell survival and signal transduction were evaluated after mitogen activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor treatment.RESULTS: After serum deprivation, IGFBP-5 expression increased both cell number and DNA synthesis in BxPC-3 cells, but reduced cell number in PANC-1 cells. Consistent with this observation, cell cycle analysis of IGFBP-5-expressing cells revealed accelerated cell cycle progression in BxPC-3 and G2/M arrest of PANC-1 cells. Signal transduction analysis revealed that Akt activation was increased in BxPC-3, but reduced in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2 activation in BxPC-3, but enhanced ERK1/2 activation in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. When MEK1/2 was blocked, Akt activation remained elevated in IGFBP-5 expressing PaC cells; however, inhibition of PI3K or MEK1/2 abrogated IGFBP-5-mediated cell survival.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that IGFBP-5 expression affects the cell cycle and survival signal pathways and thus it may be an important mediator of PaC cell growth.

  13. A Multiple Regression Analysis on Influencing Factors of Urban Services Growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul, Razak Bin Chik; Yuan Gao

    2013-01-01

    The indicator of urban success is the success of its urban services. Although much research on services have been made, there is major gap with regard to the regional services, especially on urban services within a country. As for urban ser-vices, there are few research on factors influencing urban services and its effect on regional growth. In reaction to this, the government intend to accelerate the development of urban services and regional economy in the present Twelfth Five-Year Plan 201...

  14. Influence of epidermal growth factor on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter Skov; Boesby, S.

    2013-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats was investigated. After a 70% hepatectomy in rats, the concentration of epidermal growth factor in portal venous blood was unchanged compared with unoperated controls. However, small amounts of epidermal growth factor could be identified in portal venous blood after intestinal instillation of epidermal growth factor. Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands secrete epidermal growth factor. Extirpation of Brunner's glands decreased liver regeneration, whereas removal of the submandibular glands had no effect on liver regeneration. Epidermal growth factor antiserum reduced liver regeneration significantly. Oral or s.c. administration of epidermal growth factor had no effect on liver regeneration, whereas epidermal growth factor enhanced the effect of insulin and glucagon on liver regeneration. The results suggest that endogenous epidermal growth factor participates in stimulation of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats. Epidermal growth factor given together with insulin and glucagon had a synergistic effect on liver regeneration which suggests that liver regeneration in the rat is controlled by multiple regulatory peptides.

  15. Identification of growth phases and influencing factors in cultivations with AGE1.HN cells using set-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Steffen; Freund, Susann; Rath, Alexander; Streif, Stefan; Reichl, Udo; Findeisen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-)validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN). We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell growth and metabolism under conditions of uncertainty. PMID:23936299

  16. Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Niva Ongachi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with structured and unstructured questions. The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing the growth of women entrepreneurship in Kitale and specifically to determine, the women’s level of education, skills and technology they employ, the social/cultural environmental conditions within which they operate and their financial capacity. The 70 respondents represented the target population which was within Kitale Municipality, selected by stratified random sampling procedures. Details in this project include the introduction, problem statement, the purpose, main and specific objectives of the study, research questions and the scope. A discussion of the available literature on women owned micro and small enterprises, included the enterprises’ start- up, undertakings and growth, the missing middle, the social, cultural and environmental conditions , the entrepreneur’s education level, skills technology and financing they access. The interventional efforts and growth models were also discussed. The literature review wound up with a critique, a conclusion and the missing gap. The methodology used in conducting the study was explained in details that included descriptive research design, the population, target population, sample size, sampling technique and procedure, the instruments, data collection procedure, processing and analysis. A questionnaire was administered orally to 70 women in MSE within the municipality in order to gather data. The research findings analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences(SPSS, were discussed using a triangulation style along with tables and figures the major factors affecting growth were found to be lack of training, finance, and multiple roles. The rate of growth was found to be between low and moderate. The whole research process was summarized concisely, concluded and relevant recommendations outlined. This study has made some contribution to research and added to knowledge in the existing literature all of which have been pinpointed in the summary and conclusion. The appendix included the research instrument, some tables, figures, introduction letters, a budget and a work plan. The research findings have helped unravel the problem by answering the research questions outlined and may therefore significantly play the role of assisting the stakeholders in addressing the problem of women in the MSE sector. The stakeholders include the government organs, NGOs, financial institutions, women proponents, the women entrepreneur’s, professionals and the society at large. It is hoped that the recommendation made shall be adopted by the concerned party to improve the growth of women owned MSEs in Kitale municipality and the nation at large.

  17. nm23 influences proliferation and differentiation of PC12 cells in response to nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, F; D'Agnano, I; Vossio, S; Zupi, G; Sacchi, A; Lombardi, D

    1996-12-01

    The nm23 genes codify nucleoside diphosphate kinases, which have been shown to be involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. We have demonstrated previously that the association between the Nm23-M1 protein and cytoskeletal beta-tubulin correlates with cell differentiation. It is known that microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins are fundamental elements regulating neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of nm23 to influence nerve growth factor-induced PC12 cell differentiation. To this end, we have altered PC12 intracellular levels of nm23-M1 by means of sense and antisense transfections. In the presence of nerve growth factor, overexpression of nm23 delays cell cycle transition, rapidly induces neurite outgrowth, and increases the expression of neurofilament and microtubule proteins. On the contrary, down-regulation of nm23 enhances cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation. These findings indicate that neuronal cell proliferation and differentiation can be modulated by nm23 expression levels. PMID:8959337

  18. Factors influencing stable isotopes and growth of algae in oil sands aquatic reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsivongsakd, Monique; Farwell, Andrea J; Chen, Hao; Dixon, D George

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported (15)N enrichment of biota in reclamation wetlands that contain oil sands processed material (e.g., processed water and tailings); however, there is little information on the factors controlling (15)N enrichment in these systems. In this microcosm study, the aim was to examine stable C and N isotopes and growth (chlorophyll a [chl a] and dry weight) of algae as a function of exposure to different sources and concentrations of water-soluble fractions (WSF) derived from tailings. Two sources of tailings including mature fine tailings (MFT) and consolidated tailings (CT) and peat-mineral overburden were utilized to generate separate WSF that differed in water quality. In general, there was (15)N enrichment of filamentous algae along the increasing gradient of WSF/nutrient concentrations in both CT and peat microcosms, and among the different sources, algae were more (15)N enriched in CT WSF than in peat WSF. Growth of filamentous algae was inhibited at higher WSF concentrations, possibly due to reduced light availability at elevated levels of fine clay particles in MFT microcosms and colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in peat microcosms. Filamentous algae displayed lower biomass and (15)N depletion in 100% peat WSF. This study indicated that both the quality (source) and quantity of WSF affected algal growth and directly and/or indirectly influenced ?(15)N of algae. The distinct (15)N enrichment of primary producers derived from tailings suggest that stable N isotopes might be useful to trace exposure to oil sands processed material in biota that utilize these resources in reclaimed systems constructed with tailings or natural systems that receive tailings dyke seepage. PMID:25506635

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels F; Vogel, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent proangiogenic factor. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene with influence on VEGF expression have been described. In multiple myeloma VEGF stimulates angiogenesis which is correlated with disease progression and prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the association between genetic variations in the VEGF gene in patients with multiple myeloma and time to treatment failure after high-dose melphalan and stem cell support (HDT), overall survival and efficacy of the anti-angiogenic drug thalidomide. Retrospectively, the SNPs -2578C>A (rs699947), -460C>T (rs833061), +405G>C (rs2010963) and +936C>T (rs3025039) in the VEGF gene were examined in 348 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma initially treated with HDT, where 176 patients were treated with thalidomide at relapse. None of the examined geno- or haplotypes was associated with differences in time to treatment failure after initial therapy or overall survival. A possible relation between the haplotype -2578A/-460C/+405G (ACG) and effect of thalidomide was seen. Patients with no copies of the haplotype ACG had a longer time to next treatment than patients with one or two copies of the haplotype ACG, median 13.7 months vs. 9.2 months, p=0.007. In conclusion the haplotype ACG in the VEGF gene may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma. Further analyses are needed to confirm these findings and get insight into the functional effect of these polymorphisms so in the future we may be able to select multiple myeloma patients who especially will benefit from treatment with thalidomide. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  1. Influence of several factors on the growth of selenium nanowires induced by silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study on the crystallization and growth mechanism of selenium nanowires induced by silver nanoparticles at ambient conditions with special reference to the effects of factors such as the shapes and size of silver nanoparticles, the induced reaction time, and the molar ratio of Ag0 to SeO32- ions. The synthesis approach is conducted with no need of any stabilizers, and with no sonochemical process and/or templates. It is found that whether silver spherical particles or colloids can lead to the formation of nanowires with average diameter of 25 nm and lengths up to a few micrometers, and silver nanoplates lead to the formation of flat Se nanostructures. In particular, Au, Cu, Pt, and Pd particles cannot induce the growth of selenium nanowires in aqueous solution at room temperature. The results indicate that silver particles play a critical role in determining the growth of selenium nanowires. The lattice match between hexagonal-Se and orthorhombic- or trigonal-Ag2Se particles is the major driving force in the growth of such nanostructures. The findings would be useful for design and construction of heterogeneous nanostructures with similar lattice parameter(s)

  2. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE STRESS AND CORTISOL ON PLASMA INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I IN SUNSHINE BASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonal regulation of growth in fish includes the pituitary-hepatic-somatic axis. Growth hormone from the pituitary stimulates the liver to produce insulin-like growth factors-I and -II. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is presently thought to be the primary factor which stimulates somatic gr...

  3. Ram Sperm Motility Parameters under The Influence of Epidermal Growth Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert Luká?; Eliška Špaleková; Makarevich, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the important cytokines that play a role in fertility. It is known that EGF affects both male and female reproduction, but its effect on sperm parameters is not fully understood. Up to the present, the effect of EGF on ram sperm motility parameters has not been published. We analyzed motility parameters of ejaculates after 24, 48, and 72 hours from the EGF addition. EGF was added to chilled ram sperm at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, and 400?ng·ml?...

  4. Environmental factors influencing growth of and exopolysaccharide formation by Pediococcus parvulus 2.6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S; Arsköld, E; Paese, M; Grage, H; Irastorza, A; Rådström, P; van Niel, E W J

    2006-10-01

    Natural exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from food-grade lactic acid bacteria have potential for development and exploitation as food additives and functional food ingredients with both health and economic benefits. In this study, we have examined the physiological capacity of EPS production in Pediococcus parvulus 2.6. EPS formation by P. parvulus 2.6 was found to be linked to biomass yields, provided that glucose was not limiting. Higher biomass yields and EPS productions were obtained when cultures were pH-controlled at pH 5.2. Various compounds have been tested for their influence on growth rate and EPS formation. Of those, only glucose (up to 75 g l(-1)), ethanol (up to 4.9%, w/v) and glycerol (up to 6.6%, w/v) had positive effects on EPS production. EPS production was not directly linked to growth, because its production continued in the stationary phase provided that glucose was present. According to an empirical model, the growth of P. parvulus 2.6 was completely inhibited by 58.9+/-18.1 g l(-1) lactate. Lactate, the sole fermentation product, was suggested to affect growth by chelation of manganese. The organism grew in an apparent linear fashion due to this imposed manganese limitation. This could be overcome by increasing the manganese concentration to at least 2 mg l(-1) in the medium. The excretion of Mn(2+) upon depletion of glucose indicated that maintenance of the high Mn(2+) gradient over the cell membrane is an energy requiring process. EPS production was increased from 0.12 g l(-1) to 4.10 g l(-1) in an improved medium that is based on the results from this study. PMID:16854485

  5. Factors influencing epitaxial growth of three-dimensional Ge quantum dot crystals on pit-patterned Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the molecular beam epitaxy growth of three-dimensional (3D) Ge quantum dot crystals (QDCs) on periodically pit-patterned Si substrates. A series of factors influencing the growth of QDCs were investigated in detail and the optimized growth conditions were found. The growth of the Si buffer layer and the first quantum dot (QD) layer play a key role in the growth of QDCs. The pit facet inclination angle decreased with increasing buffer layer thickness, and its optimized value was found to be around 21°, ensuring that all the QDs in the first layer nucleate within the pits. A large Ge deposition amount in the first QD layer favors strain build-up by QDs, size uniformity of QDs and hence periodicity of the strain distribution; a thin Si spacer layer favors strain correlation along the growth direction; both effects contribute to the vertical ordering of the QDCs. Results obtained by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that 3D ordering was achieved in the Ge QDCs with the highest ever areal dot density of 1.2 × 1010 cm?2, and that the lateral and the vertical interdot spacing were ?10 and ?2.5 nm, respectively. (paper)

  6. INVESTMENTS, AN ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    CECILIA ELENA V?DUVA

    2009-01-01

    In the national economy system, investments are an accelerator formultiplying receipts of material and labour resources thus causing a growth of disbursementsfrom the system32. Therefore, in the system of factors influencing the economic development of acountry, investments have a strategic role. This is why, investments are the main method forachieving economic growth.

  7. Influence of heat stable factors from ancient rock salt on the growth behaviour of haloarchaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Gruber, C.; Radax, C.; Stan-Lotter, H.

    2003-04-01

    Haloarchaeal strains have been isolated repeatedly from ancient rock salt. Halococcus salifodinae BIp and Halococcus dombrowskii H4 were isolated from different rock salt samples obtained from the salt mine near Bad Ischl, Austria. Based on the geological age of the horizon the salt has been deposited during the Permian period (225 to 280 million years ago). The medium which is commonly used for the cultivation of neutrophilic haloarchaea is called M2 medium. Especially halococci grow very slowly and yield only low densities when cultured in this medium. It was presumed that these microorganisms might grow better using a culture medium with the chemical components of their natural environment. Addition of dissolved and sterile-filtered rock salt to standard M2 medium proved indeed successful. The modified medium (M2S) showed a growth stimulating effect on all tested halococcal strains. Cultures of Halococcus morrhuae DSM 1307, Halococcus salifodinae DSM 8989, Halococcus saccharolyticus DSM 5750 and Halococcus dombrowskii DSM 14522 grown in M2S medium had lower doubling times and reached a greater turbidity compared to cultures grown in M2 medium. In addition representatives of the genera Haloferax, Haloarcula, Halorubrum and Halobacterium, including Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 whose complete genome sequence is known, were cultivated on these media. Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Haloarcula hispanica DSM 4426 showed also an increase in growth whereas Haloferax volcanii DSM 3757 and Halorubrum saccharovorum DSM 1137 grew better when cultivated on standard M2 medium. The stimulating effect of the heat stable factors in rock salt on haloarchaea appears correlated with certain proteins that are altered or may be exclusively produced when cells were grown in presence of rock salt as well as changes in morphology and ultrastructure of cells. The establishment of optimized media for haloarchaea is important for further studies concerning insights how haloarchaea are able to survive over long periods embedded in salt crystals.

  8. Oncogenes and growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Trends in Oncogenes; Cellular oncogenes; Oncogenes encoding protein kinases; Oncogenes, processed genes and safety of genetic manipulation; Growth factors and oncogenes; Oncogenes and growth control; Receptors and recognition: from ligand binding to gene structure; and The growth factor-activatable Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange system: a genetic approach

  9. Placental growth factor influences maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Kristiina L; Zavan, Bruno; Luna, Rayana L; Wong, Philip G; Ventura, Nicole M; Tse, M Yat; Carmeliet, Peter; Adams, Michael A; Pang, Stephen C; Croy, B Anne

    2015-02-01

    In healthy human pregnancies, placental growth factor (PGF) concentrations rise in maternal plasma during early gestation, peak over Weeks 26-30, then decline. Because PGF in nongravid subjects participates in protection against and recovery from cardiac pathologies, we asked if PGF contributes to pregnancy-induced maternal cardiovascular adaptations. Cardiovascular function and structure were evaluated in virgin, pregnant, and postpartum C56BL/6-Pgf(-) (/) (-) (Pgf(-) (/) (-)) and C57BL/6-Pgf(+/+) (B6) mice using plethysmography, ultrasound, quantitative PCR, and cardiac and renal histology. Pgf(-/-) females had higher systolic blood pressure in early and late pregnancy but an extended, abnormal midpregnancy interval of depressed systolic pressure. Pgf(-/-) cardiac output was lower than gestation day (gd)-matched B6 after midpregnancy. While Pgf(-) (/) (-) left ventricular mass was greater than B6, only B6 showed the expected gestational gain in left ventricular mass. Expression of vasoactive genes in the left ventricle differed at gd8 with elevated Nos expression in Pgf(-) (/) (-) but not at gd14. By gd16, Pgf(-) (/) (-) kidneys were hypertrophic and had glomerular pathology. This study documents for the first time that PGF is associated with the systemic maternal cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy. PMID:25537372

  10. Factors that influence the oxidation of the manganese in a growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, R J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canesin, F.P.; Bellido, A.V.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica]. E-mail: fcanesin@risc2.rmn.uff.br; alf@risc1.rmn.uff.br; Lacerda, L.D. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica]. E-mail: geodrud@vm.uff

    1999-07-01

    The kinetic behavior of the oxidation of the manganese in the growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, Sepetiba Bay, R J, have been studied through the incubation with the radiotracer Mn-54. We have observed the great influence of the factors that interferes in the rate oxidation with the mangrove state in the moment of the sampling. We applied statistical multivariate to verify the correlation with the tide height and the physical-chemical parameters. With the program Statistical Analysis System, SAS, the samples were classified by hierarchical conglomerate methods and Factor Analysis. Water samples were collected in the entrance of the tide channel in five campaigns in the months of August, September, November and December of 98, and January of 99, in several tide heights. As a conclusion, by the multivariate statistical analysis where variables correlations are presented in each group or cluster in a population. Therefore the variables that we are measuring as reflecting the influence the oxidation manganese in the mangroves. Although the variable tide height did not influence in the classification groups. We suppose that will need more sampling in different tide height cycle. (author)

  11. Factors that influence the oxidation of the manganese in a growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, R J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic behavior of the oxidation of the manganese in the growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, Sepetiba Bay, R J, have been studied through the incubation with the radiotracer Mn-54. We have observed the great influence of the factors that interferes in the rate oxidation with the mangrove state in the moment of the sampling. We applied statistical multivariate to verify the correlation with the tide height and the physical-chemical parameters. With the program Statistical Analysis System, SAS, the samples were classified by hierarchical conglomerate methods and Factor Analysis. Water samples were collected in the entrance of the tide channel in five campaigns in the months of August, September, November and December of 98, and January of 99, in several tide heights. As a conclusion, by the multivariate statistical analysis where variables correlations are presented in each group or cluster in a population. Therefore the variables that we are measuring as reflecting the influence the oxidation manganese in the mangroves. Although the variable tide height did not influence in the classification groups. We suppose that will need more sampling in different tide height cycle. (author)

  12. New thrombopoietic growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kuter, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Although development of first-generation thrombopoietic growth factors (recombinant human thrombopoietin [TPO] and pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor [PEG-rHuMGDF]) was stopped due to development of antibodies to PEG-rHuMGDF, nonimmunogenic second-generation thrombopoietic growth factors with unique pharmacologic properties have been developed. TPO peptide mimetics contain TPO receptor-activating peptides inserted into complementarity-determining regions o...

  13. The Dose of Growth Factors Influences the Synergistic Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4–Induced Ectopic Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guangheng; Corsi-payne, Karin; Zheng, Bo; Usas, Arvydas; Peng, Hairong; Huard, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to act synergistically with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2 and BMP4 to promote ectopic endochondral bone formation via cell-based BMP gene therapy, the optimal ratio of VEGF to either of the BMPs required to obtain this beneficial effect remains unclear. In the current study, two cell types (C2C12, NIH/3T3) were retrovirally transduced to express BMP4 only or both BMP4 and VEGF. The resulting groups of cells were tested for ...

  14. Physical capacity influences the response of insulin-like growth factor and its binding proteins to training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning

    2002-01-01

    The influence of initial training status on the response of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and its binding proteins (IGFBP) to prolonged physical training was studied in young men. It was hypothesized that highly standardized training would result in more extensive changes in the circulating IGF system in untrained subjects because of lower fitness level. Seven untrained (UT) and 12 well-trained (WT) individuals performed 11 wk of intense physical training (2-4 h daily). Fasting serum samples were analyzed for total and free IGF-I and -II, for IGFBP-1 to -4, as well as for IGFBP-3 proteolysis. Eleven weeks of physical training resulted in decreased levels of total IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGFBP-4 in both the UT and WT groups. In the UT group, IGFBP-2 increased, IGFBP-3 decreased [from 4,255 +/- 410 (baseline) to 3,896 +/- 465 (SD) microg/l (week 4); P <0.05], and IGFBP-3 proteolysis increased [from 28 +/- 8% (baseline) to 37 +/- 7% (week 4) and 39 +/- 12% (week 11); P <0.05], whereas no significant changes were found in the WT group. In conclusion, intense physical training results in a marked influence on the IGF system and its binding proteins with generally more extensive changes seen in the untrained individuals. Also, prolonged physical training resulted in increased IGFBP-3 proteolysis in previously untrained individuals only, indicating that intense physical training affects trained and untrained individuals differently.

  15. Head and neck squamous cancer stromal fibroblasts produce growth factors influencing phenotype of normal human keratinocytes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Hynek; Lacina, L.; Kolá?, Michal; ?ada, Z.; Vl?ek, ?estmír; Dvo?ánková, B.; Betka, J.; Plzák, J.; Chovanec, M.; Šáchová, Jana; Valach, Jaroslav; Urbanová, Markéta; Smetana, K. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 133, ?. 2 (2010), s. 201-211. ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06106 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GP304/08/P175 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Cancer microenvironment * Epithelial–mesenchymal interaction * Cancer-associated fibroblasts Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2010

  16. FACTORS DETERMINING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATILD SZABÓ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Different regions of the world have to face distinct processes of economic growth. The measure of growth is divergent; countries carry distinct evolutionary ways into execution. The state of development as the result of the above processes is different, too. What is the reason? It is the question I would like to answer. My further questions are: What is the reason for economic growth? What kind of factors determines the level of development and cause regional differences? I deal with concentration of economical activities, centre-periphery ratio, relationship between economic growth and sustainable development. This article reviews what I realized in the course of my research.

  17. Factors Influencing Alumni Donations

    OpenAIRE

    Sarunya Lertputtarak; Surat Supitchayangkool

    2014-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to study demographic factors, academic system, and social networks andother communication tools which can influence alumni donations. Using quantitative research involvingquestionnaires, the participants of this study were former and current students of master and doctoral degreeprograms in business from one of the government universities in Thailand. The results showed that academicsystem, social networks and other communication tools have an influence on...

  18. Growth factors in tumor microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuejing; Nie, Daotai; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2010-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. Components in the microenvironment can modulate the growth of tumor cells, their ability to progress and metastasize. A major venue of communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment is through polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. This article discusses three major classes of growth-stimulatory polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. It also d...

  19. Influence of soluble or matrix-bound isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor-A on tumor response to vascular-targeted strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Akerman, S.; Fisher, M.; Daniel, Ra; Lefley, D.; Reyes-aldasoro, Cc; Lunt, Sj; Harris, S.; Bjorndahl, M.; Williams, Lj; Evans, H.; Barber, Pr; Prise, Ve; Vojnovic, B.; Kanthou, C.; Tozer, Gm

    2013-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy based on blocking the actions of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) can lead to "normalization" of blood vessels in both animal and human tumors. Differential expression of VEGF isoforms affects tumor vascular maturity, which could influence the normalization process and response to subsequent treatment. Fibrosarcoma cells expressing only VEGF120 or VEGF188 isoforms were implanted either subcutaneously (s.c.) or in dorsal skin-fold "window" chambers in SCID mic...

  20. Influence curves for factor loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, C W; Fung, W K

    2005-11-01

    Influence curves for the initial and rotated loadings are derived for the maximum likelihood factor analysis (MLFA) model. Cook's distances based on the empirical influence curves of factor loadings are proposed for the identification of influential observations. The distances are shown to be invariant under scale transformation and factor rotation. We find that an observation with a very large Cook's distance based on the sample influence curve may not necessarily exert an excessive influence on the factor loadings pattern but may change the ordering of the factors. The issue of the switching of factors is also studied by means of the empirical influence curve and factor scores. PMID:16293205

  1. Growth of new firms: Which factors influence post-entry performance? : An empirical analysis based on Swiss firm data

    OpenAIRE

    Marmet, David

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on the factors which determine the post-entry performance of new firms. It is often argued that new firms are the driving force of structural changes and sometimes they are even characterized as an engine of economic growth. Nevertheless, the empirical evidence is mixed. Taking into account the high exit rate of new firms, a specific founding cohort does not contribute substantially to new jobs. In this paper, we analyse the contribution of new firms con...

  2. The influence of soil-site factors on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) growth response to climatic change in central Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutten, K.; Gedalof, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, concerns about climatic change and its potential impacts on Canada’s various geographical regions and associated ecological processes have grown steadily, especially among land and resource managers. As these risks transition into tangible outcomes in the field, it will be important for resource managers to understand historical climatic variability and natural ecological trends in order to effectively respond to a changing climate. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is considered a stable endpoint for mature forests in the northern hardwood community of central Ontario, and it tends to be the dominant species, in a beech-ironwood-yellow birch matrix. In North America, this species is used for both hardwood lumber and for maple sugar (syrup) products; where it dominates, large recreational opportunities also exist. There are many biotic and abiotic factors that play a large role in the growth and productivity of sugar maple stands, such as soil pH, moisture regime, and site slope and aspect. This research undertaking aims to add to the body of literature addressing the following question: how do site factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic change? The overall objective of the research is to evaluate how biotic and abiotic factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple annual radial growth to climatic variability. This research will focus on sugar maple growth and productivity in Algonquin Provincial Park, and the impact that climatic variability has had in the past on these stands based on site-specific characteristics. In order to complete this goal, 20 sites were identified in Algonquin Provincial Park based on variability of known soil and site properties. These sites were visited in order to collect biotic and abiotic site data, and to measure annual radial growth increment of trees. Using regional climate records and standard dendrochronological methods, the collected increment growth data will be used to build site-specific chronologies in order to determine the differences in tree growth response to climatic variability due to differences in soil and site quality. Preliminary results suggest that variability in site-specific abiotic and biotic conditions may strongly influence individual stand growth responses to climatic variability.

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factors in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Scheltinga, Afke F. Terwisscha; Bakker, Steven C.; Kahn, Rene? S.

    2009-01-01

    A large association study by O'Donovan et al recently suggested that genetic variation in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 increases the risk for developing schizophrenia. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are part of the family of glial growth factors; they control the growth and patterning of specific brain structures and regulate the maintenance and repair of neuronal tissues. In addition, a direct interaction was recently found between FGFRs and adenosine A2A receptors, leading t...

  4. Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta

    2013-01-01

    The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...

  5. Early tumor growth in metastatic organs influenced by the microenvironment is an important factor which provides organ specificity of colon cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Y; Ogata, Y; Shirouzu, K

    2000-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that liver metastases in nude mice and lung metastases in nude rats occurred specifically, when KM12SM human colon carcinoma cells were inoculated orthotopically into the cecal wall of nude mice and rats. To clarify the relationship between the tumor growth potential in the metastatic organs and the metastatic organ preference in these two metastatic models, we have evaluated the in vitro cell growth activities affected by the organ conditioned medium (CM) from the liver and lung, and the in vivo growth activities of the ectopic implanted tumors in the liver and lung. The tumorigenicity of the ectopic implanted tumors was 100% in mouse liver, 33% in rat liver, 50% in mouse lung, and 75% in rat lung. The crude liver CM of the animals showed inhibitory activities for KM12SM cell growth in a dosage-dependent manner, and the crude lung CM stimulated KM12SM cell growth. The liver CM of nude mice inhibited the KM12SM cell growth more strongly compared with the CM of nude rats, and the lung CM of nude rats was more strongly stimulated compared with the CM of nude mice. The liver CM of nude mice had non-heparin binding factors, which stimulated or inhibited KM12SM cell growth, in a molecular weight range of 50 to 100 kDa. By contrast, the liver CM of nude rats showed no growth stimulating activity for KM12SM cells. These results suggest that the metastatic organ specificity of KM12SM cells may depend on the early tumor growth influenced by the microenvironment in metastatic organs. PMID:11277329

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 7 Knockdown in Breast Cancer: The Influence on Cellular Response to Hepatocyte Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Jiang, Wen G.; Sharma, Anup K.; Mokbel, Kefah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 7 (SOCS7) is a member of the SOCS family and is known to interact with phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1), a key downstream mediator of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/C-MET axis. Here, we report our observations of the effect of knocking down SOCS7 gene on the behaviour of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate whether this involves HGF/C-MET pathway using the PLC?-1 blocker U73122. Methods. MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were transfected with anti-SOCS7 ribozymal transgene, to create sublines with SOCS7 knockdown. The in vitro growth and migration of the cells were evaluated in basic conditions and with HGF and U73122 treatment using growth assays, scratch-wound, and electrical cell impedance sensing (ECIS) migration assays. MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 in vivo tumour xenograft growth were also studied. Results. Basal in vitro growth and migration of both cellular lines and the in vivo MCF7 xenograft growth were significantly enhanced with SOCS7 knockdown. In vitro HGF treatment has further influenced the growth and migration when SOCS7 gene was knocked-down in both cellular lines (P < 0.05). PLC?-1 pharmacological inhibition of the HGF/C-MET cascade during their in vitro growth and migration seemed to only occur when SOCS7 gene was knocked down. Conclusions. We report a unique regulatory role for SOCS7 in controlling the malignant behaviour of breast cancer lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 in vitro and the MCF7 tumour xenografts in vivo. We also report a regulatory role for SOCS7 during the in vitro HGF-induced growth and migration in these cells as HGF treatment and SOCS7 loss have synergistically enhanced these functions. This SOCS7 knockdown-attributed effect could be due to a precise anti-PLC?-1 role. PMID:25162020

  7. Growth hormone, growth factors, and acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, D.K.; Tolis, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Biochemistry and Physiology of GH and Growth Factors, Pathology of Acromegaly, Clinical Endocrinology of Acromegaly, Nonsurgical Therapy of Acromegaly, and Surgical Therapy of Acromegaly.

  8. Growth factors and new periodontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad M

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor 2 as a candidate gene influencing growth and carcass traits and its bialleleic expression in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Genyu; Yan, Bingxue; Deng, Xuemei; Li, Changlü; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2005-04-01

    We have identified DNA polymorphisms in the gene of insulin-like growth factor 2 by PCR-SSCP in a resource population, which was generated by Silky reciprocally crossing to Broilers. A C --> G mutation was detected in the exon 2 (at position 71) by sequencing. This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found to be associated with production traits. Chicken with BB genotype showed more chest angle width but less 3 week body weight and glandular stomach weight than chicken with AA genotype (P effects on some traits between heterozygote AB (paternal allele given first) and heterozygote BA: chickens with genotype BA had more birth weight and breast weight but less abdominal fat weight than chickens with genotype AB (P IGF2 locus was imprinting. Progeny from heterozygote x homozygote reciprocal cross was assayed for expression after the genotype was determined. The transcription of IGF2 was detected by RT-PCR-SSCP. IGF2 gene was expressed bialleleically in 1-day-old neonatal liver and 90-day-old liver, kidney, heart, and muscle of both heterozygote AB and BA chickens. Therefore, IGF2 was not an imprinting gene in chicken. The different genetic effects between the heterozygote AB and BA remain to be elucidated. PMID:15986892

  10. Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo You-feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P?P?=?0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P?=?0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

  11. Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Cornice'. II. Influence of growth inhibition on the anatomical structure of the stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszka Jaumie?

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the particular tissues in shoots inhibited in growth by chlormequat occurs differently than in vigorously growing ones. After the end of elongation growth, in the subapical part of shoots sprayed with chlormequat the cortex extends and secondary xylem develops less intensively, this leading to an increased participation of parenchymatous tissue in the stem.

  12. Growth Factors in Synaptic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MikyoungPark

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Synapses are increasingly recognized as key structures that malfunction in disorders like schizophrenia, mental retardation, and neurodegenerative diseases. The importance and complexity of the synapse has fuelled research into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In this regard, neurotrophic factors such as netrin, Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, and others have gained prominence for their ability to regulate synaptic function. Several of these factors were first implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal growth, and axon guidance. However, their roles in synaptic development and function have become increasingly clear, and the downstream signaling pathways employed by these factors have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we will address the role of these factors and their downstream effectors in synaptic function in vivo and in cultured neurons.

  13. Influence of soluble or matrix-bound isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor-A on tumor response to vascular-targeted strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Simon; Fisher, Matthew; Daniel, Rachel A; Lefley, Diane; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino C; Lunt, Sarah Jane; Harris, Sheila; Bjorndahl, Meit; Williams, Leigh J; Evans, Helen; Barber, Paul R; Prise, Vivien E; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Kanthou, Chryso; Tozer, Gillian M

    2013-12-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy based on blocking the actions of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) can lead to "normalization" of blood vessels in both animal and human tumors. Differential expression of VEGF isoforms affects tumor vascular maturity, which could influence the normalization process and response to subsequent treatment. Fibrosarcoma cells expressing only VEGF120 or VEGF188 isoforms were implanted either subcutaneously (s.c.) or in dorsal skin-fold "window" chambers in SCID mice. VEGF120 was associated with vascular fragility and hemorrhage. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with repeat doses of SU5416, an indolinone receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against VEGFR-2 and proven preclinical ability to induce tumor vascular normalization. SU5416 reduced vascularization in s.c. implants of both VEGF120 and VEGF188 tumors. However, in the window chamber, SU5416 treatment increased red cell velocity in VEGF120 (representing vascular normalization) but not VEGF188 tumors. SU5416 treatment had no effect on growth or necrosis levels in either tumor type but tended to counteract the increase in interstitial fluid pressure seen with growth of VEGF120 tumors. SU5416 pretreatment resulted in the normally fragile blood vessels in VEGF120-expressing tumors becoming resistant to the vascular damaging effects of the tubulin-binding vascular disrupting agent (VDA), combretastatin A4 3-O-phosphate (CA4P). Thus, vascular normalization induced by antiangiogenic treatment can reduce the efficacy of subsequent VDA treatment. Expression of VEGF120 made tumors particularly susceptible to vascular normalization by SU5416, which in turn made them resistant to CA4P. Therefore, VEGF isoform expression may be useful for predicting response to both antiangiogenic and vascular-disrupting therapy. PMID:23712501

  14. Transforming growth factor beta1 may directly influence gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouret, Sebastien; De Seranno, Sandrine; Beauvillain, Jean-Claude; Prevot, Vincent

    2004-04-01

    In vitro studies using immortalized GT1 cells suggest that hypothalamic astrocytes employ TGFbeta(1) to directly regulate the secretion of GnRH, the neurohormone that controls sexual maturation and adult reproductive function. However, whether such astrocyte-GnRH neuron signaling occurs in vivo is not clear. In the present study, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to determine whether astrocytes and GnRH neurons express the molecular components necessary to set in motion communication processes involving TGFbeta(1) signaling. Double-labeling experiments showed that astrocytes in the male rat preoptic region (POA) expressed TGFbeta(1) mRNA and that GnRH perikarya were often found in close association with TGFbeta(1) mRNA-expressing cells. In addition, GnRH neuronal cell bodies in the POA expressed both type II TGFbeta receptors (TGFbeta-RII), which selectively bind TGFbeta, and Smad2/3, one of the primary transducers of TGFbeta signaling, suggesting that they are fully capable of responding directly to TGFbeta(1) stimulation. Consistent with this hypothesis, incubation of POA explants with TGFbeta(1) caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in GnRH mRNA expression in individual neurons. This effect was observed within 1 h after TGFbeta(1)-treatment and was inhibited by addition of the soluble form of TGFbeta-RII to the incubation medium. In contrast, whereas both TGFbeta(1) and TGFbeta-RII mRNAs were abundantly expressed in both glial cells and capillaries in the median eminence, the projection field of GnRH neurons, TGFbeta-RII immunoreactivity was mainly restricted to the processes of tanycytes and did not colocalize with GnRH-immunoreactive fibers. This observation supports previous in vivo studies showing that TGFbeta(1) is unable to directly modulate decapeptide release from GnRH nerve terminals. Thus, astrocyte-derived TGFbeta(1) may directly influence GnRH expression and/or secretion in vivo by acting on the perikarya, but not the terminals, of GnRH neurons. PMID:14670985

  15. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lander, Rebecca L.; Lander, Alastair G.; Lisa Houghton; Williams, Sheila M.; Hugo Costa-Ribeiro; Barreto, Daniel L.; Mattos, Angela P.; Gibson, Rosalind S.

    2012-01-01

    Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wastin...

  16. Influence of growth factors on the plasminogen activator activity of avian granulosa cells from follicles at different maturational stages of preovulatory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, M; Croze, F; Tsang, B K

    1993-12-01

    Granulosa cells from the first (F1), third (F3) and fifth and sixth (F5-6) preovulatory follicles and the small yellow follicles (SYFs; diameter 6-8 mm) were cultured for 21 h in the absence and presence of murine and human epidermal growth factors, fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factors alpha and beta-I (TGF alpha, TGF beta), platelet-derived growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-I at concentrations of 0.1-100 ng/ml. Plasminogen activator (PA) activities in the cell (PAc) and in the medium (PAm) were measured by fibrinolysis and fibrin overlay methods. Basal PAc and PAm activities were highest in cell cultures from the less mature follicles (F5-6 and SYF) and decreased as the follicles matured (F3 > F1). PAc activity was greater than PAm activity, irrespective of the stage of follicular development. All growth factors examined at the 100 ng/ml level were effective in increasing PAc and PAm activities in cultures of granulosa cells from F1 follicles. However, only TGF alpha was able to increase PA activities at lower concentrations. The stimulation of the PA activities of granulosa cells from F3 follicles was inconsistent. None of the growth factors significantly increased PA activities in granulosa cells from F5-6 follicles and SYFs, as determined by fibrinolysis. The major PAc and PAm species (characterized by fibrin overlay) had a molecular mass of about 35 kDa, which is characteristic of the urokinase type. Both assay methods detected a stimulatory effect of the growth factors on PA activities in the granulosa cells from F1 follicles. However, an increase in PA activities in cells from F3 and F5-6 follicles and SYFs was indicated only after fibrin overlay analysis. Tritiated thymidine was incorporated into the DNA of granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development and was enhanced by all growth factors, although TGF alpha and TGF beta were the most effective and had a ranked order of activity: F3, F5-6 > F1, SYF. The present findings show that, of the growth factors examined, TGF alpha may be an effective regulator of PA activity in avian granulosa cells during follicular development, in addition to its observed mitogenic action. PMID:8148037

  17. The Influencing Factors of Coal Reservoir Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jun-shan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of coal reservoir is the most important influencing factor for choosing favorable area and production of coalbed methane, this article takes a detailed analysis of coal rank, thickness of coal seam, coal structure, construct curvature, effective stress, Klingberg effect and matrix shrinkage effect on reservoir permeability with comprehensive information consulting, literature review methods. The results show that coal reservoir is dual pore structure; the degree of development of fracture directly influences the size of the coal seam permeability. The growth of natural fracture density and lithotype band or negatively correlate to the layer thickness.

  18. Induction of MAP Kinase Homologues during Growth and Morphogenetic Development of Karnal Bunt (Tilletia indica) under the Influence of Host Factor(s) from Wheat Spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Atul K.; Seneviratne, J. M.; Joshi, G. K.; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Signaling pathways that activate different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to certain environmental conditions, play important role in mating type switching (Fus3) and pathogenicity (Pmk1) in many fungi. In order to determine the roles of such regulatory genes in Tilletia indica, the causal pathogen of Karnal bunt (KB) of wheat, semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to isolate and determine the expression of MAP kinase homologues during fungal growth ...

  19. Influence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3 on bone health: results from the European Male Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Stephen R; Almusalam, Bader; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Borghs, Herman; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-I on calcaneal ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men aged 40-79 years were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Subjects were invited by letter to complete a postal questionnaire and to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus, and a fasting blood sample from which serum levels of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, IGF-I, estradiol (E(2)), and SHBG were assayed. The questionnaires included the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and questions about smoking and alcohol consumption. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) was derived as a function of the QUS parameters speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Height and weight were measured in all subjects. 3057 men, mean age 59.7 years (standard deviation 11.0) were included in the analysis. After adjusting for age, center, and BMI, higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with lower eBMD. Higher levels of both IGFBP-3 and IGF-I were associated with higher eBMD. After further adjustment for PASE score, current smoking, alcohol consumption, free E(2), and SHBG, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I, though not IGFBP-1, remained significantly associated with eBMD. IGFBP-1 was associated with bone health, though the effect could be explained by other factors. IGFBP-3 and IGF-I were independent determinants of bone health in middle-aged and elderly European men. PMID:21503646

  20. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  1. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly rk force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  2. Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Astuti Pratminingsih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.

  3. Does Obesity Influence the Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in Patients Treated with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Targeted Therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Steffens, Sandra; Gru?nwald, Viktor; Ringe, Kristina I.; Seidel, Christoph; Eggers, Hendrik; Schrader, Mark; Wacker, Frank; Kuczyk, Markus A.; Schrader, Andres J.

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not obesity (measured in terms of body mass index, body surface area, visceral fat area, and s.c. fat area) can predict the long-term prognosis of renal cell cancer patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy is examined.

  4. [Epidermal growth factor expression in brain neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Och, W; Mariak, Z; Smó?ka, M; Badowski, J; Koziorowski, M

    2000-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) influences the cell by activation of its specific cell receptor (EGFR). It is regarded as one of the most effective mitogenic factors and plays a role in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was the assessment of EGF expression in different types of cerebral neoplasms and searching for its correlation with histopathologic features of malignancy and presence of peritumoral oedema. Sixty seven samples of brain tumours were examined. Among them were 17 meningiomas, 34 gliomas and 16 metastases. Expression of EGF was estimated by a radioimmune assay. The authors found the presence of EGF in all types of tumours. No correlation was found between expression of EGF and histopathological signs of tumour malignancy, although a tendency appeared towards a higher level of that factor in anaplastic tumours. Also, no correlation was found between EGF and peritumoral oedema. PMID:11317493

  5. Expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling substances in gastric mucosal cells influenced by serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints on the expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling substances phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1), protein kinase C (PKC) and c-myc in gastric mucosal cells.Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into normal group, stomach meridian group, gallbladder meridian group, stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group. Water-im...

  6. Heparin Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor and PD169316 Prevent Apoptosis in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, Malini; Heimburg-molinaro, Jamie; Bargo, Ana M.; Nash, Rachel J.; Nash, Rodney J.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is an important outcome of cell fate and is influenced by several factors. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family of growth factors and is synthesized as a membrane-associated precursor molecule (proHB-EGF). Under stressful conditions proHB-EGF is proteolytically cleaved and released as a soluble ligand (sHB-EGF) that activates the EGF receptor. We show that antibody against CD9, a membrane tetraspan...

  7. Factors of Economic Growth in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnopjorovs, Olegs

    2013-01-01

    Uneven economic growth during the recent years raise the question whether any factor of economic growth aside economic cycle fluctuations exists in Latvia. The objective of the Doctoral Thesis is, to assess the factors of economic growth in Latvia using econometric modelling techniques, and to solve various problems that arise when such techniques are used in Latvia's case. The Doctoral Thesis has identified the main factor of economic growth in Latvia – fixed capital accumulation. Alt...

  8. Mapping the factors that influence policy implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Brynard, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Various factors influence policy implementation. This article highlights some of the critical factors that influence the success of policy implementation. The study does not claim to provide a complete set of factors, but raises awareness about multiple factors. In some instances, it may be difficult to measure the degree of importance of certain factors. One almost ambiguous factor in policy performance is commitment. What determines factors such as commitment? What is the relationship be...

  9. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Nandy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, insulin-like growth factor (IGF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF, and transforming growth factor (TGF in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 7 Knockdown in Breast Cancer: The Influence on Cellular Response to Hepatocyte Growth Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Sasi; Lin Ye; Jiang, Wen G.; Sharma, Anup K.; Kefah Mokbel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 7 (SOCS7) is a member of the SOCS family and is known to interact with phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1), a key downstream mediator of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/C-MET axis. Here, we report our observations of the effect of knocking down SOCS7 gene on the behaviour of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate whether this involves HGF/C-MET pathway using the PLC?-1 blocker U73122. Methods. MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer ce...

  11. Nerve growth factor of very high yield and specific activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, I; Levy, M; Bueker, E D; Tokarsky, E

    1968-02-01

    Nerve growth factor has been isolated from submaxillary glands of mnature male mice at specific activities about a million times, and in yields of biological activity ten million times, greater than best previous results. The major improvement in the isolation is related to the separation of a highly active tosylarginine methyl esterase present in cruder preparations. The new nerve growth factor may be an entity different from the older one, although no gross differences in the qualitative aspects of their actions are apparent on superficial examination of chick ganglia influenced by them. The neurites which develop from a ganglion in the presence of nerve growth factor are of nearly equal length. The amount of nerve growth factor determines the number of neurites but not the extent of individual development. The amount of the new nerve growth factor which evokes the appearance of a hundred neurites from a single ganglion appears to be about ten molecules. Since each neurite seems to arise from a different neuron each molecule of nerve growth factor must affect several cells. This result can be rationalized by a catalytic mechanism or by indirect action of nerve growth factor through a hypothetical cell which produces a neurite evocator on contact with the molecule of nerve growth factor. PMID:5716137

  12. Social conflict, growth and factor shares

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoukis, Christopher; Tournemaine, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Standard growth theory is based on atomistic agents with no strategic interactions among them. In contrast, we model growth as resulting from a one-off, strategic game between workers and owners of capital (capitalists) on factor shares, in an otherwise standard AK growth model. The resulting distribution of income between factors further determines the marginal revenue product of capital and the rate of growth. We analyse the properties of four equilibria: competitive, Stackelberg equilibriu...

  13. Influence of gain-of-function mutation (Ser252Trp in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene on long bone development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To observe the early postnatal long bone development in Fgfr2+/S252W mutant mice and littermate wild-type (WT mice, and explore the effect of continued function enhancement of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 gene on endochondral ossification. Methods?A mouse model of Fgfr2+/S252W simulated human Apert syndrome was reproduced by knock-in technique, and then the gain-of-function mutation Fgfr2+/S252W mice and littermate WT mice were obtained after breeding and identification. Three Fgfr2+/S252W and same number of WT mice were sacrificed at 7, 10, 14 and 28 postnatal days respectively, and the morphology of long bone was examined with X-ray and Micro CT, the structure of bone and cartilage was observed by HE staining, and the expression of gene in growth plate was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results?Fgfr2+/S252W mouse model exhibited typical craniosynostosis and brachycephalium of Apert syndrome, accompanied by short stature, growth retardation of long bone, delayed appearance of secondary ossification center, decrease of bone density and trabecula number. HE staining showed noticeable shortened zones of proliferation and hypertrophic chondrocytes, irregularity of cell arrangement, and small hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the mutant mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of genes related to chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation was decreased in mutant mice. Conclusions?Gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2 may lead to abnormal development of long bone in mice. FGFR2 may have the function of regulating the development both of osteoblast and chondrocyte lineages, and play an important role in the process of skeletal development.

  14. Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

  15. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C ve humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)

  16. Influence of Transplantation of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Acute Injury Motor Function of the Spinal Cord and Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor of the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose to research the therapeutic affect of the allograft of Bones Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs on the acute injury of the spinal nerve of the rat. Method: Take 1 Westar healthy rat, collect the bone marrow, adopt the adherence method to separate BMSCs and culture and mark them, cultivate the BMSCs culture solution with the cell population of about 5H104 ?L-1 for transplantation. Establish 40 westar rat models with the acute injury of the spinal cord, which shall be divided as the transplantation group and the control group, 20 pieces for each group. After a week of injury, inject BMSCs slowly to the injury center of the rat's spinal cord, inject the physiological saline to the control group and observe and inspect the rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function and the protein expression of the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF of the rats of two groups. Result: The rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function of the transplantation group is obvious better than that of the control group after 3-8 weeks of injury and the difference is of significance (p<0.05. Kill two groups of rats after 8 weeks and it is found that the transplantation group is obviously higher than the control group through inspection of the protein expression of NGF and BDNF. The difference is of significance (p<0.05. Conclusion the allograft of BMSCs can remarkably improve the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rats with acute injury of the spinal nerve, which is possibly related with that the transplantation of BMSCs can promote the regeneration and repair of the rat's spinal nerves. It is proven through the NGF and BDNF protein expression data from the experiment of the transplantation group and the control group that BMSCs transplantation can improve the expression of some NGF of the rats with spinal nerve injury. These nerve factors are beneficial for regeneration, growth and repair of the injured nerve tissue cells, so as to further confirm that the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rat's with acute injury of the spinal nerve thanks to the induced regeneration, growth and repair of the spinal nerve cells by BMSCs transplantation.

  17. Intergenerational influences on child growth and undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Zongrone, Amanda

    2012-07-01

    Intergenerational effects on linear growth are well documented. Several generations are necessary in animal models to 'wash out' effects of undernutrition, consistent with the unfolding of the secular trend in height in Europe and North America. Birthweight is correlated across generations and short maternal stature, which reflects intrauterine and infant growth failure, is associated with low birthweight, child stunting, delivery complications and increased child mortality, even after adjusting for socio-economic status. A nutrition intervention in Guatemala reduced childhood stunting; it also improved growth of the next generation, but only in the offspring of girls. Possible mechanisms explaining intergenerational effects on linear growth are not mutually exclusive and include, among others, shared genetic characteristics, epigenetic effects, programming of metabolic changes, and the mechanics of a reduced space for the fetus to grow. There are also socio-cultural factors at play that are important such as the intergenerational transmission of poverty and the fear of birthing a large baby, which leads to 'eating down' during pregnancy. It is not clear whether there is an upper limit for impact on intrauterine and infant linear growth that programmes in developing countries could achieve that is set by early childhood malnutrition in the mother. Substantial improvements in linear growth can be achieved through adoption and migration, and in a few selected countries, following rapid economic and social development. It would seem, despite clear documentation of intergenerational effects, that nearly normal lengths can be achieved in children born to mothers who were malnourished in childhood when profound improvements in health, nutrition and the environment take place before conception. To achieve similar levels of impact through public health programmes alone in poor countries is highly unlikely. The reality in poor countries limits the scope, quality and coverage of programmes that can be implemented and modest impact should be expected instead. The Lancet series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition estimated that implementation to scale of proven interventions in high burden countries would reduce stunting by one-third; this is perhaps a realistic upper bound for impact for high quality programmes, unless accompanied by sweeping improvements in social services and marked reductions in poverty. Finally, because so much can be achieved in a single generation, intergenerational influences are unlikely to be an important explanation for lack of programme impact aimed at the window of the first 1000 days. Failure to prevent linear growth failure in developing countries has serious consequences for short- and long-term health as well as for the formation of human capital. The nutrition transition has created a double burden by adding obesity and related chronic diseases to the public health agenda of countries still struggling with the 'old' problems of maternal and child undernutrition. The challenge ahead is to increase efforts to prevent linear growth failure while keeping child overweight at bay. PMID:22742617

  18. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  19. Factors affecting Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in peritoneal dialysis solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdonald, W. A.; Watts, J.; Bowmer, M. I.

    1986-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We studied factors that might influence the growth of S. epidermidis in commercially available peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS). Test strains were inoculated into PDS and incubated overnight at 37 degrees C. Samples were removed at appropriate intervals, bacterial counts were performed, and growth curves were constructed. We studied the effects of various osmolarities...

  20. Change in the terpenoid profile and secondary growth in declining stands of Pinus sylvestris L. under mediterranean influence as a response to local factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The terpenoid profile could give information about the water status in Scots pine, especially for trees growing in the same geographical area but under contrasting local environmental conditions. Terpenes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in needles, twigs and wood of ten affected and ten unaffected Scots pines in the southern “Sistema Ibérico” range (Teruel, Spain, where forest decline has been recently reported. Soil depth and secondary growth was also studied in both types of trees. Needles and twigs total resin acids were significantly higher in affected trees. The pimarane type resin acids were also higher in the twigs of affected trees. Secondary growth was lower in affected trees and it showed higher climate sensitivity. The use of the terpenoid profile may be used as an additional tool for the estimation of the water status, especially for situations inducing moderate but relatively prolonged stress conditions.El perfil terpénico podría dar información sobre el estado hídrico en el pino albar, especialmente cuando se comparen especímenes de una zona geográfica concreta afectados por factores ambientales locales. Los terpenos de acículas, brotes del año y madera fueron analizados en diez ejemplares afectados y otros tantos no afectados por el decaimiento mediante cromatografía de masas acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La serie de crecimiento secundario en ambos tipos de ejemplares fue también estudiada. La concentración total de ácidos resínicos aumentó de modo significativo en los árboles afectados tanto en brotes del año como en acículas. La cantidad de ácidos de tipo pimarano también aumentó en los brotes de los árboles afectados. La profundidad del suelo y el crecimiento secundario era menor en este tipo de ejemplares, que muestran una mayor sensibilidad en términos dendrocronológicos. El perfíl terpénico podría utilizarse como una herramienta adicional a la estimación del estado hídrico, especialmente cuando el árbol está afectado por condiciones de estrés moderadas pero prolongadas en el tiempo.

  1. Harnessing endogenous growth factor activity modulates stem cell behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hudalla, Gregory A.; Kouris, Nicholas A.; Koepsel, Justin T.; Ogle, Brenda M.; Murphy, William L.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of specific serum-borne biomolecules (e.g. heparin) on growth factor-dependent cell behavior is often difficult to elucidate in traditional cell culture due to the random, non-specific nature of biomolecule adsorption from serum. We hypothesized that chemically well-defined cell culture substrates could be used to study the influence of sequestered heparin on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) behavior. Specifically, we used bio-inert self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) chemically ...

  2. Transforming growth factor-? and breast cancer: Mammary gland development

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos-hoff, Mary Helen; Ewan, Kenneth Br

    2000-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 is a pluripotent cytokine that profoundly inhibits epithelial proliferation, induces apoptosis, and influences morphogenesis by mediating extracellular matrix deposition and remodeling. The physiologic roles of the action of TGF-? in mammary gland, indeed in most tissues, are poorly understood. In order to understand the actions of TGF-?, we need to take into account the complexity of its effects on different cell types and the influence of context on ce...

  3. Transregulation of Leukemia Inhibitor Factor Receptor Expression and Function by Growth Factors in Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Martha D.; Laszlo, George S.; Nathanson, Neil M.

    2008-01-01

    The cytokines that signal through the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor are members of the neuropoietic cytokine family and have varied and numerous roles in the nervous system. In this report we have determined the effects of growth factor stimulation on LIF receptor (LIFR) expression and signal transduction in the human neuroblastoma cell line NBFL. We show here that stimulation of NBFL cells with either epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor decreases the level of LIFR in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2-dependent manner and that this downregulation is due to an increase in the apparent rate of lysosomal LIFR degradation. Growth factor-induced decreases in LIFR level inhibit both LIF-stimulated phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and LIFR-mediated gene induction. We also show that Ser1044 of LIFR, which we have previously shown to be phosphorylated by Erk1/2, is required for the inhibitory effects of growth factors. Neurons are exposed to varying combinations and concentrations of growth factors and cytokines that influence their growth, development, differentiation and repair in vivo. These findings demonstrate that LIFR expression and signaling in neuroblastoma cells can be regulated by growth factors that are potent activators of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, and thus illustrate a fundamental mechanism that underlies cross-talk between receptor tyrosine kinase and neuropoietic cytokine signaling pathways. PMID:18624908

  4. The growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljevi? Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals with endogenous neuroendocrine responses to the genetic programs that determine the body plan. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are integral components of multiple systems controlling both growth and metabolism. The IGF system The IGF system is thought to be more complex than other endocrine systems, as genes for six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs have been identified so far. The IGFs play a critical role in both cell cycle control and apoptosis, two functions involved in regulation of tumorigenesis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I is essential for normal growth. Confirmation of the significance of IGF-I in human physiology was obtained by the discovery of a patient with intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with a mutation in the IGF-1 gene. Stages of evolution of the somatomedin hypothesis The original somatomedin hypothesis postulated that somatic growth was regulated by growth hormone's (GH's stimulation of hepatic IGF-1 production, with IGF-1 acting in an endocrine fashion to promote growth. The dual effectors theory proposed an alternative view, involving direct effects by GH on peripheral tissues not mediated by IGF-1 and GH-stimulated local IGF-1 production for autocrine/paracrine action. It is now clear that G H stimulates the formation of ternary IGF binding complex, which stabilizes IGF-I in the serum.

  5. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor beta 1 selectively modulate glycosaminoglycans, collagen, and myofibroblasts in excisional wounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, G. F.; Vande Berg, J.; Rudolph, R.; Tarpley, J.; Mustoe, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) influence the rate of extracellular matrix formed in treated incisional wounds. Because incisional healing processes are difficult to quantify, a full-thickness excisional wound model in the rabbit ear was developed to permit detailed analyses of growth-factor-mediated tissue repair. In the present studies, quantitative and qualitative differences in acute inflammatory cell influx, glycosamino...

  6. Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the myostatin and myogenic factor 5 muscle growth-related genes on the performance traits of Marchigiana beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, F M; Lasagna, E; Ceccobelli, S; Di Lorenzo, P; Filippini, F; Sbarra, F; Giontella, A; Pieramati, C; Panella, F

    2014-09-01

    The Marchigiana is famous for its large body size and favorable dressing percentage. A myostatin (MSTN) gene mutation (a G to T transversion) was identified in the breed. The homozygote "GG" yields a "normal" phenotype, the homozygote "TT" yields a double muscled body shape but sometimes causes survival problems, and the heterozygote genotype produces an extremely muscled body without defects. In practice, Marchigiana "TT" homozygotes are culled from reproduction, but the heterozygotes are chosen as sires. The objective of this study was to assess genes involved in Marchigiana muscle development to improve selection procedures. The effects of the MSTN and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) genes on the growth and muscle traits in the Marchigiana breed were assessed. The effects of MSTN together with the genotype of the causative mutation (g.874G > T) and the effects of the two SNP in the promoter were studied (g.-371T > A and g.-805G > C). The SNP effects were evaluated in a comparison between the means of the several genotypes or for the average gene substitution and dominance effect. Two hundred forty-nine bullocks were evaluated using a performance test. At the beginning and end of the trial, the animals were weighed and their bodies were measured every 21 d up to 12 mo of age. In addition to these observations, morphological scores and the BLUP indices were estimated at the end of the performance test. The obtained results suggested that the MSTN g.874G > T and MYF5 SNP could be considered in the selection program of the Marchigiana breed. A MSTN g.874G > T genotyping service for the breeders could help to avoid the "TT" genotype and to select for the "GT" genotype. The "AA" MYF5 SNP genotype could also be selected for even if good muscle development yields a certain size reduction. PMID:25023801

  7. The influence of copper substrate orientation on graphene growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Zachary Robert

    This dissertation is focused on determining the influence of the copper substrate on graphene grown by CVD. Graphene, which can be grown in single atomic layers on copper substrates, has potential applications in future electronic devices. One of the key issues for the use of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for device applications is the influence of defects on the transport properties of the graphene. For instance, growth on metal foil substrates results in multi-domain graphene growth because the foil substrates themselves have a variety of different surface terminations. Therefore, they don't serve as a very good template for low defect density graphene growth. In order to determine whether epitaxial graphene growth by CVD is possible, initial experiments were conducted on a Cu(111) single crystal that was prepared in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The Cu(111) was then transferred to a tube furnace for graphene growth, and characterized with a variety of different techniques. Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) measurements showed that a majority of the graphene domains were in rotational alignment with the underlying Cu(111), suggesting epitaxial growth could be possible. However, the presence of other rotational domains, as well as > 60 nm of topography on the surface, indicated that several unknown factors could be influencing the graphene growth process, possibly during the transfer from UHV to the tube furnace. To control these unknowns, a custom UHV chamber designed to achieve the growth conditions needed for graphene growth was built. In addition, the chamber was equipped with a LEED so that in-situ characterization could be done. Initial attempts to grow graphene on Cu(100) by first raising the temperature as high as 900 °C and then backfilling the chamber with ethylene pressures up to 5 mTorr resulted in almost no observable graphene growth. However, backfilling the chamber with ethylene before heating the crystal resulted in 2-domain, epitaxial growth on the surface of Cu(100). In addition, the effect of oxygen on the graphene growth process was found to disrupt the nucleation and result in significant amounts of rotational disorder in the graphene. On Cu(111), the growth conditions that led to epitaxial graphene growth on Cu(100) resulted in no observable graphene growth. It was found that annealing the crystal in an ethylene-argon mixture resulted in rotationally aligned epitaxial graphene. Our results indicate that suppressing Cu sublimation is necessary for epitaxial graphene growth on Cu(111).

  8. The influence of fluid composition on barite growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Agudo, Cristina; Putnis, Christine V.; Putnis Putnis, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Depending on the fluid composition, the mechanism of interaction of a fluid with a mineral surface will involve transport of ions either to or from a mineral surface. The principal control on the growth of barite, BaSO4, has been shown to be the dehydration of the Ba2+ ion at the mineral-fluid interface (Piana et al., 2006). This is also likely to be the case for other ions that could be incorporated into a growing surface. It follows that any chemical influence on the dehydration kinetics will determine the redistribution of ions between solid and fluid phases. Earlier work has shown that the influence of background electrolytes, apart from the constituent ions in the barite structure, have a significant effect on barite growth, and it was hypothesized that this was due to changing the dynamics of the water structure (Kowacz and Putnis, 2008). Here using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we show that barite growth is influenced by the pH of the solution. Previous research does not indicate any pH dependence on the growth of barite, as speciation predictions do not vary significantly with pH. However atomic-scale observations show that at low and high pH, growth rates change compared to pH values 4 - 9. In order to test the influence of pH on barite growth, influencing factors need to be held constant apart from the factor (pH) being tested. AFM observations of barite growth under conditions of constant supersaturation, temperature, Ba/SO4 ratio and ionic strength but changing growth solution pH have been studied. In natural systems, the presence of other ions, apart from Ba2+ and SO42- growth building units, must be considered. We also investigate the influence of ionic strength on the growth process. Direct observations of barite growth at the nano-scale afford the possibility of directly seeing the growth process. Barite scale formation is one of the main problems in many industrial processes (such as, paper-making, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, off-shore oil extraction, geothermal energy production). It is especially problematic (and costly) in oilfields due to its low solubility and hardness resulting in solid layers of barite that can block pipes completely, reducing the production of an oil-well. Barite scale in oilfields is caused by mixing of the injected seawater (high in SO4) to increase the oil extraction maintaining the inner pressure in the reservoir, with formation water (high in Ba2+) in the reservoir. The partitioning of trace amounts of radium (Ra2+) into the barite also leads to the problem that the scale becomes radioactive. The reactions that lead to BaSO4 scale formation and the methods that could reduce or prevent it are poorly quantified. To be able to control crystal growth, we first need to understand how barite grows, the conditions for optimal growth, as well as any factors that inhibit or reduce this growth to a minimum. Refs.: Piana S., Jones F., Gale JD. Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 128, 13568 (2006) Kowacz M and Putnis A. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 4476 (2008) Acknowledgement: C.R-A. acknowledges a Marie Curie Fellowship: EU ITN MINSC (Mineral Scale Formation, PITN-GA-2011-290040)

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits dendritic cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cavalheiro Marti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGNand mature(CD83 dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb. Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.

  10. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Anca, A F; Horhoianu, V V; Horhoianu, I A

    2014-06-15

    Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies. PMID:25408721

  11. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, AR; Anca, AF; Horhoianu, VV; Horhoianu, IA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies. Abbreviations: SGA = small for gestational age; IUGR = intrauterine growth restriction; FGR = fetal growth restriction; IUFD = intrauterine fetal demise; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; PAPP-A = pregnancy associated plasmatic protein A; ?-hCG = beta human chorionic gonadotropin; MoM = multiple of median; ADAM-12 = A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 12; PP-13 = placental protein 13; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; PlGF = placental growth factor; sFlt-1 = soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; UAD = uterine arteries Doppler ultrasound; RI = resistence index; PI = pulsatility index; VOCAL = Virtual Organ Computer–Aided Analysis software; VI = vascularization index; FI = flow index; VFI = vascularization flow index; PQ = placental quotient PMID:25408721

  12. Expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling substances in gastric mucosal cells influenced by serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie YAN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints on the expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling substances phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1, protein kinase C (PKC and c-myc in gastric mucosal cells.Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into normal group, stomach meridian group, gallbladder meridian group, stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group. Water-immersion and restrained stress methods were adopted for inducing gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Gastric mucosal cells were separated by using pronase digestion method, and incubated by PD153035, a EGFR inhibitor, and 100 ml/L serum. The expression of PLC?-1 in the gastric mucosal cells was tested by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA, while the expression of PKC by isotope incorporate assay and the expression of c-myc by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR.Results: In gastric mucosal cells, weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the normal group, and relatively strong expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group, among which, the expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc in the stomach meridian group were the strongest, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group (P?0.01. Relative weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and the gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group (P?0.01.Conclusions: The serum derived from the rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints can activate the EGFR singling pathway, and this provides an evidence for the theory of "relative particularity between meridians and viscera" in traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...

  14. Hormonal influences on growth of the fetal pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there is considerable information on hormonal systems regulating growth postnatally, little is known about hormonal influences on growth in the fetuw. It has long been postulated that insulin is the major fetal growth promoting hormone. However, chronic administration of insulin to the fetal pig during 14 days in utero, although producing hyperinsulinaemia and elevated somatomedin levels, did not stimulate an increase in length, weight or cell number. Postnatally the principal growth promoting hormones are the growth hormone dependent somatomedins. It is thought that multiplication stimulating activity (MSA) is the fetal somatomedin. However, under similar conditions to those used for insulin administration, MSA did not affect growth in the fetal pig. Administration of somatostatin to chronically catheterized fetuses inhibited (p?0.01) and thyrotrophin releasing factor stimulated (?0.01) GH release. However, chronic administration of SRIF did not inhibit fetal growth. Thus there does seem to be some hypothalamic control over GH secretion but this may not play a major role in regulating fetal growth

  15. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    OpenAIRE

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe; Majid Jangi Zehi; Mohammad Nabi Shahiki Tash; Noor Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2014-01-01

    Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. T...

  16. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. T...

  17. Peptide growth factors: clinical and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Silverio, F; Sciarra, A; Di Nicola, S; Di Chiro, C

    1997-06-01

    The literature contains many accounts of studies in which tumour growth has been accelerated by administration of a particular mitogen and the response then inhibited by co-administration of the corresponding antagonist. Much effort has been focused on the development of cytokine or growth factor antagonists. Like most other cancer therapies, biological therapies will undoubtedly have undesirable toxicities because the proteins they target may not be unique to malignant cells. We reviewed the clinical and therapeutic potential of growth factor agonists and antagonists in some non urologic and urologic diseases. In a recent report we demonstrated that both androgen and antiandrogen treatments enhance the proliferation rate of the hormone-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, expressing a mutated androgen receptor. Simultaneous treatment with 1 nM R1881 and 100 nM OH-Flutamide, completely counteracted the androgen-induced increase of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) levels. Moreover we found that Testosterone, DHT and EGF are mainly concentrated in the periurethral zone in human BPH and long term treatment with Finasteride and with Flutamide modify the distribution and concentration of these factors. Some authors analyzed whether and addition of aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATA) can reduce the growth rate of basic FGF-dependent cells in a manner similar to suramin. PMID:9228827

  18. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zamfiroiu, Alin

    2014-01-01

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop applicat...

  19. Audit in general practice: factors influencing participation.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, R.; Robertson, N.; Farooqi, A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the factors influencing participation in a single topic audit initiated by a medical audit advisory group. DESIGN--Interview and questionnaire survey of general practitioners who had been invited to take part in an audit of vitamin B-12. SETTING--All 147 general practices in Leicestershire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Aspects of structure, attitude, and behaviour that influenced participation or non-participation. RESULTS--75 practices completed the audit, 49 withdrew after ...

  20. Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Abbas Zadeh; Gholamreza Heydari Kord Zangeneh; Naser Azad

    2014-01-01

    Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is ...

  1. A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Modiri; Abdollah Naami; Ebrahim Abedini

    2013-01-01

    Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommen...

  2. Modulation of radiosensitivity by growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text of the publication follows. For the past 70 years, radiotherapy protocols were defined to target and kill cancer cells. New research developments showed that the tissue or tumor radiosensitivities might be directly modulated by its own microenvironment. Between all the micro-environmental cells, endothelial cells are playing a unique role due to the need of angio-genesis for tumor genesis and to the microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis involved in acute normal tissue and tumor radiosensitivities. Both endothelial behaviours may be controlled by specific growth factors secreted by tumor cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are two cytokines involved in angio genesis and endothelial cell survival. Because radiation exposure develops opposite molecular and cellular responses by inhibiting proliferation and by enhancing apoptosis, inhibiting these cytokines has been proposed as a relevant strategy to improve radiotherapy efficiency. Drugs or antibody against VEGF, or other growth factors have been used with success to limit endothelial cell resistance, but also to transiently normalize of blood vessels to improve oxygen distribution into the tumor. However, better characterisation of the role of the cytokines will help to better improve the strategy of the use of their antagonists. We demonstrate that bFGF or sphingosin 1 phosphate (S1P), a lipid endothelial growth factor, protects endothelial cells frowth factor, protects endothelial cells from radiation stress by inhibiting the pre-mitotic apoptosis through enhancement of pro-survival molecular cascade, such as the Pi3K/AKT pathway, but not post-mitotic death. This discrepancy allowed a specific use of S1P as pharmacological drug protecting quiescent endothelial cells, present in normal tissue blood vessels, but not in proliferating angiogenic blood vessels, majority present in tumor blood vessel. In vivo studies are underway. (author)

  3. An overview of preharvest factors influencing mango fruit growth, quality and postharvest behaviour Uma revisão dos fatores pré-colheita que influenciam o crescimento, qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Léchaudel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance, is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous, in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits, and postharvest behaviour. In this paper, we provide a review of studies on mango showing how environmental factors influence the accumulation of water, structural and non-structural dry matter in the fruit during its development. These changes are discussed with respect to the evolution of quality attributes on the tree and after harvest. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities, which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. We also discuss recent advances in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that, combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality.Manga, um fruto tropical de grande importância, é geralmente colhido verde e comercializado após um período de armazenamento. Infelizmente, a qualidade final da manga na prateleira é altamente heterogênea, em termos de tamanho do fruto, qualidade do paladar e comportamento pós-colheita. Tem-se obtido uma quantidade expressiva de informações sobre os efeitos do estádio de maturação e condições pós-colheita sobre a qualidade final da manga. Contudo, tem-se dado atenção consideravelmente menor à influência dos fatores ambientes sobre o crescimento da manga, características de qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita. Neste artigo, faz-se uma revisão dos estudos sobre manga, evidenciando-se como fatores ambientes afetam o acúmulo de água e de matéria seca estrutural e não-estrutural nos frutos durante o seu desenvolvimento. Discutem-se essas alterações com relação à evolução de atributos de qualidade dos frutos ainda nas plantas e após a colheita. Os fatores de pré-colheita abordados são luz, temperatura, disponibilidades de água e de carbono, raleio de frutos e manejo da irrigação. Discutem-se também recentes avanços sobre modelagem associada à função do fruto na planta, conforme as condições ambientes que, combinados com estudos experimentais, pode melhorar a nossa compreensão sobre como as condições de pré-colheita afetam o crescimento e a qualidade da manga.

  4. An overview of preharvest factors influencing mango fruit growth, quality and postharvest behaviour / Uma revisão dos fatores pré-colheita que influenciam o crescimento, qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de manga

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mathieu, Léchaudel; Jacques, Joas.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Manga, um fruto tropical de grande importância, é geralmente colhido verde e comercializado após um período de armazenamento. Infelizmente, a qualidade final da manga na prateleira é altamente heterogênea, em termos de tamanho do fruto, qualidade do paladar e comportamento pós-colheita. Tem-se obtid [...] o uma quantidade expressiva de informações sobre os efeitos do estádio de maturação e condições pós-colheita sobre a qualidade final da manga. Contudo, tem-se dado atenção consideravelmente menor à influência dos fatores ambientes sobre o crescimento da manga, características de qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita. Neste artigo, faz-se uma revisão dos estudos sobre manga, evidenciando-se como fatores ambientes afetam o acúmulo de água e de matéria seca estrutural e não-estrutural nos frutos durante o seu desenvolvimento. Discutem-se essas alterações com relação à evolução de atributos de qualidade dos frutos ainda nas plantas e após a colheita. Os fatores de pré-colheita abordados são luz, temperatura, disponibilidades de água e de carbono, raleio de frutos e manejo da irrigação. Discutem-se também recentes avanços sobre modelagem associada à função do fruto na planta, conforme as condições ambientes que, combinados com estudos experimentais, pode melhorar a nossa compreensão sobre como as condições de pré-colheita afetam o crescimento e a qualidade da manga. Abstract in english Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance, is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous, in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of [...] knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits, and postharvest behaviour. In this paper, we provide a review of studies on mango showing how environmental factors influence the accumulation of water, structural and non-structural dry matter in the fruit during its development. These changes are discussed with respect to the evolution of quality attributes on the tree and after harvest. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities, which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. We also discuss recent advances in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that, combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality.

  5. Factors influencing in vitro infectivity and growth of Rickettsia peacockii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an endosymbiont of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Acari, Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtti, Timothy J.; Simser, Jason A.; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Palmer, Ann T.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

    2006-01-01

    Rickettsia peacockii, a spotted fever group rickettsia, is a transovarially transmitted endosymbiont of Rocky Mountain wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni. This rickettsia, formerly known as the East Side Agent and restricted to female ticks, was detected in a chronically infected embryonic cell line, DAE100, from D. andersoni. We examined infectivity, ability to induce cytopathic effect (CPE) and host cell specificity of R. peacockii using cultured arthropod and mammalian cells. Aposymbiotic DAE100 cells were obtained using oxytetracycline or incubation at 37 °C. Uninfected DAE100 sublines grew faster than the parent line, indicating R. peacockii regulation of host cell growth. Nevertheless, DAE100 cellular defenses exerted partial control over R. peacockii growth. Rickettsiae existed free in the cytosol of DAE100 cells or within autophagolysosomes. Exocytosed rickettsiae accumulated in the medium and were occasionally contained within host membranes. R. peacockii multiplied in other cell lines from the hard ticks D. andersoni, Dermacentor albipictus, Ixodes scapularis, and Ixodes ricinus; the soft tick Carios capensis; and the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. Lines from the tick Amblyomma americanum, the mosquito Aedes albopictus, and two mammalian cell lines were non-permissive to R. peacockii. High cell densities facilitated rickettsial spread within permissive cell cultures, and an inoculum of one infected to nine uninfected cells resulted in the greatest yield of infected tick cells. Cell-free R. peacockii also were infectious for tick cells and centrifugation onto cell layers enhanced infectivity approximately 100-fold. The ability of R. peacockii to cause mild CPE suggests that its pathogenicity is not completely muted. An analysis of R. peacockii–cell interactions in comparison to pathogenic rickettsiae will provide insights into host cell colonization mechanisms. PMID:16288906

  6. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-...

  7. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  8. Serum platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christine Vestergaard; Steffensen, Karina Dahl

    2012-01-01

    New biological markers with predictive or prognostic value are highly warranted in the treatment of ovarian cancer. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system are important components in tumor growth and angiogenesis.

  9. Harnessing endogenous growth factor activity modulates stem cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudalla, Gregory A; Kouris, Nicholas A; Koepsel, Justin T; Ogle, Brenda M; Murphy, William L

    2011-08-01

    The influence of specific serum-borne biomolecules (e.g. heparin) on growth factor-dependent cell behavior is often difficult to elucidate in traditional cell culture due to the random, non-specific nature of biomolecule adsorption from serum. We hypothesized that chemically well-defined cell culture substrates could be used to study the influence of sequestered heparin on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) behavior. Specifically, we used bio-inert self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) chemically modified with a bioinspired heparin-binding peptide (termed "HEPpep") and an integrin-binding peptide (RGDSP) as stem cell culture substrates. Our results demonstrate that purified heparin binds to HEPpep SAMs in a dose-dependent manner, and serum-borne heparin binds specifically and in a dose-dependent manner to HEPpep SAMs. These heparin-sequestering SAMs enhance hMSC proliferation by amplifying endogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, and enhance hMSC osteogenic differentiation by amplifying endogenous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. The effects of heparin-sequestering are similar to the effects of supraphysiologic concentrations of recombinant FGF-2. hMSC phenotype is maintained over multiple population doublings on heparin-sequestering substrates in growth medium, while hMSC osteogenic differentiation is enhanced in a bone morphogenetic protein-dependent manner on the same substrates during culture in osteogenic induction medium. Together, these observations demonstrate that the influence of the substrate on stem cell phenotype is sensitive to the culture medium formulation. Our results also demonstrate that enhanced hMSC proliferation can be spatially localized by patterning the location of HEPpep on the substrate. Importantly, the use of chemically well-defined SAMs in this study eliminated the confounding factor of random, non-specific biomolecule adsorption, and identified serum-borne heparin as a key mediator of hMSC response to endogenous growth factors. PMID:21720642

  10. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  11. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  12. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  13. Binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in human myometrium and leiomyomata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of uterine myometrium and leiomyoma from 11 women were analyzed for the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors. In addition, the content of soluble insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-BP/PP12) was measured in the tissue cytosols. Cell membrane preparations of myoma tissue bound significantly more insulin-like growth factor I than did those of adjacent normal myometrium, whereas myoma tissue bound less epidermal growth factor than did the normal myometrium. The differences in both insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor binding were due to changes in receptor concentration rather than to alterations in receptor affinity. Neither myoma nor myometrial tissue contained detectable levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. The changes in epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I binding to the myometrium may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomata

  14. Binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in human myometrium and leiomyomata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommola, P.; Pekonen, F.; Rutanen, E.M. (Minerva Institute for Medical Research, Kauniainen (Finland))

    1989-10-01

    Samples of uterine myometrium and leiomyoma from 11 women were analyzed for the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors. In addition, the content of soluble insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-BP/PP12) was measured in the tissue cytosols. Cell membrane preparations of myoma tissue bound significantly more insulin-like growth factor I than did those of adjacent normal myometrium, whereas myoma tissue bound less epidermal growth factor than did the normal myometrium. The differences in both insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor binding were due to changes in receptor concentration rather than to alterations in receptor affinity. Neither myoma nor myometrial tissue contained detectable levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. The changes in epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I binding to the myometrium may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomata.

  15. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  16. Production of growth factors in thyroid papillary cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vesely?, D.; Astl, J.; Sterzl, I.; Marti?nek, J.; Kucera, T.; Betka, J.

    2005-01-01

    IGF-I (Insulin Like Growth Factor I), HGF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor), TGF-beta1 (Transforming Growth Factor beta1, bFGF (basic Fibroblast Growth Factor) and VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) are growth factors, that take part in the thyroid gland tumors origin and growth. The aim of this study was to describe their production by papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and to compare it with their production by thyroid gland adenoma and normal thyroid tissue. We also tried to find the suitable ...

  17. INFLUENCE FACTORS OF REGIONAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME DISPARITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca DACHIN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sustained economic growth in Romania during the period 2000-2008 was not accompanied by a regional convergence of the living standards. Specific factors, such as the persistence of regional specialization of employment and the dominance of subsistence households in rural areas still shape the regional disparities in economic performance. The economic crisis determined a decrease in the average household income, while the impact was unequally distributed by regions. The paper aims at measuring the cross-regional variation of the household income at NUTS2 level. In order to identify the specific factors which have mostly influenced the income changes, panel estimation is used.

  18. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ilda Pe?ari?

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  19. Fatores determinantes do crescimento infantil Determinant factors of infant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation in genetic potential manifestations. Because of the complex nature of infant growth, several studies have been developed aiming at relating biological, socio-economic, maternal, environmental, cultural, demographic and nutritional determinants among others, with the etiology, development and maintenance of growth. This review reinforces the value of permanent investigation on infant growth, especially concerning the long term impact on infant health.

  20. Review of identified factors influencing contraceptive use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is necessary to know the factors that influence contraceptive behavior in order to overcome obstacles of contraceptive use by implementing modern family planning programs that have to be based on logistic management and directed to the client. The factor isolated till now are systematized into the two groups: the socio-demographic factors - to a greater extent associated with developing countries and the psychological factors -mainly related to developed countries. Socio-demographic f actors of the contraceptive use The most significant socio-demographic determinants of contraceptive behavior appear to be the age, women's educational level but even the educational level of the husband/partner, occupation, environment (urban/rural, some cultural factors, and high price of contraceptives. Psychological variables as a factor of contraceptive (nonuse In the group of psychological variables that influence contraceptive use it is possible to distinguish: the presence of illusion of fertility control, locus of control, level of Ego maturity, femininity and masculinity, i.e. the accepted gender roles, level of self-acceptance. The majority of the factors show that the presence of personal initiative and assertiveness are associated with higher level of contraception use.

  1. Senataxin modulates neurite growth through fibroblast growth factor 8 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantaggiato, Chiara; Bondioni, Sara; Airoldi, Giovanni; Bozzato, Andrea; Borsani, Giuseppe; Rugarli, Elena I; Bresolin, Nereo; Clementi, Emilio; Bassi, Maria Teresa

    2011-06-01

    Senataxin is encoded by the SETX gene and is mainly involved in two different neurodegenerative diseases, the dominant juvenile form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4 and a recessive form of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2. Based on protein homology, senataxin is predicted to be a putative DNA/RNA helicase, while senataxin interactors from patients' lymphoblast cell lines suggest a possible involvement of the protein in different aspects of RNA metabolism. Except for an increased sensitivity to oxidative DNA damaging agents shown by some ataxia with neuropathy patients' cell lines, no data are available about possible functional consequences of dominant SETX mutations and no studies address the function of senataxin in neurons. To start elucidating the physiological role of senataxin in neurons and how disease-causing mutations in this protein lead to neurodegeneration, we analysed the effect of senataxin on neuronal differentiation in primary hippocampal neurons and retinoic acid-treated P19 cells by modulating the expression levels of wild-type senataxin and three different dominant mutant forms of the protein. Wild-type senataxin overexpression was required and sufficient to trigger neuritogenesis and protect cells from apoptosis during differentiation. These actions were reversed by silencing of senataxin. In contrast, overexpression of the dominant mutant forms did not affect the regular differentiation process in primary hippocampal neurons. Analysis of the cellular pathways leading to neuritogenesis and cytoprotection revealed a role of senataxin in modulating the expression levels and signalling activity of fibroblast growth factor 8. Silencing of senataxin reduced, while overexpression enhanced, fibroblast growth factor 8 expression levels and the phosphorylation of related target kinases and effector proteins. The effects of senataxin overexpression were prevented when fibroblast growth factor 8 signalling was inhibited, while exogenous fibroblast growth factor 8 reversed the effects of senataxin silencing. Overall, these results reveal a key role of senataxin in neuronal differentiation through the fibroblast growth factor 8 signalling and provide initial molecular bases to explain the neurodegeneration associated with loss-of-function mutations in senataxin found in recessive ataxia. The lack of effect on neuritogenesis observed with the overexpression of the dominant mutant forms of senataxin apparently excludes a dominant negative effect of these mutants while favouring haploinsufficiency as the pathogenic mechanism implicated in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4-related degenerative condition. Alternatively, a different protein function, other than the one involved in neuritogenesis, may be implicated in these dominant degenerative processes. PMID:21576111

  2. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  3. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

  4. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Toxicities of the thrombopoietic growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Cuker, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The thrombopoietic growth factors (TGFs) are a novel class of compounds for the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The first of these agents to receive regulatory approval, romiplostim and eltrombopag, have demonstrated impressive efficacy and tolerability in randomized controlled trials and open-label extension studies of several years duration and stand poised to revolutionize the management of ITP. Nonetheless, critical questions regarding the safety of these agents, parti...

  6. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens HØiriis; Svensson, C

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). Receptors for both GH and PRL are expressed in islet cells and are upregulated during pregnancy. By mutational analysis we have identified different functional domains of the cytoplasmic part of the GH receptor. Thus the mitotic signaling only requires the membrane proximal part of the receptor and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and 3. The activation of the insulin gene however also requires the distal part of the receptor and activation of calcium uptake and STAT5. In order to identify putative autocrine growth factors or targets for growth factors we have cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved in beta cell differentiation and proliferation may lead to new ways of forming beta cells for treatment of diabetes in man.

  7. Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 23--et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, fibrous dysplasia, and tumour-induced osteomalacia. In contrast, hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis is associated with accelerated degradation of FGF23. Measuring FGF23 serves as a differential diagnostic tool in elucidating conditions of long-lasting hypophosphatemia.

  9. Lactoferrin – A Novel Bone Growth Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Naot, Dorit; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R.; Cornish, Jillian

    2005-01-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein that belongs to the transferrin family. It is present in breast milk, in epithelial secretions, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. In healthy subjects lactoferrin circulates at concentrations of 2–7 x 10?6 g/ml. Lactoferrin is a pleiotropic factor with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Recently, we have shown that lactoferrin can also promote bone growth. At physiological concentrations, lactoferrin potently stimul...

  10. Proliferation of human colon cancer cells: role of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S; Trujillo, J M; Chakrabarty, S

    1992-12-01

    Human colon cancer cells produce and secrete a variety of polypeptide growth factors. The functional role of these growth factors, however, is poorly understood. Though the secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like activity and EGF-related molecules by human colon cancer cells in culture has been reported, it is not known whether colon cancer cells produce and secrete EGF, and the functional role of EGF in the growth control of these cells is also unknown. We have shown that EGF acts as a potent growth stimulator on the moderately differentiated Moser colon cancer cell line and as an inhibitor on the highly metastatic KM12SM cell line. In the present study, we show that EGF is produced by human colon cancer cells and characterize the levels of EGF mRNA expression and EGF protein secretion from 8 human colon cancer cell lines. The cell-surface EGF receptors on these cell lines were also characterized by radiolabeled ligand binding and Scatchard analyses. All the cell lines expressed EGF mRNA and secreted EGF. Both high- and low-affinity subtypes of EGF receptor were detected on 7 of the cell lines. These lines also secreted transforming growth factor (TGF)alpha. Some cell lines exhibited a proliferative response to treatment with either exogenous EGF or TGF alpha, while others did not respond to treatment with these growth factors. Antibody-blocking experiments, using anti-EGF or anti-EGF receptor antibody, suggested that these cell lines could be broadly classified into 2 groups in terms of their autocrine or paracrine growth regulation via the cell-surface EGF receptor: (1) cells that utilized EGF and/or TGF alpha; and (2) cells that did not utilize EGF or TGF alpha (via the cell-surface receptor), even though they secreted abundant amounts of these growth factors. PMID:1459740

  11. Radioreceptor assays for transforming growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transforming growth factors (TGF) are a group of polypeptides that can induce a transformed phenotype in the appropriate indicators cells - for example, the normal rat kidney fibroblast (NRK-49F) cell line. Two different classes of TGF, TGF? and TGF?, have been purified to homogeneity and have been partially or completely sequenced. TGF? [also called TGF type 1 or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like TGF] has been obtained from the serum-free conditioned medium (SF-CM) of retrovirally transformed and tumor-derived cell lines. The amino acid sequence of TGF? shows strong sequence homology with EGF. Recently, relatively large quantities of TGF? have become available through both solid phase synthesis and molecular cloning. These methods yield hundreds of milligrams of pure peptide that appear to have properties similar, if not identical, to those of the natural products isolated from the SF-CM of transformed cells. Type-? TGF (or TGF type 2) has been purified from human platelets; human placenta, and bovine kidney as well as from virally transformed and tumor-derived cell lines. The N-terminal portion of this peptide does not share sequence homology with any other known protein. Similar to other growth factors, the TGFs have been shown to initially interact with the cell through membrane receptors. It is the purpose of this chapter to describe the methods developed for the detection and characterization of these receptors

  12. The Intracellular Form of Notch Blocks Transforming Growth Factor ?-Mediated Growth Arrest in Mv1Lu Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Prakash; Kadesch, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Notch signaling influences a variety of cell fate decisions during development, and constitutive activation of the pathway can provoke unbridled cell growth and cancer. The mechanisms by which Notch affects cell growth are not well established. We describe here a novel link between Notch and cell cycle control. We found that Mv1Lu epithelial cells harboring an oncogenic form of Notch (NICD) are resistant to the cell cycle-inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?). NICD did ...

  13. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Jun Park; Chang Min Moon; Hwang Jae Yoo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and prese...

  14. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

  15. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF receptors) which were confined predominantly to the undifferentiated cells. The expression of this growth factor system in malignant cells may play a role in carcinogenesis and/or tumour growth. All carcinomas were positive for TGF-alpha and 12 were positive for EGF. In moderately-to-well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly detected in the cytologically more differentiated cells. Nine sections included both laryngeal stratified squamous epithelium of normal appearance and carcinoma. The immunoreactivity was here again localized in the cytologically more differentiated cells above the basal cell layer. The present investigation and our previous results confirm the existence of EGF receptors, TGF-alphaand EGF in laryngeal carcinomas. In addition, we conclude that the conditions do exist for growth factors to act through an autocrine system in poorly differentiated tumours and through a paracrine system in the moderately-to-well differentiated tumours.

  16. Factors influencing radiation polymerisation engineering and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major factors that influence economics of application of radiation polymerisation technique for industrial production of polymers and polymer composites are discussed. The effects of factors such as product characteristics, physical and chemical state of polymerisation, radiation polymerisation kinetics, radiation source and field characteristics, including source utilisation efficiency, dose rate radiation safety requirements etc. on the engineering cost and economy of radiation processes are briefly outlined. The need for accurate understanding and exploitation of radiation polymerisation kinetics and precise control of dosimetric and other process parameters for a successful radiation process utilisation is highlighted with specific examples. (author)

  17. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  18. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  19. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  20. Growth factor-estradiol interaction on DNA labeling and cytoskeletal protein expression in cultured rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avola, Roberto; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Mazzone, Venera; Fisichella, Alfredo; Zaccheo, Damiano; Tomassoni, Daniele

    2004-04-01

    Growth factors are major signaling agents regulating neuron-glia dialogue. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin (INS) induce neuronal and astroglial cell proliferation and differentiation. This is true also for estrogens that influence astrocytes and exert neuroprotectant activity. In this study interactions between growth factors and estradiol on DNA labeling and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin expression in cultured astrocytes were investigated. DNA labeling was significantly stimulated by bFGF pretreatment followed by 24 h estradiol and EGF or IGF-I or INS added in the last 12 h. Western blotting showed also a modulation of GFAP and vimentin expression in treated astrocytes. This suggests the occurrence of a crucial growth factor-estradiol interaction on DNA labeling and cytoskeletal protein expression during astrocyte proliferation and differentiation in culture. PMID:15039110

  1. Which factors most influence heartwood distribution and radial growth in plantation teak?
    ---
    Quels facteurs influencent le plus la distribution du bois de cœur et la croissance radiale dans les plantations de teck ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kokutse, Adzo Dzifa; Stokes, Alexia; Kokutse, Nomessi Kuma; Kokou, Kouami

    2010-01-01

    * To investigate the effect of climate on radial growth in young plantation grown teak (Tectona grandis L.), growth ring width was measured in 105 trees and correlated to precipitation and temperature data.* The social status of trees within the stand was also determined and cross-sectional area (CSA) for the trunk correlated to the proportion of heartwood (HW) within the tree. HW develops asymmetrically in leaning stems of some conifer species, but it is not known if this phenomenon also occ...

  2. Factors influencing customers' choices of online merchants

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chenghuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: The aim of the research is to define and assess the importance of the factors that influence online shoppers' choices of merchants. The previous literature mainly focuses on loyalty of users to websites and online purchase decision-making process within one website. No literature studies the situation under which the customer has already decided the item to purchase and needs to compare different merchants selling the same item. Since this situation is very common...

  3. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccon Eliane; Huante Pilar; Rincón Emanuel

    2006-01-01

    Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succes...

  4. The structural biology of growth factor receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Nicholas J; Chirgadze, Dima; Hyun Kim, Kyung; Pellegrini, Luca; Blundell, Tom L

    2003-01-01

    Stimulation of cells by growth factors triggers cascades of signalling that result in cellular responses such as growth, differentiation, migration and survival. Many growth factors signal through receptor tyrosine kinases, leading to dimerization, trans-phosphorylation and activation of tyrosine kinases that phosphorylate components further downstream of the signal transduction cascade. Using insulin-like growth factor, nerve growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor as examples, we show that the globular architecture of the growth factors is essential for receptor binding. We describe how nerve growth factor (NGF) is a symmetrical dimer that binds four storage proteins (two alpha-NGF and two gamma-NGF) to give a symmetrical hetero-hexameric 7SNGF organised around the beta-NGF dimer. It binds the extracellular domains of two receptor molecules in a similar way, so dimerising the receptor. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) probably binds its receptor as a dimer stabilised by interactions with heparan sulfate, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) binds its receptor as a dimer cross-linked by heparan sulfate. Surprisingly, insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) bind in the monomeric form to receptors that are already covalent dimers. We propose that, in general, weak binary interactions between growth factor and individual domains of receptors are enhanced by cooperative interactions with further receptor domains, and sometimes other components like heparan, to give rise to specific multi-protein/domain complexes. PMID:12646390

  5. Proteolytic processing regulates placental growth factor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Daniel C; Willenborg, Sebastian; Koch, Manuel; Zwolanek, Daniela; Müller, Stefan; Becker, Ann-Kathrin A; Metzger, Stephanie; Ehrbar, Martin; Kurschat, Peter; Hellmich, Martin; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Eming, Sabine A

    2013-06-21

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation, yet mechanisms of its action and regulation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that proteolytic processing regulates the biological activity of PlGF. Specifically, we show that plasmin processing of PlGF-2 yields a protease-resistant core fragment comprising the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 binding site but lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain encoding the heparin-binding domain and an 8-amino acid peptide encoded by exon 7. We have identified plasmin cleavage sites, generated a truncated PlGF118 isoform mimicking plasmin-processed PlGF, and explored its biological function in comparison with that of PlGF-1 and -2. The angiogenic responses induced by the diverse PlGF forms were distinct. Whereas PlGF-2 increased endothelial cell chemotaxis, vascular sprouting, and granulation tissue formation upon skin injury, these activities were abrogated following plasmin digestion. Investigation of PlGF/Neuropilin-1 binding and function suggests a critical role for heparin-binding domain/Neuropilin-1 interaction and its regulation by plasmin processing. Collectively, here we provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation of PlGF-2/Neuropilin-1-mediated tissue vascularization and growth. PMID:23645683

  6. Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata) seedling

    OpenAIRE

    EDWI MAHAJOENO; SUNARTO; PRABANG SETYONO; PUTRI KUSUMA WARDANI; SUGIYARTO

    2013-01-01

    Sugiyarto, Wardani PK, Setyono P, Mahajoeno E, Sunarto. 2013. Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata) seedling. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 57-62. The purpose of this research was to find out the influence of mycorrhiza, organic fertilizer and their combination to the growth of seedlings matoa. The reseach was arranged on Completely Randomized design with two treatments factor; i.e. giving mycorrhiza (0 g, 5 g, 10 g/polybag) and giving organic ferti...

  7. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Lander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD, wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%, notably Trichuris trichiura (12% and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%, and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13% were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches sobre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2, desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%, notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12% e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5% e protozoário Giardia duodenalis (13% foram os mais comuns; < 1% tinha ancilostomíase e Cryptosporidium sp.; 25% apresentaram protozoários cistos não patogênicos. Meninos de famílias muito pobres tiveram menor crescimento e maior risco de helmintose. A desparasitação pode ser considerada uma alternativa para a redução da prevalência de parasitoses intestinais nesse grupo etário.

  8. Growth factor in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive the evolution equation of growth factor for the matter over-dense perturbation in f(T) gravity. For instance, we investigate its behavior in power law model at small redshift and compare it to the prediction of ?CDM and dark energy with the same equation of state in the framework of Einstein general relativity. We find that the perturbation in f(T) gravity grows slower than that in Einstein general relativity if ?f/?T > 0 due to the effectively weakened gravity

  9. Transforming growth factor-? and breast cancer: Tumor promoting effects of transforming growth factor-?

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Nancy; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2000-01-01

    The transforming growth factor (TGF)-?s are potent growth inhibitors of normal epithelial cells. In established tumor cell systems, however, the preponderant experimental evidence suggests that TGF-?s can foster tumor-host interactions that indirectly support the viability and/or progression of cancer cells. The timing of this 'TGF-? switch' during the progressive transformation of epithelial cells is not clear. More recent evidence also suggests that autocrine TGF-? signaling is operativ...

  10. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  11. Correlation between hepatocyte growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor-A in breast carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra ?acko; Ewelina ?ata; Jolanta Szelachowska; Agnieszka Ha?o?; Elzbieta Suder; Rafa? Matkowski; Iwona Gisterek; Przemys?aw Biecek; Jan Kornafel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-met) expressions in homogenous group of breast cancer patients. Tumor samples were collected from 98 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma stage II treated with primary surgery. We have observed a strong correlation between VEGF-A and c-met. No correlations were found between VEGF-A or HGFR expressions and clinical parameters (t...

  12. Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkun, Alp

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15

  13. Factores de crecimiento IV: Factor de crecimiento epidérmico,Factores estimuladores de colonias, Neurotropinas Growth factors: epidermal growth factor, colony stimulating factors and neurotropins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available En esta cuarta entrega sobre los factores de crecimiento se revisan el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGF, los factores estimuladores de colonias (CSF y las neurotropinas. Como se ha venido presentando en las anteriores entregas, se hace referencia a su estructura bioquímica, su mecanismo de acción, sus efectos biológicos y sus interacciones. Las neurotropinas y el EGF, por tratarse de factores que actúan predominantemente en el microambiente tisular, no pueden manejarse en el contexto de concentraciones circulantes, situación que sí es factible para los CSF. De otro lado, se revisan los mecanismos de las neurotropinas en el sistema nervioso. In this fourth review of growth factors we summarize, as in previous papers, topics related to biochemical structure, mechanisms of action, biological effects and cross-interactions for epidermal growth factor (EGF, colony stimulating factors (CSF and neurotropins. Since the effects of EGF and neurotropins are exerted predominantly at the microenvironment level, they can not be evaluated by means of its circulating levels, a fact that could be possible for CSFs.

  14. Growth Factors and Breast Tumors, Comparison of Selected Growth Factors with Traditional Tumor Markers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ku?era, R.; ?erná, M.; ?aršanská, A.; Svobodová, Š.; Straková, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Fuchsová, R.; T?ešková, I.; Kydlí?ek, T.; T?eška, V.; Pecen, Ladislav; Topol?an, O.; Padziora, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 31, ?. 12 (2011), s. 4653-4656. ISSN 0250-7005 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NS9727; GA MZd(CZ) NS10238; GA MZd(CZ) NS10253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth factor * breast cancer * tumor markers * CA 15-3 * CEA * IGF1 * EGF * HGF Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  15. Organisation of the Influence Factors System for Foodstuffs Lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela-Victoria Anghel; Dumitru Mnerie; Dumitru Tucu; Titus Slavici; Alin Vasile Mneri

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying) presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through wh...

  16. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  17. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

  18. Temperature influences on growth of aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature profoundly affects the growth rates of aquatic organisms, and its control is essential for effective aquaculture. Characteristically, both low and high temperatures produce slow growth rates and inefficient food conversion, while intermediate temperature ranges provide rapid growth and efficient food conversion. Distinct, species-specific optimum temperatures and upper and lower temperatures of zero growth can often be defined. Thermal effects can be greatly modified by amounts and quality of food. These data not only provide the basis for criteria which maintain growth of wild organisms but also for effectively using waste heat to create optimal conditions of temperature and food ration for growing aquatic organisms commercially

  19. Growth factors in wound healing: the present and the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thanh; Braunagel, Shawn; Rosenblum, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the pivotal role growth factors play in wound healing and their diminished levels in the chronic wound. Despite promising early studies treating chronic wounds with growth factors, results with traditional bolus dosing of a single growth factor have yielded insignificant results. Disappointing results have been theorized to be the result of growth factors inherent short half-life, a hostile microenvironment rich in protease activity, and poor delivery mechanisms failing to deliver effective dosages in an appropriate temporal manner. Advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have provided technologies capable of delivering multiple growth factors in a spatially oriented approach. These technologies include polymer systems, scaffolds, and hydrogels that have demonstrated improved response by target tissues when growth factors are delivered in this biomimetic fashion. With improved delivery systems, treatment of chronic wounds with growth factors has the potential to accelerate healing in a manner not previously realized with traditional delivery approaches. PMID:25440422

  20. Cheiradone: a vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor antagonist

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Nessar; Matou Sabine; Elosta Abdul H; Choudhary Mohammad I; Mesaik Mohammad A; Slevin Mark; Hussain Sajjad; West David; Gaffney John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is associated with physiological (for example wound healing) and pathological conditions (tumour development). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are the major angiogenic regulators. We have identified a natural product (cheiradone) isolated from a Euphorbia species which inhibited in vivo and in vitro VEGF- stimulated...

  1. Factors influencing model use in occupational therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonette, Owen; Fasloen, Adams; Denise, Franszen.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available STUDY AIM: To determine which models are used by occupational therapists who attended a workshop on the Kawa Model, in their practice, the demographic factors related to the use of these models and the reasons why they use various models in their practice. METHOD: A descriptive, single case study me [...] thod was used with embedded units. The research instrument consisted of a survey questionnaire with closed and some semi-structured questions. RESULTS: The characteristics of therapists influenced their use of models. This was determined by their educational background, their level of experience and exposure in the clinical field and their work setting. Time constraints and the nature of the presenting clients also played a role. The clinicians' overall attitude towards new theory and their habituated ways were highlighted as constant factors influencing model use. The use of models provides structure and assists occupational therapists to produce proper, profession-specific, scientifically-based intervention. Models taught during undergraduate studies need to be relevant to address clients' needs in their specific context.

  2. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Kraatz; W., Berg; R., Brunsch.

    Full Text Available The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of [...] dairy farming is assessed on the basis of direct and indirect energy inputs. The comparison of different replacement rates and milk yields shows clearly that both have a considerable influence on the energy intensity of dairy farming. The feed energy requirement/kg milk produced is decreased with an increase in individual performance of the animals. Nevertheless, this effect diminishes gradually with milk yields higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year. Additionally, energy demand increases with higher replacement rates of cows. Milk yields higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year can clearly not compensate for the increase in the cumulative energy demand. Therefore milk yields considerably higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year are not advisable from the view-point of the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply. A decreasing service life of the dairy cows (increasing replacement rate) causes a higher energy demand per kg milk, but its influence is only marginal.

  3. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  4. Factors influencing the biochemical markers for predicting mammalian oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality. PMID:22976454

  5. Factors influencing successful radioiodine therapy of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadi? Silvija M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13, operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1, the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS, and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05 influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.

  6. Aldosterone as a renal growth factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Warren

    2011-04-05

    Aldosterone regulates blood pressure through its effects on the cardiovascular system and kidney. Aldosterone can also contribute to the development of hypertension that leads to chronic pathologies such as nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Aldosterone directly modulates renal cell proliferation and differentiation as part of normal kidney development. The stimulation of rapidly activated protein kinase cascades is one facet of how aldosterone regulates renal cell growth. These cascades may also contribute to myofibroblastic transformation and cell proliferation observed in pathological conditions of the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that is accelerated by hypertension. EGFR-dependent proliferation of the renal epithelium is a factor in cyst development and trans-activation of EGFR is a key feature in initiating aldosterone-induced signalling cascades. Delineating the components of aldosterone-induced signalling cascades may identify novel therapeutic targets for proliferative diseases of the kidney.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of basic fibroblast growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The present study was to establish and estimate a 125I label and an radioimmunoassay (RIA) of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Methods: The iodinated recombinant human bFGF (rhbFGF) was prepared using chloramine T(Ch-T), and levels of bFGF in rabbit serum were determined by a double antibody-polyethylene glycol (PEG) RIA protocol. Results: The radioiodine utilization ratio, specific radioactivity and radiochemical purity of 125I labelling bFGF were 81.98%, 3.03 MBq/?g and over 95%, respectively. The sensitivity of bFGF RIA reached 0.4 ng. Conclusion: The present study may provide a convenient and reliable method for 125I label and quantitative determination of bFGF

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE BIRTH RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVU MIHAELA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.

  9. Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that constitutes one of four members of the erbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Binding of EGFR to its cognate ligands leads to autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways that are involved in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Although present in normal cells, EGFR is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell lines and has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. EGFR activation also plays a role in resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatment in tumor cells. Over the past two decades, much effort has been directed at developing anticancer agents that can interfere with EGFR activity. The most common pharmacologic approaches to inhibiting EGFR have been to develop monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors. Monoclonal antibodies block ligand binding to the extracellular domain, whereas the small-molecule inhibitors exert their effects at the intracellular portion of the receptor to prevent tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways. A number of EGFR inhibitors have been developed that can arrest tumor growth and, in some cases, cause tumor regression. When used in combination with cytotoxic treatments, chemotherapy, and radiation, EGFR inhibitors have been able to potentiate their anticancer activitytheir anticancer activity

  10. Population in factor accumulation-based growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bucci, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the conditions under which, within a two-sector endogenous growth model with human and physical capital accumulation but without R&D-driven disembodied technological progress, it is possible to observe an ambiguous effect of population growth on economic growth, as empirical evidence suggests. We present three models. In each of them the engine of long-run growth is human capital accumulation. Population growth exerts ambiguous effects on economic growth only when human an...

  11. Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Abbas Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.71 and 1955 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. Using principal component analysis, the study has detected six factors including customer’s information, building trust, secure internet access, having good internet infrastructure and internet users.

  12. A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Modiri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

  13. Challenges and opportunities in the targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vikram K.; Turner, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor pathway is a common event in many cancer types. Here we review the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling in breast cancer, from SNPs in FGFR2 that influence breast cancer risk and SNPs in FGFR4 that associate with breast cancer prognosis, and potential therapeutic targets such as receptor amplification and aberrant autocrine and paracrine ligand expression. We discuss the multiple therapeutic strategies in preclinical and clin...

  14. Factors influencing the creep of dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, D B; Adey, J D

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of relevant microstructural and compositional factors on the creep of 12 representative dental amalgams by means of stepwise multiple linear regression. The independent variables accepted by the regression were volume percent of the eta' (Cu6Sn5) phase, grain size of the gamma 1 (Ag2Hg3) phase, volume percent of the gamma (Ag3Sn) plus epsilon (Cu3Sn) phases, number of very small eta' crystals (less than 1.5 microns) per mm, and weight percent of Hg. The results of this regression showed an adjusted R2 of 0.949, significant at p = 0.002. PMID:1960248

  15. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ceccon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.As florestas tropicais secas representam cerca da metade das florestas tropicais do mundo e são ecossistemas que estão sofrendo uma grande deterioração pelas atividades humanas. Neste artigo realizamos uma revisão de literatura sobre a dinâmica da regeneração das florestas tropicais secas enfocando principalmente nos fatores abióticos que influenciam esta regeneração, tais como, o clima estacional, a fertilidade e umidade do solo e as perturbações naturais e antrópicas. O principal objetivo é compreender um aspecto muito importante da dinâmica sucessional das florestas tropicais secas.

  16. Small Is Beautiful: Insulin-Like Growth Factors and Their Role in Growth, Development, and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors were discovered more than 50 years ago as mediators of growth hormone that effect growth and differentiation of bone and skeletal muscle. Interest of the role of insulin-like growth factors in cancer reached a peak in the 1990s, and then waned until the availability in the past 5 years of monoclonal antibodies and small molecules that block the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. In this article, we review the history of insulin-like growth factors and their rol...

  17. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree competition studies, in which tree spatial patterning is typically not taken into account. Our findings highlight the importance of forest structure – particularly the spatial arrangement of trees – in regulating inter-tree competition and growth in structurally diverse forests, and they provide insight into the causes and consequences of heterogeneity in this old-growth system.

  18. Correlation between hepatocyte growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor-A in breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra ?acko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-met expressions in homogenous group of breast cancer patients. Tumor samples were collected from 98 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma stage II treated with primary surgery. We have observed a strong correlation between VEGF-A and c-met. No correlations were found between VEGF-A or HGFR expressions and clinical parameters (tumor size, grade, axillary lymph node status, age, 5- and 10-years DFS or OS. Our study did not reveal any prognostic value of c-met or VEGF. In addition they are not useful to separate a patients' subgroup with poor prognosis. Unlike in other authors' studies, our patients' group is very homogenous which might tribute to obtained results.

  19. Evaluación de factores ambientales que influyen en características de crecimiento del nacimiento al destete de corderos Hampshire / Environmental factors influencing growth variables from birth to weaning in Hampshire lambs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José A., Ramirez-Tello; Glafiro, Torres-Hernández; Lino, de la Cruz-Colín; Manuel A., Ochoa-Cordero; Javier, Suárez-Espinosa.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar los efectos de sexo de la cría (macho, hembra), tipo de nacimiento de la cría (sencillo, doble), edad de la madre (2 a 7 y más años), granja (10 unidades), semental anidado en granja, así como interacciones dobles, que influyen en el peso al nacimiento (PN), peso [...] al destete ajustado por edad (PDA) y promedio de ganancia diaria de peso pre-destete (GDP) de corderos Hampshire de 10 granjas en Hidalgo, México. Se analizó una base de datos de 2006 a 2009 con 998 observaciones para PN y 933 para PDA y GDP. La alimentación se basó en granos, alfalfa, forraje de avena, y minerales. El análisis estadístico se efectuó con el procedimiento GLM del SAS. Las medias generales fueron PN: 5.1±0.9 kg, PDA: 32.3±5.4 kg, y GDP: 0.300±0.055 kg. Hubo efectos (P Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of sex of lamb (SL: male, female), type of birth (TB: single, twin), age of dam (AD: 2 to 7 years and older), farm (F: 10 units), and sire nested within farm, as well as first-order interactions that influence the variation of birth weight (BW), [...] adjusted weaning weight (AWW) and average pre-weaning daily weight gain (ADG) of Hampshire lambs from 10 farms in Hidalgo, México. A data base from 2006 to 2009 with 998 observations for BW and 933 for AWW and ADG was analyzed. Feeding of parents and lambs was based on grains, alfalfa, oats hay, and minerals. The statistical analysis was carried out with the GLM procedure of SAS. Overall means were BW: 5.1±0.9 kg, AWW: 32.3±5.4 kg, and ADG: 0.300±0.055 kg. Significant effects (P

  20. Transforming growth factor-? and breast cancer: Transforming growth factor-?/SMAD signaling defects and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kretzschmar, Marcus

    2000-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is a tumor suppressor, the function of which is compromised in many types of human cancer, including breast cancer. The tumor suppressive effects of TGF-? are caused by potent inhibition of cell proliferation due to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Such antiproliferative responses are mediated by a signaling system that includes two types of cell surface receptors and intracellular signal transducers, the SMAD proteins. Different molecular mechanisms ...

  1. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  2. Porous calcium phosphate based nanovectors for growth factor release

    OpenAIRE

    Mo?ller, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphates are the most frequently used ceramics for bone regeneration due to their biocompatibility and favorable resorption properties. Their performance can however be improved if they are associated to growth factors. In order to control the release of growth factors, we have inted to synthesize calcium phosphates with controlled mesoporosity. This thesis represents the first work that combines mesoporous calcium phosphates with the growth factors TGF and VEGF. To obtain hydroxyap...

  3. Immunocytochemical expression of growth factors by odontogenic jaw cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, T.; Browne, R. M.; Matthews, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To determine the immunocytochemical pattern of expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and TGF beta in the three most common types of odontogenic jaw cyst. METHODS: Growth factor expression was detected in paraffin wax sections of odontogenic cysts (27 odontogenic keratocysts, 10 dentigerous cysts, and 10 radicular cysts) using a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase technique with monoclonal antibodies directed against TGF alpha (clone 213-4.4) and ...

  4. Organisation of the Influence Factors System for Foodstuffs Lyophilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Victoria Anghel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through which an organized system was formed was applied. Finally, the values of entropy system and of the organization level of the factors system were determined.

  5. Different in vitro and in vivo activity of low Mr phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase on epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigacci, S; Marzocchini, R; Bucciantini, M; Berti, A

    1998-09-29

    Low Mr phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase is a cytosolic enzyme which dephosphorylates platelet-derived growth factor and insulin receptor in vivo, thus reducing cellular mitogenic response to such growth factors. Following cell stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor the phosphatase undergoes a redistribution from the citosol to the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction where its activity upon the growth factor receptor is intense. Previous research uncovered evidence that low Mr phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase dephosphorylates the epidermal growth factor receptor in vitro. Here we demonstrate that in vivo the enzyme is not active on the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor and it does not influence the mitogenic response of cells. Since the enzyme distribution is not affected by epidermal growth factor stimulation, involvement of a recruitment mechanism in the definition of low Mr phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase substrate specificity is hypothesized. PMID:9784386

  6. Angiogenic growth factor expression in benign and malignant vascular tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robin J; Fernando, Malee; Hughes, David; Brown, Nicola J; Woll, Penella J

    2014-08-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare malignant vascular tumours. Angiosarcoma expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has previously been reported, but angiosarcoma expression of other angiogenic growth factors has not been systematically studied. Non-VEGF angiogenic growth factors are a potential mechanism of resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy, but they also represent potential therapeutic targets. Immunohistochemistry analysis evaluated the expression of 13 angiogenic growth factors and receptors in 27 separate benign and malignant archived human vascular tumour samples. The expression of 55 angiogenesis-related proteins was subsequently profiled in five fresh human angiosarcoma tumour samples using antibody arrays. Angiosarcomas expressed a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Significantly higher levels of Notch1 were detected compared with benign haemangiomas (p=0.033), but lower levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) compared to benign haemangiomas (p=0.07) and inflammatory vascular lesions (p=0.009). Vascular tumour expression of FGF receptor (FGFR)-1 correlated with angiopoietin (Ang)-2, Tie2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Notch1 expression (p=0.001, p=0.001, pTie2 expression (p=0.004). In conclusion, angiosarcomas express multiple angiogenic growth factors. Treatments could be targeted at individual angiogenic growth factors. However, our findings provide a rationale for combination therapy, or for treatments that target common downstream signalling intermediaries, such as Akt, mTOR or ERK. PMID:24984271

  7. Markedly elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin 6 in Meigs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Y; Anteby, S O; Fasouliotis, S J; Barak, V

    2001-02-01

    Analysis of serum and peritoneal and pleural fluid from a patient with Meigs' syndrome revealed high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin 6. Serum levels declined after removal of the ovarian tumor, along with resolution of ascites and hydrothorax. These findings suggest the involvement of these vasoactive factors in ascites and pleural fluid formation in Meigs' syndrome. PMID:11228486

  8. Tissue Engineering Using Transfected Growth-Factor Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Langer, Robert S.; Freed, Lisa E.; Trippel, Stephen; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2005-01-01

    A method of growing bioengineered tissues includes, as a major component, the use of mammalian cells that have been transfected with genes for secretion of regulator and growth-factor substances. In a typical application, one either seeds the cells onto an artificial matrix made of a synthetic or natural biocompatible material, or else one cultures the cells until they secrete a desired amount of an extracellular matrix. If such a bioengineered tissue construct is to be used for surgical replacement of injured tissue, then the cells should preferably be the patient s own cells or, if not, at least cells matched to the patient s cells according to a human-leucocyteantigen (HLA) test. The bioengineered tissue construct is typically implanted in the patient's injured natural tissue, wherein the growth-factor genes enhance metabolic functions that promote the in vitro development of functional tissue constructs and their integration with native tissues. If the matrix is biodegradable, then one of the results of metabolism could be absorption of the matrix and replacement of the matrix with tissue formed at least partly by the transfected cells. The method was developed for articular chondrocytes but can (at least in principle) be extended to a variety of cell types and biocompatible matrix materials, including ones that have been exploited in prior tissue-engineering methods. Examples of cell types include chondrocytes, hepatocytes, islet cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, other organ cells, bone- and cartilage-forming cells, epithelial and endothelial cells, connective- tissue stem cells, mesodermal stem cells, and cells of the liver and the pancreas. Cells can be obtained from cell-line cultures, biopsies, and tissue banks. Genes, molecules, or nucleic acids that secrete factors that influence the growth of cells, the production of extracellular matrix material, and other cell functions can be inserted in cells by any of a variety of standard transfection techniques.

  9. Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Ya. Hlukha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine exogenous and endogenous factors have been analyzed; - reflexive and elastic economic growth factors have been determined; - economic policy was given the role of reflective element within the system to ensure economic growth. The system of factors should be considered within the system that ensures economic growth. It comprises two important elements which enlist the economic growth factors system, economic growth rates system and two reflexive elements – the state economic policy and economic growth models system. While analyzing the economic growth factors, their quality and impact upon the economy should be considered. Economic growth depends on the factors, consideration of which is one of the most important aspects of the economic growth theory. Economic growth reasons are the factors that cause this growth. These are phenomena and processes that can increase the production output, improve efficiency and quality. Factors classification completeness and their diversity do not necessarily mean the dead end of the study. Any classification has the sense only if it fulfills the certain function. If we take into account economic growth modeling, factors diversification and their characteristics classification it implies that models are becoming more complex, the range of their parameters expands, however it does not necessarily lead to more accurate prognosis. All the factors have different impact upon the economic development. Their first type is elastic ones. These factors directly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand. For instance, net export means the increasing foreign demand for our national products; favorable weather conditions lead to the agricultural produce growing supply without any significant change in the economy. These factors rates can be measured and their impact upon economic growth can be easily determined. Another group of factors that indirectly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand are the reflexive factors. They function through structural changes, distribution and motivation system, insignificant restrictions and stimulus. These factors can only be characterized by indirect rates (human development index to measure human capital and their impact upon economic growth, supply and demand is minor in the long run. This group enlists institutional and social factors that become more and more important in post industrial economy. Taking into account economic growth factors impact upon the supply and demand, we can sate that analysis that has been carried out provides good grounds to improve the research methodology in the field of economic growth modeling. We cannot definitely say if there are certain economic growth factors that are entirely independent from the state regulation. Firstly, government itself indirectly impacts the economic growth, by adopting new laws, for instance. Secondly, the main function of the state is to administratively regulate the economic system. This processit can lead to a significant development. Consequently the state plays one of the major roles in the economic factors development. Conclusions and directions of further researches. To ensure Ukraine’s constant economic development and to establish corresponding strategies to reach that goal it is of utmost importance to classify the economic growth factors and to study carefully their impact on the economic processes as the whole.

  10. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2014-11-26

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. PMID:25433777

  11. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  12. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela Victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  13. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  14. Radiotherapy and receptor of epidermal growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression level of the receptor of the epidermal growth factor is in correlation with the tumor cells radiosensitivity. An overexpression of the E.G.F.R. is often present in the bronchi cancer, epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere, esophagus, uterine cervix, and anal duct but also in the rectum cancers and glioblastomas. At the clinical level, the E.G.F.R. expression is in correlation with an unfavourable prognosis after radiotherapy in numerous tumoral localizations. In the rectum cancers it is an independent prognosis factor found in multifactorial analysis: increase of the rate of nodes and local recurrence when the E.G.F.R. is over expressed. In the uterine cervix cancers, the survival is is negatively affected in multifactorial analysis by the E.G.F.R. membranes expression level. At the therapy level, the development of anti E.G.F.R. targeted therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies) opens a new therapy field at radio-sensitivity potentiality. The irradiation makes an activation of the E.G.F.R. way that would be partially responsible of the post irradiation tumoral repopulation. This activation leads the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase ways and M.A.P. kinase ones, then the Akt protein one that acts an apoptotic modulator part. It has been shown that blocking the E.G.F.R. way acts on three levels: accumulation of ells in phase G1, reduction of the cell repair and increasing of apoptosis. he inhibition of post irradiation action he inhibition of post irradiation action of the E.G.F.R. signal way is a factor explaining the ionizing radiation - anti E.G.F.R. synergy. The preclinical data suggest that the E.G.F.R. blocking by the monoclonal antibodies is more important than the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A first positive randomized study with the cetuximab, published in 2006 in the epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere lead to its authorization on the market with the radiotherapy for this localization. The use of cetuximab in other indication with or in chemoradiotherapy association is for the moment kept to the clinical research. Several tests are running in France: the cetuxicol test concerning the locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas with pelvis irradiation associated to cisplatin, the anal duct cancers in chemoradiotherapy association, rectum cancers in preoperative situation or O.R.L. carcinomas in chemoradiotherapy association from the oncology group of head and neck radiotherapy. Among the expected data of these tests, besides the elements of tumor response, the data on sane tissues toxicity will be key elements. (N.C.)

  15. Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tuzemen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01. Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01. Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01 influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01. The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

  16. Development of neural crest cells expressing nerve growth factor receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The present study examines the ontogeny of the nerve growth factor receptor of neural crest cells in vitro and the phenotypic nature of the neural crest cells expressing this receptor. /sup 125/I-NGF binding assays and autoradiographic and immunofluorescence techniques have demonstrated the presence of a subpopulation of quail neural crest cells that express specific NGF receptors after 3-4 days in vitro. This subpopulations represents approximately 28% of the cells in 5-day primary cultures and 30-35% of the cells in secondary cultures; these cells generally exhibited a flattened, phase-dark morphology. Approximately one-third of these cells also labeled with a 2 hr pulse of /sup 3/H thymidine. Catecholamine-containing neural crest cells generally lacked NGF receptors. NGF receptor-positive cells also failed to demonstrate somatostatin-, neuron-specific enolase-, or S-100-like immunoreactivity. Melanocytes do not appear to express NGF receptors. Exogenous nerve growth factor did not influence the morphology or mitotic status of the cells in culture.

  17. Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? – ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.

  18. Export Growth and Factor Market Competition: Theory and Some Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Emami Namini, J.; Facchini, G.; Lopez, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that sectoral export growth decreases exporters' survival probability, whereas this is not true for non-exporters. Models with firm heterogeneity in total factor productivity (TFP) predict the opposite. To solve this puzzle, we develop a two{factor framework where firms differ in factor intensities. Thus, export growth increases competition for the factor used intensively by exporters, eliminating some of them, while non-exporters benefit. Interacting heterogene...

  19. The Optimal Level and Impact of Internal Factors on Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui-Wai Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically uses data from the world economy to show that performance of domestic factors are equally important to external factors when comes to growth. Various external and domestic factors are used to construct two separate indices and the principal component method is applied in the analysis. The empiri- cal results show that given a different level of performance in the economy’s external factors, a higher per- formance in the internal factors will produce a higher growth rate. When the performance of an economy’s internal factors is extremely low, it would be appropriate for that economy first to improve its internal factors.

  20. Adsorption and release properties of growth factors from biodegradable implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, J; Mayr-Wohlfart, U; Kessler, S; Breitig, D; Günther, K-P

    2002-03-01

    The present investigation was performed to study the adsorption behavior of growth factors and their release characteristics from biodegradable implants in an in vitro study. We investigated the stability of growth factors administered on various scaffolds. We used porous tricalcium phosphate ceramics (alpha-TCP), a neutralized glass-ceramics (GB9N), a composite (polylactid/-glycolid/GB9N), and solvent dehydrated human bone as carriers. Block shaped scaffolds (sized: 7 x 7 x 10 mm) were loaded with 5 microg of either bone morphogenetic protein (rxBMP-4), basic fibroblast growth factor (rh-bFGF), or vascular endothelial growth factor (rh-VEGF) solved in 150 microL PBS. The growth factors were labeled with Iodine125 (I-125) for detecting the adsorbed and released amount of growth factors by counting the samples for total I-125 activity. We observed that the adsorption of these growth factors seems to depend on two different parameters: first on the nature of the tested material, and second on the growth factors on their own. The release kinetics of the growth factors from the biodegradable implants can be described as a two phase process-a very rapid release during the first hours by an elution of not adsorbed protein, followed by a specific release, which depends upon the chemical/physical interaction of the material and the growth factor used. Analyzing the eluted proteins on SDS-PAGEs rh-VEGF was degraded into a smaller fragment with a size of around 15 kDa, while rxBMP-4 and rh-bFGF showed a complete degradation into fragments smaller than 3 kDa after more than 3 days. Although this in vitro study suggests that biodegradable implants might be successfully used as carriers for osteogenic growth factors, the different release kinetics as well as the alteration of their molecular structure including loss of biological activity should be considered. PMID:11774299

  1. Clinical application of growth factors and cytokines in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of nonhealing wounds (e.g., pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted an online search of Medline/PubMed and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies, and future research possibilities. In this review, we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. PMID:24942811

  2. Factors influencing creep model equation selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of ?(t,T,?) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets

  3. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  4. Influence of Microwave Treatment on Root Growth Dynamics in Some Genotypes of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cre?escu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The influence of physical factors, such as microwave radiations, is today an alternative in agriculture for stimulation of plant vitality. In this study we aimed to evaluate the influence of microwaves in the early seedlings stages for 4 Romanian barley genotypes: Cardinal, Sistem, Dana and Maresal. This study was conducted to determine whether there are differentiated responses to microwave irradiation, at different powers and different exposure times, on the dynamics of root growth in some barley cultivars. Root growth measurements were performed after 3, 7 and 14 days of treatment with microwaves. It was observed that genotype, power or exposure time had significant influence both on root growth and on the number of roots of the studied barley genotypes. Microwave treatment caused significant differences in seedlings root growth. The greatest influence on root growth had the time of exposure. The best results in terms of root growth were obtained for the Cardinal and Sistem variety. At these varieties we observed the best stimulation effect, and the lowest influence of the microwave action. The most affected genotype was Dana, with the lowest stimulation effect.

  5. Factors affecting filamentous growth of Sphaerotilus natans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAUDY, E; WOLFE, R S

    1961-11-01

    Filamentous growth in cultures of Sphaerotilus natans can be measured and compared with total growth by a standardized procedure of winding filaments around an inoculating needle. Filaments and residual growth are then separately washed on Millipore filters, dried, and weighed. This method has been used to study changes in the growth habit of S. natans elicited by changes in the concentration of nutrients in the medium. The concentration of peptone, in a medium containing a sugar, phosphate buffer, and inorganic salts, has a much greater effect on the proportion of filamentous growth than does the nature or concentration of the carbon source or the concentration of phosphate buffer. Filament formation is significantly inhibited by concentrations of peptone greater than 0.25%; further increases in peptone concentration stimulate the production of large amounts of capsular material. Increasing the concentration of phosphate buffer to 0.05 M almost completely inhibits growth of S. natans. PMID:13897283

  6. Impact of hematopoietic growth factors on cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Biesma, Bonne

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis both in vitro and in vivo properties of recombinant human hematopoietic growth factors are described. In chapter 1 the effects of five different recombinant human hematopoietic growth factors (GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-3, IL-4 and IL-6) on the in vitro proliferation of a panel of eleven human SCLC cell lines is decribed. ... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  7. Nanoparticle mediated controlled delivery of dual growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, LuZhong; Zhou, YouLang; Li, GuiCai; Zhao, YaHong; Gu, XiaoSong; Yang, YuMin

    2014-02-01

    Peripheral nerve functional recovery after nerve injury generally requires multiple growth factors by synergistic effect. However, the optical combination of multiple synergistic growth factors for axonal regeneration has been scarcely considered up to now. Meanwhile, the use of growth factors in promoting nerve regeneration was limited by its short biological half-life in vivo, its vulnerability to structure disruption or hydrolyzation, leading to loss of bioactivity. Herein, a novel polymeric nanoparticle delivery system composed of heparin and ?-poly-L-lysine (PL) was prepared for control release of nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The nanoparticles were synthesized by polyelectrolyte complexation in aqueous solution at room temperature, followed by cross-linking with biological genipin. The obtained nanoparticles had a spherical shape, with a mean diameter of about 246 nm, and high growth factors encapsulation efficiency as well as good stability. NGF and bFGF were encapsulated in the nanoparticles and showed a continuous and slow release behavior in vitro. The bioactivities of the released growth factors were evaluated, and exhibited the synergistic effect. The controlled release of the dual synergistic growth factors would improve the treatment of peripheral nerve injury to mimic the natural cellular microenvironments. PMID:24430559

  8. Transregulation of Leukemia Inhibitor Factor Receptor Expression and Function by Growth Factors in Neuroblastoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Port, Martha D.; Laszlo, George S.; Nathanson, Neil M.

    2008-01-01

    The cytokines that signal through the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor are members of the neuropoietic cytokine family and have varied and numerous roles in the nervous system. In this report we have determined the effects of growth factor stimulation on LIF receptor (LIFR) expression and signal transduction in the human neuroblastoma cell line NBFL. We show here that stimulation of NBFL cells with either epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor decreases the level of LIFR...

  9. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-?, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15) mRNA and protein are influenced by photoperiod-induced ovarian regression and recrudescence in Siberian hamster ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod (SD) inhibits ovarian function, including folliculogenesis, whereas function is restored with their transfer to long photoperiods (LD). To investigate the mechanism of photo-stimulated recrudescence, we assessed key folliculogenic factors-anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-?, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15)-across the estrus cycle and in photo-regressed and recrudescing ovaries. Adult hamsters were exposed to either LD or SD for 14 weeks, which respectively represent functional and regressed ovaries. Select regressed hamsters were transferred back to LD for 2 (post-transfer week 2; PTw2) or 8 weeks (PTw8). Ovaries were collected and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemistry or frozen in liquid nitrogen for real-time PCR. AMH, inhibin-?, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA and protein were detected in all stages of the estrus cycle. Fourteen weeks of SD exposure increased (P?development. PMID:23877969

  10. Inhibitory effects of the bone-derived growth factors osteoinductive factor and transforming growth factor-beta on isolated osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreffo, R O; Bonewald, L; Kukita, A; Garrett, I R; Seyedin, S M; Rosen, D; Mundy, G R

    1990-06-01

    Demineralized bone matrix contains a number of growth factors for osteoblast-like cells. Two of these, the novel glycoprotein osteoinductive factor (OIF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta), act together to cause ectopic bone formation in vivo. Since OIF, like TGF beta, is likely released from bone when the matrix is resorbed, we examined the effects of homogeneous OIF and TGF beta on osteoclast function. Osteoclast function was tested in isolated avian osteoclasts and was measured in terms of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, oxygen-derived free radical production, and formation of characteristic resorption lacunae on slices of sperm whale dentine. OIF (50-100 ng/ml) inhibited the capacity of these osteoclasts to form lacunae whether assessed by the number of excavations per slice or by the total area resorbed. OIF (10-100 ng/ml) or TGF beta (10-20 ng/ml) caused a decrease in TRAP activity as well as a reduction in oxygen-derived free radical generation detected by nitroblue tetrazolium staining. TGF beta had no effect on the resorption capacity of isolated osteoclasts in concentrations that inhibited TRAP activity and nitroblue tetrazolium staining. These results suggest that growth regulatory factors, such as OIF and TGF beta, released during the resorption of bone may be endogenous inhibitors of continued osteoclastic activity. This cessation of osteoclast activity may be an essential preliminary step to the new bone formation that occurs at resorption sites during bone remodeling. PMID:1693566

  11. Influence of diffuse glass on the growth and production of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Dueck, T. A.; Janse, J.; Li, T.; Kempkes, F. L. K.; Eveleens-clark, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest for diffuse glass in Dutch horticulture ever since higher light transmission values and the diffusing characteristics of diffuse glass have increased production for some crops. Thus an experiment was designed to examine the effects of a variation in haze factors and light transmissions for diffuse glass or a diffuse coating on the growth and production of tomato. The influence of diffuse glass with a haze factor of 45, 62 and 71% and light transmission equal ...

  12. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLoughlin Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2 or hypoxia (10% O2 for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.

  13. Glial cell growth in culture: influence of living cell substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaridis, N; Mangoura, D; Vernadakis, A

    1984-10-01

    The role of the microenvironment in the growth of glial cells in culture has been the topic of ongoing research in this laboratory. Recently, we reported a study on the contribution of fibroblast cell substratum and extracellular matrix in glial cell growth. In the present study we report data concerning a) the influence of a neuronal-enriched living substratum from chick embryo on the growth of glial cells derived from chick embryonic brain and plated onto the substratum; b) the influence of dissociated cells derived from chick embryonic brain on the growth of established glial cells in culture, and c) the influence of dissociated cells derived from adult rat spinal cord on the growth of established glial cells from newborn rat in culture. The activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNP) were the biochemical probes determined for astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, respectively. We found that glial growth as assessed by both enzyme activities, was enhanced when a nervous tissue derived cell population was plated onto a glial-enriched substratum, whereas glial growth was inhibited when the neuronal-enriched population was the cell substratum. PMID:6514111

  14. Antidepressant drugs modulate growth factors in cultured cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maler Juan M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different classes of antidepressant drugs are used as a treatment for depression by activating the catecholinergic system. In addition, depression has been associated with decrease of growth factors, which causes insufficient axonal sprouting and reduced neuronal damage repair. In this study, antidepressant treatments are analyzed in a cell culture system, to study the modulation of growth factors. Results We quantified the transcription of several growth factors in three cell lines after application of antidepressant drugs by real time polymerase chain reaction. Antidepressant drugs counteracted against phorbolester-induced deregulation of growth factors in PMA-differentiated neuronal SY5Y cells. We also found indications in a pilot experiment that magnetic stimulation could possibly modify BDNF in the cell culture system. Conclusion The antidepressant effects antidepressant drugs might be explained by selective modulation of growth factors, which subsequently affects neuronal plasticity.

  15. Structural evidence that endothelial cell growth factor beta is the precursor of both endothelial cell growth factor alpha and acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, W. H.; Mehlman, T.; Marshak, D. R.; Fraser, B. A.; Maciag, T.

    1986-01-01

    Two endothelial cell growth factors (ECGF) have been purified from bovine brain and termed alpha- and beta-ECGF [Burgess, W. H., Mehlman, T., Friesel, R., Johnson, W. V. & Maciag, T. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11389-11392]. Amino acid sequence analysis indicates that beta-ECGF represents a 20 amino acid amino-terminal extension of alpha-ECGF and a 14 amino acid amino-terminal extension of acidic fibroblast growth factor. These data indicate that both alpha-ECGF and acidic fibroblast growth fa...

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in mdx mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Beatrice; Corsi, Patrizia; Vacca, Angelo; Roncali, Luisa; Ribatti, Domenico

    2002-10-25

    Recent data have demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is expressed by subsets of neurons, coincident with angiogenesis within its developing cerebral cortex. In this study, with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms of vascular involvement during brain impairment in Duchenne muscular distrophy (DMD), we have correlated the vascular density with VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) expression in the brain cortex of normal and mdx mouse, an animal model with a genetic defect in a region homologous with the human DMD gene. Results showed that in mdx mouse, tissue area occupied by microvessels positive to factor VIII related antigen and VEGFR-2 increased in parallel to the tissue area occupied by neurons positive to VEGF. Our data suggest that increased vascularity in the brain of mdx mouse may be due, at least in part, to proliferation of endothelial cells in response to VEGF secreted by neuronal cells. PMID:12384233

  17. Guanine is a growth factor for Legionella species.

    OpenAIRE

    Pine, L.; Franzus, M. J.; Malcolm, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of previously described chemically defined media for the growth of Legionella pneumophila showed that these media supported poor growth of several strains of L. pneumophila and did not support growth of certain of the Legionella species described later. Growth was stimulated by the dialysate from yeast extract but not by the nondialyzable fraction. Further investigations indicated that the active factors from the yeast extract dialysate were purine or pyrimidine derivatives, and ce...

  18. Diagnostic value of interleukine-6, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in malignant pleural effusions.

    OpenAIRE

    Duysinx, Bernard; Corhay, Jean-louis; Hubin, Laurent; Nguyen Dang, Delphine; Henket, Monique; Louis, Renaud

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We evaluate the accuracy of pleural interleukine-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels for differentiating benign from malignant pleural exudates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Levels of IL-6, TGF-beta1, and VEGF were measured by ELISA in 103 patients with non neutrophilic (

  19. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected with a monoclonal mouse antibody and EGF with polyclonal rabbit antiserum. Thirty-five of the tumours were positive for TGF-alpha and 26 of the tumours for EGF. None of the poorly differentiated tumours was positive for EGF, but they all were for TGF-alpha. In sections including normal differentiated oral mucosa, the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus paralleling the situation observed in the normal differentiated oral mucosa. In four cases, material was available from both a primary tumour and a metastasis. Three of these were positive for TGF-alpha and EGF with the same staining pattern as that of the primary tumours. This investigation together with our previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases.

  20. Influence of mass transfer in liquid on growth of phase layer between solid and liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of components mass transfer character in liquid on the phase layer growth kinetics during solid and liquid metals interaction is investigated. Differential equation taking into account various mechanisms of transfer in liquid, such as diffusion process and convective flow, as well as the possibility of phase dissolution in a melt, is derived for phase layer growth. A new method of determination of mass transfer parameters in liquid, namely, diffusion factor in liquid (D) and diffusion layer thickness (delta), from the experiments on solid/liquidphase metal interaction is described. The numeric analysis of WAl4 phase growth conditions during interaction of W with liquid Al is conducted

  1. Factors Influencing Career Aspirations of Primary and Secondary Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Joseph R.; Dunlap, Linda L.

    Many studies have examined factors influencing the career aspirations of high school students, but little has been done to explore this issue with primary school students. This study investigated factors that might influence the career aspirations of children across a broad age spectrum. Students (N=150) from grades 2, 5, 8, and 12 completed…

  2. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  3. Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hruzina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.

  4. Transforming growth factor-? and breast cancer: Cell cycle arrest by transforming growth factor-? and its disruption in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, Jeffrey; Slingerland, Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Altered responsiveness to extracellular signals and cell cycle dysregulation are hallmarks of cancer. The cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) that integrate mitogenic and growth inhibitory signals. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? mediates G1 cell cycle arrest by inducing or activating cdk inhibitors, and by inhibiting factors required for cdk activation. Mechanisms that lead to cell cycle arrest by TGF-? are reviewed. Loss of growth inhibition by TGF-? occurs early...

  5. Factors influencing dynamic absorption of noble gases by activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence factors of dynamic adsorption of noble gases in activated carbon is discussed in this paper. The influence of flow rate in a certain range and of CO2 concentration in normal environment may be ignored. Dynamic absorption coefficient increases with the increase in system pressure and decreases with the increase in temperature and relative humidity. Water content in activated carbon is practically used as an influence factor instead of relative humidity in the condition of unbalanced adsorption. (authors)

  6. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  7. Stimulation of tumour growth by wound-derived growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovitch, R.; Marikovsky, M.; Meir, G.; Neeman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the molecular basis for the induction of tumour vascularization and progression by injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated that administration of wound fluid derived from cutaneous injuries in pigs reduced the lag for vascularization and initiation of growth of C6 glioma spheroids, implanted in nude mice, and accelerated tumour doubling time. The former effect can be attributed to the angiogenic capacity of wound fluid as detected i...

  8. Structural basis of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and MET signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Gherardi, Ermanno; Sandin, Sara; Petoukhov, Maxim V.; Finch, John; Youles, Mark E.; O?fverstedt, Lars-go?ran; Miguel, Ricardo N.; Blundell, Tom L.; Vande Woude, George F.; Skoglund, Ulf; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2006-01-01

    The polypeptide growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), shares the multidomain structure and proteolytic mechanism of activation of plasminogen and other complex serine proteinases. HGF/SF, however, has no enzymatic activity. Instead, it controls the growth, morphogenesis, or migration of epithelial, endothelial, and muscle progenitor cells through the receptor tyrosine kinase MET. Using small-angle x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy, we show that conversio...

  9. Regulation of transferrin receptor expression at the cell surface by insulin-like growth factors, epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (rIGF-I) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) to BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts causes a marked increase in the binding of [125I] diferric transferrin to cell surface receptors. This effect is very rapid and is complete within 5 minutes. The effect is transient with [125I] diferric transferrin binding returning to control values within 25 minutes. In contrast, PDGF and rIGF-I cause a prolonged stimulation of [125I] diferric transferrin binding that could be observed up to 2 hours. The increase in the binding of [125I] diferric transferrin caused by growth factors was investigated by analysis of the binding isotherm. EGF, PDGF and rIGF-I were found to increase the cell surface expression of transferrin receptors rather than to alter the affinity of the transferrin receptors. Furthermore, PDGF and rIGF-I stimulated the sustained uptake of [59Fe] diferric transferrin by BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts. Thus, the effect of these growth factors to increase the cell surface expression of the transferrin receptor appears to have an important physiological consequence

  10. The influence of nonrandom mating on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Susanne; Neuhaus, Peter; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim

    2013-07-01

    When nonrandom mating alters offspring numbers or the distribution of offspring phenotypes, it has the potential to impact the population growth rate. Similarly, sex-specific demographic parameters that influence the availability of mating partners can leave a signature on the population growth rate. We develop a general framework to explore how mating patterns and sex differences influence the population growth rate. We do this by constructing a two-sex integral projection model to explore ways in which altering the mating behavior from random to nonrandom mating (assortative, disassortative, or selection for size) and altering demographic parameters in one or both sexes (growth, survival, and parental contribution to offspring phenotype) affect the population growth rate. We demonstrate our framework using data from a population of Columbian ground squirrels. Our results suggest that the population growth rate is substantially affected when nonrandom mating is linked to sex differences in demographic parameters or parental contributions to offspring phenotype, but interestingly, the effect of the mating pattern alone is rather small. Our results also suggest that the population growth rate of Columbian ground squirrels would increase with the degree of disassortative mating and with the degree of the mating advantage of large individuals. PMID:23778224

  11. A tumor growth inhibitory factor and a tumor growth promoting factor isolated from unfertilized ova of shad (Alosa sapidissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheid, B; Prat, J C; Gaetjens, E

    1989-03-15

    In the present study, a cytostatic tumor growth inhibitory peptide and a tumor growth promoting peptide with molecular weights of 20,000-30,000 Da have been identified in the supernatant fraction of unfertilized ova from Shad. The factors can be separated by gel chromatography, thus indicating that the factors are individual molecules. Both of the factors are nondialyzable, heat stable, and resistant to trypsin digestion and periodate oxidation. PMID:2930539

  12. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...

  13. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  14. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A. R. H.; Lans, I. A.; Frewer, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  15. Influence of thyroid in nervous system growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, G C; Mussa, F; Bretto, R; Zambelli, M C; Silvestro, L

    2001-08-01

    Nervous system growth and differentiation are closely correlated with the presence of iodine and thyroid hormones in initial development stages. In the human species, encephalon maturation during the first quarter of pregnancy is affected according to recent studies by the transplacenta passage of maternal thyroid hormones while it depends on initial iodiothyronin secretion by the foetal gland after the 12th week of pregnancy. Thyroid hormone deficiency during nervous system development causes altered noble nervous cells, such as the pyramidal cortical and Purkinje cells, during glial cell proliferation and differentiation alike. Neurons present cell hypoplasia with reduced axon count, dendritic branching, synaptic spikes and interneuron connections. Oligodendrocytes decrease in number and average myelin content consequently drops. Biochemical studies on hypothyroid rats have demonstrated alterations to neuron intraplasmatic microtubule content and organisation, changed mitochondria number and arrangement and anomalies in T3 nuclear and citoplasmatic receptor maturation. Alterations to microtubules are probably responsible for involvement of the axon-dendrite system, and are the consequence of deficient thyroid hormone action on the mitochondria, the mitochondria enzymes and proteins associated with microtubules. Nuclear and citoplasmatic receptors have been identified and gene clonation studies have shown two families of nuclear receptors that include several sub-groups in their turn. A complex scheme of temporal and spatial expression of these receptors exists, so they probably contribute with one complementary function, although their physiological role differs. The action of thyroid hormones occurs by changing cell protein levels because of their regulation at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Genes submitted to thyroid hormone control are either expressed by oligodendrytes, which are myelin protein coders or glial differentiation mediators, or are nervous cell specific, genes coding neurotropins or proteins involved in synaptic excitation. The use of new PMRS and MRI non-invasive techniques has enabled identification of metabolic and biochemical markers for alterations in the encephalon of untreated hypothyroid children. Even an excess of thyroid hormones during early nervous system development can cause permanent effects. Hyperthyroidism in fact initially induces accelerated maturation process including cell migration and differentiation, extension of dendritic processes and synaptogenesis but a later excess of thyroid hormones causes reduction of the total number of dendritic spikes, due to early interruption of neuron proliferation. Experimental studies and clinical research have clarified not only the correlation between nervous system maturation and thyroid function during early development stages and the certain finding from this research is that both excess and deficient thyroid hormones can cause permanent anatomo-functional alterations to the nervous system. PMID:11573069

  16. Influence of different ALL therapies on height and growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult height in 20 patients, successfully treated for childhood leukemia, led to reduced height 2L2. In contrast, less intensive maintenance therapy (6-MP and MTX) of protocol BFM 81 showed a transient growth spurt. Final height equals projected target height. Neither 18 Gy nor 198Au intrathecally influenced final height. (author)

  17. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.

  18. Phenylpropanoic Acid: Growth Factor for Ruminococcus albus

    OpenAIRE

    Hungate, R. E.; Stack, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    Phenylpropanoic acid accounted for part of the stimulatory effect of rumen fluid on the rate of growth and of cellulose digestion by cultures of Ruminococcus albus strain 8 grown on a chemically defined medium. As little as 3 ?M concentration gave maximum response.

  19. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight. Presented with an imbalanced dietary phosphorus to calcium ratio, increased secretion of FGF23 will inhibit renal phosphorus reabsorption, resulting in increased excretion and reduced circulating phosphorus. Increased intake and excretion of phosphorus is associated with increased kidney stone risk in both the terrestrial and microgravity environments. Highly processed foods and carbonated beverages are associated with higher phosphorus content. Ideally, the dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio should be at minimum 1:1. Nutritional requirements for spaceflight suggest that this ratio not be less than 0.67 (3), while the International Space Station (ISS) menu provides 1020 mg Ca and 1856 mg P, for a ratio of 0.55 (3). Subjects in NASA's bed rest studies, by design, have consumed intake ratios much closer to 1.0 (4). FGF23 also has an inhibitory influence on PTH secretion and 1(alpha)-hydroxylase, both of which are required for activating vitamin D with the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will result in decreased intestinal phosphorus absorption, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion (via decreased renal reabsorption). Should a decrease in 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D be necessary to reduce intestinal phosphorus absorption, calcium absorption will also proportionally be reduced, potentially leading to skeletal demineralization. Demineralization of bone can increase kidney stone risk, a medical issue that could prove detrimental to mission success. Given the interrelationships described above, we sought to determine circulating FGF23 concentrations in spaceflight and ground analog studies to better understand the potential effects of dietary phosphorus on bone and calcium metabolism. We analyzed serum from ISS astronauts participating in studies of bone biochemistry, including the Nutrition SMO and Pro K experiments, and we also evaluated FGF23 during extended-duration bed rest. Serum intact FGF23 levels were determined using an ELISA kit from Kainos laboratories in Japan. While initial evaluation of the data showed no changes over time during flight or bed rest, evaluation continues of FGF23 data in light of dietary factors, PTH, vitamin D status, and other biochemical and endocrine factors.

  20. Comparison of vascular growth factors in the murine brain reveals placenta growth factor as prime candidate for CNS revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Emília Ilona; Tammela, Tuomas; Anisimov, Andrey; Marbacher, Serge; Honkanen, Petri; Zarkada, Georgia; Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Alitalo, Kari

    2013-08-01

    Vascular bypass procedures in the central nervous system (CNS) remain technically challenging, hindered by complications and often failing to prevent adverse outcome such as stroke. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for a safe and effective CNS revascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are promising candidates for revascularization; however, their effects appear to be tissue-specific and their potential in the CNS has not been fully explored. To test growth factors for angiogenesis in the CNS, we characterized the effects of endothelium-specific growth factors on the brain vasculature and parenchyma. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding the growth factors were injected transcranially to the frontoparietal cerebrum of mice. Angiogenesis, mural cell investment, leukocyte recruitment, vascular permeability, reactive gliosis and neuronal patterning were evaluated by 3-dimensional immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, optical projection tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Placenta growth factor (PlGF) stimulated robust angiogenesis and arteriogenesis without significant side effects, whereas VEGF and VEGF-C incited growth of aberrant vessels, severe edema, and inflammation. VEGF-B, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and a VEGF/angiopoietin-1 chimera had minimal effects on the brain vessels or parenchyma. Of the growth factors tested, PlGF emerged as the most efficient and safe angiogenic factor, hence making it a candidate for therapeutic CNS revascularization. PMID:23803710

  1. Efficacy of glial growth factor and nerve growth factor on the recovery of traumatic facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mucahit; Karlidag, Turgut; Yalcin, Sinasi; Ozogul, Candan; Keles, Erol; Alpay, Hayrettin Cengiz; Yanilmaz, Muhammed

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Glial growth factor (GGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on nerve regeneration in facial nerve anastomosis. In this study, approximately a 1-mm segment was resected from the facial nerve and the free ends were anastomosed. All animals underwent the same surgical procedure and 30 rabbits were grouped randomly in three groups. Control group, the group without any medications; NGF group, the group receiving 250 ng/0.1 ml NGF in the epineurium at the site of anastomosis; GBF group, the group receiving 500 ng/0.1 ml GGF in the epineurium at the site of anastomosis. Medications were given at the time of surgery, and at 24 and 48 h postoperatively. After 2 months, the sites of anastomosis were excised and examined using the electron microscope. It was found that the best regeneration was in the group receiving GGF as compared to the control group in terms of nerve regeneration. Schwann cell and glial cell proliferation were found to be significantly higher in the group receiving GGF as compared to the group receiving NGF. Besides, the number of myelin debris, an indicator of degeneration, was significantly lower in the group with GGF as compared to NGF and control groups (p < 0.005). Using GGF and NGF in order to increase regeneration after nerve anastomosis in experimental traumatic facial nerve paralysis may be a hopeful alternative treatment option in the future. However, further studies on human studies are required to support these results. PMID:21259064

  2. Parents' Perspectives About Factors Influencing Adherence to Pharmacotherapy for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rana; Borst, Jacqueline; Wei, Yong C; Aslani, Parisa

    2013-08-30

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore factors influencing parents' decisions to adhere and persist with ADHD pharmacotherapy in children. Method: Focus groups (n = 3) were conducted with 16 parents recruited from metropolitan Sydney. Group discussions explored factors impacting on treatment initiation, continuation, and cessation. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically content analyzed. Results: Parents commenced and continued pharmacotherapy due to its positive impact on their child's behavior. Improvements in the child's academic performance and social interactions encouraged persistence with therapy. Parents elected to cease therapy after their children experienced side effects including appetite suppression, weight loss, and sleep disturbances. Concerns about long-term effects of ADHD medication use including potential for addiction and growth stunting, in addition to the stigma surrounding ADHD also contributed to parents ceasing treatment. Conclusion: The findings highlight a need for the provision of accurate information about ADHD and its treatments to parents to empower their treatment decisions and promote adherence. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:23995052

  3. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  4. Factors Influencing Efficacy of Bilayered Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Reynald C.; Driessche, Freya; Zhu, Yiliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that fail to heal with standard care should be treated with advanced wound care products. Efficacy of advanced therapies is dependent on many factors. A secondary analysis of pivotal trial data for a bilayered cellular construct used in the treatment of DFU was undertaken to determine if glycemic control and other factors had an effect on time to healing.

  5. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor activation of endothelial cells is mediated by early growth response-3

    OpenAIRE

    Suehiro, Jun-ichi; Hamakubo, Takao; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aird, William C.; Minami, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation and dysfunction underlie many vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis, tumor growth, and sepsis. Endothelial cell activation, in turn, is mediated primarily at the level of gene transcription. Here, we show that in response to several activation agonists, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-?, and thrombin, endothelial cells demonstrate rapid and profound induction of the early growth response (Egr) genes egr-1 and egr-...

  7. Transforming growth factor beta as endogenous growth inhibitor of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells are hyporesponsive or refractory to mitogens and growth factors in vitro. This study examined whether transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a potent inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation may play a role in the growth regulation of CLL B cells. CLL B cells from all donors treated expressed detectable TGF-beta 1 mRNA. In vitro release of TGF-beta by unstimulated cultures, or cultures stimulated by antibody to cell surface immunoglobulin (anti- mu...

  8. Bone-derived and recombinant transforming growth factor beta's are potent inhibitors of tumor cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchalis, J E; Gentry, L; Ogawa, Y; Seyedin, S M; McPherson, J; Purchio, A; Twardzik, D R

    1987-10-29

    Two naturally occurring chrondogenesis inducing peptides have been purified to homogeneity from demineralized bovine bone. Cartilage-inducing factors A and B are the bone-derived equivalents of transforming growth factor-beta types I and II. Both peptides exhibit identical biological activities in chondrogenesis assays and stimulate anchorage independent cell growth. In this study we show that both bone-derived factors are potent (ng/ml) inhibitors of both DNA synthesis and the anchorage independent growth of a variety of human and non-human tumor cells. Unique in this study is also a comparison of the activities of these polypeptide growth factors with recombinant transforming growth factor type I expressed in mammalian cells. PMID:3479985

  9. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  10. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand identification

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Daryoush Raoof; Shabnam Haj Seyed Javadi; Hamed Asgari; Hamid Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Building a famous brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. A good brand name plays an important role on increasing word of mouth advertisement, the number of loyal customers and repurchase habits. However, in order to build a good brand, we need to create sustainable brand identification and to do this we need to determine influential factors. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing brand identification. The p...

  11. Keratinocyte growth factor is an important endogenous mediator of hair follicle growth, development, and differentiation. Normalization of the nu/nu follicular differentiation defect and amelioration of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenko, D. M.; Ring, B. D.; Yanagihara, D.; Benson, W.; Wiemann, B.; Starnes, C. O.; Pierce, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    The growth and development of hair follicles is influenced by a number of different growth factors and cytokines, particularly members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF or FGF-7) is a recently identified 28-kd member of the FGF family that induces proliferation of a wide variety of epithelial cells, including keratinocytes within the epidermis and dermal adnexa. Because KGF induces marked proliferation of keratinocytes, and both KGF and KGF receptor...

  12. Increased growth factor expression after hepatic and pancreatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinger, Christoph; Schlüter, Christian; Oliviera-Frick, Vilma; Kopp, Berit; Rubie, Claudia; Schilling, Martin K

    2008-12-01

    Removal of the primary tumour is suggested to associate with an enhanced tumour growth of residual micrometastases. Recent data focus on growth factors that may be released in response to surgery-stimulating receptors of residual tumour cells. Vascular endothelial (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are potent inducers of angiogenesis. The two factors are necessary for wound healing and the promotion of tumour growth. This study was designed to determine growth factor serum levels in patients before, during and after major abdominal surgery. It was recently shown that simultaneous hepatic and pancreatic resection led to poor liver regeneration. As growth factors may be involved in these findings we compared the growth factor levels after liver resection with the levels in patients after pancreatic resection. Forty patients were accrued before hepatopancreatic surgery (hepatic resection n=20 and pancreatic resection n=20). Blood samples were taken from each patient immediately prior to surgery, during the operation and on the postoperative days (POD) 1-3, 5 and 10. To examine the wound fluid, liquid from the wound drains was collected on POD 3. Using ELISA the concentration of the angiogenic cytokines HGF and VEGF165 was determined. After the liver and pancreatic resections, circulating HGF and VEGF165 were increased. We found significantly higher levels of HGF on POD 1-3 (p<0.01), compared to preoperative results with a peak on POD 2. After measuring the postoperative VEGF165 levels we found significantly higher levels of circulating VEGF165 on POD 1-5 (p<0.01) compared to the preoperative levels. On comparing liver with pancreatic resection we did not detect significantly different levels of the two growth factors in the two groups. VEGF165 and HGF concentrations measured during the operation demonstrated no change. HGF and VEGF165 levels detected in the wound fluid on POD 3 were approximately 10 times higher than the preoperative serum levels, respectively. In summary, our data show increased VEGF165 and HGF levels after hepatopancreatic surgery. Notably, the lack of an impact of the type of organ resection on the concentration-time curve of the two growth factors suggest that high postoperative growth factor levels are part of normal wound healing and systemic inflammation. Thus, the proangiogenetic potential of growth factors may account for accelerated tumour growth when residual tumour cells are exposed to high levels of VEGF165 and HGF. PMID:19020737

  13. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sol; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e., maximally overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e., no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: Neurons that started axon growth early on in serial growth achieved higher out-degrees, higher local efficiency and longer axon lengths while neurons demonstrated more homogeneous connectivity patterns for parallel growth. Second, connection probability decreased more rapidly with distance between neurons for parallel growth than for serial growth. Third, bidirectional connections were more numerous for parallel growth. Finally, we tested our predictions with C. elegans data. Together, this indicates that time windows for axon growth influence the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks opening up the possibility to a posteriori estimate developmental mechanisms based on network properties of a developed network. PMID:25633181

  14. Factors that Influence Financial Leverage of Small Business Firms in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjit Singh Gill

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence financial leverage of small business firms in India. This study also seeks to extend the findings of Michaelas et al. (1999. Small business owners from Punjab area of India were surveyed in order to gather information. Subjects were asked about their perceptions, beliefs, and feelings regarding the factors that influence financial leverage of their firms. This study utilized survey research (a non-experimental field study design. The findings of this paper show that small business growth, small business performance, total assets, sales, tax, and family have positive influence on the financial leverage of small business firms in India. This study contributes to the literature on the factors that influence financial leverage of small business firms. The findings may be useful for the financial managers, investors, and financial management consultants.

  15. High-growth-factor implosions (HEP4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, O.L.; Keane, C.J.; Hammel, B.A. [and others

    1996-06-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the kinetic energy of an ablating, inward-driven, solid spherical shell is used to compressionally heat the low-density fuel inside. For a given drive, the maximum achievable compressed fuel density and temperature - and hence the maximum neutron production rate depend on the degree of shell isentropy and integrity maintained during the compression. Shell integrity will be degraded by hydrodynamic instability growth of areal density imperfections in the capsule. Surface imperfections on the shell grow as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities when the shell is accelerated by the ablating lower-density plasma. Perturbations at the outer capsule surface are transferred hydrodynamically to the inner surface, where deceleration of the shell by the lower-density fuel gives rise to further RT growth at the pusher-fuel interface.

  16. ENOD40 encodes a peptide growth factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Sande, G. P. C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Rhizobium bacteria induce the formation of nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. The nodules create the right biological niche for the rhizobia to carry out biological nitrogen fixation by which atmospheric nitrogen is reduced to ammonia. The nodule is a new organ that provides the plant with a nitrogen source for its growth and development. The formation of a nitrogen fixing root nodule is the final result of an extensive collaboration between the plant and the bacterium, which starts w...

  17. Hepatocyte extracellular matrix modulates expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvibel, I; Brill, S; Halpern, Z; Papa, M

    1998-11-25

    We investigated the role of hepatocyte extracellular matrix (ECM) on the growth of human colon cancer cell lines. We cultured four cell lines with different liver-colonizing potential on ECM derived from primary rat hepatocyte cultures. We investigated the effect of ECM on cell proliferation, clonal growth, and expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors. The highly metastatic cells showed better clonal growth and produced larger colonies on ECM. The proliferation of all colon cancer cell lines was enhanced on hepatocyte ECM, yet inhibited on fibroblast ECM. Screening of autocrine growth factors and receptors showed that the cells expressed growth factors and receptors of the EGF family: EGF receptor, erb-B2, amphiregulin, and cripto. The expression of cripto mRNA, but not of amphiregulin, was induced in KM12SM cells grown on ECM. All colon cancer cell lines grown on ECM showed increased expression of erb-B2. The effect of ECM on erb-B2 expression was mediated by the heparin chains of heparin proteoglycan. ECM from hepatocytes grown in the presence of nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyrannoside or sodium chlorate, which prevent formation of heparin proteoglycan, as well as ECM treated with heparinase, had no effect on erb-B2 expression. Our studies suggest a role for liver ECM as a determinant of colon cancer metastasis. Liver ECM acts, in part, via induction of members of the EGF family of growth factors and their receptors. PMID:9828107

  18. Nerve growth factor induces protein-tyrosine phosphorylation.

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    When the sympathetic nerve-like cell line PC12 is exposed to nerve growth factor (NGF), there is a rapid and transient phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in cellular proteins, as demonstrated by immunoblotting of cell extracts with high-affinity polyclonal antibodies specific for phosphotyrosine residues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), which does not cause the morphological differentiation of PC12 cells that is produced by NGF, also induces protein-tyrosine phosphorylation. The methyltransf...

  19. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Elias G.; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Sharma, Bhuvnesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-?, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-?, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustr...

  20. Dietary Restriction, Growth Factors and Aging: from yeast to humans

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Luigi; Partridge, Linda; Longo, Valter D.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced growth factor signaling both elevate resistance to oxidative stress, reduce macromolecular damage, and increase lifespan in model organisms. In rodents, both DR and decreased growth factor signaling reduce the incidence of tumors and slow down cognitive decline and aging. DR reduces cancer and cardiovascular disease and mortality in monkeys, and reduces metabolic traits associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in humans. Neoplasias and d...

  1. Rapamycin Prevents Transforming Growth Factor-?–Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Korfhagen, Thomas R.; Le Cras, Timothy D.; Davidson, Cynthia R.; Schmidt, Stephanie M.; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Hardie, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR activation is associated with fibroproliferative processes in human lung disease and animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. Overexpression of TGF-? in transgenic mice causes progressive and severe pulmonary fibrosis; however, the intracellular signaling pathways downstream of EGFR mediating this response are unknown. Using a doxycycline-regulatable transgenic mouse model of lung-specific TGF-?...

  2. Fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling in neurogenesis and neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Woodbury, Maya E.; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), also known as basic FGF, is a multi-functional growth factor. One of the 22-member FGF family, it signals through receptor tyrosine kinases encoding FGFR1-4. FGF2 activates FGFRs in cooperation with heparin or heparin sulfate proteoglycan to induce its pleiotropic effects in different tissues and organs, which include potent angiogenic effects and important roles in the differentiation and function of the central nervous system (CNS). FGF2 is crucial to deve...

  3. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor -2 in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Shanchun; Colbert, Laronna S.; Fuller, Miles; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gonzalez-perez, Ruben R.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations over the last decade have established the essential role of growth factors and their receptors during angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) family in mammals contains three members, VEGFR-1 (Flt-1), VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) and VEGFR-3 (Flt-4), which are transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors that regulate the formation of blood and lymphatic vessels. In the early 1990s, the above VEGFR were structurally characterized by cDNA cloni...

  4. Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) is a polypeptide with well-characterized growth promoting properties. The effects are exerted through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF receptor), which is present on many different kinds of cells. The growth factor was initially shown to induce anchorage-independent growth of normal cells and was, therefore, considered as an "oncogenic" growth factor. Later, its immunohistochemical presence in normal human cells as well as its biological effects in normal human tissues have been demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical immunoreactivity. TGF-alpha was found to be widely distributed in cells of normal human tissues derived from all three germ layers, most often in differentiated cells. In epithelial cells, three different kinds of staining patterns were observed, either diffuse cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic in the basal parts of the cells, or distinctly localized adjacent to the nucleus, usually on the luminal aspect, corresponding to the localization of the Golgi complex. The latter staining pattern was seen predominantly in secretory epithelial cells. The present study thus confirms previous studies and elaborates new localizations of TGF-alpha in normal human tissues by investigating a broad spectrum of tissues in detail.

  5. Interrelated influence of light and Ni on Trichodesmium growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-YuanHo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Our previous laboratory study revealed that insufficient Ni supply can limit nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium, a primary diazotrophic phytoplankton in the tropical and subtropical oceans. Here we show that light intensity and Ni availability interrelate to influence Trichodesmium growth. Trichodesmium growth is severely inhibited under high light (670 uE m-2 s-1 and insufficient Ni condition. On the contrary, the sufficient supply of Ni in seawater can sustain the growth of Trichodesmium under either high or low light conditions. We also observed elevated intracellular Ni uptake in Trichodesmium grown under relatively high light condition, supporting that the Ni requirement is used for removing superoxide generated through photosynthetic electron transport. This study shows that light saturation condition for Trichodesmium growth is Ni concentration dependent. This finding may exhibit implications for interpreting temporal and spatial distributions and activities of Trichodesmium in both modern and ancient oceans when light intensity and Ni concentrations have significantly varied.

  6. Interrelated influence of light and Ni on Trichodesmium growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tung-Yuan; Chu, Tse-Hua; Hu, Cheng-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Our previous laboratory study revealed that insufficient Ni supply can limit nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium, a primary diazotrophic phytoplankton in the tropical and subtropical oceans. Here we show that light intensity and Ni availability interrelate to influence Trichodesmium growth. Trichodesmium growth is severely inhibited under high light (670 ?E m(-2) s(-1)) and insufficient Ni condition. On the contrary, the sufficient supply of Ni in seawater can sustain the growth of Trichodesmium under either high or low light conditions. We also observed elevated intracellular Ni uptake in Trichodesmium grown under relatively high light condition, supporting that the Ni requirement is used for removing superoxide generated through photosynthetic electron transport. This study shows that light saturation condition for Trichodesmium growth is Ni concentration dependent. This finding may exhibit implications for interpreting temporal and spatial distributions and activities of Trichodesmium in both modern and ancient oceans when light intensity and Ni concentrations have significantly varied. PMID:23755048

  7. Influence of forced convection on unidirectional growth of crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinakaran, S. [Department of Physics, Loyola College, University of Madras, Chennai 600 034 (India); Verma, Sunil, E-mail: sverma1118@gmail.co [Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Jerome Das, S. [Department of Physics, Loyola College, University of Madras, Chennai 600 034 (India); Kar, S.; Bartwal, K.S. [Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Influence of forced convection on the growth rate of KDP crystal grown by unidirectional method has been investigated. The results were compared with the crystal grown under free convection conditions. To the best of our knowledge the effect of forced convection on unidirectional growth has been reported for the first time. An apparatus was designed and developed for growth of crystals by cooling under forced convection conditions. The growth rate achieved under forced convection was double to that under free convection conditions. Transmittance in the visible region for the crystals grown under the two types of convection regimes was {approx}90%. Birefringence and Mach-Zehnder interferometry shows good refractive index homogeneity of the grown crystals.

  8. Effect of growth factors on DNA labeling and cytoskeletal protein expression in 17-beta-estradiol and basic fibroblast growth factor pre-treated astrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avola, Roberto; Cormaci, Gianfrancesco; Mazzone, Venera; Denaro, Luca; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Tomassoni, Daniele; Zaccheo, Damiano

    2002-01-01

    Astrocytes react to all noxae which damage neurons. Their reactions include degeneration, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and fibre formation. Growth factors inducing proliferation and differentiation of both neurons and astrocytes in culture play a pivotal role in the dynamic flow of signaling molecules between neurons and astroglia. Estrogens as well influence astroglia and are neuroprotectants. This study has investigated the interactions between growth factors and estrogens on DNA labeling and cytoskeletal protein [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin] expression in 22 DIV astrocyte cultures treated for 24 or 36 h under different experimental conditions. Contemporary addition of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) with two or three growth factors for 24 h, significantly stimulated methyl-[3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA from 22 days in vitro (DIV) astrocyte cultures. This effect reached a peak when E2 was co-added with epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin. In astrocyte cultures treated for 36 h with E2 and EGF + insulin or bFGF + insulin added in the last 12 h, DNA labeling was remarkably increased. The parallel cyclin Dl expression positively correlated with ERK2 activation. Western blot analysis for cytoskeletal proteins showed also changes of both GFAP and vimentin expression. The above data suggest the occurrence of a scheduled interaction between "competence" or "progression" growth factors and estrogens on DNA labeling and cytoskeletal protein expression during astroglial cell proliferation and differentiation in culture. A better understanding of the mechanisms of these interactions may contribute to develop strategies for controlling astroglial reaction in cerebrovascular disease including stroke and hypertensive brain damage. PMID:12450249

  9. Insulin-like growth factors in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, J P; Francis, G L; Upton, Z

    1997-07-01

    A large amount of research, primarily in mammals, has defined to a great extent the pleiotropic effects of the IGF system on growth, development, and intermediary metabolism. Similar elucidations in poultry were hindered to some extent by the absence of native peptides (IGF-I and IGF-II) until their purification, followed by the production of recombinant chicken IGFs. In many ways IGF physiology in birds is similar to that in other species, including but not limited to the fact that IGF-I synthesis is both GH- and GH-independent, and that autocrine-paracrine IGF action is evident. However, it is clear that several unique differences in IGF physiology exist between birds and mammals. For example, more IGF is present in the free form in chickens, and the biological responses to the IGFs is different in several metabolic pathways in birds compared to mammals. To date, no unique IGF-II receptor has been identified in birds. Despite an increasing understanding of the IGFs in aves, several important questions remain to be answered. What is the role of IGF-II in embryo development and posthatch growth? Does an IGF-II receptor entity exist in nonmammalian species? How does nutrition affect IGF-I and IGF-II gene expression, and can this information be used to enhance poultry production? What is the biochemical composition of the IGFBPs, and what are their roles in birds? Can the genetic variation present in poultry be used to positively modify IGF gene expression and physiology? How do the IGFs regulate intermediary metabolism? What is the role of the IGFs in the etiology of several disease states associated with rapid growth in poultry, including tibial dyschondroplasia, obesity, ascites, and spiking mortality syndrome? Answers to these questions are relevant to our understanding of the basic mechanisms of IGF physiology as well as possibly assisting in the amelioration of problems found in modern poultry production. PMID:9260060

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATION IN SMES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONCIOIU FLORIN RAZVAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to organize resources and competence in novel patterns. Enterprises extend their ability to develop new business concepts, their dynamic capability, by accessing external resources. This study proposes to investigate how the use of external resources varies in the course of SMEs innovation processes, and how deployment of external resources is influenced by the nature of the innovation as well as by the context of the innovation process.

  11. Effect of sericin on diabetic hippocampal growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihong; Yang, Songhe; He, Yaqiang; Song, Chengjun; Liu, Yongping

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that sericin extracted from silk cocoon significantly reduces blood glucose levels and protects the nervous system against diabetes mellitus. In this study, a rat type 2 diabetes mellitus model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin for 3 successive days, following which the rats were treated with sericin for 35 days. After treatment, the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats decreased significantly, the growth hormone level in serum and its expression in the hippocampus decreased significantly, while the insulin-like growth factor-1 level in serum and insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone receptor expression in the hippocampus increased significantly. The experimental findings indicate that sericin improves disorders of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis to alleviate hippocampal damage in diabetic rats. PMID:25206472

  12. Growth factor regulation of human growth plate chondrocyte proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Robert C; Wang, Jianwei; Sylvester, James E; Mougey, Edward B

    2004-05-14

    Linear growth occurs as the result of growth plate chondrocytes undergoing proliferative and hypertrophic phases. Paracrine feedback loops that regulate the entry of chondrocytes into the hypertrophic phase have been shown and similar pathways likely exist for the proliferative phase. Human long-bone growth plate chondrocytes were cultured in vitro. The proliferative effects of a variety of factors were determined by [3H]thymidine uptake and the gene expression profile of these cells was determined by DNA microarray analysis. Serum, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1, -2, and -18, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB were potent stimulators of proliferation. FGF-10, testosterone, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, -4, and -6 inhibited proliferation. Microarray analysis showed that the genes for multiple members of the IGF-I, TGF-beta, FGF, and BMP pathways were expressed, suggesting the presence of autocrine/paracrine pathways that regulate the proliferative phase of growth plate-mediated growth. PMID:15094393

  13. Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Saayman, Melville; Du Plessis, Engelina

    2011-01-01

    Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in th...

  14. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life. PMID:24028035

  15. Factors influencing nuclear receptors in transcriptional repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcin, M; Köhne, A C; Runge, D; Steiner, C; Renkawitz, R

    1994-10-01

    Members of the steroid receptor superfamily, like other transcription factors, can function as transcriptional inducers as well as repressors of transcription. The mechanisms by which repression is achieved seem to be specific for the factors and regulatory sequences involved. Silencing activity is conferred by the DNA bound v-ERBA, which is able to repress the activity of a complete or of a minimal promoter. Removal of the T3 or RA ligands converts the activated form of TR or RAR into a silencing conformation. Ligand-free TR, RAR or v-ERBA synergize with the DNA-bound negative protein 1 (NeP1) in a specific silencer sequence. In contrast to silencing, competitive repression is seen for specific negative hormone response elements. These elements are characterized by the presence of binding sites for other transcription factors. PMID:7849262

  16. Specific Inhibitors of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor or Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Reduce Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Annette B.; Moomaw, Cindy R.; Morgan, Daniel L.; Bonner, James C.

    1999-01-01

    The proliferation of myofibroblasts is a central feature of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study we have used tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the tyrphostin class to specifically block autophosphorylation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). AG1296 specifically inhibited autophosphorylation of PDGF-R and blocked PDGF-stimulated [3H]thymidine uptake by rat lung myofibroblasts in vitro. AG1478 was demonstrated as a selective blocker of ...

  17. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and connective tissue growth factor in women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Ying Qi; Li Hong; Feng-Qin Guo; Qiong Fu; Lu Chen; Bing-Shu Li

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the presence of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS This study was conducted from May to December 2009. Fifty patients with POP that underwent vaginal hysterectomy in the Department of Gynecology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan, China were enrolled in this study. They were divided into: Group 1 (n=10); Group 2 (n=10); and Group 3 (n=10) ac...

  18. Fibroblast Growth Factor 10-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2b Mediated Signaling Is Not Required for Adult Glandular Stomach Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, Allison L.; Alam, Denise Al; Sala, Frederic G.; Ford, Henri R.; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and ...

  19. Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China. - Highlights: ? We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions. ? Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. ? These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. ? Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO2 emission is different. ? Improvingission is different. ? Improving technology level is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China.

  20. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, “male65,” “female65” and “male85,” that differed in talker (male?female) and presentation level (65?85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group...

  1. Fibronectin fibrils and growth factors stimulate anchorage-independent growth of a murine mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, R; Bhardwaj, B; Klassen, J; Leopold, D; Rahimi, N; Tremblay, E; Mosher, D; Elliott, B

    1996-02-01

    Stromal cells are important regulators of mammary carcinoma growth and metastasis. We have previously shown that a 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line secretes hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which stimulates proliferation of a murine mammary carcinoma (SP1) in monolayer cultures (DNA Cell Biol. 13, 1189-1897, 1994). We now examine the role of growth factors and the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin in stimulation of anchorage-independent growth of SP1 cells. Purified transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) stimulated significant colony growth in soft agar cultures, whereas HGF had a lesser effect. Analysis by confocal microscopy revealed that carcinoma cell colonies contained extracellular microfibrils composed of fibronectin. Partial depletion of fibronectin from 7% FBS/agar cultures reduced the number of colonies; colony growth could be recovered by adding back exogenous fibronectin. Addition of the 70-kDa N-terminal fragment of fibronectin, which inhibits fibronectin fibril formation, reduced growth of SP1 cell colonies, but an 85-kDa fragment containing the cell binding domain did not inhibit colony growth. These findings indicate that deposition of extracellular fibronectin fibrils is necessary, but not sufficient, for anchorage-independent growth of SP1 mammary carcinoma cells; growth factors are also required. SP1 cells had less fibronectin mRNA and secreted less fibronectin protein under anchorage-independent conditions than under anchorage-dependent conditions, as determined by Northern blotting and immunoprecipitation analysis. Thus, both growth factors (HGF and TGF-beta) and fibronectin may be important regulators of paracrine stimulation by stromal cells of anchorage-independent growth of mammary carcinoma cells. PMID:8598224

  2. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE E-LOYALTY OF INTERNET BANKING USERS

    OpenAIRE

    Al-agaga, Ameen M.; Khalil Md Nor

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfacti...

  3. Factors that Influence Customers’ Buying Intention on Shopping Online

    OpenAIRE

    Yulihasri Eri; Md. Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud

    2011-01-01

    On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing student’s buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence student’s buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public institution of higher l...

  4. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-01-01

    Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to rank 17 important facto...

  5. Cheiradone: a vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nessar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is associated with physiological (for example wound healing and pathological conditions (tumour development. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF are the major angiogenic regulators. We have identified a natural product (cheiradone isolated from a Euphorbia species which inhibited in vivo and in vitro VEGF- stimulated angiogenesis but had no effect on FGF-2 or EGF activity. Two primary cultures, bovine aortic and human dermal endothelial cells were used in in vitro (proliferation, wound healing, invasion in Matrigel and tube formation and in vivo (the chick chorioallantoic membrane models of angiogenesis in the presence of growth factors and cheiradone. In all cases, the concentration of cheiradone which caused 50% inhibition (IC50 was determined. The effect of cheiradone on the binding of growth factors to their receptors was also investigated. Results Cheiradone inhibited all stages of VEGF-induced angiogenesis with IC50 values in the range 5.20–7.50 ?M but did not inhibit FGF-2 or EGF-induced angiogenesis. It also inhibited VEGF binding to VEGF receptor-1 and 2 with IC50 values of 2.9 and 0.61 ?M respectively. Conclusion Cheiradone inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis by binding to VEGF receptors -1 and -2 and may be a useful investigative tool to study the specific contribution of VEGF to angiogenesis and may have therapeutic potential.

  6. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads. PMID:21476837

  7. Organizational Creativity: A Substantial Factor to Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Beheshtifar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea sources, and evidence of the creative planning process; and organizational creativity is as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The creative climate encourages people to generate new ideas and helps the organization to grow and increase its efficiency and at the same time it enables members to generate and implement creative ideas more effectively.

  8. Nerve Growth Factor and Diabetic Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Pittenger, Gary; Vinik, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    Neuropathy is one of the most debilitating complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with estimates of prevalence between 50–90% depending on the means of detection. Diabetic neuropathies are heterogeneous and there is variable involvement of large myelinated fibers and small, thinly myelinated fibers. Many of the neuronal abnormalities in diabetes can be duplicated by experimental depletion of specific neurotrophic factors, their receptors or their binding p...

  9. Factors Influencing Agricultural Education Students' Choice to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Rebecca Grace

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence senior level agricultural education students' choice to become secondary agriculture teachers. This study focused on the extent to which beliefs and attitude influenced students' intent to select a teaching secondary agricultural education as a career. The Agricultural…

  10. Influence of nutrition and various substrates on spruce seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uki? Matilda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.

  11. Intracellular growth factors in polycythemia vera and other myeloproliferative disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, J.; Ebert, R. F.; Gesell, M. S.; Spivak, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    In polycythemia vera, idiopathic myelofibrosis, and essential thrombocytosis, hematopoietic cell proliferation is increased in the absence of a recognizable stimulus, suggesting the autonomous production of growth factors in these disorders. Sonicates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with polycythemia vera, idiopathic myelofibrosis, and essential thrombocytosis contained soluble factors that stimulated the proliferation of quiescent-confluent 3T3 cells. PBMNC sonica...

  12. Renal origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NexØ, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been investigated. Unilateral nephrectomy decreased the concentration, total output of EGF and EGF/creatinine ratio by approximately 50%, while the output of creatinine was unchanged. Removal of the submandibular glands and duodenal Brunner's glands, organs known to produce EGF, had no influence on the output of EGF in urine. Renal clearance of EGF exceeded that of creatinine, and after bilateral nephrectomy or bilateral ligation of the ureters, the concentration of creatinine in serum increased, while the concentration of EGF was below the detection limit of the assay. Renal production of EGF was confirmed by immunohistochemistry demonstrating EGF immunoreactivity in the afferent arteriole of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. EGF in the submandibular glands and in urine was found to differ with chromatofocusing and reverse-phase HPLC. At isoelectric focusing the pI of submandibular EGF was 4.8 and 5.4 while that of urinary EGF was 5.3 and 6.4. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that urinary EGF mainly originates from the kidneys and is localized to the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus.

  13. Nerve growth factor potentiates the neurotoxicity of beta amyloid.

    OpenAIRE

    Yankner, B. A.; Caceres, A.; Duffy, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    The role of growth factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease is unknown. The beta-amyloid protein accumulates abnormally in the brain in Alzheimer disease and is neurotoxic to differentiated hippocampal neurons in culture. Nerve growth factor (NGF) increased the neurotoxic potency of a beta-amyloid polypeptide by a factor of approximately 100,000, which resulted in a reduction of the beta-amyloid neurotoxic EC50 from 0.1 microM to 1 pM. This potentiating effect of NGF was reversed by a...

  14. Total Factor Productivity Growth when Factors of Production Generate Environmental Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vouvaki, Dimitra; Xepapadeas, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) has been traditionally associated with technological change. We show that when a factor of production, such as energy, generates an environmental externality in the form of CO2 emissions which is not internalized because of lack of environmental policy, then TFPG estimates could be biased. This is because the contribution of environment as a factor of production is not accounted for in the growth accounting framework. Empirical estimates confirm this hy...

  15. Effects of eight growth factors on the differentiation of cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schuldiner, Maya; Yanuka, Ofra; Itskovitz-eldor, Joseph; Melton, Douglas A.; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2000-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of in vitro fertilized human blastocysts. We examined the potential of eight growth factors [basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), activin-A, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP-4), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), ? nerve growth factor (?NGF), and retinoic acid] to direct the differentiation of human ES-deriv...

  16. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

  17. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan

    2007-01-01

    Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy) per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter. PMID:21851695

  18. Preventive screening. What factors influence testing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finkelstein MM

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with having preventive screening tests in a population-based sample of Ontario women. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey linked to data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to ascertain whether women aged 20 or older had Pap smears, mammography, bone densitometry, or cholesterol testing. Factors associated with having testing were subjected to logistic regression analysis. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 20 or older; from 19,600 Canadian households, 2232 Ontario women gave consent to linkage of administrative databases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-specific population screening rates. Odds ratios and probabilities of having screening in relation to socioeconomic, geographic, and physician-associated factors. RESULTS: Having screening was associated with age, income, education, and place of residence. Women with regular physicians were more likely to have Pap smears (odds ratio [OR] 4.4, range 1.7 to 12, densitometry (OR 22, range 3.6 to 140, and cholesterol testing (OR 8.0, range 2.3 to 29. Women who had periodic health examinations were more likely to have Pap smears (OR 6.7, range 4.6 to 9.8, mammograms (OR 3.7, range 2.3 to 5.9, densitometry (OR 3.7, range 1.3 to 10.5, and cholesterol testing (OR 3.0, range 2.0 to 4.5. The probability of having testing increased with number of visits a year to a doctor, but ceased to increase after three visits. CONCLUSION: Having screening tests was associated with socioeconomic factors including income, education, and place of residence. Patients who went to doctors for episodic care only were less likely to have preventive screening than patients who went for periodic health examinations.

  19. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  20. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Proto, V.; Gioffre?, F.; Maresca Di Serracapriola, M. T.; Masucci, F.; Di Francia, A.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU) content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995). In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  1. Factors Influencing Strategic Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Nooraie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is one of the most important functions of managers in any kind of organization. Among different manager's decisions strategic decision-making is a complex process that must be understood completely before it can be practiced effectively. Those responsible for strategic decision-making face a task of extreme complexity and ambiguity. For these reasons, over the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to the construction of models to aid managers and executives in making better decisions concerning the complex and highly uncertain business environment. In spite of much work that has been conducted in the area of strategic decision-making especially during the 1990's, we still know little about strategic decision-making process and factors affecting it.This paper builds on previous theoretical and empirical studies to determine the extent to which contextual factors impact the strategic decision-making processes. Results showed that researches on contextual factors effecting strategic decision-making process are either limited or have produced contradictory results, especially studies relating decision’s familiarity, magnitude of impact, organizational size, firm’s performance, dynamism, hostility, heterogeneity, industry, cognitive diversity, cognitive conflict, and manager’s need for achievement to strategic decision-making processes. Thus, the study of strategic decision-making process remains very important and much more empirical research is required before any definitive conclusion can be reached.

  2. Surface factors influencing burnout on flat heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramilison, J.M.; Sadasivan, P.; Lienhard, J.H. (Univ. of Houston, TX (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Ever since Kutateladze (1951) and Zuber (1958) proposed hydrodynamic descriptions of the burnout heat flux, q{sub max}, confusion has marked the scope of their agreed-upon equation. The problem stems from Kutateladze's original correlation. The mischief in all of this is that Zuber's sketches and other aspects of his derivation suggested that he was deriving an expression applicable to a flat heater. In fact, Zuber operated under the premise - later disproved by many investigators - that the geometry did not affect burnout. His comparison of his prediction with Kutateladze's correlation did not reflect a lack of care. It reflected the conviction that geometry did not matter. As one looks more closely, surface conditions become more important than once thought. The objective of this paper is to take into account the influence of the condition of the heater surface in recreating a correlation of q{sub max} for horizontal heaters.

  3. Fatigue crack growth in nodular cast iron - Influences of graphite spherical size and variable amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of constant and variable amplitude loading, including a variety of overloads, were carried out experimentally as well as numerically in order to characterize the fatigue crack growth behaviour of nodular cast iron with a ferritic matrix. Under constant cyclic loading the crack growth rate, which depends on the graphite size can be described well by the NASGRO equation. The mean distance between the graphite particles and the shape factor also influence the fracture behaviour. The experimental investigations show that overloads yield to acceleration effects in fatigue crack growth. The calculation of the a-N curves based on different usual life prediction models yields non-conservative results. Therefore, a modified strip yield model is presented which allows the prediction of the crack growth acceleration after overloads in nodular cast iron.

  4. Fatigue crack growth in nodular cast iron - Influences of graphite spherical size and variable amplitude loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottitschka, T; Pusch, G; Biermann, H [Institute for Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Strasse 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Zybell, L; Kuna, M, E-mail: thomas.mottitschka@iwt.tu-freiberg.d [Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, Lampadiusstrasse 4, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Investigations of constant and variable amplitude loading, including a variety of overloads, were carried out experimentally as well as numerically in order to characterize the fatigue crack growth behaviour of nodular cast iron with a ferritic matrix. Under constant cyclic loading the crack growth rate, which depends on the graphite size can be described well by the NASGRO equation. The mean distance between the graphite particles and the shape factor also influence the fracture behaviour. The experimental investigations show that overloads yield to acceleration effects in fatigue crack growth. The calculation of the a-N curves based on different usual life prediction models yields non-conservative results. Therefore, a modified strip yield model is presented which allows the prediction of the crack growth acceleration after overloads in nodular cast iron.

  5. Heparin-II Domain of Fibronectin Is a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Binding Domain: Enhancement of VEGF Biological Activity by a Singular Growth Factor/Matrix Protein Synergism

    OpenAIRE

    Wijelath, Errol S.; Rahman, Salman; Namekata, Mayumi; Murray, Jacqueline; Nishimura, Tomoaki; Mostafavi-pour, Zohreh; Patel, Yatin; Suda, Yasuo; Humphries, Martin J.; Sobel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We describe extracellular interactions between fibronectin (Fn) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that influence integrin-growth factor receptor crosstalk and cellular responses. In previous work, we found that VEGF bound specifically to fibronectin (Fn) but not vitronectin or collagens. Herein we report that VEGF binds to the heparin-II domain of Fn and that the cell-binding and VEGF-binding domains of Fn, when physically linked, are necessary and sufficient to promote VEGF-induc...

  6. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  7. Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

  8. Factors Influencing the Assessment Perceptions of Training Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a study revealing a number of factors that influence how Bachelor of Education students perceive assessment. These factors include personal histories, student teacher relationships, opportunities for personalisation and deep learning, notions of relevance, and anxiety issues. "Personal histories", as a term used to describe…

  9. Factors Influencing Career Aspirations of Senior and Freshmen College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Linda L.; Canale, Joseph R.

    Although numerous studies have investigated internal and external factors that influence career aspirations of college students, little has been done to investigate how these factors differentially affect specific grade levels of college students. This study examined several internal and external variables (grade level, gender, college major,…

  10. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

  11. Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 ?g, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 ?g Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 ?g Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability

  12. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  13. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; an Irish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ann Ferris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. However, it is imperative that we overcome these barriers and arm our future doctors with the knowledge and skills to serve the needs of the 21st Century patient. As we will discuss, the imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. We will also explore how medical emigration has a negative impact on the delivery of services in Ireland and in maintaining a sustainable workforce. In addition, financial constraints will always play a role in the logistics of Medical education and it is important that we try to get the best value for money by adding more cost effective virtual learning modules to the traditional classroom based approach. Further research is needed into career satisfaction within Medicine. If we can begin to understand what motivates doctors to stay within the Irish Medical system, then we can design a curriculum with retention of graduates in mind. We believe that if we foster a culture of education, guidance and support in our universities and hospitals, we will ensure that a strong, competent and resilient breed of doctors emerge to serves future generation.

  14. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...

  15. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Mina Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employ...

  16. Critical Factors Influencing Intra-operative Surgical Decision-making:

    OpenAIRE

    Jalote-parmar, A.; Badke-schaub, P.

    2008-01-01

    The development of intra-operative surgical decision support systems requires a thorough understanding of the factors influencing the decision-making of surgeons in the surgical workspace. These factors are a construct of the surgical workspace which generate situation awareness and hence provide real-time information to guide intra-operative decision-making The knowledge of these factors is especially required to provide real-time image guidance or procedural support to the surgeons’ via s...

  17. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  18. Simulation analysis of factors influencing chiller EER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuejun; Wang, Tong

    2014-06-01

    This study constructed a mathematic model of a variable frequency centrifugal chiller using Simulink software. By running the simulation, it was discovered that when the other factors are constant, the EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) of the chiller increases with decreases in the temperature of the cooling water and increases in the temperature of the chilled water. The effect of changes in the cooling water temperature on the EER of the chiller is stronger than that of changes in the chilled water temperature. In addition, as the chiller load decreases, the EER increases until reaching a maximum, after which it decreases. Furthermore, the EER of chillers working under a constant flow rate is slightly higher than that of those working under varying flow rates.

  19. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  20. COPD exacerbation: factors influencing hospitalization duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashynova K.Yu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studying the causes of hospitalization prolongation terms in COPD exacerbation may help optimize treatment, reduce expenditures on the patient and avoid episodes relapses. The aim of the work was to determine the factors affecting the length of hospitalization due to COPD exacerbation. A retrospective analysis of medical records of inpatients hospitalized with COPD exacerbation to therapeutic department of CI "Dnipropetrovsk municipal clinical hospital N 6" of “Dnipropetrovsk regional council" during three years was done. It was found that age, height, number of comorbidities, presence of any symptoms or changes in laboratory analyses do not affect the duration of hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbations. Regardless of the frequency of hospital admissions, length of hospitalization moderately positively and reliably correlates with the disease stage (R = 0,516, p <0,001. Decrease of respiratory function indices, especially FEV1, significantly increases the length of stay in the hospital both in case of one (R = -0,457, p <0.001 or multiple hospitalization during three years (R = -0,512, p <0.001. Reduced body weight and low body mass index during hospitalization are prognostically unfavorable factors, because these parameters, though weakly, but reliably negatively correlate with the number of days spent in the hospital (R = -0,195, p = 0,028 and R = -0,246, respectively, p = 0,005. In the population of patients hospitalized due to COPD exacerbation, moderately positive reliable correlation (R = 0,392, p <0,001 between the length of hospital stay and number of hospitalizations during three years was established. The dependence of hospitalization duration in COPD exacerbations on patient’s gender requires further investigation.

  1. Urinary transforming growth factors in neoplasia: separation of /sup 125/I-labeled transforming growth factor-alpha from epidermal growth factor in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, K.; Hudgins, W.R.

    1986-11-01

    Purified human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) from urine promotes anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar medium. This growth is enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and is specifically inhibited by hEGF antiserum. Transforming growth factors of the alpha type (TGF-alpha), potentially present in normal human urine or urine from tumor-bearing patients, also promote anchorage-independent cell growth and compete with EGF for membrane receptor binding. Consequently, TGF-alpha cannot be distinguished from urinary hEGF by these two functional assays. Therefore, a technique for separation of TGF-alpha and related peptides from urinary EGF based on biochemical characteristics would be useful. Radioiodination of characterized growth factors (mouse EGF (mEGF), hEGF, and rat TGF-alpha (rTGF-alpha)), which were then separately added to human urine, was used to evaluate a resolution scheme that separates TGF-alpha from the high level of background hEGF present in human urine. Methyl bonded microparticulate silica efficiently adsorbed the /sup 125/I-labeled mEGF, /sup 125/I-labeled hEGF, and /sup 125/I-labeled rTGF-alpha that were added to 24-h human urine samples. Fractional elution with acetonitrile (MeCN) of the adsorbed silica released approximately 70 to 80% of the /sup 125/I-labeled mEGF and /sup 125/I-labeled hEGF between 25 and 30% MeCN, and over 80% of the /sup 125/I-labeled rTGF-alpha between 15 and 25% MeCN, with retention after dialysis of less than 0.2 and 1.7% of the original urinary protein, respectively. A single-step enrichment of about 400-fold for mEGF and hEGF, and 50-fold for rTGF-alpha were achieved rapidly. /sup 125/I-labeled mEGF and /sup 125/I-labeled hEGF eluted later than would be predicted on the basis of their reported molecular weight of approximately 6000, whereas /sup 125/I-labeled rTGF-alpha eluted from Bio-Gel P-10 at an approximate molecular weight of 8000 to 9000.

  2. Urinary transforming growth factors in neoplasia: separation of 125I-labeled transforming growth factor-alpha from epidermal growth factor in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) from urine promotes anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar medium. This growth is enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and is specifically inhibited by hEGF antiserum. Transforming growth factors of the alpha type (TGF-alpha), potentially present in normal human urine or urine from tumor-bearing patients, also promote anchorage-independent cell growth and compete with EGF for membrane receptor binding. Consequently, TGF-alpha cannot be distinguished from urinary hEGF by these two functional assays. Therefore, a technique for separation of TGF-alpha and related peptides from urinary EGF based on biochemical characteristics would be useful. Radioiodination of characterized growth factors [mouse EGF (mEGF), hEGF, and rat TGF-alpha (rTGF-alpha)], which were then separately added to human urine, was used to evaluate a resolution scheme that separates TGF-alpha from the high level of background hEGF present in human urine. Methyl bonded microparticulate silica efficiently adsorbed the 125I-labeled mEGF, 125I-labeled hEGF, and 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha that were added to 24-h human urine samples. Fractional elution with acetonitrile (MeCN) of the adsorbed silica released approximately 70 to 80% of the 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF between 25 and 30% MeCN, and over 80% of the 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha between 15 and 25% MeCN, with retention after dialysis of less than 0.2 and 1.7% of the original urinary protein, respectively. A single-step enrichment of about 400-fold for mEGF and hEGF, and 50-fold for rTGF-alpha were achieved rapidly. 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF eluted later than would be predicted on the basis of their reported molecular weight of approximately 6000, whereas 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha eluted from Bio-Gel P-10 at an approximate molecular weight of 8000 to 9000

  3. Erb-B: Growth factor receptor turned oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erb-B oncogene has been shown to be a deleted version of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. These mutations are thought to cause a constitutive activation of the receptor which is then able to induce uncontrolled growth of specific cell types. Mutational analysis of the erb-B gene indicates that specific domains of the erb-B protein interact with specific cellular target proteins to cause transformation

  4. Role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Hiroko; Zhang, Dongwei; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research in molecular oncology have brought about promising new therapies that are designed to target specific molecules that promote tumor growth and survival. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the first identified important targets of these novel antitumor agents. Approximately half of cases of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) overexpress EGFR. Thus, EGFR inhibitors for treatment of breast cancer have been evaluated in ...

  5. Neuronal expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohs, Patricia; Ebert, Alicia M; Zuba, Ania; McFarlane, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is important for a host of developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, tissue patterning, and morphogenesis. In vertebrates, FGFs signal through a family of four fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR 1-4), one of which is duplicated in zebrafish (FGFR1). Here we report the mRNA expression of the five known zebrafish fibroblast growth factor receptors at five developmental time points (24, 36, 48, 60, and 72h postfertilization), focusing on expression within the central nervous system. We show that the receptors have distinct and dynamic expression in the developing zebrafish brain, eye, inner ear, lateral line, and pharynx. In many cases, the expression patterns are similar to those of homologous FGFRs in mouse, chicken, amphibians, and other teleosts. PMID:23850987

  6. Grade Dependent Expression of Growth Factor Receptors and Signaling Molecules in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chellakkan Selvanesan Benson; Somasundaram Dinesh Babu; Selvi Radhakrishna; Nagarajan Selvamurugan; Bhaskaran Ravi Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Growth factor signaling plays a key role in the growth and development of breast. Aberrant expression and activation of growth factors like insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and their downstream signaling has been implicated in breast cancer. The deregulation of growth factor signaling is associated with increased proliferation and cell survival, decreased apoptosis, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The aim of the present study is to survey the diff...

  7. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliane, Ceccon; Pilar, Huante; Emanuel, Rincón.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available As florestas tropicais secas representam cerca da metade das florestas tropicais do mundo e são ecossistemas que estão sofrendo uma grande deterioração pelas atividades humanas. Neste artigo realizamos uma revisão de literatura sobre a dinâmica da regeneração das florestas tropicais secas enfocando [...] principalmente nos fatores abióticos que influenciam esta regeneração, tais como, o clima estacional, a fertilidade e umidade do solo e as perturbações naturais e antrópicas. O principal objetivo é compreender um aspecto muito importante da dinâmica sucessional das florestas tropicais secas. Abstract in english Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors i [...] nfluencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  8. Analysis of a factor that influences cancer outpatient fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatigue seen in many cancer cases is considered to be decrease quality of life. We clarified factors related to such fatigue and used out result to relieve fatigue. We conducted a questionnaire using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) on 204 cancer outpatients at the A hospital. We studied 16 factors influencing fatigue and analyzed the relationships among these factors and CFS scores. The mean of total fatigue scores was 23.0 points (standard deviation: 10.0). The fatigue is strong by higher than 19 points of the CFS scores. That frequency was 64.7%. The logistic regression analysis was conducted the influence factors of fatigue. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for items showing a significant difference Performance States (PS), loneliness, hormonal therapy, and radiation therapy. The conclusion of this study was to reduce fatigue in outpatient cancer treatment, it was suggested to that importance to assess a related factor of fatigue. (author)

  9. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  10. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

  11. Fibroblast growth factor 2 positively regulates expression of activating transcription factor 4 in osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Yurong; Xiao, Liping; Hurley, Marja M.

    2009-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) null mice display markedly reduced bone mass and bone formation. However, the mechanism by which FGF2 regulates bone mass or bone formation is not fully defined. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), one member of activating transcription factor/cAMP response element binding family, is a transcription factor required for osteoblast terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the ability of FGF2 to increase expressi...

  12. Aging, Synaptic Dysfunction, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1

    OpenAIRE

    Deak, Ferenc; Sonntag, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is an important neurotrophic hormone. Deficiency of this hormone has been reported to influence the genesis of cognitive impairment and dementia in the elderly patients. Nevertheless, there are studies indicating that cognitive function can be maintained into old age even in the absence of circulating IGF-1 and studies that link IGF-1 to an acceleration of neurological diseases. Although IGF-1 has a complex role in brain function, synaptic effects appear to ...

  13. Growth and infectious exposure during infancy and the risk of rheumatoid factor in adult life.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Cj; Goswami, R.; Goswami, P.; Syddall, H.; Dennison, Em; Arden, Nk; Cooper, C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of the environment to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains uncertain. Intrauterine and early postnatal life may be important. Rheumatoid factor (RF) found in around 10% of the normal population confers a risk of developing RA and may be present years before onset of clinical disease. The immune pathology leading to RA and RF may have similar genetic and environmental influences. OBJECTIVE: To measure RF in people for whom data on birth weight, infant growth, and mark...

  14. Nanoscale Imaging of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Clustering: EFFECTS OF INHIBITORS*

    OpenAIRE

    Abulrob, Abedelnasser; Lu, Zhengfang; Baumann, Ewa; Vobornik, Dusan; Taylor, Rod; Stanimirovic, Danica; Johnston, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    The development of some solid tumors is associated with overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and often correlates with poor prognosis. Near field scanning optical microscopy, a technique with subdiffraction-limited optical resolution, was used to examine the influence of two inhibitors (the chimeric 225 antibody and tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor AG1478) on the nanoscale clustering of EGFR in HeLa cells. The EGFR is organized in small clusters, average diameter of...

  15. The Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Polymorphisms in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pornchai O-charoenrat; Doonyapat Sa-nguanraksa

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females and the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), the key modulator of angiogenesis, is highly expressed in cancer tissue and correlates with its more aggressive features. Polymorphisms of VEGFA alter the levels of expression and subsequently influence the suscepti...

  16. Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 in diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short-stature children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) is conventionally diagnosed and confirmed by diminished peak Growth Hormone (GH) levels to provocative testing. Serum Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are under the influence of GH and reflect the spontaneous endogenous GH secretion. Owing to the absence of a circadian rhythm, it is possible to take individual measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 at any time of the day for evaluation of GH status instead of subjecting the individual to cumbersome provocative tests. Objectives of this study were to compare IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 assays with Exercise and L-Dopa stimulation tests in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short stature children using ITT as gold standard. Methods: This validation study was conducted at Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP, Rawalpindi, from November 2005 to October 2006. Fifty-two short stature children were included in the study. Basal samples for GH levels and simultaneous IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 measurements were obtained and afterwards all children were subjected to sequential exercise and LDopa stimulation tests. Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) was performed one week later with all the necessary precautionary measures. On the basis of ITT results, children were divided into two groups, i.e., 31 growth hormone deficient and 21 Normal Variant Short Stature (NVSS). Results: The diagnostic value of exercise stimulation test remained hie of exercise stimulation test remained highest with sensitivity 90.3%, specificity 76.0%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 84.84%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 84.2% and accuracy 84.6%. The conventional L-Dopa stimulation had sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 38.0%, PPV 69.7%, NPV 88.8 % and accuracy 73.0%. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were positively correlated with post ITT peak GH levels (r= 0.527, r=0.464 respectively, both p<0.001). The diagnostic value of IGF-1 had sensitivity 83.87%, specificity 76.2%, PPV 83.87%, NPV 76.2% and accuracy 80.76%. The diagnostic value of IGFBP-3 had sensitivity 54.83%, specificity 90.47%, PPV 89.47%, NPV 57.57% and accuracy 69.23%. With combined use of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 diagnostic value had sensitivity 69.35%, specificity 83.33% PPV 86%, NPV 64.81% and accuracy 75%. Conclusion Growth Hormones provocative tests still remain the most useful investigations for the diagnosis of GHD. Measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 have shown comparable diagnostic performance with growth hormone stimulation tests and are valuable for patients convenience and ease of performance and can be useful in the initial workup of short stature. (author)

  17. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  18. Elevated Epithelial Insulin-like Growth Factor Expression Is a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woo-young; Jin, Quanri; Oh, Seung-hyun; Kim, Edward S.; Yang, Youn Joo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Feng, Lei; Behrens, Carmen; Prudkin, Ludmila; Miller, York E.; Lee, J. Jack; Lippman, Scott M.; Hong, Waun Ki; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Lee, Ho-young

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling has been implicated in several human neoplasms. However, the role of serum levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in lung cancer risk is controversial. We assessed the role of tissue-derived IGFs in lung carcinogenesis. We found that IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels in bronchial tissue specimens containing high-grade dysplasia were significantly higher than in those containing normal epithelium, hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. Derivat...

  19. Extracellular proteolytic cleavage by urokinase is required for activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Naldini, L.; Tamagnone, L.; Vigna, E.; Sachs, M.; Hartmann, G.; Birchmeier, W.; Daikuhara, Y.; Tsubouchi, H.; Blasi, F.; Comoglio, P. M.

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular protease urokinase is known to be crucially involved in morphogenesis, tissue repair and tumor invasion by mediating matrix degradation and cell migration. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a secretory product of stromal fibroblasts, sharing structural motifs with enzymes of the blood clotting cascade, including a zymogen cleavage site. HGF/SF promotes motility, invasion and growth of epithelial and endothelial cells. Here we show that HGF/SF is secreted as...

  20. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor expression in human mammary epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Selden, A. C.; Morgan, N.; Stamp, G. W.; Hodgson, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    This study reports expression of mRNA for the growth modulator hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) in both benign and malignant human mammary epithelium by in situ hybridization. In benign breast tissue expression was prominent in areas of adenosis and in peripheral acinic cells in lactating breast; in malignant epithelium expression was seen in 15 of 21 cases of in situ and invasive breast cancer. In some cases of invasive ductal carcinoma stronger labeling appeared to be associ...

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor acts as an osteolytic factor in breast cancer metastases to bone

    OpenAIRE

    Aldridge, S. E.; Lennard, T. W. J.; Williams, J. R.; Birch, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proangiogenic cytokine that is expressed highly in many solid tumours often correlating with a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the expression of VEGF and its receptors in bone metastases from primary human breast tumours and further characterised its effects on osteoclasts in vitro. Breast cancer metastases to bone were immunohistochemically stained for VEGF, its receptors VEGFR1 and 2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1...

  2. Growth and differentiation factors for periodontal regeneration : a review on factors with clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavropoulos, A; Wikesjö, U M E

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence implies that growth and differentiation factors, based on their ability to regulate various functions of cells originating in the periodontal tissues, may support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, creating an environment conducive to and/or immediately inducing de novo tissue formation. This study presents a short systematic overview on growth and differentiation factor technologies evaluated in the clinic for their potential to enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration.

  3. Diverse tumorigenesis associated with aberrant development in mice overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor/scatter?factor

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Hisashi; Larochelle, William?J; Sharp, Richard; Otsuka, Toshiyuki; Kriebel, Paul; Anver, Miriam; Aaronson, Stuart?A; Merlino, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a mesenchymally derived, multifunctional paracrine regulator possessing mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenetic activities in cultured epithelial cells containing its tyrosine kinase receptor, Met. c-met has been implicated in oncogenesis through correlation of expression with malignant phenotype in specific cell lines and tumors. Paradoxically, however, HGF/SF can also inhibit the growth of some tumor cells. To elucidate the oncogenic role ...

  4. Context-specific influence of water temperature on brook trout growth rates in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Modelling the effects of climate change on freshwater fishes requires robust field-based estimates accounting for interactions among multiple factors.2. We used data from an 8-year individual-based study of a wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population to test the influence of water temperature on season-specific growth in the context of variation in other environmental (i.e. season, stream flow) or biotic factors (local brook trout biomass density and fish age and size) in West Brook, a third-order stream in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.3. Changes in ambient temperature influenced individual growth rates. In general, higher temperatures were associated with higher growth rates in winter and spring and lower growth rates in summer and autumn. However, the effect of temperature on growth was strongly context-dependent, differing in both magnitude and direction as a function of season, stream flow and fish biomass density.4. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong and complex interactive effects on trout growth. At the coldest temperatures (in winter), high stream flows were associated with reduced trout growth rates. During spring and autumn and in typical summers (when water temperatures were close to growth optima), higher flows were associated with increased growth rates. In addition, the effect of flow at a given temperature (the flow-temperature interaction) differed among seasons.5. Trout density negatively affected growth rate and had strong interactions with temperature in two of four seasons (i.e. spring and summer) with greater negative effects at high temperatures.6. Our study provided robust, integrative field-based estimates of the effects of temperature on growth rates for a species which serves as a model organism for cold-water adapted ectotherms facing the consequences of environmental change. Results of the study strongly suggest that failure to derive season-specific estimates, or to explicitly consider interactions with flow regime and fish density, will seriously compromise our ability to predict the effects of climate change on stream fish growth rates. Further, the concordance we found between empirical observations and likely energetic mechanisms suggests that our general results should be relevant at broader spatial and temporal scales. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Influence of Experimental Parameters on Fatigue Crack Growth and Heat Build-Up in Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Stadlbauer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Loading parameters (frequency, amplitude ratio and waveform are varied to determine their influence on fatigue crack growth in rubber. Up to three different rubber blends are investigated: one actual engineering material and two model materials. Fatigue crack growth curves and strain distributions of pure shear and faint waist pure shear samples are compared for a model material. Fatigue behavior is studied for three different frequencies (1 Hz, 3 Hz and 5 Hz. Amplitude ratio appears to be another important influence factor concerning fatigue crack growth in rubber. The beneficial effect of positive amplitude ratios (tensional loading conditions is shown for different materials. However, fatigue crack growth is considerably increased for negative amplitude ratios (tensional-compressional loading conditions. Furthermore, the influence of the waveform is determined for three different waveform shapes. One is sinusoidal, and two have a square shape, including dwell periods and sinusoidal slopes. Special focus lies on heat build-up, which is substantial, especially for large loads, high frequencies and/or highly filled rubber blends. Plateau temperatures are determined for various loading conditions and rubber blends. A very simple linear relationship with dissipated energy per time and unit area is obtained. Results gathered with dynamic mechanical analyses show, likewise, a linear trend, but the heat build-up is very small, due to different sample geometries.

  6. The role of macrophage derived growth factors in pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors released from rat alveolar macrophages exposed to high (95 ?g/mL) concentrations of the fibrogenic agent, nickel subsulfide, were found to inhibit the proliferation of cultured lung epithelial cells and stimulate the growth of fibroblasts. Such factors, if present in the alveoli of rats exposed by inhalation to nickel subsulfide in vivo, may play a role in inhibiting re-epithelization of nickel-damaged lungs and in stimulating fibroblast proliferation, leading to pulmonary fibrosis. (author)

  7. Proinflammatory functions of vascular endothelial growth factor in alloimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Reinders, Marlies E. J.; Sho, Masayuki; Izawa, Atsushi; Wang, Ping; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Koss, Kerith E.; Geehan, Christopher S.; Luster, Andrew D.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Briscoe, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an established angiogenesis factor, is expressed in allografts undergoing rejection, but its function in the rejection process has not been defined. Here, we initially determined that VEGF is functional in the trafficking of human T cells into skin allografts in vivo in the humanized SCID mouse. In vitro, we found that VEGF enhanced endothelial cell expression of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and IL-8, and in combination with IFN-...

  8. Transcriptional Regulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Kwi-hyun; Kim, Jung-guk; Park, Keun-gyu

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an attractive target for treating metabolic disease due to its wide-ranging beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Circulating FGF21 levels are increased in insulin-resistant states; however, endogenous FGF21 fails to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity, suggesting that metabolic syndrome is an FGF21-resistant state. Therefore, transcription factors for FGF21 are potential drug targets that could increase FGF21 expression in obes...

  9. VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AND BREAST CANCER RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Katherine W.; Ness, Roberta B.; Stone, Roslyn A.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Vogel, Victor G.; Powers, Robert W.; Modugno, Francesmary; Cauley, Jane A.

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key factor in angiogenesis and is important to carcinogenesis. Previous studies relating circulating levels of VEGF to breast cancer have been limited by small numbers of participants and lack of adjustment for confounders. We studied the association between serum VEGF and breast cancer in an unmatched case-control study of 407 pre- and postmenopausal women (N=203 cases, N=204 controls). Logistic regression was used to model breast cancer risk as...

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factor–23 and Cardiac Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Isha; Ide, Noriko; Ix, Joachim H.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Lanske, Beate; Schiller, Nelson B.; Whooley, Mary A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fibroblast growth factor–23 (FGF?23) is a phosphaturic factor previously associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction among individuals with chronic kidney disease. Whether FGF?23 acts directly to induce left ventricular hypertrophy, potentially independent of its klotho coreceptor, remains uncertain. We investigated associations of FGF?23 with cardiac structural abnormalities among individuals with a broad range of kidney function and explored pot...

  11. Influence of environment on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbauer, Bernd M; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, the influence of different environments on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steam turbine blade steel is investigated. Fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) in the near threshold regime are measured with ultrasonic fatigue testing technique. Fatigue tests are performed in vacuum, air and different aqueous environments with defined chloride and oxygen content. Furthermore, the influence of different stress ratios is investigated. It is found that crack propagation is not necessarily enhanced with increasing corrosiveness. In the aqueous environments, the FCGRs below 10?? m/cycle are lower than in air. The threshold stress intensity factor ranges are higher or equal. Observation of the fracture surfaces shows oxide formation and partly intergranular fracture for specimens tested in aqueous environments. Crack closure effects seem to be responsible for this unexpected behaviour. PMID:23490013

  12. Influence Of Dilution Factor For Activity Measurement Of 60CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)

  13. ELUSIVE FACTORS INFLUENCING SHARE VALUES: AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oyedokun, Akintunde; Aworemi, Joshua; Odeyemi, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The paper examined the elusive factors influencing share value in the Nigeria oil and gas industry with the aim of determining their effect and the extent to which they influenced share value. A simple random technique was used to select three of the six listed oil and gas companies on the Nigeria stock exchange. A stratified random technique was then used to select respondent in the functional department across the selected oil and gas industry. Both secondary and primary data were involved ...

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING WAITING TIME IN OUTPATIENT PHARMACY OF LAGOS UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Ndukwe Henry C.; Fola Tayo; Sariem Nanbam C.

    2011-01-01

    Time, money and expertise are resources that are indispensable to productivity, performance, efficiency, success and growth of any health institution. This research was aimed at identifying and measuring some of the factors influencing patient waiting time in an outpatient pharmacy. The study employed the use of time monitoring card and time study analysis to volunteered participants. A situation analysis conducted revealed an average of 167 minutes of waiting time. The dispensing time averag...

  15. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in rubber industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnaz Moshkelati; Elham Eghbali; Hamed Asgari; Hamid Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Building a distinguished brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. It also helps us sell products with higher price; attract reliable customers for long term relationships. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing rubber industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 20 questions, distributes it among 300 people and collects 265 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.756...

  16. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF MARKETING FACTORS INFLUENCING FAIRTRADE FOOD BUYING BEHAVIOUR IN THE UK

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Amofa Yamoah

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the fairtrade industry has attracted increased research interest but little is known as to what marketing factors drive fairtrade retail sales. This gap has profound implications for fairtrade marketing research and the future of the fairtrade industry. To provide a more robust and objective insight this paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million fairtrade shoppers to establish the influence of price, promotion and distribution on f...

  17. Growth factor receptors as therapeutic targets: strategies to inhibit the insulin-like growth factor I receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmacz, Eva

    2003-09-29

    Neoplastic transformation is often related to abnormal activation of growth factor receptors and their signaling pathways. The concept of targeting specific tumorigenic receptors and/or signaling molecules has been validated by the development and successful clinical application of drugs acting against the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu, Erb2), the epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR, HER1), the Brc-Abl kinase, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-kit. This review will focus on the next promising therapeutic target, the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR). IGF-IR has been implicated in a number of neoplastic diseases, including several common carcinomas. From a pharmaceutical standpoint, of particular importance is that IGF-IR appears to be required for many transforming agents (genetic, viral, chemical) to act, but is not obligatory for the function of normal adult cells. The tumorigenic potential of IGF-IR is mediated through its antiapoptotic and transforming signaling, and in some cases through induction of prometastatic pathways. Preclinical studies demonstrated that downregulation of IGF-IR reversed the neoplastic phenotype and sensitized cells to antitumor treatments. The strategies to block IGF-IR function employed anti-IGF-IR antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors of the IGF-IR tyrosine kinase, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and antisense RNA, small inhibitory RNA, triple helix, dominant-negative mutants, and various compounds reducing ligand availability. The experience with these strategies combined with the knowledge gained with current anti-growth factor receptor drugs should streamline the development of anti-IGF-IR therapeutics. PMID:14528284

  18. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  19. Key variables influencing patterns of lava dome growth and collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Lava domes are conical structures that grow by the infusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Dome growth can be characterized by repeated cycles of growth punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for its composite strength. Within these cycles, deformation ranges from slow long term deformation to sudden deep-seated collapses. Collapses may range from small raveling failures to voluminous and fast-moving pyroclastic flows with rapid and long-downslope-reach from the edifice. Infusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the spatial distribution of strength in the structure. Solidification, driven by degassing-induced crystallization of magma leads to the formation of a continuously evolving frictional talus as a hard outer shell. This shell encapsulates the cohesion-dominated soft ductile core. Here we explore the mechanics of lava dome growth and failure using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. This meshless model follows the natural evolution of a brittle carapace formed by loss of volatiles and rheological stiffening and avoids difficulties of hour-glassing and mesh-entangelment typical in meshed models. We test the fidelity of the model against existing experimental and observational models of lava dome growth. The particle-dynamics model follows the natural development of dome growth and collapse which is infeasible using simple analytical models. The model provides insight into the triggers that lead to the transition in collapse mechasnism from shallow flank collapse to deep seated sector collapse. Increase in material stiffness due to decrease in infusion rate results in the transition of growth pattern from endogenous to exogenous. The material stiffness and strength are strongly controlled by the magma infusion rate. Increase in infusion rate decreases the time available for degassing induced crystallization leading to a transition in the growth pattern, while a decrease in infusion rate results in larger crystals causing the material to stiffen leading to formation of spines. Material stiffness controls the growth direction of the viscous plug in the lava dome interior. Material strength and stiffness controled by rate of infusion influence lava dome growth more significantly than coefficient of frictional of the talus.

  20. Influence of initial conditions on large scale dynamo growth rate

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kiwan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of energy and helicity on the growth of large scale magnetic field, helical kinetic forcing was applied to the magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) system that had a specific distribution of energy and helicity as an initial condition. Simulation results show the saturation of a system is not influenced by the initial conditions, but the growth rate of large scale magnetic field is proportionally dependent on the initial large scale magnetic energy and helicity. Comparison of the profiles of evolving magnetic and kinetic energy implies that the large scale kinetic energy plays a preceding role in the MHD dynamo in the early time regime. Kinetic energy was observed to migrate backward when the external energy flew into the three dimensional MHD system. The data were analyzed and interpreted using the equations from quasi normal approximation and two scale mean field method.

  1. Steady impact factor growth for MDPI open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    For the past three years MDPI has announced the newly released impact factors for its Open Access journals by the means of an annual editorial [1-3]. In 2012 we are-once again-pleased to report that the growth of the impact factors of MDPI's Open Access journals continues. This year's edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR), which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes 10 journals published by MDPI, including three that have received their first official Impact Factors- International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), Materials Nutrients. Table 1 reports the latest Impact Factors for 2011. Figure 1 graphically depicts the evolution of the Impact Factors for four MDPI open access journals that have received Impact Factors in the past. Table 2 reports the ranking of the MDPI journals within the subject categories of the Science Citation Index Expanded. PMID:22971582

  2. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE E-LOYALTY OF INTERNET BANKING USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen M Al-Agaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging were found to have a significant impact on customer e-loyalty in Internet banking.

  3. Characterization and estrogen regulation of uterine growth factor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid extracts of rat, bovine and rabbit uterus stimulated glucose transport, measured by phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose and DNA synthesis, measured by 3H-thymidne incorporation, in uterine tumor cells and in primary cultures of rat uterine cells. The stimulation of glucose transport was of the same magnitude and followed the same time course as estradiol stimulation in vivo. Uteri from estradiol-treated rat uteri contained 4 times more glucose transport-stimulating activity as control uteri. DNA synthetic activity in rat uterine homogenates was elevated 3-fold within 18-24 h after estradiol injection. Gel filtration showed molecular weight heterogeneity with activity eluting between 10-30 kDA. Both activities were acid and heat stable, were reduced by trypsin but not by dextran-coated charcoal. The effect of purified growth factors on DNA synthesis in primary cultures of rat uterine cells was examined. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblasts growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) had no effect on 3H-thymidine incorporation

  4. Variation in human growth patterns due to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J.; Muehlenbein, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    The full-text of this book chapter is not available in ORA. Citation: Ulijaszek, S. J. (2010) Variation in human growth patterns due to environmental factors. In: Muehlenbein, M. P. (ed.) Human evolutionary biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 396-404.

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,…

  6. Hyperglycemia to nephropathy via transforming growth factor beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Mayuresh Sudamrao; Kulkarni, Yogesh Anant

    2014-05-01

    Nephropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes which further directs to end stage renal disease. Extensive work has been done to find out the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of the DN. Now, many researchers have been convinced that almost all of the molecular mediators and intracellular signaling pathways involved in progression of diabetic nephropathy have involvement in transforming growth factor beta (TGF- ?) at some stage. In DN, hyperglycemia causes increase in the expression of TGF- ? genes, TGF- ? proteins and their receptors. Increased glucose level mediates these effects through activation of polyol pathway, protein kinase C pathway, hexosamine pathway, increases advanced glycation end products (AGE) and increases oxidative stress. Hyperglycemia also activates the TGF- ? via activation of glucose transporters (GLUT), angiotensine II and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Activated TGF-? further leads to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and glomerulosclerosis through activation of connective tissue growth factor (CDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We have discussed the progression of hyperglycemia to DN via TGF- ?, whose schematic presentation may serve as an effective way to understand the mechanisms and to find out an effective way for the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24919657

  7. Organizational Structure: Influencing Factors and Impact on a Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quangyen Tran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on organizational structure has been in researchers’ focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Many of these factors are from the environment where traditional view commonly divided into internal and external factors. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate the influencing factors and impact on organizational structure of a sample of firms located in Hanoi, Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were administered with respect to these factors. The variables studied were identified from among the factors considered in contingency theory and by incorporating elements of the strategic choice approach. After grouping the variables into two factors (related to external and internal respectively, the results revealed three groups of firms according to how they regarded the impact of these factors on organizational structures. In those groups that consider the variables of internal factors to be modifiers of structure the organizational structures are of the “complex classical” type, whereas simple forms predominate in the group that believes these variables do not modify their structure.

  8. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivkovi?-Kapicl Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Testing for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in breast cancer at the time of primary diagnosis is now the standard of care. Positivity for epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in breast cancer is a prognostic factor regarding tumor aggressiveness and a predictive factor for response to Herceptin. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure that all patients who may benefit from Herceptin are correctly identified. Assay method. The principal testing methods used for determination of epider­mal growth factor receptor-2 status are immunohistochemistry for protein over expression and in situ hybridization using either fluorescence or a chromogen. Immunohistochemical testing method allows identification of epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive patients (3+ who may benefit from Herceptin therapy, whereas negative patients (0/1+ can be excluded. A proportion of specimens defined as equivocal by immunohistochemistry (2+ must be retested by in situ hybridization to determine their status. Chromogen in situ hybridization is a method for determination of gene amplification using a peroxidase-based chromogenic reaction, which can be viewed using a conventional bright field microscope and it determines the actual degree of gene amplification. Various factors can affect the results achieved with these assays, including the assay antibody/probe, the methodology and the experience of personnel. Many countries implemented national testing guidelines in an attempt to standardize testing procedures and make results more accurate. Conclusion. The key point underlined by this review is that whatever method is used to test HER2 status, the technology must be validated first, and there must be regular internal and external quality assurance procedures.

  9. Growth factor delivery from self-assembling nanofibers to facilitate islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendahl, John C; Wang, Ling-Jia; Chow, Lesley W; Kaufman, Dixon B; Stupp, Samuel I

    2008-08-15

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and molecular self-assembly may provide novel solutions to current cell transplantation deficiencies. Heparin-binding peptide amphiphiles (HBPAs) self-assemble from aqueous media into nanofibers that bind growth factors through interactions with the bioactive polymer heparin. In this report, we demonstrate that delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 from HBPA scaffolds significantly increases blood vessel density in the mouse omentum over control scaffolds without growth factors (PHBPA scaffolds containing vascular endothelial growth factor/fibroblast growth factor-2 achieved normoglycemia at a higher rate (78%) than control animals receiving identical scaffolds without growth factors (30%; PHBPA nanostructures. PMID:18698254

  10. Cow placenta extract promotes murine hair growth through enhancing the insulin - like growth factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongliang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.

  11. Ranking different factors influencing on development of tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Khalesi Ardakani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry plays an essential role on development of economy and it is considered as one of green industries. Many countries try to promote investment on tourism to create various job opportunities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on tourism industry in city of Yazd, Iran. The proposed study uses three multiple criteria decision making techniques namely, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW and Taxonomy to rank 40 factors. The results indicate that factors such as Being located in the center axis of communication, Strengths in transportation, The ease of access to tourism destinations and Sufficient knowledge of some historical attractions are among important factors influencing tourism industry.

  12. Fibroblast Growth Factors Stimulate Hair Growth through ?-Catenin and Shh Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-hong; Xiang, Li-Jun; Shi, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Li-ping; Cai, Ping-tao; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Lin, Bei-Bei; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Guo, Ding-Jiong; Li, Xiao-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Xiao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors are involved in the regulation of hair morphogenesis and cycle hair growth. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of three approved growth factor drugs, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and the mechanism of action. We observed that FGFs promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of FGFs induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to the control group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of ?-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles of the FGFs-treated group. These results suggest that FGFs promote hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might be a potential hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:25685806

  13. Aberrations of growth factors as biomarkers of cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovi? Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation and growth are regulated by a complex network of growth factor and growth inhibitorinitiated signal transduction pathways. The disruption of these signaling pathways through genetic, epigenetic, or somatic alterations is a major area of cancer research. Increasing evidence indicates that oncogenic activation of growth factors and their receptor proteins occur through mutations (oncoproteins that lead to constitutive activation of the signaling pathways, thus providing the grounds for putative prognostic marker(s and potential target(s for treatment of various cancers. Over the past few years, the study of genomics has revealed the gene expression signatures for many malignancies. Present communication outlines literature survey on genomic molecular markers of breast, lung, and prostate cancers. Reassuringly, the dominant genomic markers of these malignancies include oncoproteins and provide a support for their clinical validity as cancer targets. More specifically, this article reviews recent advances in clinical targeting of these malignancies by two types of growth factor/receptors, namely transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?, and EGFR subfamily of tyrosine kinase receptors including ErbB2. Overexpression of these proteins has been demonstrated in patients with cancer progression and correlated with poor prognosis, increased frequency of metastasis and death. In addition, EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitors have been used in targeted therapy of lung and breast cancer, respectively. Recent investigations of lung cancer have uncovered that EGFR inhibitors have their greatest effect in patients with EGFR somatic mutations thus raising a possibility that EGFR mutations may be a molecular predictors of sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors.

  14. Strength training does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekint, Maaike; De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Njemini, Rose; Bautmans, Ivan; Mets, Tony; Meeusen, Romain

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the acute effect of a strength training session on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor 1. Furthermore, the influence of a 10-week strength training program on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resting levels and memory performance was studied. Fifteen untrained subjects followed a strength training program for 10 weeks. Eight control subjects remained physically inactive. To study the influence of an acute strength training session, blood samples were taken before and after the sixth and 30th sessions. Training effects were evaluated by taking blood samples at rest before and following the training program. Short- and mid-term memories were assessed using the digit span and a recall of images test. BDNF, IGF-1 and its binding protein (IGFBP-3) were measured in serum samples. Data were analyzed (p tests, and Pearson's correlation. A single strength training session did not influence BDNF and IGF-1 concentrations. No effect of the strength training period on BDNF, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 was found. No correlation was found between peripheral BDNF and IGF-1. Short-term memory improved in both the experimental and control groups, but no difference between groups was present. Mid-term memory did not improve following the 10 weeks of training. A period of strength training in sedentary subjects does not significantly change the growth factors or memory function compared to a control group. Also, BDNF and IGF-1 are not acutely influenced by a training session. Further research should focus on the beneficial role of physical exercise in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20467874

  15. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, R.; Niu, X.; Wang, M.; Zhou, Q.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa), addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA) and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30-90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  16. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa, addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH. The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30–90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  17. Research on Knowledge Transfer Influencing Factors in Software Process Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Dejie Li; Qingjing Liu; Hongbo Xu; Jiangping Wan

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge transfer model of software process improvement (SPI) and the conceptual framework of influencing factors are established. The model includes five elements which are knowledge of transfer, sources of knowledge, recipients of knowledge, relationship of transfer parties, and the environment of transfer. The conceptual framework includes ten key factors which are ambiguity, systematism, transfer willingness, capacity of impartation, capacity of absorption, incen-tive mechanism, culture,...

  18. Exploring Factors That Influence Knowledge Sharing Behavior via Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Zamiri; Baqutayan, Dr Shadiya Mohamed S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS) University Technology Malaysia (UTM) to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the ...

  19. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli; Hamid Bagheri; Sina Nobahari; Naser Azad; Mohammad Rikhtegar

    2013-01-01

    These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distr...

  20. Influence of intrinsic factors on conventional wine protein stability tests

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento, M. R.; Oliveira, J. C.; Slatner, M.; Boulton, R. B.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of intrinsic factors on the results of ethanol, tannin and heat tests, routinely used to assess wine protein stability, was studied. Experiments were performed on 23 Portuguese and Austrian wines. The factors considered were total protein content, pH, ethanol content and the amount of several relevant cations (calcium, iron, copper, sodium and potassium). The protein pro®les were analysed by HPLC fractionation. The heat test was a good indicator of total protein content while t...

  1. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wall; Jennifer Robertson-Wilson; Sean Horton; Joseph Baker

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors suc...

  2. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi

    2013-01-01

    Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our s...

  3. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Goldani, M. Z.; Haeffner, L. S. B.; Agranonik, M.; Barbieri, M. A.; Bettiol, H.; Silva, A. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class) on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of t...

  4. Influencing Factors for Dietary Behaviors of Patientswith Diabetic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kawata, Chieko; Sumiyoshi, Kazuko; Shikata, Kenichi; Makino, Hirofumi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the factors influencing the dietary behavior of patients with diabetic nephropathy. One hundred twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from the outpatients of Okayama University Hospital in Okayama, Japan. We performed a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire including 206 items among 18 categories as follows:background factors, coping behavior (coping scale), degree of uncertainty in illness (uncertainty scale), and dietary behavior....

  5. Influencing factors on lecture attendance at a tertiary institution

    OpenAIRE

    Jordaan, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    The tendency towards decreasing class attendance by students is a concern for many tertiary institutions. Various factors contribute to the motivation of students, which in turn directly or indirectly influence them to attend lectures. The aim of the study is mainly to investigate which factors are related to the problem of low lecture attendance, and to determine the relation between lecture attendance and online support for students, gender, age, year level groups and faculty...

  6. Rat prostatic growth factors: purification and characterization of high and low molecular weight epidermal growth factors from rat dorsolateral prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, N; Shimizu, C; Okutani, T; Kagawa, Y; Takasuga, H; Suno, M; Wada, F

    1991-11-12

    Growth factors which possibly participate in androgen-induced proliferation of rat prostate epithelial cells have been purified and characterized. Four distinct forms of growth factor were found in the extract of rat dorsolateral prostate. One of the factors was a member of heparin-binding growth factor (HBGF) family judging from its high affinity for heparin-Sepharose. The other three factors were capable of competing with [125I]epidermal growth factor (EGF) for the cell surface receptor, and recognized by anti-rat EGF antiserum. These EGF-like factors (EGF1-EGF3) were purified by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and reverse phase HPLC. EGF1 showed microheterogeneity on chromatographic and electrophoretic separation and N-terminal sequence analysis. EGF1 showed an average molecular weight of about 35,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing conditions. These results indicated that EGF1 was a mixture of high molecular weight forms of EGF. The molecular weights of EGF2 and EGF3 were similar to that of rat submaxillary gland EGF (Mr = 5400). The amino acid sequence of EGF2 was identical with that of rat EGF except for the N- and C-terminal amino acids: aspartic acid instead of asparagine was found at the N-terminal position and C-terminal arginine was missing in EGF2. Although the N-terminal sequence of EGF3 (1-19) was identical with that of EGF2, the two factors were completely separated by gel filtration indicating a difference in the C-terminal structure. EGF1, EGF2 and EGF3 but not HBGF stimulated proliferation of primary cultured rat dorsolateral prostate epithelial cells. PMID:1958699

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in canine simple mammary gland adenocarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Al-dissi, Ahmad N.; Haines, Deborah M.; Singh, Baljit; Kidney, Beverly A.

    2010-01-01

    The expression of 5 markers associated with angiogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis was studied in 26 canine simple mammary gland adenocarcinomas (SMGAs). The adenocarcinomas were graded histologically, and tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), intra-tumor microvessel density, and tumor proliferation (PI) using antibodies against VEGF, VEGFR-2, von Willebrand factor, and Ki-67 antigen, ...

  8. Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 signaling inhibits fibroblast growth factor-2-induced lymphangiogenesis in mouse cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Hajime; Cao, Renhai; Bra?kenhielm, Ebba; Ma?kinen, Taija; Cao, Yihai; Alitalo, Kari

    2002-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) is a major mediator of lymphangiogenesis. Recently, VEGFR-3 ligands, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were reported to promote tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, and these processes were inhibited by blocking of the VEGFR-3-signaling pathway. Here, we have adapted the mouse corneal angiogenesis assay to study potential lymphangiogenic factors and inhibitors. Immunohistochemical analysis with lymphatic endothelial markers showed that VEG...

  9. Enhanced Phosphoproteomic Profiling Workflow For Growth Factor Signaling Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike

    Background Our understanding of complex signaling networks is still fragmentary. Isolated processes have been studied extensively but cross-talk is omnipresent and precludes intuitive predictions of signaling outcomes. The need for quantitative data on dynamic systems is apparent especially for our understanding of pathological processes. In our study we create and integrate data on phosphorylations that are initiated by several growth factor receptors. We present an approach for quantitative, time-resolved phosphoproteomic profiling that integrates the important contributions by phosphotyrosines. Methods A549 lung carcinoma cells were used as a model and stimulated with hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor. We employed a quick protein digestion workflow with spin filters without using urea. Phosphopeptides in general were enriched by sequential elution from immobilized metal affinity chromatography (SIMAC) with TiO2 enrichment. Phosphotyrosine containing peptides were enriched by immunoprecipitation. iTRAQ™ labeling enabled multiplexed quantification of changes during stimulation and comparison of different stimuli. Several fragmentation techniques were used in order to maximize identification of peptides as well as localization of phosphorylation sites. Results and Conclusions The combination of SIMAC with phosphotyrosine enrichment leads to a significant increase in identification of potential signaling events in growth factor receptor signaling networks. In a typical set of measurements (time course of one stimulant) 1500 to 2000 unique phosphopeptides are found. 200 of these contain phosphotyrosine. A large fraction of known network components can be identified. Combining data from collision induced dissociation (normal and higher energy) and electron transfer dissociation adds confidence in modification site assignment. The workflow is relatively simple but the integration of complementary techniques leads to a deeper insight into cellular signaling networks and the potential pharmacological intervention thereof.

  10. Gelatin methacrylate microspheres for controlled growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh H; McKinney, Jay; Miller, Tobias; Bongiorno, Tom; McDevitt, Todd C

    2015-02-01

    Gelatin has been commonly used as a delivery vehicle for various biomolecules for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications due to its simple fabrication methods, inherent electrostatic binding properties, and proteolytic degradability. Compared to traditional chemical cross-linking methods, such as the use of glutaraldehyde (GA), methacrylate modification of gelatin offers an alternative method to better control the extent of hydrogel cross-linking. Here we examined the physical properties and growth factor delivery of gelatin methacrylate (GMA) microparticles (MPs) formulated with a wide range of different cross-linking densities (15-90%). Less methacrylated MPs had decreased elastic moduli and larger mesh sizes compared to GA MPs, with increasing methacrylation correlating to greater moduli and smaller mesh sizes. As expected, an inverse correlation between microparticle cross-linking density and degradation was observed, with the lowest cross-linked GMA MPs degrading at the fastest rate, comparable to GA MPs. Interestingly, GMA MPs at lower cross-linking densities could be loaded with up to a 10-fold higher relative amount of growth factor than conventional GA cross-linked MPs, despite the GA MPs having an order of magnitude greater gelatin content. Moreover, a reduced GMA cross-linking density resulted in more complete release of bone morphogenic protein 4 and basic fibroblast growth factor and accelerated release rate with collagenase treatment. These studies demonstrate that GMA MPs provide a more flexible platform for growth factor delivery by enhancing the relative binding capacity and permitting proteolytic degradation tunability, thereby offering a more potent controlled release system for growth factor delivery. PMID:25463489

  11. Insulin-like growth factor-I and UVB photoprotection in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Tara Lyn; Van Lonkhuyzen, Derek R; Dawson, Rebecca A; Kimlin, Michael G; Upton, Zee

    2015-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), in particular the UVB spectrum, is a risk factor for skin cancer development. The generation and accumulation of UVB-induced genetic mutations are fundamental premalignant events. Keratinocyte interactions between other cutaneous cell populations and the surrounding microenvironment determine cell fate and acute photoresponses. In this study, the importance of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, in particular the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), on influencing key processes in the keratinocyte acute photoresponse was investigated. Exogenous IGF-I and other growth factors present in dermal fibroblast-conditioned media (CM) were found to significantly enhance keratinocyte survival following UVB irradiation in vitro. This pretreatment was also shown to cause a shift in the expression levels of various DNA damage response proteins. Consequently, this was associated with accelerated rates of UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer removal in these samples. Finally, activation of the IGF system influenced cell cycle progression in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the IGF signalling network in initiating the repair of potentially mutagenic DNA damage in human keratinocytes. The dysregulation of these processes may therefore have significant implications in the aetiology of skin cancers and other cutaneous diseases. PMID:25607472

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of the vascular endothelial growth factor family in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Syeda Kiran; Iqbal, Yasmeen; Malik, Muhammad Faraz Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Cancer progression is attained by uncontrolled cell division and metastasis. Increase in tumor size triggers different vascular channel formation to address cell nutritional demands. These channels are responsible for transferring of nutrients and gaseous to the cancer cells. Cancer vascularization is regulated by numerous factors including vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). These factors play an important role during embryonic development. Members included in this group are VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, PIGF and VEGFD which markedly influence cellular growth and apoptosis. Being freely diffusible these proteins act in both autocrine and paracrine fashions. In this review, genetic characterization these molecules and their putative role in cancer staging has been elaborated. Prognostic significance of these molecules along with different stages of cancer has also been summarized. Brief outline of ongoing efforts to target hot spot target sites against these VEGFs and their cognate limitations for therapeutic implications are also highlighted. PMID:25773809

  13. Quantitation of growth factors in ossein-mineral-compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, J J; Mohan, S; Jennings, J C; Wergedal, J E; Taylor, A K; Baylink, D J

    1991-01-01

    Study was undertaken to identify polypeptide factors in the commercially available ossein-mineral-compound and to see if they are present in a biologically relevant quantity. Using the guanidine-EDTA extraction, 35.7 +/- 0.1 mg proteins were obtained from 1 g of the ossein-mineral-compound. At concentration 1 micrograms/ml, guanidine-EDTA-extractable proteins stimulated the incorporation of thymidine into DNA by human bone cells to 581 +/- 122% (p less than 0.001) of that by bovine serum albumin-treated control cells, decreasing thereafter. Similarly, it stimulated the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the human bone cells. Growth factors IGF-I, IGF-II, and TGF-beta were identified in the ossein-mineral-compound. This leads to speculation regarding possible role of growth factors in explaining the beneficial effects of the compound in retarding bone loss in patients with osteoporosis. PMID:1653384

  14. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in human lung emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal Joëlle; Leçon-Malas Véronique; Boutten Anne; Bonay Marcel; Soler Paul; Fournier Michel; Leseche Guy; Dehoux Monique; Crestani Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors are key growth factors in the process of alveolar repair. We hypothesized that excessive alveolar destruction observed in lung emphysema involves impaired expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors or their respective receptors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in lung samples from 3 grou...

  15. The transcription of FOXO genes is stimulated by FOXO3 and repressed by growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Essaghir, A.; Dif, N.; Marbehant, C. Y.; Coffer, P. J.; Demoulin, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    FOXO (Forkhead box O) transcription factors induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis, which can be prevented by FOXO phosphorylation by AKT in response to growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). In addition to this well characterized post-translational modification, we showed that FOXO1, FOXO3, and FOXO4 were also regulated at the transcriptional level. PDGF, fibroblast growth factors (FGF), and IGF-I represse...

  16. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  17. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor acts primarily via platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? to promote proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Steven; Haddock, Luis J; Mukai, Shizuo; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2014-11-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a nonneovascular blinding disease and the leading cause for failure in surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Once formed, PVR is difficult to treat. Hence, there is an acute interest in developing approaches to prevent PVR. Of the many growth factors and cytokines that accumulate in vitreous as PVR develops, neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A has recently been found to prevent PVR in at least one animal model. The goal of this study was to test if Food and Drug Administration-approved agents could protect the eye from PVR in multiple animal models and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Neutralizing VEGF with aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) safely and effectively protected rabbits from PVR in multiple models of disease. Furthermore, aflibercept reduced the bioactivity of both experimental and clinical PVR vitreous. Finally, although VEGF could promote some PVR-associated cellular responses via VEGF receptors expressed on the retinal pigment epithelial cells that drive this disease, VEGF's major contribution to vitreal bioactivity occurred via platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. Thus, VEGF promotes PVR by a noncanonical ability to engage platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. These findings indicate that VEGF contributes to nonangiogenic diseases and that anti-VEGF-based therapies may be effective on a wider spectrum of diseases than previously appreciated. PMID:25261788

  19. The application of radiolysis and analysis of influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a branch of radiation technology, radiolysis technology has been developing in recent years. The update research and application of radiolysis is briefly reviewed. The radiolysis in reducing veterinary drug residues in food, processing plant sources products and environmental management are summaried. The influencing factors or the mechanism and radiolysis products are reviewed. (authors)

  20. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101

  1. The factors that influence CAD/CAM/CAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)

  2. Factors Influencing Pediatric Nephrology Trainee Entry into the Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Adam R.; Reidy, Kimberly; Norwood, Victoria F.; Mahan, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Emerging needs in pediatric nephrology (PN) have made the number of nephrologists entering the workforce of critical importance. This study aimed to discern factors that influence PN fellows to choose their career path and decide to enter the PN workforce.

  3. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  4. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  5. Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of Distance Education in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine actions that colleges and universities can take to institutionalize their distance education programs. Thirty factors found to influence the institutionalization of innovations were identified from the literature. These were rated by distance education faculty and leaders as to their importance for…

  6. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  8. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  9. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  10. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  11. Empirical Research of the Capital Structure Influencing Factors of Electric Power Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we selected 25 electric power listed companies in the electric power industry as the samples to study the influences of micro factors on the capital structure of listed companies, and the sample period was from 2002 to 2007, and these micro factors mainly included company scale, profitability, growth, non-debt tax shields, fluidity and capital structure. The research results showed that the company scale, non-debt tax shields and assets structure were not significantly correlated with the capital structure, and the profitability was significantly negatively correlated with the capital structure, and the fluidity of the assets was negatively correlated with the capital structure. Finally, we put forward that the share-reform and the macro influencing factors should be further researched.

  12. Cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor (interleukin 12) is a synergistic growth factor for hematopoietic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The recently cloned cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor (interleukin 12 [IL-12]) has been described as a growth factor for mature lymphocytes. The present study investigated whether purified recombinant murine IL-12 (rMuIL-12) also could affect the proliferation of primitive bone marrow progenitor cells. Using a population of Lin- Sca-1+ murine bone marrow stem cells, we now demonstrate that IL-12 is a potent synergistic factor for primitive hematopoietic stem cells. The synergy of IL-12 w...

  13. Growth hormone releasing factor, somatocrinin, releases pituitary growth hormone in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Brazeau, P.; Ling, N.; Bo?hlen, P.; Esch, F.; Ying, S. Y.; Guillemin, R.

    1982-01-01

    Purified (rat) hypothalamic growth hormone releasing factor (GRF), native human GRF isolated from an islet cell tumor of the pancreas that had caused acromegaly, and the synthetic replicates of the human material are potent secretagogues of immunoreactive growth hormone (GH) by primary cultures of rat pituitary cells. Native or synthetic peptides give identical dose-response curves, with identical slopes and identical maximal effects. The median effective dose of the tumor-derived GRF is 15 x...

  14. Targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Subramani, Ramadevi; Lopez-valdez, Rebecca; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Nandy, Sushmita; Boopalan, Thiyagarajan; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Increasing incidence and mortality indicates that there is still much lacking in detection and management of the disease. This is partly due to a lack of specific symptoms during early stages of the disease. Several growth factor receptors have been associated with pancreatic cancer. Here, we have investigated if an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be effective and efficient against pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis....

  15. Growth, zero distribution and factorization of analytic functions of moderate growth in the unit disc

    CERN Document Server

    Chyzhykov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    We give a survey of results on zero distribution and factorization of analytic functions in the unit disc in classes defined by the growth of $\\log|f(re^{i\\theta})|$ in the uniform and integral metrics. We restrict ourself by the case of finite order of growth. For a Blaschke product $B$ we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for the uniform boundedness of all $p$-means of $\\log|B(re^{i\\theta})|$, where $p>1$.

  16. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  18. Platelet-derived growth factors and receptors in Canine Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, A; Guadagnin, E; Ferraresso, S; Gelain, M E; Iussich, S; Rütgen, B C; Mazzariol, S; Marconato, L; Aresu, L

    2014-11-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) belong to a family of polypeptide growth factors that signal through cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors to stimulate growth, proliferation and differentiation. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) are also considered important targets for specific kinase inhibitors in the treatment of several human tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PDGF-A, PDGF-B, PDGFR-? and PDGFR-? in canine lymphoma by determining gene and protein expression in lymph nodes of dogs with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) and in healthy control dogs. One lymph node was also studied at the end of therapy in a subset of dogs in remission for DLBCL. In controls, PDGF-A, PDGFR-? and PDGFR-? mRNA levels were significantly higher than in DLBCLs, PTCLs and T-LBLs. However, PDGFR-? and PDGFR-? were minimally expressed by lymphocytes and plasma cells in normal lymph nodes as determined by immunohistochemistry, while neoplastic B and T cells showed the highest score (P canine T-cell lymphomas. These data provide a rationale for the use of PDGFR antagonists in the therapy of aggressive T-cell lymphomas, but not in DLBCLs. PMID:25172054

  19. Influence of climate on radial growth of Pinus cembra within the alpine timberline ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter

    2004-03-01

    Radial growth variability and response to interannual climate variation of Cembran pine (Pinus cembra L.) were studied in the timberline ecotone on Mt. Patscherkofel (2246 m a.s.l.). The study area, which is in the inner alpine dry region of the Central Austrian Alps, is characterized by a continental climate with minimum precipitation in winter (about 150 mm during December-February) and frequent occurrence of warm dry winds (Föhn) in early spring. The hypothesis that spatial and temporal variability of radial growth is caused by site-related differences in sensitivity to winter stress (i.e., desiccation) was examined by applying dendroclimatological techniques. Ordination methods applied to tree ring time series revealed that spatial variability in radial growth is influenced by the local site factors elevation and slope aspect. Growth-climate relationships were explored using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. Radial growth at the timberline was positively correlated with temperature in July and was also strongly correlated with mild temperatures in the previous autumn and high precipitation in winter (January-March). At the tree line, temperatures in the previous autumn and precipitation in late winter (March) also controlled radial growth, whereas July temperature was not significantly correlated with ring width. Because previous autumn temperature and winter precipitation were the main growth-determining factors at the timberline and the tree line, and both of these climate variables are known to influence susceptibility of trees to winter stress, the results support the working hypothesis. Analysis of climatic conditions in extreme growth years confirmed the high sensitivity of tree ring growth to precipitation in late winter (March) at the tree line plots. Furthermore, extent of growth reduction and release varied spatially and temporarily, with south- and west-facing stands showing a higher sensitivity to climate variation in the most recent decade (1990s) than the north-facing stand. This aspect-related change in sensitivity to climate may be associated with effects of climate warming on cambial activity. PMID:14704138

  20. An Investigative Study of Factors that Influence the Retention Rates in Online Programs at Selected State, State-Affiliated, and Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tiffany Nate'

    2009-01-01

    The growth of online courses and programs offered at universities indicates it is increasingly important that higher education administrators understand the factors influencing the retention rates of students pursuing their coursework online. In this study, traditional factors influencing retention rates of students who take courses on campus were…

  1. Nerve growth factor signaling following unilateral pelvic ganglionectomy in the rat ventral prostate is age dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlasek, Carol A; Ghosh, Rudrani; Onur Cakir, Omer; Bond, Christopher; McKenna, Kevin E; McVary, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a serious health concern and is an underlying cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in many men. In affected men, LUTS/BPH is believed to result from benign proliferation of the prostate resulting in bladder outlet obstruction. Postnatal growth of the prostate is controlled via growth factor and endocrine mechanisms. However, little attention had been given to the function of the autonomic nervous system in prostate growth and differentiation. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a prostatic mitogen that has a trophic role in autonomic sensory end organ interaction. In this study, we examine how the autonomic nervous system influences prostate growth as a function of age by quantifying NGF in the rat ventral prostate (VP) after pelvic ganglionectomy. Unilateral pelvic ganglionectomy was performed on postnatal days 30 (P30), 60 and 120 Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison to sham controls (n=39). Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis for NGF were performed on denervated, intact (contralateral side) and sham control VP 7 days after surgery. Ngf RNA expression was significantly increased in the denervated and intact hyperplastic VP. Western blotting showed age-dependent increases in NGF protein at P60 in the contralateral intact VP. NGF was localized in the nerves, basal cells and columnar epithelium of the prostatic ducts. Denervation causes age-dependent increases in NGF in the VP, which is a potential mechanism by which the autonomic nervous system may regulate prostate growth and lead to BPH/LUTS. PMID:23872662

  2. Structural basis for agonism and antagonism of hepatocyte growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Tolbert, W. David; Daugherty-holtrop, Jennifer; Gherardi, Ermanno; Vande Woude, George; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an activating ligand of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase, whose activity is essential for normal tissue development and organ regeneration but abnormal activation of Met has been implicated in growth, invasion, and metastasis of many types of solid tumors. HGF has two natural splice variants, NK1 and NK2, which contain the N-terminal domain (N) and the first kringle (K1) or the first two kringle domains of HGF. NK1, which is a Met agonist, forms a head-to-tai...

  3. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I) axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake), correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM). Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term 'IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc' was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report. PMID:25729686

  4. ?Klotho Is Required for Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Effects On Growth and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Xunshan; Boney-montoya, Jamie; Owen, Bryn M.; Bookout, Angie L.; Coate, Katie Colbert; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Kliewer, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a fasting-induced hepatokine that has potent pharmacologic effects in mice, which include improving insulin sensitivity and blunting growth. The single-transmembrane protein, ?Klotho, functions as a co-receptor for FGF21 in vitro. To determine if ?Klotho is required for FGF21 action in vivo, we generated whole-body and adipose tissue-selective ?Klotho knockout mice. All of the effects of FGF21 on growth and metabolism were lost in whole-body ?Klotho ...

  5. Effects of Cyclic Strain and Growth Factors on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kona, Soujanya; Chellamuthu, Prithiviraj; Xu, Hao; Hills, Seth R.; Nguyen, Kytai Truong

    2009-01-01

    Under physiological and pathological conditions, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) are exposed to different biochemical factors and biomechanical forces. Previous studies pertaining to SMC responses have not investigated the effects of both factors on SMCs. Thus, in our research we investigated the combined effects of growth factors like Bfgf (basic fibroblast growth factor), TGF-? (transforming growth factor ?) and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) along with physiological cyclic stra...

  6. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on growth and differentiation of the continuous rat thyroid follicular cell line, FRTL-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many widely varied cell types in vitro, including some that are endocrinologically active. We have investigated the previously unknown effects of this unique growth factor in the differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL-5. The cells demonstrated specific, high affinity binding of TGF beta, and as with other epithelial cells, the growth of these thyroid follicular cells was potently inhibited by addition of TGF beta to the culture medium. TGF beta caused a significant reduction in TSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in the cells. The addition of (Bu)2cAMP along with the growth factor to cultures partially reversed the characteristic morphological changes seen with TGF beta, but did not reverse the growth inhibition. To further investigate the possible mechanisms of the effects of TGF beta on the cells, we measured the influence of the growth factor on [125I]TSH binding. TGF beta did not compete for specific TSH-binding sites; however, exposure of the cells to TGF beta for 12 or more h resulted in a dose-dependent down-regulation of TSH receptors that was fully reversible. While cellular proliferation was potently inhibited by TGF beta, differentiated function, as manifest by iodine-trapping ability, was stimulated by the growth factor. This stimulation of iodine uptake was independent of, and additive to, the stimulatory effects of TSH. Finally, FRTe stimulatory effects of TSH. Finally, FRTL-5 cells in serum-free medium and in response to TSH were shown to secrete TGF beta-like activity that competed for [125I]TGF beta in a RRA. These studies suggest that TGF beta may represent an autocrine mechanism of controlling the growth response to TSH in thyroid follicular cells, while allowing the continuance of differentiated function

  7. Association of increased mycobacterium growth inhibitory factor with antituberculous immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, S; Perumal, V K

    1991-07-01

    Cell-mediated immune mechanisms (CMI) were studied in 51 patients of pulmonary tuberculosis to evaluate the role of mycobacterium growth inhibitory factor in prognosis of the infection, before and after the administration of anti-tubercular drugs. Twenty five Mantoux negative individuals who were subsequently bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated and 25 Mantoux positive, non-tuberculous controls were included in the study. Their clinical assessment was compared with skin sensitivity (Mantoux); lymphocyte transformation (LT) after stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and purified protein derivative (PPD); macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), mycobacteria growth inhibitory factor (Myco IF) and listerial growth inhibitory factor (List IF). The tests were carried out at the beginning of the treatment and at intervals of three months, extending to one year. In the case of Mantoux positive controls, tests were carried out only once. It was found that Mantoux reaction had no correlation with LT, MIF, Myco IF and List IF. Both MIF and Myco IF, were significantly elevated in improving patients, whereas increase in List IF was not significant. An important finding was that Myco IF was at a higher level in improving patients whereas in those not responding to chemotherapy it was low. PMID:1954999

  8. Factors influencing axillary lymph node status in carcinoma breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The study aimed at observing the factors which might influence the axillary lymph node metastases. Design: The study was an observational one. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at the surgical unit of Khyber teaching Hospital, Peshawar over one year. Subjects and methods: Fifty cases of carcinoma breast undergoing mastectomy and axillary dissection were studied. A total of one hundred and sixty-six lymph nodes were sampled during auxiliary dissection. Axillary lymph node metastases were correlated with age, duration of symptoms, tumor site, size, type, grade, necrosis, margins, stromal reaction, lymphatic permeation skin and nipple involvement. Results: The presence of certain factors was observed in the majority of patients with axillary metastases. Conclusion: It was concluded that axillary lymph node metastases might be influenced by the above factors. (author)

  9. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  10. Researching on the Factors Influencing Inter-firm Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Rui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has become the strategic elements of production, it is also the important source of competitive advantage. The key to a firm’s existence and development in an open and dynamic competitive context is acquiring the required knowledge timely and effectively. Knowledge transfer is a crucial step for a firm to obtain external knowledge, therefore, researching on the factors Influencing inter-firm knowledge transfer would be helpful for a firm to overcome obstacles and enhance the inter-subject knowledge transfer performance. The author analyzes the impacts of subjective and objective factors on inter-firm knowledge transfer from the perspectives of the attributes of the objects; the transferring intention, ability, learning behavior and transferring pattern of the subjects, in order that some common factors influencing inter-firm knowledge transfer be identified and investigated which would be instructive to the researches on knowledge management in organizations.

  11. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers’ experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers’ tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

  12. Critical growth factors and signalling pathways controlling human trophoblast invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöfler, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of placental trophoblasts into uterine tissue and vessels is an essential process of human pregnancy and fetal development. Due to their remarkable plasticity invasive trophoblasts fulfil numerous functions, i.e. anchorage of the placenta, secretion of hormones, modulation of decidual angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis and remodelling of maternal spiral arteries. The latter is required to increase blood flow to the placenta, thereby ensuring appropriate transfer of nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus. Since failures in vascular changes of the placental bed are associated with pregnancy diseases such as preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction, basic research in this particular field focuses on molecular mechanisms controlling trophoblast invasion under physiological and pathological conditions. Throughout the years, an increasing number of growth factors, cytokines and angiogenic molecules controlling trophoblast motility have been identified. These factors are secreted from numerous cells such as trophoblast, maternal epithelial and stromal cells, as well as uterine NK cells and macrophages, suggesting that a complex network of cell types, mediators and signalling pathways regulates trophoblast invasiveness. Whereas essential features of the invasive trophoblast such as expression of critical proteases and adhesion molecules have been well characterised, the interplay between different cell types and growth factors and the cross-talk between distinct signalling cascades remain largely elusive. Similarly, key-regulatory transcription factors committing and differentiating invasive trophoblasts are mostly unknown. This review will summarise our current understanding of growth factors and signal transduction pathways regulating human trophoblast invasion/migration, as well as give insights into novel mechanisms involved in the particular differentiation process. PMID:19876833

  13. Influence of light on growth, fumonisin biosynthesis and FUM1 gene expression by Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Francesca; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Haidukowski, Miriam; Geisen, Rolf; Logrieco, Antonio; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2012-02-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins, mainly found in maize and maize-based food and feed, associated with several diseases in animals. The impact of these toxins on the economy and health worldwide has driven several efforts to clarify the role of environmental factors that can influence fumonisin biosynthesis by the toxigenic species. We analyzed the influence of light of varying wavelength on growth and fumonisin biosynthesis by the fungus Fusarium proliferatum ITEM 1719. Light in general had a positive influence on growth, with a mean increase of the grow rate of about 40% under light exposure in comparison to the dark incubation. Wavelengths from both sides of the spectrum, from long (627 nm) to short wavelength (470-455 nm) had a stimulating effect on fumonisin biosynthesis compared to the dark incubation: fumonisins B(1) (FB(1)) and B(2) (FB(2)) production increased of about 40 fold under red, 35 fold under blue, 20 fold under royal blue, 10 fold under green, 5 fold under yellow and 3 fold under white light in comparison to the dark incubation. The transcriptional regulation of the FUM1 fumonisin biosynthesis gene was analyzed by Real time reverse transcriptase PCR quantification, revealing a correlation between fumonisin biosynthesis and gene expression. These findings show a role of light on the growth and the modulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and provide new information on the physiology of an important toxigenic maize pathogen. PMID:22137249

  14. An overview of preharvest factors influencing mango fruit growth, quality and postharvest behaviour Uma revisão dos fatores pré-colheita que influenciam o crescimento, qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de manga

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Léchaudel; Jacques Joas

    2007-01-01

    Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance, is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous, in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably less attention has been paid to the influence of e...

  15. Growth, yield and seed production of okra as influenced by different growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) affect various aspects of plant physiology, mainly vegetative and reproductive traits including yield and seed production. Therefore, different concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of gibberellic acid (GA3) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), alone or in different combinations were sprayed on okra plants at 2-true leaf stage, to ascertain their impact on plant growth, pod production, seed yield and seed quality. All variables regarding vegetative and reproductive growth were significantly influenced by different concentrations of the growth regulators except number of days taken to flowering. Growth regulators were less effective when applied individually as compared to their combined use; however, performance of plants treated with individual PGR was better than the untreated plants. The number of leaves plant/sup -1/ and plant height was higher in plants when sprayed with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+100 ppm as well as with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. The number of pods plant/sup -1/, pod length, pod fresh and dry weight, seed yield and seed quality (in terms of germination percentage and 1000-seed weight) was maximum in plants receiving foliar spray of both GA3 and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. These results signify the role of GA/sub 3/ and NAA in okra pod production for fresh consumption as well as for seed yield. (author)

  16. The influence of indium on the growth of GaN from solution under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegory, I.; Bo?kowski, M.; Str?k, P.; Krukowski, S.; Porowski, S.

    2010-09-01

    The influence of significant fraction (10-50 mole%) indium in liquid gallium on GaN crystallization from a ternary Ga-In-N solution was analyzed. Crystallization experiments of GaN on GaN-sapphire templates from Ga-In solutions, at 1350-1450 °C, with prior to the growth seed wetting at 1500 °C, and 1.0 GPa N 2 pressure, without solid GaN source showed faster growth of GaN on the seed (by a factor of 1.5-2) than using pure gallium solvent. Nevertheless the new grown crystals were morphologically unstable. The instability was reduced by decrease of the wetting temperature down to 1100 °C or by omitting the wetting procedure entirely, which indicated that GaN dissolves much faster in Ga-In melt than in pure Ga and that the unstable growth was caused most likely by complete dissolution of GaN template before the growth. It was observed that the crystals grown on bulk GaN substrates did not show morphological instability observed for GaN-sapphire templates. The influence of indium on thermodynamic and thermal properties of the investigated system is discussed.

  17. Osseointegration by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor beta2 coated titanium implants in femora of New Zealand white rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Thorey Fritz; Menzel Henning; Lorenz Corinna; Gross Gerhard; Hoffmann Andrea; Windhagen Henning

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intramembranous bone formation is essential in uncemented joint replacement to provide a mechanical anchorage of the implant. Since the discovery of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) by Urist in 1965, many studies have been conducted to show the influence of growth factors on implant ingrowth. In this study, the influence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and transforming growth factor ?2 (TGF-?2) on implant osseointegration was investigated. Materials and Method...

  18. [Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cerebral neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Och, W; Mariak, Z; Smó?ka, M; Badowski, J; Koziorowski, M

    2001-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in growth of neoplasm. Among a variety of proangiogenic agents, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is regarded as a crucial mediator of tumour angiogenesis. It acts in a paracrine way through the receptors localised in endothelial cells. Many authors maintain that rich vasculature of the neoplasm is associated with its malignant nature. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between expression of VEGF and features of malignancy of brain tumours. Sixty-seven samples of brain tumours were examined: 17 meningiomas, 34 gliomas and 16 metastases to the central nervous system. Expression of VEGF was estimated by radioimmune assay. The authors confirmed the presence of this factor in all types of tumours but the highest concentration of VEGF was found in high-grade gliomas. PMID:11987703

  19. The transcription factor early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1) promotes apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pignatelli, Miguel; Luna Medina, Rosario; Pe?rez-rendo?n, Arturo; Santos, A?ngel; Pe?rez Castillo, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1) is an immediate early gene, which is rapidly activated in quiescent cells by mitogens or in postmitotic neurons after depolarization. EGR-1 has been involved in diverse biological functions such as cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Here we report that enforced expression of the EGR-1 gene induces apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labelling (TUNEL) analysis, in...

  20. Effects of nutritional factors on the growth and heterotrophic eicosapentaenoic acid production of diatom Nitzschia laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohong; Li, Songyao; Wang, Chunling; Lu, Meifang

    2008-08-01

    The effects of several nutritional factors on the growth and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production of diatom Nitzschia laevis were studied. 4 LDM (quadrupled concentration of the nutrient salt) was the optimal concentration of nutrient salt for the growth and EPA production of N. laevis. The growth of N. laevis was inhibited when the glucose concentration was either lower than 10 gL-1 or higher than 15 gL-1. Both sodium nitrate and urea were good nitrogen sources for the growth and EPA production, while ammonium chloride seriously decreased the dry cell weight (DW) and the EPA content. Silicate seriously influenced the growth of N. laevis. The maximum DW of 2.34 gL-1 was obtained in the presence of 150 mgL-1 Na2SiO3·9H2O. The EPA content remained almost the same when the silicate concentration was lower than 150 mgL-1; however, higher silicate concentrations resulted in a steady decrease of EPA content. Low medium salinity (?29) did not seem to influence the DW of N. laevis, and high salinity resulted in a decrease of DW. The highest EPA content (4.08%) and yield (110 mgL-1) were observed at the salinity of 36 and 29, respectively.

  1. Influence of various growth parameters on fungal growth and volatile metabolite production by indoor molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Viviana; Adams, An; De Saeger, Sarah; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Moretti, Antonio; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    A Penicillium polonicum, an Aspergillus ustus and a Periconia britannica strain were isolated from water-damaged environments and the production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was investigated by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. The most important MVOCs produced were 2-methylisoborneol, geosmin and daucane-type sesquiterpenes for P. polonicum, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, germacrene D, ?-cadinene and other sesquiterpenes for A. ustus and the volatile mycotoxin precursor aristolochene together with valencene, ?-selinene and ?-selinene for P. britannica. Different growth conditions (substrate, temperature, relative humidity) were selected, resembling indoor parameters, to investigate their influence on fungal metabolism in relation with the sick building syndrome and the results were compared with two other fungal strains previously analyzed under the same conditions. In general, the range of MVOCs and the emitted quantities were larger on malt extract agar than on wallpaper and plasterboard, but, overall, the main MVOC profile was conserved also on the two building materials tested. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on growth and metabolism is different for different fungal species, and two main patterns of behavior could be distinguished. Results show that, even at suboptimal conditions for growth, production of fungal volatiles can be significant. PMID:22169393

  2. Effects of growth factors on the proliferation of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D S; Korting, H C; Schäfer-Korting, M

    1998-01-01

    Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) is a new member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of multifunctional peptide growth factors that appear to mediate many key events in cell growth and development. The effects of GDF-5 and other growth factors (epidermal growth factor, EGF; TGF-beta 1) on the proliferation of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts compared with desoximetasone and calcipotriol have been investigated. The proliferation rate was determined by a hemocytometer, MTT assay and the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. Moreover, cell cycle analyses were performed and the influence on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) production in keratinocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because of its pronounced proinflammatory effect. In keratinocytes, GDF-5 stimulated cell proliferation to a minor extent. The drug already proved to be effective at very low concentrations (0.1 ng/ml). Growth stimulatory effects with EGF have been observed only in keratinocyte basal medium (KBM), but not in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM). TGF-beta 1 markedly inhibited the proliferation of keratinocytes at concentrations > 1 ng/ml. Calcipotriol and desoximetasone also showed a dose-dependent cell growth inhibition in epidermal cell cultures. IL-1 alpha synthesis was greatly suppressed by calcipotriol 10(-8)-10(-6) M. EGF at 10 ng/ml, in contrast, strongly stimulated IL-1 alpha production. Neither GDF-5 nor TGF-beta 1 had a significant effect on IL-1 alpha production in keratinocyte monolayer cultures. In fibroblasts, GDF-5 induced very weak antiproliferative effects. Calcipotriol and desoximetasone also inhibited cell growth in fibroblast cultures whereas proliferation and DNA synthesis were strongly stimulated by 1 ng/ml EGF. There was, however, a contradiction between TGF-beta 1 results on fibroblasts. Whereas TGF-beta 1 increased proliferation in cell number determination and in the thymidine incorporation assay, MTT assays showed slight antiproliferative effects. Due to these controversial results, in addition cell cycle analysis was employed. TGF-beta 1 led to an increased S phase, which indicates a stimulation of cell division. The different results obtained with the MTT test suggest that TGF-beta 1 may stimulate cell division of fibroblasts not only by increasing the S phase, but also by shortening the G1 phase of the cell cycle. PMID:9476258

  3. QoS test traffic influence factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Fei; Cao, Yang

    2004-04-01

    This paper described certain problems when performing QoS active measurement. The term Test Traffic Influence Factor (TTIF), describing quantitatively influence which the test traffic compared to actual traffic on Qos parameters is defined. A kind of ideal model based on the queue theory to study TTIF is build up and a TTIF for delay is discussed. The theoretical analysis results are verified by using network simulation tool-OPNET modeler. Then certain important conclusions and advice about IP network QoS measurement are given and further research direction is directed.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostate pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Botelho; Francisco Pina; Pedro Silva; Gabriela Figueiredo; Francisco Cruz; Nuno Lunet

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) circulating levels might improve identification of patients with prostate cancer but results are conflicting. Our aim was to compare serum VEGF levels across different prostate pathologies (including benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer) in patients at high risk of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 186 subjects...

  5. Topical administration of adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics and nerve growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Steinle, Jena J.

    2010-01-01

    Jena J SteinleDepartments of Ophthalmology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USAAbstract: Topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics are currently in use for corneal ulcers and glaucoma. A recent interest in the neuroprotective abilities of NGF has led to a renewed interest in NGF as a therapeutic for retinal and choroidal diseases. NGF can promote cell proliferati...

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and childhood cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Mohamed; Hassan, Tamer; Tarhony, Shereen El; Metwally, Wael

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression of growth factors and/or their receptors is a common event in malignancy and provides the underlying mechanisms for one of the hallmarks of cancer, uncontrolled proliferation. Mounting evidence suggests that IGF-1 is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of different types of human cancer such as colon, breast, prostate and lung. However, only a few studies have investigated the association between IGF-1 levels and childhood cancer risk. We aimed to compare the IGF-1 ser...

  7. Transforming growth factor beta in cardiovascular development and function

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Mohamad; Schultz, Jo El J.; Grupp, Ingrid; Dorn, Gerald W.; Meneton, Pierre; Molin, Daniel G. M.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Doetschman, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Transforming growth factor betas (TGF?s) are pleiotropic cytokines involved in many biological processes. Genetic engineering and tissue explanation studies have revealed specific non-overlapping roles for TGF? ligands and their signaling molecules in development and in normal function of the cardiovascular system in the adult. In the embryo, TGF?s appear to be involved in epithelial–mesenchymal transformations (EMT) during endocardial cushion formation, and in epicardial epithelial–me...

  8. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptors in astrocytic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Galvez-contreras, Alma Y.; Gonzalez-castaneda, Rocio E.; Luquin, Sonia; Gonzalez-perez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    There are two well-defined neurogenic regions in the adult brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles and, the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the dentate gyrus at the hippocampus. Within these neurogenic regions, there are neural stem cells with astrocytic characteristics, which actively respond to the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-?) by increasing their proliferation, survival and differentiation, both in vivo and in vitro. FGF2 bin...

  9. T cell growth factor receptors. Quantitation, specificity, and biological relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, Rj; Munck, A.; Smith, Ka

    1981-01-01

    To examine directly the hypothesis that T cell growth factor (TCGF) interacts with target cells in a fashion similar to polypeptide hormones, the binding of radiolabeled TCGF to various cell populations was investigated. The results indicate that TCGF interacts with activated T cells via a receptor through which it initiates the T cell proliferative response. Internally radiolabeled TCGF, prepared from a human T leukemia cell line and purified by gel filtration and isoelectric focusing, retai...

  10. Teamwork and technology: Success factors for creating growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum industry faces many challenges moving toward the next century. How effectively these challenges are addressed and managed will determine whether or not the exploration and production business grows and prospers in the future. This presentation relates to success factors for growth creation. Themes discussed here are succeeding in a global energy market, evolution of relationships between oil and gas companies and service companies, the power of technology, and effectively combining teamwork and technology

  11. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in breast carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, S.; Locker, A.; Todd, J. H.; Bell, J. A.; Nicholson, R.; Elston, C. W.; Blamey, R. W.; Ellis, I. O.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 90 patients with primary operable breast cancer and with up to 36 months of follow up were investigated for expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in their tumours by immunocytochemical staining with the monoclonal antibody EGFR 1. Tumour samples were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after resection and subsequently stained using a standard indirect immunocytochemical method. Tumour staining was assessed by two observers and scored on a four point scale (0...

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor and acute mountain sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Nilles Eric; Sayward Helen; Onofrio Gail, D. X.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: Despite causing significant morbidity throughout the mountainous regions of the world, the pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness (AMS) remains poorly understood. This study aims to improve the understanding of altitude illness by determining if vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a role in the development of AMS. The purpose of this study was to determine if elevated plasma VEGF correlates with increased symptoms of AMS at high altitude. Patients and Methods...

  13. Molecular pathology of the fibroblast growth factor family

    OpenAIRE

    Krejci, Pavel; Prochazkova, Jirina; Bryja, Vitezslav; Kozubik, Alois; Wilcox, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family contains 22 proteins that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in both developing and adult organism. The mutations in the FGF genes were not known to play role in human disease until the year 2000, when mutations in FGF23 were found to cause hypophosphataemic rickets. Nine years later, seven FGFs have been associated with human disorders. These include FGF3 in Michel aplasia; FGF8 in cleft lip/palate and in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; ...

  14. Insulin-like growth factor II stimulates motor nerve regeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Near, S. L.; Whalen, L. R.; Miller, J. A.; Ishii, D. N.

    1992-01-01

    Injury to mammalian motor nerves can lead to paralysis, but relatively successful regeneration may occur when conditions are favorable. Elucidation of the mechanism upholding successful regeneration is of theoretical and clinical interest. In this study, the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) can stimulate motor nerve regeneration was tested. When IGF-II was infused continuously near a site of crush on the sciatic nerve, the distance of motor axon regeneration was increase...

  15. Transforming growth factor-? in breast cancer: too much, too late

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos-hoff, Mary Helen; Akhurst, Rosemary J.

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of transforming growth factor (TGF)? to breast cancer has been studied from a myriad perspectives since seminal studies more than two decades ago. Although the action of TGF? as a canonical tumor suppressor in breast is without a doubt, there is compelling evidence that TGF? is frequently subverted in a malignant plexus that drives breast cancer. New knowledge that TGF? regulates the DNA damage response, which underlies cancer therapy, reveals another facet of TGF? biolo...

  16. The epidermal growth factor receptor family in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Koutras, Angelos K.; Evans, T. R. Jeffry

    2008-01-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family comprises four homologous members: EGFR, HER-2, HER-3, and HER-4. The activation of these receptors triggers a complex series of signal transduction pathways which affect pivotal tumorigenic processes. The deregulation of HER signaling is seen in several human malignancies. HER-2 is now recognized as a key oncogene in breast cancer pathogenesis. Assessment of HER-2 status is of central importance in the prognosis of breast cancer patient...

  17. Transforming Growth Factor-? Induces Airway Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Adam M.; Bentley, J. Kelley; Zhou, Limei; Jia, Yue; Bitar, Khalil N.; Fingar, Diane C.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2005-01-01

    Although smooth muscle hypertrophy is present in asthmatic airways, little is known about the biochemical pathways regulating airway smooth muscle protein synthesis, cell size, or accumulation of contractile apparatus proteins. We sought to develop a model of airway smooth muscle hypertrophy in primary cells using a physiologically relevant stimulus. We hypothesized that transforming growth factor (TGF)-? induces hypertrophy in primary bronchial smooth muscle cells. Primary human bronchial s...

  18. Factors that influence the relative use of multiple memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Mark G; Goodman, Jarid

    2013-11-01

    Neurobehavioral evidence supports the existence of at least two anatomically distinct "memory systems" in the mammalian brain that mediate dissociable types of learning and memory; a "cognitive" memory system dependent upon the hippocampus and a "stimulus-response/habit" memory system dependent upon the dorsolateral striatum. Several findings indicate that despite their anatomical and functional distinctiveness, hippocampal- and dorsolateral striatal-dependent memory systems may potentially interact and that, depending on the learning situation, this interaction may be cooperative or competitive. One approach to examining the neural mechanisms underlying these interactions is to consider how various factors influence the relative use of multiple memory systems. The present review examines several such factors, including information compatibility, temporal sequence of training, the visual sensory environment, reinforcement parameters, emotional arousal, and memory modulatory systems. Altering these parameters can lead to selective enhancements of either hippocampal-dependent or dorsolateral striatal-dependent memory, and bias animals toward the use of either cognitive or habit memory in dual-solution tasks that may be solved adequately with either memory system. In many learning situations, the influence of such experimental factors on the relative use of memory systems likely reflects a competitive interaction between the systems. Research examining how various factors influence the relative use of multiple memory systems may be a useful method for investigating how these systems interact with one another. PMID:23929809

  19. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  20. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  1. Effects of epidermal growth factor on the invasive activity and cytoskeleton of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Yasui, Hiroki; Kakudo, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present at high concentrations in human saliva and modulates the growth and differentiation of various cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which EGF affects oral cancer proliferation and invasion, the current study analyzed the Matrigel invasion activity of cultured oral cancer cell lines. Cell proliferation under the influence of EGF was subjected to Matrigel invasion assays, and cell proliferation in the absence of EGF was used as control....

  2. Sensitivity analysis of periprosthetic healing to cell migration, growth factor and post-operative gap using a mechanobiological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swider, Pascal; Ambard, D

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical rationale, which could help in the investigation of mechanobiological factors affecting periprosthetic tissue healing, is still an open problem. We used a parametric sensitivity analysis to extend a theoretical model based on reactive transport and computational cell biology. The numerical experimentation involved the drill hole, the haptotactic and chemotactic migrations, and the initial concentration of an anabolic growth factor. Output measure was the mineral fraction in tissue surrounding a polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) canine implant (stable loaded implant, non-critical gap). Increasing growth factor concentration increased structural matrix synthesis. A cell adhesion gradient resulted in heterogeneous bone distribution and a growth factor gradient resulted in homogeneous bone distribution in the gap. This could explain the radial variation of bone density from the implant surface to the drill hole, indicating less secure fixation. This study helps to understand the relative importance of various host and clinical factors influencing bone distribution and resulting implant fixation.

  3. Growth Factor Dependent Regulation of Centrosome Function and Genomic Instability by HuR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Filippova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mRNA binding protein HuR is over expressed in cancer cells and contributes to disease progression through post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA. The regulation of HuR and how this relates to glioma is the focus of this report. SRC and c-Abl kinases regulate HuR sub-cellular trafficking and influence accumulation in the pericentriolar matrix (PCM via a growth factor dependent signaling mechanism. Growth factor stimulation of glioma cell lines results in the associate of HuR with the PCM and amplification of centrosome number. This process is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of HuR and is abolished by mutating tyrosine residues. HuR is overexpressed in tumor samples from patients with glioblastoma and associated with a reduced survival. These findings suggest HuR plays a significant role in centrosome amplification and genomic instability, which contributes to a worse disease outcome.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor 7 stimulates in vitro growth of oocytes originating from bovine early antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Joon-Ho; Itoh, Takehiro; Sendai, Yutaka; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi

    2008-12-01

    Essential factors required for growing oocytes derived from bovine early antral follicles and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) is a member of the heparin-binding FGF family with a distinctive pattern of target-cell specificity. The effect of FGF7 on the stimulation of oocyte growth in a culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes with granulosa cells (COCGs, oocyte diameter; 90-100 microm) was investigated. The oocyte diameter of COCGs was increased significantly in the FGF7-containing medium (10 ng/ml; 117.2 +/- 3.2 microm, 50 ng/ml; 116.5 +/- 3.5 microm) compared to the control (0 ng/ml; 110.5 +/- 2.8 microm) after 16 days. However, there was no stimulatory effect of FGF7 on the proliferation of cumulus-granulosa cells. The FGF7 receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2IIIb (FGFR2IIIb), was detected in cumulus-granulosa cells from COCGs. Messenger RNA expression of FGFR2IIIb was induced to cumulus-granulosa cells by FGF7. The mRNA expression levels of KIT ligand (KITLG), KIT (KIT), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) in the cultured COCGs were determined in FGF7-treated (10 ng/ml) cultures using real time RT-PCR analysis. The levels of KITLG and KIT, but not GDF9 and BMP15 mRNA expression were stimulated by FGF7. Furthermore, neutralizing antibody for KIT attenuated the stimulatory action of FGF7 on the oocyte growth. These results strongly suggest that FGF7 may be an important regulator for oocyte growth and its action is mediated via the KIT/KITLG signaling pathway. PMID:18386286

  5. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article computes the energy productivity changes of regions in Japan using total-factor frameworks based on data envelopment analysis (DEA). Since the traditional DEA-Malmquist index cannot analyze changes in single-factor productivity changes under the total-factor framework, we apply a new index proposed by Hu and Chang [2009. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in China. Energy Policy, submitted for publication]: a total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPI) that integrates the concept of the total-factor energy efficiency index into the Malmquist productivity index (MPI). Moreover, we separate TFEPI into change in relative energy efficiency, or the 'catching up effect,' and shift in the technology of energy use, or the 'innovation effect.' The data from 47 prefectures during the period of 1993-2003 are used to compute the TFEPI and its components for 4 kinds of energy. The TFEPI of electric power for commercial and industrial use changes -0.6% annually, which can be separated into a total-factor energy efficiency change of 0.2% and a technical change of -0.8%. The TFEPI for coal deteriorates by 1.0%/year, which is mostly caused by a decrease in relative energy efficiency change. We define and identify 'innovators' who cause the frontier to shift. Most regions identified as frontier shifters are located outside of Japan's four major industrial areas.

  6. The influence of linac spot size on scatter factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of small photon fields in modern radiotherapy requires the determination of total scatter factors Scp or field factors ? with high precision. Therefore, chamber-dependent correction factors for dose measurements in small fields are necessary. In this study Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the field factor ? and chamber response-related correction factors for four different types of detectors in a clinical 6 MV photon beam for a square field size of 1 cm * 1 cm. As a beam source a Monte Carlo-based model of a Siemens KD linear accelerator was applied. The calculations aimed at the investigation of the influence of electron beam spot size on correction factors for small field dosimetry. The results confirm that accurate Monte Carlo calculations of the field factor ? can only be carried out when the exact electron spot size is known. On the other hand no dependence of the electron beam spot size on the correction factors for the field size of 1 cm * 1 cm was observed. (authors)

  7. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.

  8. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Soleimani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as 0.873 and 12744 with (Sig. =0.000, respectively. The study has detected four important factors including quality of service casualties, sales improvement and advertisement, quality of issuance of insurance policies and quality of work force.

  9. Factors influencing CO2 emissions in China's power industry: Co-integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 40% of China's total CO2 emissions originate from the power industry. The realization of energy saving and emission reduction within China's power industry is therefore crucial in order to achieve CO2 emissions reduction in this country. This paper applies the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) co-integration model to study the major factors which have influenced CO2 emissions within China's power industry from 1980 to 2010. Results have shown that CO2 emissions from China's power industry have been increasing rapidly. From 1980 to 2010, the average annual growth rate was 8.5%, and the average growth rate since 2002 has amounted to 10.5%. Secondly, the equipment utilization hour (as an indicator of the power demand) has the greatest influence on CO2 emissions within China's power industry. In addition, the impact of the industrial added value of the power sector on CO2 emissions is also positive from a short-term perspective. Thirdly, the Granger causality results imply that one of the important motivators behind China's technological progress, within the power industry, originates from the pressures created by a desire for CO2 emissions reduction. Finally, this paper provides policy recommendations for energy saving and emission reduction for China's power industry. - Highlights: ? We study the major factors influencing China's power industry CO2 emissions. ? The average annual growth rate of CO2 emission from power industry is calculated. ? Installed capacity has the greatest influence on power industry CO2 emission. ? The Granger causality between CO2 emission and its effecting factors is analyzed

  10. Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast milk has been shown to enhance neonatal intestinal growth. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in the milk of various mammalian species, the hypothesis was tested that EGF in rodent milk mediates, in part, the breast milk-enhanced intestinal growth in neonatal rat. Fifty-eight rat pups fed artificial formal that contained 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 ?g/ml EGF for 39 h had greater incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and DNA content of intestine than 29 pups fed unsupplemented formula. Pups fed EGF for 5 days had significantly greater body weight, intestinal weight, length, and DNA content than control pups. Conversely, pups fed pooled rat milk containing rabbit-derived antibody to EGF for 39 h had intestines of lower weight that contained less DNA than animals fed rat milk containing normal rabbit serum. EGF appears to mediate, in part, breast milk-enhanced neonatal intestinal growth

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

  12. Influence of Rhizobacterial Inoculation on Growth of the Sweetpotato Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Farzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. is the most important of local tuber crops in Malaysia. It is usually planted on marginal soils such as peat and sandy soils. Malaysian?s are consumed a lot of sweetpotatoes and its production requires high fertilizer input, which can lead to increased production cost and environment problems. The use of biofertilizer and bioenhancer such as N2 (nitrogen fixing bacteria and beneficial microorganism can reduce chemical fertilizer applications and consequently lower production cost. The pot experiment was conducted to determine the influence of rhizobacterial isolates on the response of sweetpotato plant growth. A total of five rhizobacterial isolates capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA were used. Four of the isolates were collected from sweetpotato rhizosphere and one isolate was imported. Cuttings of sweetpotato cultivars melaka and oren were planted in plastic pots containing alluvium soil. Cultures of the rhizobacterial isolates were inoculated at planting time, two and four weeks after planting. Plants were harvested 60 days after planting. The results showed that, three of isolates significantly increased the plant growth and the N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake of sweetpotato cultivar.

  13. The influence of various factors on milk clotting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovi? Snežana T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH (6.5 and 5.8, amount of added CaCl2 (0, 200 and 400 mg/l, coagulation temperature (30ºC and 35ºC and heat treatment of milk (65ºC/30 min and 87ºC/10 min on the rate of rennet induced milk coagulation (s were investigated. The time (s from rennet addition to onset of gelation (as indicated by the first visible floccules was measured. The milk samples heat-treated at 87ºC/10 min, with 400 mg/l added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 35ºC and pH 5.8, coagulated 23.28-fold faster than the same samples without added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The results of investigations related to the influence of particular coagulation factors on the coagulation rate of heat-treated milk showed that at pH 6.5 the most pronounced influence was demonstrated by the amount of Ca2+ and temperature of coagulation. At pH 5.8, different amounts of Ca2 and used temperatures of coagulation did not influence coagulation rate regardless of the used heat treatment of milk. The influence of used heat treatment of milk was particularly pronounced during coagulation of samples without added CaCl2 that coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The used heat treatment of milk practically did not influence the milk coagulation rate at pH 5.8. The greatest influence on milk coagulation rate was showed by pH. This influence was the most marked in coagulation of samples in which the coaggregates were formed, regardless of the amount of added Ca2+ and used coagulation temperatures.

  14. Cartilage-inducing factor-A. Apparent identity to transforming growth factor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedin, S M; Thompson, A Y; Bentz, H; Rosen, D M; McPherson, J M; Conti, A; Siegel, N R; Galluppi, G R; Piez, K A

    1986-05-01

    Comparison of the sequence of the N-terminal 30 amino acids of cartilage-inducing factor-A (CIF-A) from bovine demineralized bone with the corresponding sequence of human transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) revealed 100% identity. Furthermore, CIF-A stimulated normal rat kidney fibroblasts to become anchorage-independent and form colonies in soft agar (in the presence of epidermal growth factor) in a manner similar to TGF-beta. Similarly, TGF-beta from human platelets induced rat muscle mesenchymal cells to differentiate and synthesize cartilage-specific macromolecules in a manner equivalent to CIF-A. These data show that CIF-A and TGF-beta are closely related or identical molecules and that these factors may be involved in cell differentiation including cartilage formation as the first step in endochondral bone formation. PMID:3754555

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING ON BUYER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS LAPTOP IN DINDIGUL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pandisiva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior is the study of individuals, group, or select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these process have on the consumer and society. Buyer behavior is widely understood as a problem solving and decision making sequence, the outcome of which is determined by the buyer goal directed processing of information. The aim of this paper is to show that to identify reasons for buying laptop, factors influencing for buying laptop, and decision making for product attributes factors in this factors motivated based on Buyer behaviour in Dindigul district general people. The sample included 150 of general people based on laptop buyers. The collected data were coded, calculated and analyzed with the help of statistical tools like t-test, ANOVA, Regression analysis. The result shows that there is no significant difference between products attributes with gender and Occupation, and Buyer behaviour factors contributed in reasons for buying laptop, Influencing factors, and product attributes.

  16. [Responses of Manglietia glauca growth to soil nutrients and climatic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Hua; He, Ri-Ming; Nong, Rui-Hong; Li, Zhong-Guo

    2014-04-01

    Tree height and diameter of breast height (DBH) as growth characteristics of Manglietia glauca introduced from Vietnam were measured at many sites in south China and responses of M. glauca growth to soil nutrients and climatic factors were analyzed in this study. Annual average increments of tree height and DBH among different planted sites had significant differences. Annual average increments of tree height and DBH had significant positive correlation with soil total N and P, available N and P, but no significant correlation with soil organic matter, total K, available K, indicating that soil N and P contents could be the main affecting factors for the growth of M. glauca. Annual average increment of tree height had significant difference, but annual average increment of DBH had no significant difference at different altitudes. Annual average increment of tree height increased with the altitude from 150 to 550 m, the maximum was at the altitude of 550 m, and then it decreased. It indicated that the most appropriate altitude for M. glauca introduction is 550 m. Annual average increments of tree height and DBH had significant negative correlation with annual average temperature and > or = 10 degrees C accumulated temperature, and significant positive correlation with annual average precipitation, suggesting that annual mean temperature, > or = 10 degrees C accumulated temperature and annual average precipitation could be the main climatic factors influencing the growth of M. glauca. PMID:25011286

  17. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above.

  18. Factors Influencing the Night Market Traders’ Performance in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzilah Salleh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the night market traders’ sales performance. Thefactors examined were the financial resources, consumers’ tastes and preferences, product demands, business lifespan, and number of employees. This study tested seven hypotheses identified as the seven predictive factorsinfluencing the performance of the night market traders’ sales. The major factors influencing the salesperformance of the night market traders were found to be the number of employees and business life span. Thefindings of this study can be used by other researchers to conduct a comparative study in this area besidesproviding advisory services to traders and potential traders who wish to do business in night markets.

  19. Russian consumer behavior and factors influencing the purchase decision

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Evita

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to examine the behaviour of Russian con-sumers and find out what different factors influence the final purchase decision. The study investigated these factors from the view point of leisure related tourism and our target group was those Russians who travel to the area of Lappeenranta and use local hospitality services for at least one night. The main goal was to help improve the knowledge about Russian customers through theory, as well as to understand the expe...

  20. Environmental factors influencing the efficacy of probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Maria L; Tachon, Sybille

    2013-04-01

    Probiotic bacteria are not typical ingredients but rather living cells that can rapidly respond and adapt to changing conditions in their environment. Numerous factors from culture preparation and preservation, conditions in consumer product matrices, and genetic, dietary, cultural, and health differences between consumers can affect probiotic cell activity and probably influence the specific host-microbe interactions required for probiotic effects in the digestive tract. Understanding the impact of these factors on probiotic efficacy will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of probiotic function, improve the design of probiotic-containing consumer products, and guide the establishment of standardized procedures for clinical studies intended to evaluate probiotic effects. PMID:23102489

  1. Analysis of Factors to Influence Single Yarn Strength CV Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Shen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The single yarn strength CV value is one important index to measure the quality of yarn. Taking pure cotton and polyester cotton blended yarn as research objects, in this article, we systematically analyze the effects of some factors such as raw material blended ratio, yarn unevenness and twist unevenness on single yarn strength CV value, and use the mathematic analysis method to obtain the relationships between various influencing factors with single yarn strength value, and the result possesses directional meanings to enhance the quality of yarn in actual production.

  2. Influencing Factors of Malaria Drug Purchase at Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terang Uli Sembiring

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available About 80% of Indonesia populations lived in malaria endemic areas. AMI reported to date is still high, on the other side of the MDG targets is to reduce AMI (38 ° C, chills, cold sweating, headache, and muscle pain or splenomegaly at 4 health centers in January to April 2011. Interview was assigned to 220 respondents; 53.2% of respondents aged over 40 years, predominantly female (52.7%. In general, respondents have a job (66.4% with low educational level (81.8%, and 67.7% get a pain less than 4 days. Results shows that occupation factor is significantly related to drug purchasing behavior (p = 0.003. Model of risk factors that influencing malaria drug purchases in the stall is the kind of work that is influenced by the low education level (p-value = 0.003 with odds ratio is 15.5%.

  3. Factors Influencing the Adoption of E-government Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suha AlAwadhi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available E-government initiatives are in their infancy in many developing countries. The success of these initiatives is dependent on government support as well as citizens’ adoption of e-government services. This research identified the attitudes and perceptions of the citizens of Kuwait, a developing country, towards the adoption of e-government services. Based on previous research exploring the determinants of the adoption of e-government services using an amended version of the UTAUT model, the study reported here investigates the factors that influence the take-up of such services. These factors are related to usefulness, ease of use, reforming bureaucracy, cultural and social influences, technology issues and lack of awareness. Conclusions and implication for decision makers are also considered in this paper.

  4. A Study of Factors Influencing Students' Authorization of Thesis Digitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Jiuan Chang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study explores graduate students' attitudes toward authorizing digitization rights to their theses. The investigation primarily focused on factors that might influence students' consent. Current domestic copyright management practices of thesis digitization were briefly described. Study methods included questionnaire survey and indepth interviews. Two sets of questionnaires were administrated: one for librarians and the other for graduate students. In addition to payment of royalties, the results identified a number of factors that influence students' willingness to authorize digitization. The results led to suggestions regarding revision of related laws and regulations, cooperation of library professionals, and promotion and better management of thesis digitization, with the intention of improving the effectiveness of thesis digitization.

  5. Evidence for the identity of human scatter factor and human hepatocyte growth factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Weidner, K. M.; Arakaki, N.; Hartmann, G.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Weingart, S.; Rieder, H.; Fonatsch, C.; Tsubouchi, H.; Hishida, T.; Daikuhara, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Scatter factor (SF), a secretory protein of fibroblasts, dissociates and increases the motility of epithelial cells and may be involved in cell migration processes during embryogenesis and tumor progression. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a protein isolated from serum of patients with liver failure, is a potent mitogen for hepatocytes and is thought to play a role in liver regeneration. Here we present structural and functional evidence that human SF and human HGF (and also the human lung fi...

  6. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor mediates angiogenesis through positive VEGF and negative thrombospondin 1 regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-wen; Su, Yanli; Volpert, Olga V.; Woude, George F. Vande

    2003-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), acting through the Met receptor, plays an important role in most human solid tumors, and inappropriate expression of this ligand–receptor pair is often associated with poor prognosis. The molecular basis for the malignant potential of the HGF/SF–Met signal in cancer cells has mostly been attributed to its mitogenic and invasive properties. However, HGF/SF also induces angiogenesis, but the signaling mechanism has not been fully explained, ...

  7. Olfactory Function : The Influence of Demographic, Cognitive, and Genetic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hedner, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory function is affected by demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors. In the present thesis, three empirical studies investigated individual differences in olfactory ability. Study I explored demographic and cognitive correlates in common olfactory tasks; odor detection, odor discrimination, and odor identification. The results indicated that old age influenced performance negatively in all tasks, and that semantic memory proficiency and executive functioning were related to odor dis...

  8. Environmental factors influencing bird species diversity in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Oindo, B. O.; By, R. A.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable resource management requires understanding the factors that increase or decrease species richness. Regional species richness patterns may be predicted by analysing patterns of variation in the environment. A number of studies have shown that bird species richness at a regional scale is influenced by climatic variables. We examined environmental correlates of bird species richness at a quarter degree square scale (55 × 55 km). Mean annual potential evapotranspiration accounts for ...

  9. Factors Influencing the Duration of Urine Leakage following Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Uyeturk; Adnan Gucuk; Eray Kemahli; Emine Dagistan; Mevlut Yildiz; Burak Yilmaz; Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The duration of urine leakage following the removal of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) shows significant variations depending on the techniques used. We aimed to assess the factors likely to influence the duration of urine leakage. Material and Methods. In total, 103 patients who underwent PCNL were reviewed retrospectively. DUL was evaluated regarding patient characteristics, thickness of the access line, presence of hydronephrosis, and residual stones...

  10. Demographic and Attitudinal Factors Influencing Doctoral Student Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Nwenyi; Timothy Baghurst

    2013-01-01

    Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions, as they must identify factors influencing students’ satisfaction in order to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of doctoral student satisfaction from demographics and attitudes concerning the campus environment. Participants were 132 (33 male, 99 ...

  11. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Gao; Dong Xiang; Luyuan Zhang; Longwei Yin; Chengxiang Wang

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humi...

  12. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah; Seyed Mohsen SeyedAliAkbar; Kiamars Fathi

    2014-01-01

    Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed st...

  13. Motivational factors that influence the acceptance of Moodle using TAM

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Hueros, Ana Mari?a; Arteaga Sa?nchez, Roci?o

    2010-01-01

    Moodle and other virtual teaching platforms have bolstered the ability and motivation of universities to support distance learning. The aim of our study is to improve understanding of the motivational factors behind student satisfaction, or dissatisfaction, with the Web-based learning platform, Moodle. Our study extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to include technical support and perceived self-efficacy, with the expectation that they influence usage of Moodle. We surveyed 226 stu...

  14. Influence of climatic changes on biological factors and soil hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter authors deal with influence of climatic changes on biological factors and soil hydrology. The aim of the fifth stage of this project was to find out how were changed the microbiological, physico-chemical properties and hydrophobicity of selected soils in simulated conditions. Following it we can say the assumption of changes in monitored ecosystem in dependence on changes of climatic conditions.

  15. Factors influencing peritoneal catheter survival in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    The success of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is to a great extent determined by the survival of the peritoneal catheter. The aim of this study was to identify technical factors which influence CAPD catheter survival. A total of 453 CAPD catheters inserted into 310 patients over an 8-year period were analysed. Access to the peritoneum was gained either by an open surgical technique (n = 290) or by a closed technique using a trocar and introducer (n = 163). Data relating to a...

  16. Radical Service Innovation: Influencing Factors and Mode Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Di Rong; Xu Ming

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, service industry plays a significant role in world. Innovation in service enterprises has become an important competitive concern in many service industries. In order to reasonably analysis the radical service innovation in this area, this paper explores the influencing factors of radical service innovation by using literature analysis method. And an evaluation index system is established in this paper at same time, which is based on the investigation of...

  17. Factors Influencing Malaysian Consumers’ Intention Towards E-shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Khalilur Rahman; Md Abdul Jalil; Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Robel, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experienc...

  18. THE BANKING SECTOR - INFLUENCE FACTORS OF BANKING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ciocan, Mirela

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return ...

  19. Identification of Factors that Influence Conscious Sedation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun-young; Son, Hee Jung; Lee, Ji Min; Bae, Mun Hee; Kim, Jae J.; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kim, Seonwoo

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies examined factors that influence conscious sedation, investigation was limited into the gender and age. The aim of this prospective study is to identify the clinical variables of successful conscious sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy. A total of 300 subjects who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in a prospective fashion. They completed a questionnaire to assess height, weight, drinking, smoking, education level, recent medication, past medical...

  20. Safety Instrumented System reliability evaluation with Influencing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Brissaud, Florent; Charpentier, Dominique; Fouladirad, Mitra; Barros, Anne; Be?renguer, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of reliability evaluation strongly depends on the quality of input data as failure rates. Reliability data handbooks give generic values which do not often fit system specificities. This paper deals with influencing factors in order to take into account some aspects as design, environment and use in reliability evaluations. Once a definition and a classification are proposed, a brief review of existing models is presented. This paper also introduces a new failure rate evaluation...