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Sample records for factors influencing growth

  1. Growth-oriented start-ups- Factors influencing financing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Korityak, Anton; Fichtel, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on identifying factors influencing the financing decisions of growth-oriented start-ups. A sample of 8 business incubator start-ups has been studied within a qualitative research so as to reach that goal. Their fundraising choices are analyzed using supporting financial and psychological theories. Also, the thesis examines the start-ups’ interaction with a business incubator and investors.It is found that growth oriented start-ups use internal funds in the first instance, t...

  2. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

  3. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2013-01-01

    Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials). We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique ...

  4. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871) and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812). A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614) were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.

  5. Advances in pubertal growth and factors influencing it: Can we increase pubertal growth?

    OpenAIRE

    SOLIMAN, Ashraf; Sanctis, Vincenzo De; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a period of development characterized by partially concurrent changes which includes growth acceleration, alteration in body composition and appearance of secondary sex characteristics. Puberty is characterized by an acceleration and then deceleration in skeletal growth. The initiation, duration and amount of growth vary considerably during the growth spurt. Pubertal growth and biological maturation are dynamic processes regulated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. ...

  6. The internal factors influencing restaurant owners’ growth decisions : Small and medium restaurants in Xiaogan

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Catering industry in China is a traditional and generally upward industry; most restaurants are small entrepreneurial restaurants, and growth is a trend. Consequently, there is a need to research the factors of owners influencing the growth decisions, and this thesis will focus on the internal factors of small entrepreneurial restaurant owners. The research method was interviews, five interviewees were chosen as samples, and the whole process was recorded by camera. D. J. Storey. Factors Infl...

  7. Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Niva Ongachi; Henry M. Bwisa

    2013-01-01

    This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with s...

  8. Advances in pubertal growth and factors influencing it: Can we increase pubertal growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is a period of development characterized by partially concurrent changes which includes growth acceleration, alteration in body composition and appearance of secondary sex characteristics. Puberty is characterized by an acceleration and then deceleration in skeletal growth. The initiation, duration and amount of growth vary considerably during the growth spurt. Pubertal growth and biological maturation are dynamic processes regulated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Changes in skeletal maturation and bone mineral accretion concomitant with the stage of pubertal development constitute essential components in the evaluation of growth during this pubertal period. Genetic, endocrine and nutritional factors and ethnicity contribute variably to the amount of growth gained during this important period of rapid changes. Many studies investigated the possibility of increasing pubertal growth to gain taller final adult height in adolescents with idiopathic short stature (ISS. The pattern of pubertal growth, its relation to sex maturity rating and factors affecting them has been addressed in this review. The results of different trials to increase final adult height of adolescents using different hormones have been summarized. These data enables Endocrinologists to give in-depth explanations to patients and families about the efficacy and clinical significance as well as the safety of using these therapies in the treatment of adolescents with ISS.

  9. The influence of serum cytokines and growth factors on osteoclast formation in Paget's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Neale, SD; Schulze, E.; Smith, R.; Athanasou, NA

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells (MNCs) that form from circulating mononuclear precursors in the presence of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B-ligand (RANKL) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). AIM: To determine whether cytokines and growth factors influence RANKL/M-CSF induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in Paget's disease. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. METHODS: Serum levels of M-CSF, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour n...

  10. Influence of environmental factors on growth and pigment synthesis by purple thiobacteria

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    Y. ?. Pavlova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different environmental factors on growth and pigment biosynthesis by particular strains of purple thiobacteria was investigated. These strains belong to the genus Chromatium, Thiocystis, Thiocapsa and Lamprocystis and were isolated from Yavoriv sulphur mine. Calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and sodium chloride should be included in the medium for optimal growth of these bacteria. Addition of these elements entails increasing the biomass production and synthesis of carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Initial concentration of inoculum and electron donor has essential influence on growth of purple thiobacteria. Early in the development of culture, sulphide was oxidized, and then the growth impairment and destruction of cells under exposure of light were observed. For the optimization of bacteria growth the electron donor (sulphide must be added many times during the cultivation process in the concentration, which is not exceed an inhibition dose. The additional bringing of the electron donor in the medium promotes the raise of cells’ biomass. The acetate introduction in the medium has positive influence on the pigments’ biosynthesis. The essential factor of growth and pigments’ biosynthesis is the light intensity. Peak gain of the culture growth was observed under 400 lx. The amplification of light exposure is accompanied by the decrease of growth and content of pigments in cells. Oxygen inhibits the synthesis of pigments in all strains

  11. Individual Factors Influencing Career Growth Prospects in Contexts of Radical Organizational Changes

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Okurame

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of individual factors (demographic variables, self-efficacy beliefs and personal growth initiative) on career growth prospects within the context of radical organizational changes such as downsizing, mergers and acquisition. Data were collected using the questionnaire method from 199 employees in branches of a commercial bank located in a major city in South-Western Nigeria. Results of the simple multiple regression analysis showed that educational attainment...

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Frost; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Klausen, Tobias W; Gimsing, Peter; Gregersen, Henrik; Abildgaard, Niels; Vangsted, Annette J

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent proangiogenic factor. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene with influence on VEGF expression have been described. In multiple myeloma, VEGF stimulates angiogenesis which is correlated with disease progression and prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the association between genetic variations in the VEGF gene in patients with multiple myeloma and time to treatment failure (TTF) after high-dose melphalan and stem ce...

  13. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa; Aversano, Mario; Husemoen, Lise-Lotte; Linneberg, Allan; Bourgain, Catherine; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Ciullo, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been e...

  14. Factors influencing crystal growth rates from undercooled liquids of pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasi, Niraj S; Baird, Jared A; Kestur, Umesh S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2014-08-21

    Amorphous forms of drugs are increasingly being used to deliver poorly water-soluble compounds. Therefore, understanding the magnitude and origin of differences in crystallization kinetics is highly important. The goal of this study was to better understand the factors that influence crystal growth rates from pharmaceutically relevant undercooled liquids and to evaluate the range of growth rates observed. The crystal growth rates of 31 drugs were determined using an optical microscope in the temperature region between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm). Thermodynamic parameters such as Tm, melting enthalpy, and Tg were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Selected viscosity values for the undercooled liquid were taken from the literature. The growth rates of the different compounds were found to be very different from each other with a variation of about 5 orders of magnitude between the fastest growing compounds and the slowest growing compounds. A comparison of the physicochemical properties showed that compounds that had fast crystal growth rates had smaller molecular weights, higher melting temperatures, lower melt entropies, lower melt viscosities, and higher crystal densities. Variations in the growth rates of the compounds could be rationalized to a large extent by considering the thermodynamic driving force for crystallization, the viscosity, and the entropy difference between the melt and undercooled liquid. This study therefore provides important insight into factors that may compromise the stability of amorphous pharmaceuticals. PMID:25076138

  15. Controlling Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Patch Size Influences Growth Factor Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargis, Elizabeth A [ORNL; Peterson, Cristen B [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The spatial organization of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown in culture was controlled using micropatterning techniques in order to examine the effect of patch size on cell health and differentiation. Understanding this effect is a critical step in the development of multiplexed high throughput fluidic assays and provides a model for replicating disease states associated with the deterioration of retinal tissue during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Microcontact printing of fibronectin on polystyrene and glass substrates was used to promote cell attachment, forming RPE patches of controlled size and shape. These colonies mimic the effect of atrophy and loss-of-function that occurs in the retina during degenerative diseases such as AMD. After 72 hours of cell growth, levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important biomarker of AMD, were measured. Cells were counted and morphological indicators of cell viability and tight junction formation were assessed via fluorescence microscopy. Up to a twofold increase of VEGF expression per cell was measured as colony size decreased, suggesting that the local microenvironment of, and connections between, RPE cells influences growth factor expression leading to the initiation and progression of diseases such as AMD.

  16. Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Niva Ongachi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with structured and unstructured questions. The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing the growth of women entrepreneurship in Kitale and specifically to determine, the women’s level of education, skills and technology they employ, the social/cultural environmental conditions within which they operate and their financial capacity. The 70 respondents represented the target population which was within Kitale Municipality, selected by stratified random sampling procedures. Details in this project include the introduction, problem statement, the purpose, main and specific objectives of the study, research questions and the scope. A discussion of the available literature on women owned micro and small enterprises, included the enterprises’ start- up, undertakings and growth, the missing middle, the social, cultural and environmental conditions , the entrepreneur’s education level, skills technology and financing they access. The interventional efforts and growth models were also discussed. The literature review wound up with a critique, a conclusion and the missing gap. The methodology used in conducting the study was explained in details that included descriptive research design, the population, target population, sample size, sampling technique and procedure, the instruments, data collection procedure, processing and analysis. A questionnaire was administered orally to 70 women in MSE within the municipality in order to gather data. The research findings analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences(SPSS, were discussed using a triangulation style along with tables and figures the major factors affecting growth were found to be lack of training, finance, and multiple roles. The rate of growth was found to be between low and moderate. The whole research process was summarized concisely, concluded and relevant recommendations outlined. This study has made some contribution to research and added to knowledge in the existing literature all of which have been pinpointed in the summary and conclusion. The appendix included the research instrument, some tables, figures, introduction letters, a budget and a work plan. The research findings have helped unravel the problem by answering the research questions outlined and may therefore significantly play the role of assisting the stakeholders in addressing the problem of women in the MSE sector. The stakeholders include the government organs, NGOs, financial institutions, women proponents, the women entrepreneur’s, professionals and the society at large. It is hoped that the recommendation made shall be adopted by the concerned party to improve the growth of women owned MSEs in Kitale municipality and the nation at large.

  17. Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; ButtenschØn, Henriette N

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. However, only a few studies have investigated serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression, or the possible association between genetic variants within the VEGF gene and depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression vs. control individuals, and associations between genetic markers located within VEGF and depression. In addition, determinants of the serum VEGF levels were identified. One-hundred and fifty-five depressed subjects and 280 controls were included in the study. All individuals returned a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms were successfully analysed. VEGF levels were measured in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The genetic marker rs10434 was significantly associated with depression after correction for multiple testing, but not with the serum VEGF level. Our final model included depression and BMI as predictors of serum VEGF levels. Our study suggests a role for circulating serum VEGF in depression. Furthermore, our data also demonstrate that other factors than a diagnosis of depression influence the serum VEGF level. The importance of these factors should be emphasized when studies are compared.

  18. Factors influencing stable isotopes and growth of algae in oil sands aquatic reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsivongsakd, Monique; Farwell, Andrea J; Chen, Hao; Dixon, D George

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported (15)N enrichment of biota in reclamation wetlands that contain oil sands processed material (e.g., processed water and tailings); however, there is little information on the factors controlling (15)N enrichment in these systems. In this microcosm study, the aim was to examine stable C and N isotopes and growth (chlorophyll a [chl a] and dry weight) of algae as a function of exposure to different sources and concentrations of water-soluble fractions (WSF) derived from tailings. Two sources of tailings including mature fine tailings (MFT) and consolidated tailings (CT) and peat-mineral overburden were utilized to generate separate WSF that differed in water quality. In general, there was (15)N enrichment of filamentous algae along the increasing gradient of WSF/nutrient concentrations in both CT and peat microcosms, and among the different sources, algae were more (15)N enriched in CT WSF than in peat WSF. Growth of filamentous algae was inhibited at higher WSF concentrations, possibly due to reduced light availability at elevated levels of fine clay particles in MFT microcosms and colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in peat microcosms. Filamentous algae displayed lower biomass and (15)N depletion in 100% peat WSF. This study indicated that both the quality (source) and quantity of WSF affected algal growth and directly and/or indirectly influenced ?(15)N of algae. The distinct (15)N enrichment of primary producers derived from tailings suggest that stable N isotopes might be useful to trace exposure to oil sands processed material in biota that utilize these resources in reclaimed systems constructed with tailings or natural systems that receive tailings dyke seepage. PMID:25506635

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Frost; Vogel, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent proangiogenic factor. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene with influence on VEGF expression have been described. In multiple myeloma, VEGF stimulates angiogenesis which is correlated with disease progression and prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the association between genetic variations in the VEGF gene in patients with multiple myeloma and time to treatment failure (TTF) after high-dose melphalan and stem cell support (HDT), overall survival (OS) and efficacy of the anti-angiogenic drug thalidomide. Retrospectively, the SNPs -2,578C>A (rs699947), -460C>T (rs833061), +405G>C (rs2010963) and +936C>T (rs3025039) in the VEGF gene were examined in 348 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma initially treated with HDT, where 176 patients were treated with thalidomide at relapse. None of the examined geno- or haplotypes was associated with differences in TTF after initial therapy or OS. A possible relation between the haplotype -2,578A/-460C/+405G (ACG) and effect of thalidomide was seen. Patients with no copies of the haplotype ACG had a longer time to next treatment than patients with one or two copies of the haplotype ACG, median 13.7 months vs. 9.2 months, p = 0.007. In conclusion, the haplotype ACG in the VEGF gene may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma. Further analyses are needed to confirm these findings and get insight into the functional effect of these polymorphisms, so in the future we may be able to select multiple myeloma patients who especially will benefit from treatment with thalidomide.

  20. Growth factors for nanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1999-12-01

    Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting factors were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth factors. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.

  1. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  2. Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijter, F.J., de

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that potato growers can use to minimise nematode damage.The research concentrated on the interaction between nematodes and soil-related factors. Experiments were carried out, mainly under field conditions, in w...

  3. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Influencing In Vitro Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ruminant Digestive Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Madic, Jordan; Doudin, Florent; Martin, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants is the main reservoir of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which is responsible for food-borne infections in humans that can lead to severe kidney disease. Characterization of biotic and abiotic factors that influence the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help in the development of ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the GIT and to decrease the risk of contamination of animal products. We found that growth of E. col...

  4. Growth factor and small molecule influence on urological tissue regeneration utilizing cell seeded scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun K; Cheng, Earl Y

    2015-03-01

    Regenerative medicine strategies combine various attributes from multiple disciplines including stem cell biology, chemistry, materials science and medicine. The junction at which these disciplines intersect provides a means to address unmet medical needs in an assortment of pathologies with the goal of creating sustainable, functional replacement tissues. Tissue damage caused by trauma for example, requires rapid responses in order to mitigate further tissue deterioration. Cell/scaffold composites have been utilized to initiate and stabilize regenerative responses in vivo with the hope that functional tissue can be attained. Along with the gross reconfiguration of regenerating tissues, small molecules and growth factors also play a pivotal role in tissue regeneration. Several regenerative studies targeting a variety of urological tissues demonstrate the utility of these small molecules or growth factors in an in vivo setting. PMID:25446138

  5. Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Real, J.M. (José Manuel); Puig, J. (José); Serrano, M.; Sabater, M. (Mónica); Rubio, A; Moreno-Navarrete, J. (José); Fontan, M. (Marina); Casamitjana, R. (Roser); Xifra, G. (Gemma); Ortega, F.J. (Francisco J.); Salvador, J.; Frühbeck, G. (Gema); Ricart, W.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD). Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1); and in association with fat mass and bon...

  6. Growth Factor-Bearing Polymer Brushes - Versatile Bioactive Substrates Influencing Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarra, Evmorfia; Foster, Elena; König, Ulla; You, Jungmok; Ueda, Yuichiro; Eichhorn, Klaus-J; Müller, Martin; Stamm, Manfred; Revzin, Alexander; Uhlmann, Petra

    2015-11-01

    In this study we present the development of responsive nanoscale substrates exhibiting cell-guiding properties based on incorporated bioactive signaling cues. The investigative approach considered the effect of two different surface-bound growth factors (GFs) on cell behavior and response: hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Two surface biofunctionalization strategies were explored in order to conceive versatile, bioactive thin polymer brush films. Polymer brushes made of tethered poly(acrylic)acid (PAA) polymer layers with a high grafting density of polymer chains were biofunctionalized with GFs either by physisorption or chemisorption. Both GFs showed high binding efficiencies to PAA brushes based on their initial loading concentrations. The GF release kinetics can be distinguished depending on the applied biofunctionalization method. Specifically, a high initial burst followed by a constant slow release was observed in the case of both physisorbed HGF and bFGF. In contrast, the release kinetics of chemisorbed GFs were quite different. Remarkably, chemisorbed HGF remained bound to the brush surface for over 1 week, whereas 50% of chemisorbed bFGF was released slowly. Furthermore, the effect of these GF-biofunctionalized PAA brushes on different cells was investigated. A human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was used to analyze the bioactivity of HGF-modified PAA brushes by measuring cell growth inhibition and scattering effects. Additionally, the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) toward endoderm was studied on bFGF-modified PAA brush surfaces. Finally, the results illustrate that PAA brushes, particularly those biofunctionalized with chemisorbed GFs, produce an expected measurable effect on both cell types. Therefore, PAA polymer brushes biofunctionalized with GFs can be used as bioactive cell culture substrates with tuned efficiency. PMID:26447354

  7. Epidermal growth factor facilitates melanoma lymph node metastasis by influencing tumor lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, Andreas; Cardona, Ana Soler; Tauber, Stefanie; Fink, Astrid M; Steiner, Andreas; Pehamberger, Hubert; Niederleithner, Heide; Petzelbauer, Peter; Gröger, Marion; Loewe, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression are known to be of prognostic relevance in human melanoma, but EGF-mediated effects on melanoma have not been extensively studied. As lymph node metastasis usually represents the first major step in melanoma progression, we were trying to identify a potential role of primary tumor-derived EGF in the mediation of melanoma lymph node metastases. Stable EGF knockdown (EGFkd) in EGF-high (M24met) and EGF-low (A375) expressing melanoma cells was generated. Only in EGF-high melanoma cells, EGFkd led to a significant reduction of lymph node metastasis and primary tumor lymphangiogenesis in vivo, as well as impairment of tumor cell migration in vitro. Moreover, EGF-induced sprouting of lymphatic but not of blood endothelial cells was abolished using supernatants of M24met EGFkd cells. In addition, M24met EGFkd tumors showed reduced vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression levels. Similarly, in human primary melanomas, a direct correlation between EGF/VEGF-C and EGF/Prox-1 expression levels was found. Finally, melanoma patients with lymph node micrometastases undergoing sentinel node biopsy were found to have significantly elevated EGF serum levels as compared with sentinel lymph node-negative patients. Our data indicate that tumor-derived EGF is important in mediating melanoma lymph node metastasis. PMID:22951723

  8. Non-genetic and genetic factors influencing growth performance in Murrah Buffalos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.K., Thiruvenkadan; S., Panneerselvam; R., Rajendran.

    Full Text Available Live weight data from 590 Murrah buffalo calves (140 male and 450 female calves) maintained at the Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India, born in the period between 1990 and 2004 were used for this study. Data were analysed using least-squares procedures. The adjusted birth weigh [...] ts of male and female calves were 33.0 ± 0.49 and 31.9 ± 0.27 kg, respectively, with an overall value of 32.4 ± 0.30 kg. The mean body weight at three, six, nine and 12 months of age pooled over periods, season and sex were 62.0 ± 0.65, 87.9 ± 0.95, 112.4 ± 1.23 and 134.16 ± 1.41 kg, respectively. Period of calving influenced the weight significantly at birth, three and six months of ages only. The effect of dam parity on body weight at different ages was highly significant. The calves born during the dam's second parity were generally heavier than those born in other parities. Generally, males had a higher body weight than females at all age groups. All the growth traits showed medium heritability (direct) estimates, which ranged between 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.22 ± 0.16. The genetic correlations were all medium to high and positive. The genetic parameter estimates indicated that the six months weight can be used as a selection tool for genetic improvement of growth traits considering its high heritability and positive genetic correlations with succeeding growth traits.

  9. Oncogenes and growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Trends in Oncogenes; Cellular oncogenes; Oncogenes encoding protein kinases; Oncogenes, processed genes and safety of genetic manipulation; Growth factors and oncogenes; Oncogenes and growth control; Receptors and recognition: from ligand binding to gene structure; and The growth factor-activatable Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange system: a genetic approach

  10. The Influence of Adnectin Binding on the Extracellular Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.

    2014-12-01

    The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.

  11. New thrombopoietic growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kuter, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Although development of first-generation thrombopoietic growth factors (recombinant human thrombopoietin [TPO] and pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor [PEG-rHuMGDF]) was stopped due to development of antibodies to PEG-rHuMGDF, nonimmunogenic second-generation thrombopoietic growth factors with unique pharmacologic properties have been developed. TPO peptide mimetics contain TPO receptor-activating peptides inserted into complementarity-determining regions o...

  12. Head and neck squamous cancer stromal fibroblasts produce growth factors influencing phenotype of normal human keratinocytes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Hynek; Lacina, L.; Kolá?, Michal; ?ada, Z.; Vl?ek, ?estmír; Dvo?ánková, B.; Betka, J.; Plzák, J.; Chovanec, M.; Šáchová, Jana; Valach, Jaroslav; Urbanová, Markéta; Smetana, K. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 133, ?. 2 (2010), s. 201-211. ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06106 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GP304/08/P175 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Cancer microenvironment * Epithelial–mesenchymal interaction * Cancer -associated fibroblasts Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2010

  13. The Size of the Family – A Factor Influencing Alimentation and, Implicitly, the Growth and Development Processes in Teen-Agers

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Simalcsik; Robert-Daniel Simalcsik

    2011-01-01

    Viewed as a phenomenon with multi-factorial determination, the growth and development of the human organism depend equally on the hereditary patrimony and on the environmental conditions, the socio-economic ones, especially. As a critical transition period from childhood to adult age, adolescence is characterized by increased nutritional needs. The main factor responsible for the variations manifested in human physical development is alimentation – a factor correlated with the socio-economic ...

  14. Factors influencing the growth of cracks from defects in CDFR specification 316 stainless steel thermal shock specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of cracks from spark machined slits and gouged grooves has been studied in a CDFR specification cast of 316 stainless steel under thermal shock conditions using sodium as the heat transfer medium. Comparative uniaxial creep fatigue tests have also been performed in servohydraulic machines under isothermal conditions. The cycles used for the thermal shock tests consisted of step increases in temperatures of between 75 and 300 C followed by tensile holds at 600 C of duration 0.05 to 24 hours, and finally slow cooling to the initial temperature ready for the next cycle. The results are presented showing the influence on crack growth of strain range, hold time, number of cycles, types of defect and ferrite stringer direction. (author)

  15. Fibroblast Growth Factors in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    van Scheltinga, Afke F. Terwisscha; Bakker, Steven C.; Kahn, René S

    2009-01-01

    A large association study by O'Donovan et al recently suggested that genetic variation in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 increases the risk for developing schizophrenia. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are part of the family of glial growth factors; they control the growth and patterning of specific brain structures and regulate the maintenance and repair of neuronal tissues. In addition, a direct interaction was recently found between FGFRs and adenosine A2A receptors, leading t...

  16. Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta

    2013-01-01

    The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...

  17. Transforming Growth Factor ?1 Could Influence Thyroid Nodule Elasticity and Also Improve Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wu, Qiong; Hu, Bing

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound elastography has been a very useful tool in predicting the risk of malignant thyroid tumor for several years. The objective of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between strain ratio (SR), collagen deposition and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) expression in different types of thyroid nodules and if TGF-?1 is related to cervical lymph node metastasis. 102 nodules from 81 patients who underwent thyroid resection surgery in our hospital were retrospectively studied. All of these patients had undergone ultrasound elastography scanning before surgery. Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate the ratio of expression of collagen deposition and TGF-?1. There was a significant difference between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in SR (8.913 ± 11.021 vs. 1.732 ± 0.727, p = 0.000), collagen content (0.371 ± 0.125 vs. 0.208 ± 0.057, p = 0.000) and TGF-?1 expression (0.336 ± 0.093 vs. 0.178 ± 0.071, p = 0.000). A cutoff of 2.99 for SR measurement was selected for the highest Youden index for predicting malignant thyroid nodules, which yielded 87.88% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 83.72% negative predictive value and 92.15% accuracy. Expression of collagen and TGF-?1 was positively correlated with SR measurements (coefficient = 0.839 for collagen and 0.855 for TGF-?1, p = 0.000). Among 61 nodules with papillary thyroid carcinoma, the average SR for the metastasis group was higher than that for the non-metastasis group (10.955 ± 13.805 and 7.852 ± 7.931, respectively), but without statistical significance (p = 0.287). Collagen deposition was significantly higher in the metastasis group than in the non-metastasis group (0.421 ± 0.091 vs. 0.353 ± 0.118, p = 0.011). TGF-?1 expression was also significantly higher in the metastasis group than in the non-metastasis group (0.378 ± 0.0.69 vs. 0.328 ± 0.091, p = 0.016). To conclude, TGF-?1 may contribute to thyroid nodule elasticity by promoting collagen deposition. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, overexpression of TGF-?1, as well as collagen deposition, may be a risk factor for cervical lymph node metastasis. PMID:26306431

  18. Bone-Derived Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanna, R.; Campanacci, D.A.; De Biase, P.; Cuomo, P.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2010-01-01

    Bone regeneration is based on the synergy between osteconduction, osteoinduction and osteogenesis. In recent years, we have witnessed the birth and development of numerous osteoconductive substrates, created with the intention of replacing bone grafts, both autologous and homologous. Recently, attention has shifted to osteogenesis, in other words, to the study of mesenchymal cells and their differentiation into osteoblastic cell lines that can be cultured in vitro (as already seen with chondroblasts). Osteoinduction, too, has been shown to be equally important, ever since Urist’s 1967 study which drew attention to the demineralised bone matrix and its properties. The following twenty years led to the definition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and finally to the marketing of the first ostegenic protein (OP-1) obtained by means of the gene recombination technique. The BMPs produced using this technique that, so far, have been shown to be most active are BMP-2 (Infuse) and BMP-7 (Osigraft). The BMPs are not the only molecules with osteoinductive capacity. Other molecules capable of influencing bone regeneration are: platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs), the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) family, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and the acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). All these growth factors act in synergy with the BMPs, modulating their action and exerting an inductive and proliferative action on the cell lines responsible for regenerating the bone matrix. The literature has been literally invaded by studies, both experimental and preclinical, on these proteins (Termaat, 2005), and they have provided ample demonstration that the BMPs are effective in improving healing of fractures, pseudoarthrosis and spinal fusions. Important advantages of BMPs are the complete absence of risk of transmissible disease, given that they are produced using recombination technology; their purity, and thus absence of an immune response (although such a response could be linked to the carrier used to administer them); their efficacy, which derives from the use of a pre-established dose and not from the individual variability that is a specific feature of demineralized bone matrix homologous bone grafts. In addition to their use in fractures, pseudoarthrosis and spinal fusions, very recent studies are opening up new possibilities which may represent the future field of application of these proteins: Cook et al. (Cook, 2001, Barrack, 2003) have presented the first results obtained using OP-1 in prosthetic revisions carried out in the presence of bone defects; other authors have published a case report on osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated with grafts in association with OP-1; an Italian group is currently experimenting the use of OP-1 in distraction osteogenesis with the aim of speeding up the results that can be obtained using this already well-established technique. However, the most interesting results on the use of recombinant morphogenetic proteins are those obtained by Warnke et al. (2004), maxillo-facial surgeons who, by mixing synthetic spongious bone grafts, bone marrow concentrate and morphogenetic proteins, prepared a new, replacement mandible for implantation in a patient who had lost his own due to cancer, thereby creating new vacularised bone, tailored to that specific patient. The experimental applications of these new drugs are countless and, with regard to their therapeutic potential, the general feeling is that what we are seeing is only the tip of the iceberg. However, it is necessary to ensure that experiments in this field are always geared towards sustainable clinical applications and, to this end, they should be concentrated in a smaller number of centres and conducted in accordance with approved and recognised guidelines.

  19. Growth factors and new periodontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad M

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

  20. Factors influencing resuscitation and growth of heat injured Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

    2001-01-22

    The growth of Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in vacuum-packed, minced beef was investigated as a function of degree of heat injury (including no injury i.e. uncooked beef), growth phase (logarithmic and late stationary phase), pH (5.6 and 6.2), and storage temperature (3, 10 and 20 degrees C) during a storage period of 30 days. Late logarithmic and late stationary phase cultures of L. monocytogenes 13-249 showed similar growth in refrigerated, vacuum-packed, raw minced beef with a high pH (6.2). In normal pH (5.6) beef there was no growth at 3 degrees C while growth at 10 and 20 degrees C was only observed for logarithmic phase cultures. Heat injured late stationary phase cultures with 95-99.9% injured cells in the surviving population (as measured by differential plating on enriched vs. selective media after sous vide cooking) did not grow or repair sublethal injuries in sous vide cooked beef at 3 degrees C while repair and growth took place at 10 as well as at 20 degrees C. In logarithmic phase cultures heat injury occurred very rapidly and > or = 99.9% heat injury was observed in all trials in spite of much lower pasteurization values and fewer log10 reductions compared with late stationary phase cultures. Regardless of growth phase, all cultures where a high degree of heat injury (> or = 99.9%) was observed, did not subsequently grow in the beef product at 3 or 10 degrees C within 30 days. Growth of heat injured cultures preexposed to heat shock (46 degrees C, 30 min) or slowly rising temperatures (0.3 degrees C min(-1)) before heat injury was also investigated. Heat shocked or heat adapted cultures generally responded in the same manner as non-stressed cultures (no growth at 3 degrees C) except that a longer lag phase was observed in beef processed at slowly rising temperatures and in normal pH beef at 10 degrees C. Although processing at slowly rising temperatures may slightly increase the survival of L. monocytogenes 13-249 in cooked beef, there seem to be no indication of an increase in subsequent growth potential of the surviving cells. PMID:11205945

  1. Growth of Self-Perceived Clinical Competence in Postgraduate Training for General Practice and Its Relation to Potentially Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. W. M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J. J. M.; Tan, L. H. C.; Grol, R. P. T. M.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. Design: Cohort, 1995-1998. Setting: Three-year Postgraduate Training for General practice in the…

  2. Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo You-feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P?P?=?0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P?=?0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

  3. Growth Factors in Synaptic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Yi Nuo Poon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Synapses are increasingly recognized as key structures that malfunction in disorders like schizophrenia, mental retardation, and neurodegenerative diseases. The importance and complexity of the synapse has fuelled research into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In this regard, neurotrophic factors such as netrin, Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, and others have gained prominence for their ability to regulate synaptic function. Several of these factors were first implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal growth, and axon guidance. However, their roles in synaptic development and function have become increasingly clear, and the downstream signaling pathways employed by these factors have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we will address the role of these factors and their downstream effectors in synaptic function in vivo and in cultured neurons.

  4. Endogenous versus Exogenous Growth Factor Regulation of Articular Chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, SHUILIANG; Chan, Albert G.; Mercer, Scott; ECKERT, GEORGE J.; TRIPPEL, STEPHEN B.

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) ...

  5. Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Cornice'. II. Influence of growth inhibition on the anatomical structure of the stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszka Jaumie?

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the particular tissues in shoots inhibited in growth by chlormequat occurs differently than in vigorously growing ones. After the end of elongation growth, in the subapical part of shoots sprayed with chlormequat the cortex extends and secondary xylem develops less intensively, this leading to an increased participation of parenchymatous tissue in the stem.

  6. Factores que influyen en el crecimiento endocondral: experimentos y modelos / Facteurs influençant la croissance de l'os endochondral: expériences et modèles. Une révision / Factors influencing on the endochondral growth: experiments and models. A review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Alexander, Garzón Alvarado; Máximo Alejandro, Roa Garzón; Angélica María, Ramírez Martínez.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los principales factores que influyen durante el desarrollo endocondral a nivel pre y postnatal. Los factores más importantes del desarrollo de los huesos largos se pueden clasificar en moleculares y mecánicos, los cuales a su vez se clasifican como intrínsecos y extrínsecos. En este ar [...] tículo se presentan los principales avances en el conocimiento del desarrollo endocondral para lo cual se hace una revisión del estado del arte sobre los modelos experimentales, animales y algunos computacionales del conjunto de todos los factores que influyen en el crecimiento de un hueso largo. La última parte del artículo hace referencia a la aparición y desarrollo de los centros secundarios de osificación y como la mecánica y los factores moleculares, se encuentran íntimamente regulados para controlar la total formación de un hueso. Abstract in english The main factors influencing on the endochondral development at the pre- and postnatal level are presented. The most important factors of the development of the long bones may be classified into molecular and mechanical, which at the same time, may be defined as intrinsic and extrinsic. In this pape [...] r, the fundamental advances attained in the knowledge of the endochondral development are presented, for which a review of the state of the art regarding the experimental, animal and some computer models of the set of all the factors influencing on the growth of a long bone is made. The last part of the article refers to the appearance and development of the secondary centres of ossification and to how mechanics and the molecular factors are closely regulated to control total bone formation.

  7. Growth factors in orthopedic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia, C; Niculescu, M.; Despa, N; Simionescu, M; Jinga, V; Fleseriu, I

    2010-01-01

    Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The author...

  8. The influence of technology on growth and structural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation distinguishes between product-oriented and production-oriented technologies as influencing factors of economic and operational changes. Economic growth will only be possible if new technologies and technical aids are made use of. (orig.)

  9. Human eosinophils express transforming growth factor alpha

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) is a pleuripotential cytokine with diverse biological effects, including the ability to influence the proliferation of normal cells or neoplastic epithelial cells. Eosinophils are a subset of granulocytes that normally enter the peripheral tissues, particularly those beneath gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital epithelium, where they reside in close proximity to the epithelial elements. In this study, we demonstrate that the great majority...

  10. Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor and Cysteamine on in vitro bovine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoquy, Juan Mateo; Anchordoquy, Juan Patricio; Testa, Juan Alberto; Sirini, Matías Ángel; Furnus, Cecilia C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of VEGF and Cysteamine during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes on GSH content and developmental competence. For this purpose, experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of 0, 100, 300, and 500?ng/mL VEGF in IVM medium on: GSH content in oocytes and cumulus cells (Exp. 1) and subsequent embryo development (Exp. 2). Also, influence of adding 500?ng/mL VEGF and 100??M Cysteamine to IVM medium on GSH content in oocytes and cumulus cells (Exp. 3) and oocyte developmental capacity (Exp. 4) were evaluated. Oocytes were matured in: a) Control; b) VEGF 0-3?h; c) Cysteamine 4-24?h; d) VEGF 0-3?h?+?Cysteamine 4-24?h; and e) VEGF?+?Cysteamine 24?h. The results showed that: i) VEGF did not alter GSH content in oocytes and cumulus cells; (ii) supplementation of 300 and 500?ng/mL VEGF increased blastocyst yield; (iii) the presence of VEGF?+?Cysteamine simultaneously during 24?h improved GSH content but not embryo development; and (iv) the presence of VEGF during the first 3?h?+?Cysteamine from 4 to 24?h increased GSH concentrations and subsequent embryo development. In conclusion, the addition of VEGF and Cysteamine in two sequential steps to maturation medium result in an improvement of cytoplasmic maturation, with a positive impact on oocyte developmental capacity by increasing the efficiency of in vitro blastocyst production. However, the effect was detrimental when both VEGF and Cysteamine were present during 24 of IVM. PMID:25879691

  11. Hematopoietic growth factors: current knowledge, future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetri, G D

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of hematopoietic growth factors into clinical medicine represents one of the more exciting developments in oncology in the past several years. The identification, gene cloning, and large-scale production of hematopoietic growth factors represent important examples of the practical benefits that may accrue from application of the sophisticated technology derived from recombinant DNA research. Research, both at the bench and by the bedside, has proceeded at an extraordinarily rapid pace in this field over the past five years, leading to an abundance of new information, novel promising agents, and important clinical controversies related to the biology and appropriate clinical applications of hematopoietic growth factors. With these agents, for the first time in history, the production of human blood cells can be systematically manipulated in vivo in an effort to optimize physiology beyond the endogenous host response. Additionally, investigators utilizing purified hematopoietic growth factors as reagents may provide crucial insights into the mechanisms of blood cell production in health and in various disease states. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the control of blood cell production by specific factors and to put these data in the context of clinical medicine. The emphasis will be on factors that primarily influence myeloid (rather than lymphoid) cell growth, differentiation, and activation, and the clinical focus will be on applications in oncologic therapeutics and in the treatment of primary hematologic disorders. By reviewing what we know and what has already been done, we may be better able to define the important questions that remain and to formulate the means to answer our current uncertainties about the activities and clinical uses of hematopoietic growth factors. PMID:1382921

  12. Factors Influencing the Growth of Pt Nanowires via Chemical Self-Assembly and their Fuel Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Zhan, Yunfeng; Zeng, Dongrong; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Guoqing; Jaouen, Frédéric

    2015-07-15

    This work reports a detailed investigation of the template-free synthesis of Pt nanowires via the chemical reduction of Pt salt precursors with formic-acid. The results indicate that both the oxidation state of Pt in the salt and the pH value of the aqueous solution comprising the platinum salt and formic acid are critical factors for the formation of Pt nanowires. Nanowires are obtained from platinum atoms in a +IV oxidation state, with ligating chloride anions (H2 PtCl6 and K2 PtCl6 ) or nonligating chloride anions (PtCl4 ). Increasing the pH of the aqueous Pt salt and HCOOH solution leads to a drastic reduction of the nanowires' length between pH 3 and 4.5. A mechanism involving formate as a reducing agent and formic acid as a structure directing agent explains these results. The Pt nanowires are stable up to 200 °C; therefore, these nanowires are suitable for use as catalysts in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell. The optimized synthesis conditions are then selected for investigating the kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of such nanowires in a fuel cell. The ORR mass activity of the Pt nanowires is 130 A g(-1) Pt at 0.9 V iR-free potential; significantly higher than that of two commercial Pt/C catalysts tested in the same conditions. The higher mass activity is explained based on a higher surface specific activity. Accelerated degradation tests indicate that Pt nanowires supported on carbon are as stable as Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon. PMID:25682734

  13. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca L. Lander; Alastair G. Lander; Lisa Houghton; Williams, Sheila M.; Hugo Costa-Ribeiro; Daniel L. Barreto; Angela P. Mattos; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2012-01-01

    Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wastin...

  14. The influence of genotype on vascular endothelial growth factor and regulation of myocardial collateral blood flow in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, R.S.; Jorgensen, E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that mutations in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene are associated with plasma concentration of VEGF and subsequently the ability to influence coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Blood samples from patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (n=53) and acute coronary syndrome (n=61) were analysed. Coronary collaterals were scored from diagnostic biplane coronary angiograms. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of VEGF was increased in patients with acute compared to chronic CHD (p=0.01). The genotype frequencies differed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in three of 15 examined loci. Four new mutations in addition to the already described were identified. The VEGF haplotype did not seem to predict plasma VEGF concentration (p=0.5). There was an association between the genotype in locus VEGF-1154 and coronary collateral size (p=0.03) and a significant association between the VEGF plasma concentration and the collateral size (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: VEGF plasma concentration seems related to coronary collateral function in patients with CHD. The results did not support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the untranslated region of the VEGF gene were associated with the concentration of circulating VEGF. Increased understanding of VEGF in the regulation of myocardial collateral flow may lead to new therapies in CHD Udgivelsesdato: 2009

  15. Growth factors in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Comeliu; Niculescu, Marius; Despa, Nicoleta; Simionescu, Maya; Jinga, Victor; Fleseriu, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions. PMID:20302195

  16. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  17. Secreted or nonsecreted forms of acidic fibroblast growth factor produced by transfected epithelial cells influence cell morphology, motility, and invasive potential.

    OpenAIRE

    Jouanneau, J; Gavrilovic, J; Caruelle, D; Jaye, M.; Moens, G; Caruelle, J P; Thiery, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) to NBT-II epithelial carcinoma cells results in fibroblastic transformation and cell motility. We have generated aFGF-producing NBT-II cells by transfection with recombinant expression vectors containing human aFGF cDNA, or the human aFGF cDNA coupled to a signal peptide (SP) sequence. The effects of the nonsecreted and the secreted 16-kDa growth factor on the morphology, motility, and cell invasive potential (gelatinase activity) w...

  18. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  19. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  20. Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Astuti Pratminingsih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor and hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, P; Giménez-Gallego, G

    2000-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was studied in ventricular ependyma and choroid plexus of aged-matched normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats at different ages using a polyclonal antibody against bFGF. The bFGF-like immunoreactivity was observed in brain ependyma and choroid plexus of young and old normotensive rats. However, a progressive loss of immunoreactivity was observed with age in spontaneously hypertensive rats, that was associated with a progressive cerebroventricular dilation. These results show a new neuroendocrine anomaly to be added to the many others previously observed in this rat strain, when they develop hydrocephalus as they age. PMID:10672586

  2. Growth factors improve muscle healing in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Menetrey, Jacques; Kasemkijwattana, C; Day, C S; Bosch, P.; Vogt, M.; Fu, F. H.; Moreland, M S; Huard, J

    2000-01-01

    Injury to muscles is very common. We have previously observed that basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), insulin growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are potent stimulators of the proliferation and fusion of myoblasts in vitro. We therefore injected these growth factors into mice with lacerations of the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle regeneration was evaluated at one week by histological staining and quantitative histology. Muscle healing was assessed histologically ...

  3. Epidermal growth factor and growth in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a dose-dependent thickening of the epidermis in suckling mice. The cellular mechanisms underlying this thickening were analyzed by measuring the effect of EGF on the cell-cycle. Neonatal mice were given daily injections of either 2ug EGF/g body weight/day or an equivalent volume of saline, and on the seventh day received a single injection of 3H-thymidine. At various times the mice were perfused with fixative; 1um sections of skin were stained with a modification of Harris' hematoxylin and were autoradiographed. The sections were analyzed using three methods based on the dependence on time after injection of 3H-thymidine of: frequency of labelled mitoses, labelling index, and reciprocal grains/nucleus. It was found that EGF caused a two-fold increase in the cell production rate. The effect of exogenous EGF on the morphology of gastric mucosa and incisors of suckling mice was also studied. The gastric mucosa appeared thicker in EGF-treated animals, but the effect was not statistically significant. In contrast to its effect on epidermis and gastric mucosa, EGF caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the size of the incisors. Because the mouse submandibular salivary gland is the major source of EGF the effect of sialoadenectomy on female reproductive functions was examined. Ablation of the submandibular gland had no effect on: length of estrus cycle, ability of the female to produce litters, length of the gestation period, litter size, and weight of the litter at birth. There was also no effect on survival of the offspring or on age at which the eyelids separated

  4. Factors of Economic Growth in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnopjorovs, Olegs

    2013-01-01

    Uneven economic growth during the recent years raise the question whether any factor of economic growth aside economic cycle fluctuations exists in Latvia. The objective of the Doctoral Thesis is, to assess the factors of economic growth in Latvia using econometric modelling techniques, and to solve various problems that arise when such techniques are used in Latvia's case. The Doctoral Thesis has identified the main factor of economic growth in Latvia – fixed capital accumulation. Altho...

  5. Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Guo You-feng; Wang Xiao-bing; Tian Xiao-ying; Li Yang; Li Bin; Huang Quan; Zhang Meng; Li Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI) and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by i...

  6. The genome of Shope fibroma virus, a tumorigenic poxvirus, contains a growth factor gene with sequence similarity to those encoding epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, W.; Upton, C.; Hu, S L; Purchio, A F; McFadden, G.

    1987-01-01

    Degenerate oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a highly conserved region common to epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, and vaccinia growth factor were used to identify a novel growth factor gene in the Shope fibroma virus genome. Sequence analysis indicates that the Shope fibroma growth factor is a distinct new member of this family of growth factors.

  7. Heparin Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor and PD169316 Prevent Apoptosis in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, Malini; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Bargo, Ana M.; Nash, Rachel J.; Nash, Rodney J.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is an important outcome of cell fate and is influenced by several factors. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family of growth factors and is synthesized as a membrane-associated precursor molecule (proHB-EGF). Under stressful conditions proHB-EGF is proteolytically cleaved and released as a soluble ligand (sHB-EGF) that activates the EGF receptor. We show that antibody against CD9, a membrane tetraspan...

  8. Factors influencing radioimmuno-assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suggestions are given to beginners considering the factors which influence the accuracy of radio-immunological assay (RIA). Contrary to some industrial circulars it was deduced from the investigations that the much cheaper glass tube is just so fit for RIA as the plastic one. Possible pH-shift during the incubation may change in a great extent the rate of the immune reactions. These processes can be only slightly influenced by the change of temperature. More possibilities are suggested to eliminate the disturbance derived from the aspecific reaction of proteins in the samples. At last the determination of four indices is discussed which characterize the confidence to the results of RIA: the limited deviation from the mean result of parallel samples: the reproducibility; the dilution and specificity control. (D.E.)

  9. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  10. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  11. Influence of gain-of-function mutation (Ser252Trp in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene on long bone development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To observe the early postnatal long bone development in Fgfr2+/S252W mutant mice and littermate wild-type (WT mice, and explore the effect of continued function enhancement of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 gene on endochondral ossification. Methods?A mouse model of Fgfr2+/S252W simulated human Apert syndrome was reproduced by knock-in technique, and then the gain-of-function mutation Fgfr2+/S252W mice and littermate WT mice were obtained after breeding and identification. Three Fgfr2+/S252W and same number of WT mice were sacrificed at 7, 10, 14 and 28 postnatal days respectively, and the morphology of long bone was examined with X-ray and Micro CT, the structure of bone and cartilage was observed by HE staining, and the expression of gene in growth plate was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results?Fgfr2+/S252W mouse model exhibited typical craniosynostosis and brachycephalium of Apert syndrome, accompanied by short stature, growth retardation of long bone, delayed appearance of secondary ossification center, decrease of bone density and trabecula number. HE staining showed noticeable shortened zones of proliferation and hypertrophic chondrocytes, irregularity of cell arrangement, and small hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the mutant mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of genes related to chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation was decreased in mutant mice. Conclusions?Gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2 may lead to abnormal development of long bone in mice. FGFR2 may have the function of regulating the development both of osteoblast and chondrocyte lineages, and play an important role in the process of skeletal development.

  12. Endogenous versus exogenous growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-?1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-?1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-?1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-?1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. PMID:24105960

  13. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  14. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennehy John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible ? lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of ? lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  15. Genistein-mediated inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which corrects storage in cells of patients suffering from mucopolysaccharidoses, acts by influencing an epidermal growth factor-dependent pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara?ska Sylwia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are inherited metabolic disorders caused by mutations leading to dysfunction of one of enzymes involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Due to their impaired degradation, GAGs accumulate in cells of patients, which results in dysfunction of tissues and organs. Substrate reduction therapy is one of potential treatment of these diseases. It was demonstrated previously that genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone inhibits synthesis and reduces levels of GAGs in cultures of fibroblasts of MPS patients. Recent pilot clinical study indicated that such a therapy may be effective in MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome. Methods To learn on details of the molecular mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis, efficiency of this process was studied by measuring of incorporation of labeled sulfate, storage of GAGs in lysosomes was estimated by using electron microscopic techniques, and efficiency of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor was determined by using an ELISA-based assay with fluorogenic substrates. Results Effects of genistein on inhibition of GAG synthesis and accumulation in fibroblasts from patients suffering from various MPS types were abolished in the presence of an excess of EGF, and were partially reversed by an increased concentration of genistein. No such effects were observed when an excess of 17?-estradiol was used instead of EGF. Moreover, EGF-mediated stimulation of phsophorylation of the EGF receptor was impaired in the presence of genistein in both wild-type and MPS fibroblasts. Conclusion The results presented in this report indicate that the mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis operates through epidermal growth factor (EGF-dependent pathway.

  16. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)

  17. History of Discovery: Platelet-derived Growth Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen-Pope, Daniel F.; Raines, Elaine W

    2011-01-01

    A growth-promoting “activity” released from activated platelets, the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), was discovered and characterized while investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the lesions of atherosclerosis. This review provides a personal account of the different challenges we faced three decades ago in this undertaking, and how our path was influenced by our focus on a disease process and by the evolving general understanding of the molecul...

  18. Change in the terpenoid profile and secondary growth in declining stands of Pinus sylvestris L. under mediterranean influence as a response to local factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The terpenoid profile could give information about the water status in Scots pine, especially for trees growing in the same geographical area but under contrasting local environmental conditions. Terpenes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in needles, twigs and wood of ten affected and ten unaffected Scots pines in the southern “Sistema Ibérico” range (Teruel, Spain, where forest decline has been recently reported. Soil depth and secondary growth was also studied in both types of trees. Needles and twigs total resin acids were significantly higher in affected trees. The pimarane type resin acids were also higher in the twigs of affected trees. Secondary growth was lower in affected trees and it showed higher climate sensitivity. The use of the terpenoid profile may be used as an additional tool for the estimation of the water status, especially for situations inducing moderate but relatively prolonged stress conditions.El perfil terpénico podría dar información sobre el estado hídrico en el pino albar, especialmente cuando se comparen especímenes de una zona geográfica concreta afectados por factores ambientales locales. Los terpenos de acículas, brotes del año y madera fueron analizados en diez ejemplares afectados y otros tantos no afectados por el decaimiento mediante cromatografía de masas acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La serie de crecimiento secundario en ambos tipos de ejemplares fue también estudiada. La concentración total de ácidos resínicos aumentó de modo significativo en los árboles afectados tanto en brotes del año como en acículas. La cantidad de ácidos de tipo pimarano también aumentó en los brotes de los árboles afectados. La profundidad del suelo y el crecimiento secundario era menor en este tipo de ejemplares, que muestran una mayor sensibilidad en términos dendrocronológicos. El perfíl terpénico podría utilizarse como una herramienta adicional a la estimación del estado hídrico, especialmente cuando el árbol está afectado por condiciones de estrés moderadas pero prolongadas en el tiempo.

  19. Growth factor parametrization in curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Yungui; Wang, Anzhong

    2009-01-01

    The growth rate of matter perturbation and the expansion rate of the Universe can be used to distinguish modified gravity and dark energy models in explaining the cosmic acceleration. We explore here the inclusion of spatial curvature into the growth factor. We expand previous results using the approximation $\\Omega_{m}^\\gamma$ and then suggest a new form, $\\Omega_m^\\gamma+(\\gamma-4/7)\\Omega_k$, as an approximation for the growth factor when the curvature $\\Omega_k$ is not negligible, and where the growth index $\\gamma$ is usually model-dependent. The expression recovers the standard results for the curved and flat $\\Lambda$CDM and Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models (DGP). Fitting the growth factor to observational data, we obtain $\\gamma_{\\Lambda}(\\Omega_{k} \

  20. Factors Influencing College Curriculum Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Carl L.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study conducted at the University of Illinois on what influences college students to consider the agricultural education curriculum showed that the curriculum choice process is somewhat different for agricultural education majors than for students in the non-agricultural education group. Important influences include vocational agriculture…

  1. Growth factors for treating diabetic foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Gluud, Christian; Nicola, Susana; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Reveiz, Ludovic; Oliva, Patricio; Cedeño-Taborda, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers are a major complication of diabetes mellitus, often leading to amputation. Growth factors derived from blood platelets, endothelium, or macrophages could potentially be an important treatment for these wounds but they may also confer risks. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of growth factors for foot ulcers in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: In March 2015 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane...

  2. Chromatin binding of epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor in cells bearing the appropriate surface receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Rakowicz-Szulczynska, E. M.; Rodeck, U.; Herlyn, M; Koprowski, H.

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed the uptake and intracellular distribution of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor in different cell lines that express or do not express the respective surface receptors for these factors. After 1 hr of incubation, all three growth factors were detected in the cytoplasmic fraction and in the nucleus, tightly bound to chromatin. The amount of chromatin-bound growth factors continued to increase during the incubation, and anal...

  3. Factors that determine the evolution of high-growth businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and management practices; in 2013, they were re-analyzed to investigate the factors that contributed to continued growth for certain companies. Contributions: Through diverse statistical techniques, business policies related to quality, innovation, internationalization and finance were shown to influence business growth and sustainability over time. Limitations of the Research: This study focuses on industrial businesses at least ten years old in Catalonia; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations and economic sectors, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical Implications: Because growth is a measure of business success, identifying variables that contribute to high growth and its sustainability is helpful for businesses that seek to adopt effective policies. Social Implications: Generating employment is one of the primary contributions by high-growth businesses. For years with high unemployment, authorities may be interested in corporate policies that strengthen high-growth businesses. Originality/Added Value: High-growth businesses have been studied throughout the world, but this is the first study to investigate the evolution of businesses after a high-growth phase.

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R.; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight.

  5. Vascular growth factors in neuropsychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Samuel S; Fournier, Neil M.; Duman, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular basis of psychiatric illnesses have shed light on the important role played by trophic factors in modulating functional parameters associated with disease causality and drug action. Disease mechanisms are now thought to involve multiple cell types, including neurons and endothelial cells. These functionally distinct but interactively coupled cell types engage in cellular cross talk via shared and common signaling molecules. Dysregula...

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits dendritic cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cavalheiro Marti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGNand mature(CD83 dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb. Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.

  7. The influence of fluid composition on barite growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Agudo, Cristina; Putnis, Christine V.; Putnis Putnis, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Depending on the fluid composition, the mechanism of interaction of a fluid with a mineral surface will involve transport of ions either to or from a mineral surface. The principal control on the growth of barite, BaSO4, has been shown to be the dehydration of the Ba2+ ion at the mineral-fluid interface (Piana et al., 2006). This is also likely to be the case for other ions that could be incorporated into a growing surface. It follows that any chemical influence on the dehydration kinetics will determine the redistribution of ions between solid and fluid phases. Earlier work has shown that the influence of background electrolytes, apart from the constituent ions in the barite structure, have a significant effect on barite growth, and it was hypothesized that this was due to changing the dynamics of the water structure (Kowacz and Putnis, 2008). Here using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we show that barite growth is influenced by the pH of the solution. Previous research does not indicate any pH dependence on the growth of barite, as speciation predictions do not vary significantly with pH. However atomic-scale observations show that at low and high pH, growth rates change compared to pH values 4 - 9. In order to test the influence of pH on barite growth, influencing factors need to be held constant apart from the factor (pH) being tested. AFM observations of barite growth under conditions of constant supersaturation, temperature, Ba/SO4 ratio and ionic strength but changing growth solution pH have been studied. In natural systems, the presence of other ions, apart from Ba2+ and SO42- growth building units, must be considered. We also investigate the influence of ionic strength on the growth process. Direct observations of barite growth at the nano-scale afford the possibility of directly seeing the growth process. Barite scale formation is one of the main problems in many industrial processes (such as, paper-making, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, off-shore oil extraction, geothermal energy production). It is especially problematic (and costly) in oilfields due to its low solubility and hardness resulting in solid layers of barite that can block pipes completely, reducing the production of an oil-well. Barite scale in oilfields is caused by mixing of the injected seawater (high in SO4) to increase the oil extraction maintaining the inner pressure in the reservoir, with formation water (high in Ba2+) in the reservoir. The partitioning of trace amounts of radium (Ra2+) into the barite also leads to the problem that the scale becomes radioactive. The reactions that lead to BaSO4 scale formation and the methods that could reduce or prevent it are poorly quantified. To be able to control crystal growth, we first need to understand how barite grows, the conditions for optimal growth, as well as any factors that inhibit or reduce this growth to a minimum. Refs.: Piana S., Jones F., Gale JD. Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 128, 13568 (2006) Kowacz M and Putnis A. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 4476 (2008) Acknowledgement: C.R-A. acknowledges a Marie Curie Fellowship: EU ITN MINSC (Mineral Scale Formation, PITN-GA-2011-290040)

  8. Expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling substances in gastric mucosal cells influenced by serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie YAN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints on the expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling substances phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1, protein kinase C (PKC and c-myc in gastric mucosal cells.Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into normal group, stomach meridian group, gallbladder meridian group, stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group. Water-immersion and restrained stress methods were adopted for inducing gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Gastric mucosal cells were separated by using pronase digestion method, and incubated by PD153035, a EGFR inhibitor, and 100 ml/L serum. The expression of PLC?-1 in the gastric mucosal cells was tested by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA, while the expression of PKC by isotope incorporate assay and the expression of c-myc by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR.Results: In gastric mucosal cells, weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the normal group, and relatively strong expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group, among which, the expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc in the stomach meridian group were the strongest, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group (P?0.01. Relative weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and the gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group (P?0.01.Conclusions: The serum derived from the rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints can activate the EGFR singling pathway, and this provides an evidence for the theory of "relative particularity between meridians and viscera" in traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. Exploring Psychological Factors Influencing Deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    Metka Kuhar

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary societies there is a growing need to coordinate and legitimize different perspectives. Instead of a dialogical search for consensus polarizing communication still prevails. The legitimacy of formal political institutions and conventional forms of political participation is in decline; increasingly publicly expressed people’s need for a greater influence on social developments reveals a deficit in approaches how to include them more actively in discussions on complex social pro...

  10. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  11. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  12. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Factors That Influence Fertility Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content It is currently ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2008). Definitions of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertility and Sterility , 90(5 Suppl), ... [ ...

  13. Epidermal growth factor signalling and bone metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, X.; Kang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling is well known for its multifaceted functions in development and tissue homoeostasis. The EGF family of ligands and receptors (ERBB family) have also been extensively investigated for their roles in promoting tumourigenesis and metastasis in a variety of cancer types. Recent findings indicate that EGF signalling is an important mediator of bone metastasis in breast, prostate and kidney cancers. The EGF signalling stimulates the growth of bone metastasis...

  14. Physical Factors Influencing Beer Overfoaming.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Vitoušová, K.; Poštulková, Michaela; Brányik, T.; R?ži?ka, Marek

    Vol. Session 1. - : -, 2013, T2:P26. ISBN N. [Conference of European Colloid and Interface Society /27./. Sofia (BG), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer * gushing * physical factors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.ecis2013.org/

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Goschin, Zizi; Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2006-01-01

    Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  16. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...

  17. IGF-1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor -1) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful? Also known as: Somatomedin C Formal name: Insulin-like Growth Factor - 1 Related tests: Growth Hormone , ... know? How is it used? A test for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) may be ...

  18. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-CODRU?A DUD?-D?IANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

  19. The Bb fragment of complement factor B acts as a B cell growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The process of B cell growth and differentiation into plasma cells is highly regulated and may be influenced by a large number of inflammatory mediators, including complement components. We have studied the regulatory influence of Bb, a 60-kD peptide created during the cleavage of complement Factor B by Factor D and C3b. Purified Bb alone had no effect on proliferation and differentiation of human splenic or tonsillar B cells. However, when B cells were activated by Staphylococcus aureus Cowa...

  20. Factores de crecimiento III: factores transformadores del crecimiento (TGF Growth factors III part: transforming growth factors (TGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de los conceptos básicos sobre los factores transformadores del crecimiento, tanto alfa como beta, incluyendo los siguientes aspectos: consideraciones generales, estructura bioquímica, concentraciones, proteínas transportadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos. A review is presented on the basic concepts of Transforming Growth Factors both a and p; it includes general considerations, biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, and biological effects.

  1. Effects of medium flow on axon growth with or without nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-11

    Axon growth is a crucial process in regeneration of damaged nerves. On the other hand, elongation of nerve fibers in the epidermis has been observed in skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Thus, regulation of nerve fiber extension might be an effective strategy to accelerate nerve regeneration and/or to reduce itching in pruritus dermatosis. We previously demonstrated that neurons and epidermal keratinocytes similarly contain multiple receptors that are activated by various environmental factors, and in particular, keratinocytes are influenced by shear stress. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of micro-flow of the medium on axon growth in the presence or absence of nerve growth factor (NGF), using cultured dorsal-root-ganglion (DRG) cells. The apparatus, AXIS™, consists of two chambers connected by a set of microgrooves, through which signaling molecules and axons, but not living cells, can pass. When DRG cells were present in chamber 1, NGF was present in chamber 2, and micro-flow was directed from chamber 1 to chamber 2, axon growth was significantly increased compared with other conditions. Acceleration of axon growth in the direction of the micro-flow was also observed in the absence of NGF. These results suggest that local micro-flow might significantly influence axon growth. PMID:26212442

  2. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor gene transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied in vitro transcription of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor proto-oncogene using nuclear extracts of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, which overproduce the EGF receptor. With the in vitro system we found that Sp1 and other trans-acting factors bound to the EGF receptor promoter regions and are required for maximal expression. Fractionation showed that a DEAE-Sepharose fraction (BA) contained a novel factor, which specifically stimulated EGF receptor transcription 5- to 10-fold. The molecular mass of the native form of the factor is about 270-kDa based on its migration on Sephacryl S-300. This factor may activate transcription of the proto-oncogene through a weak or indirect interaction with the DNA template

  3. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-? was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-? was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-? and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-? was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-?. Although the physiological role of TGF-? in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants

  4. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil / Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rebecca L., Lander; Alastair G., Lander; Lisa, Houghton; Sheila M., Williams; Hugo, Costa-Ribeiro; Daniel L., Barreto; Angela P., Mattos; Rosalind S, Gibson.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos) de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches so [...] bre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2), desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%), notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12%) e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) e protozoário Giardia duodenalis (13%) foram os mais comuns; Abstract in english Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data [...] was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.

  5. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop applicat...

  6. Audit in general practice: factors influencing participation.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, R.; Robertson, N.; Farooqi, A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the factors influencing participation in a single topic audit initiated by a medical audit advisory group. DESIGN--Interview and questionnaire survey of general practitioners who had been invited to take part in an audit of vitamin B-12. SETTING--All 147 general practices in Leicestershire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Aspects of structure, attitude, and behaviour that influenced participation or non-participation. RESULTS--75 practices completed the audit, 49 withdrew after ...

  7. Growth factor expression in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue. An immunohistochemical analysis of transforming growth factor beta, fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Jukka; Grönblad, Mats; Vanharanta, Heikki; Virri, Johanna; Guyer, Richard D; Rytömaa, Tapio; Karaharju, Erkki O

    2006-05-01

    Degenerated intervertebral disc has lost its normal architecture, and there are changes both in the nuclear and annular parts of the disc. Changes in cell shape, especially in the annulus fibrosus, have been reported. During degeneration the cells become more rounded, chondrocyte-like, whereas in the normal condition annular cells are more spindle shaped. These chondrocyte-like cells, often forming clusters, affect extracellular matrix turnover. In previous studies transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) -1 and -2, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) have been highlighted in herniated intervertebral disc tissue. In the present study the same growth factors are analysed immunohistochemically in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue. Disc material was obtained from 16 discs operated for painful degenerative disc disease. Discs were classified according to the Dallas Discogram Description. Different disc regions were analysed in parallel. As normal control disc tissue material from eight organ donors was used. Polyclonal antibodies against different growth factors and TGFbeta receptor type II were used, and the immunoreaction was detected by the avidin biotin complex method. All studied degenerated discs showed immunoreactivity for TGFbeta receptor type II and bFGF. Fifteen of 16 discs were immunopositive for TGFbeta-1 and -2, respectively, and none showed immunoreaction for PDGF. Immunopositivity was located in blood vessels and in disc cells. In the nucleus pulposus the immunoreaction was located almost exclusively in chondrocyte-like disc cells, whereas in the annular region this reaction was either in chondrocyte-like disc cells, often forming clusters, or in fibroblast-like disc cells. Chondrocyte-like disc cells were especially prevalent in the posterior disrupted area. In the anterior area of the annulus fibrosus the distribution was more even between these two cell types. bFGF was expressed in the anterior annulus fibrosus more often in chondrocyte-like disc cells than in fibroblast-like disc cells. Control discs showed cellular immunopositivity for only TGFbeta-1 and -2 and TGFbeta receptor type II . We suggest that growth factors create a cascade in intervertebral disc tissue, where they act and participate in cellular remodelling from the normal resting stage via disc degeneration to disc herniation. PMID:15980999

  8. Fatores determinantes do crescimento infantil Determinant factors of infant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation in genetic potential manifestations. Because of the complex nature of infant growth, several studies have been developed aiming at relating biological, socio-economic, maternal, environmental, cultural, demographic and nutritional determinants among others, with the etiology, development and maintenance of growth. This review reinforces the value of permanent investigation on infant growth, especially concerning the long term impact on infant health.

  9. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing growth rate and production of traps by the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans when induced by Cooperia oncophora larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GrØnvold, J.; Wolstrup, J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments on corn meal agar was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in different abiotic and biotic conditions which occur in cow pats. Above a concentration of 50 parasitic larvae (L-3) cm(-2) the fungus produced a maximum of between 500 and 600 nets cm(-2) at 20 degrees C in 2 days on the surface of corn meal agar. There were no differences in the trap-producing capacity of three strains of D. flagrans (CIII4, CI3 and Trol A). On agar at 30 degrees and 20 degrees C, the fungus responded to Coaperia oncophora L-3 very quickly producing a maximum of trapping nets 1 day after induction. At 10 degrees C, traps were produced slowly starting on day 4 after induction and continued over the following week. Duddingtonia flagrans (CI3) grew at a normal rate at least down to an oxygen concentration of 6 vol.% O-2, but it did not grow anaerobically. On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) did not produce trapping nets in an anaerobic atmosphere. Moreover, C. oncophora L-3 stopped migration under anaerobic conditions. When the fungal cultures were transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere, after 1 and 2 weeks under anaerobic conditions, the C. oncophora L-3 resumed migrating on the agar and, in response, D, flagrans produced traps in the same amount as when it had not been under anaerobic stress. Under microaerophilic conditions (6 vol.% O-2) D flagrans was able to grow, but the C, oncophora L-3 were not able to induce trapping nets in D, flagrans (Trol A) because of larval immobility. But, as under anaerobic conditions, the fungus could return to a nematode-trapping state when transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere within 1 or 2 weeks if migrating nematodes were present. Under natural conditions in the cow pat it is expected that the fungus will be ready to attack parasitic larvae, when the oxygen tension increases as a result of, for example the activity of the coprophilic fauna. Artificial light giving 3000-3400 Lux on the surface of the agar significantly depressed the growth rate and the production of trapping nets in D, flagrans (CI3). On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) could grow and produce trapping nets at pH levels of 6.3 to 9.3. Net-production has its optimum between pH 7 and 8. On dry faeces mycelial growth was 7-10 mm during a 15 day period while on moist faeces the fungus expanded 15-20 mm during the same period. Based on the parameters investigated, D. flagrans is expected to be especially active in the well aerated surface layer of a cow pat, an area which normally contains a high concentration of infective nematode parasite larvae, but also an area where the temperature can be high and the water content low.

  10. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS IN CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Amarjit Gill

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the factors that influence the working capital requirements (wcr) in canada. a sample of 166 canadian firms listed on toronto stock exchange for a period of 3 years from 2008-2010 was selected. this study applied co-relational and non-experimental research design. overall results indicate that operating cycle (oc), return on assets (roa), internationalization of firm, firm’s growth, and firm size influence the wcr in canada. the study also found that oc, r...

  11. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we have performed experiments to determine whether mechanical stimulation of cultured avian muscle cells alters their response to anabolic steroids or glucocorticoids. In static cultures, testosterone had no effect on muscle cell growth, but 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and the synthetic steroid stanozolol increased cell growth by up to 18% and 30%, respectively, after a three day exposure. We completed development of a new IBM-based mechanical cell stimulator system to provide greater flexibility in operating and monitoring our experiments. Our previous long term studies on myofiber growth were designed around a perfusion system of our own design. We have recently changed to performing these studies using a modified CELLCO cartridge bioreactor system Z since it has been certified as the ground-based model for the Shuttle's Space Tissue Loss (STL) F= Cell Culture Module. The current goals of this aspect of the project are three fold: 1) to design a Z cell culture system for studying avian skeletal myofiber atrophy on the Shuttle and Space Station; 0 2) to expand the use of bioreactors to cells which do not grow in either suspension or attached to the hollow fibers; and 3) to combine the bioreactor system with our computerized mechanical cell stimulator to have a better in vitro model to study tension/gravity/stretch regulation of skeletal muscle size. Preliminary studies also reported on involved : (1) how release of tension can induce rapid atrophy of tissues cultured avian skeletal muscle cells, and (2) a mechanism to transfer and maintain avian skeletal muscle organoids in modified cartridges in the Space Tissue Loss Module.

  12. Factors influencing first intercourse for teenage men.

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, L; Sonenstein, F L; Pleck, J H

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of a nationally representative survey of 1,880 15- to 19-year-old men were conducted to examine factors associated with (a) the age when first sexual intercourse occurred and (b) whether a condom or other contraceptive method was used at first intercourse. Discrete time-event history models assessed factors influencing their age until first intercourse. Black males began sexual activity significantly earlier than white or Hispanic males. Males who had been held back in school also be...

  13. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...

  14. Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 23--et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, fibrous dysplasia, and tumour-induced osteomalacia. In contrast, hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis is associated with accelerated degradation of FGF23. Measuring FGF23 serves as a differential diagnostic tool in elucidating conditions of long-lasting hypophosphatemia.

  16. Growth factor expression in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue: An immunohistochemical analysis of transforming growth factor beta, fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Tolonen, Jukka; Grönblad, Mats; Vanharanta, Heikki; Virri, Johanna; Guyer, Richard D.; Rytömaa, Tapio; Karaharju, Erkki O.

    2005-01-01

    Degenerated intervertebral disc has lost its normal architecture, and there are changes both in the nuclear and annular parts of the disc. Changes in cell shape, especially in the annulus fibrosus, have been reported. During degeneration the cells become more rounded, chondrocyte-like, whereas in the normal condition annular cells are more spindle shaped. These chondrocyte-like cells, often forming clusters, affect extracellular matrix turnover. In previous studies transforming growth factor ...

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 23--et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Kassem, Moustapha; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, fibrous dysplasia, and tumour-induced osteomalacia. In contrast, hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis is associated with accelerated degradation of FGF23. Measuring FGF23 serves as a differential diagnos...

  18. Factor Endowment, Structural Change, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Che, Natasha Xingyuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims (1) to test the endowment-based structural change theory proposed by recent studies such as Acemoglu & Guerrieri (2008) and Ju, Lin & Wang (2009); and (2) to explore the linkage between structural coherence and economic growth. By structural coherence, I refer to the degree that a country’s industrial structure optimally reflects its factor endowment fundamentals. Using data from 27 industries across 15 countries, I examine whether higher capital endowment is associated w...

  19. Toxicities of the thrombopoietic growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Cuker, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The thrombopoietic growth factors (TGFs) are a novel class of compounds for the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The first of these agents to receive regulatory approval, romiplostim and eltrombopag, have demonstrated impressive efficacy and tolerability in randomized controlled trials and open-label extension studies of several years duration and stand poised to revolutionize the management of ITP. Nonetheless, critical questions regarding the safety of these agents, parti...

  20. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  1. Ocular Angiogenesis: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Other Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Roman G; Adamis, Anthony P

    2016-01-01

    Systematic study of the mechanisms underlying pathological ocular neovascularization has yielded a wealth of knowledge about pro- and anti-angiogenic factors that modulate diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The evidence implicating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in particular has led to the development of a number of approved anti-VEGF therapies. Additional proangiogenic targets that have emerged as potential mediators of ocular neovascularization include hypoxia-inducible factor-1, angiopoietin-2, platelet-derived growth factor-B and components of the alternative complement pathway. As for VEGF, knowledge of these factors has led to a product pipeline of many more novel agents that are in various stages of clinical development in the setting of ocular neovascularization. These agents are represented by a range of drug classes and, in addition to novel small- and large-molecule VEGF inhibitors, include gene therapies, small interfering RNA agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In addition, combination therapy is beginning to emerge as a strategy to improve the efficacy of individual therapies. Thus, a variety of agents, whether administered alone or as adjunctive therapy with agents targeting VEGF, offer the promise of expanding the range of treatments for ocular neovascular diseases. PMID:26502333

  2. Influence of semi-volatile species on particle hygroscopic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Paolo; Sellegri, Karine; Monier, Marie; Laj, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we use a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA) system combining particle volatilization and humidification conditioning (VH-TDMA) to test the effect of the gentle volatilization of a small fraction of the atmospheric particles on the particle hygroscopic growth in several environments (urban to remote). We first give an overview of the Hygroscopic Growth Factors (HGF) in these various environments, showing that in most of them, aerosol particles are externally mixed. We then show that the particle hygroscopicity can either be increased or decreased after thermal conditioning of the particle at moderate temperatures (50-110 °C). The hygroscopic growth factor changes induced by volatilization indicate that some volatile compounds, although present at low concentrations, can significantly influence the hygroscopic growth of particles in a way that can most of time be theoretically explained if simplified assumptions are used. However, simplified assumptions occasionally fail over several hours to explain hygroscopic changes, kinetic/surface effects observed at remote environments are suspected to be important.

  3. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy. PMID:23502135

  4. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  5. On Factors Influencing EFL Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan WANG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategies refer to techniques used by language learners for the purpose of regulating their own learning. Research on learning strategies has always been a complex issue, because many factors come to play a role when learners are developing and using their learning strategies. To investigate the variations in the use of strategies among EFL students, this paper attempts to analyze internal factors (including learners’ age, intelligence, personality and cognitive style and external factors (such as teachers’ teaching approaches and materials that may influence the use of language learning strategies for EFL learners. 

  6. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  7. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  8. Porcine placental immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor, placenta growth factor, Flt-1 and Flk-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, E G; Cristofolini, A L; Merkis, C I

    2015-10-01

    Porcine embryo mortalities cause economic losses. Development of the placental vascular bed is required for successful gestation and postnatal survival. We studied the temporal and spatial distributions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placenta growth factor (PlGF) and their receptors, Flt-1 and Flk-1. We used crossbred swine placental tissues from 30, 60, 80, 90 and 114 (term) days of gestation. Both VEGF and PlGF were present during gestation. At early pregnancy and at term, VEGF probably acts through Flt-1; during intermediate periods, its function is mediated by Flk-1. By day 90, factors other than members of VEGF family appear to be involved. PMID:25968146

  9. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  10. Effects of Epidermal Growth Factor, Platelet Derived Growth Factor and Growth Hormone on Cultured Rat Keratinocytes Cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Safari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some growth factors, such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, Growth Hormone (GH and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF have beneficial effects on keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Although the mechanism of these factors is unclear. In response to injury, growth factors are secreted by kinds of cutaneous cells. The goal of this project is to investigate the factors that could cause proliferate of the keratinocyte cells in vitro. The keratinocytes were removed from rat pups (10 days. Cultured in media with different concentration of GH, PDGF and EGF separately. The proliferation of cells was evaluated by the method of MTT and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Proliferation of keratinocytes was significantly higher in experimental groups than in control group. EGF maximally stimulated at 10 and 25 ng mL-1. PDGF-BB maximally stimulated at 50 ng mL-1, respectively. And maximal stimulation of GH was 2.5 IU L-1. GH, PDGF-BB and EGF stimulate keratinocyte cells proliferation in different concentration. These growth factors could play in healing of the skin.

  11. Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Patients and methods: We performed a follow-up study on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated from 1984 to 1998. 18/38 patients were resected. Irradiated volume included the primary tumor (or tumor bed) and regional lymph nodes. Thirty-seven patients received in addition chemotherapy consisting of mitoxantrone, 5-fluorouracil and cis-platin, either i.v. (14/38) or i.a. (23/38). The influence of treatment related factors on the overall survival was tested. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model (?/?=25 Gy) and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. Results: Treatment factors influencing overall survival were resection (p=0.02), overall treatment time (p=0.03) and biologically effective dose (p<0.002). Total dose and kind of chemotherapy had no significant influence. Treatment volume had a negative correlation (r=-0.5, p=0.06) with overall survival, without any correlation between tumor size, tumor stage, and treatment volume. In multivariate analysis only biologically effective dose remained significant (p=0.02). Conclusions: Among with surgery, biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatic carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatments splits in radiation therapy. (orig.)

  12. Bioregulation of lubricin expression by growth factors and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R C Jones

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Lubricin, also commonly referred to as superficial zone protein (SZP and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, is a multifaceted, cytoprotective glycoprotein that contributes to the boundary lubrication properties facilitating low friction levels at interfacing surfaces of articular cartilage. Biological processes effecting the gain or loss of lubricin function may therefore have important consequences relevant to joint physiology and pathology. Herein, we describe experiments conducted to extend our understanding of the influence of various cytokines and growth factors on lubricin gene expression and protein secretion in synovial tissues. Exposure of synoviocytes, chondrocytes and cartilage explants to proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha results in a marked reduction in the expression and/or abundance of secreted lubricin, with corresponding alterations in the amounts of cartilage-associated (boundary lubricin. Conversely, treatment with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta significantly upregulates lubricin synthesis, secretion and cartilage boundary association. Oncostatin M also appears to be capable of modulating lubricin metabolism, with the potential to induce lubricin synthesis by chondrocytes. Collectively, the results of studies on cytokine and growth factor regulation of lubricin biosynthesis and biodistribution may help provide new insights and therapeutic perspectives for promoting joint function.

  13. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  14. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Does corruption influence the sustainability of economic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polajeva T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is decreasing continuously and the main reason behind this is the change in peoples’ attitude and saturation to ethically questionable actions. Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. There are several factors that influence sustainable development. Among them are: government policies; management and organization; financial and economic factors. The main question for institutional sustainability may be formulated as the following: can the strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to the ultimate end-users? Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. Anticorruption strategies are related to the reform of state institutions. One advantage of the fundamental economic reform approach is that by linking anticorruption strategies to the reform of economic policies and institutions, the struggle against corruption can be seen as one of the issues in economic policy. Finally, all development assistance should be implemented with the aim of achieving sustainable benefits.

  17. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Jun Park; Chang Min Moon; Hwang Jae Yoo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and prese...

  18. Epidermal growth factor in the rat lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1991-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) in pharmacological doses is able to induce precoccious lung maturation in rabbits and sheeps. As EGF is probably acting in a para- or autocrine way, we have searched for EGF in the lungs. We report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in the type II pneumocytes of the rat from a couple of days prior to birth and throughout life. Further, we report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in cells in the bronchi and the bronchioles from day 20-21 of gestation and throughout ...

  19. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  20. Factors Influencing Effectiveness of Internal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha? Chmielecki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to answer the question: “What are the most common factors influencing effectiveness of internal communications faced by Polish organizations?” This article discusses the role of internal communications practices leading to enhancement of organizational performance. In particular, it concentrates on factors impeding the flow of information inside the organization. Later on, the article presents empirical findings. Methodology: Contemporary public relations, internal communications and employee communications texts have been reviewed to identify how internal communications is defined in literatur? and how it influences organization success. Relevant existing research was reviewed and primary research was conducted. The latter consisted of 29 in-depth interviews with employees from various Polish organizations. Results/findings: The article presents interesting results that can be especially useful for internal communications specialists and managers. It is recommended that to gain a fuller picture of the issues underlying the findings, quantitative research with relevant employees should be undertaken.

  1. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  2. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccon Eliane; Huante Pilar; Rincón Emanuel

    2006-01-01

    Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succes...

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Arman, S; Soltani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...

  4. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)

  5. Factors influencing customers' choices of online merchants

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chenghuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: The aim of the research is to define and assess the importance of the factors that influence online shoppers' choices of merchants. The previous literature mainly focuses on loyalty of users to websites and online purchase decision-making process within one website. No literature studies the situation under which the customer has already decided the item to purchase and needs to compare different merchants selling the same item. Since this situation is very common...

  6. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, V B; Jørgensen, P E; Sørensen, B S; Bross, P; Orntoft, T; Wolf, H; Nexø, E

    1999-01-01

    We analysed the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in human bladder tumours. Tumour biopsies were obtained from 54 patients with primary bladder cancer (18 stage T1 and 36 stage T2-4). The protein and mRNA expression of EGFr and TGF-alpha were quantified by ELISA and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. The EGFr protein level was significantly increased in T2-4 tumours (0.44 x 10(-11); 0.0-27.5 x 10(-11) mol/g) compared with T1 tum...

  7. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in extramammary Paget disease

    OpenAIRE

    XU, XIAOYUN; Shao, Ning; Qiao, Di; WANG, ZENGJUN; Song, Ningjing; SONG, NINGHONG

    2015-01-01

    Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a special type of cancers. The etiology of the disease is still unclear. We aimed to study the expression differences of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in EMPD tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues. The mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR and the protein expression was explored by immunohistochemistry. Higher immunostaining signal scores of bFGF and VEGF in EMPD tissues had been found (z...

  8. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartsman, Stanislav; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2004-08-01

    Abstract: A peptide purified from the salivary gland of a mouse was shown few years ago to accelerate incisor eruption and eyelid opening in newborn mice, and was named epidermal growth factor (EGF). The members of this family of peptide growth factors had been identified in numerous physiological and pathological contexts. EGF binds to a cell surface EGF receptor, which induces a biochemical modification (phosphorylation) of the receptor's cytoplasmic tail. There is a growing consensus in the research community that, in addition to cellular and molecular studies, the dynamics of the EGFR network and its operation must be examined in tissues. A key challenge is to integrate the existing molecular and cellular information into a system-level description of the EGFR network at the tissue and organism level. In this paper, the two examples of EGFR signaling in tissues are described, and the recent efforts to model EGFR autocrine loops, which is a predominant mode of EGFR activation in vivo, are summarized.

  10. Radioreceptor assay for epidermal growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An established cell line of human lung fibroblasts with a high number of surface receptors for mouse epidermal growth factor (mEGF) was used to deveop a simple and highly sensitive radioreceptor assay for EGF. 125I-Labeled mEGF competed mole for mole with unlabeled mEGF for specific receptors. Optimal range for discriminating EGF concentrations in body fluids and tissue extracts by a competitive binding assay was between 5 and 100 ng/ml. Interassay correlation of variation was 8.47% and the recovery of highly purified mEGF added to serum and urine samples was greater than 95%. Human serum and amniotic fluids contained about 24 and 4 ng/ml, respectively, of mEGF equivalents. Concentrations of mEGF in mouse urine and serum were highly variable and were 2- to 10-fold greater than that previously detected by radioimmune assay. Hypophysectomy nearly abolished submaxillary mEGF content in both male and female mice, but testosterone treatment of hypophysectomized animals restored normal concentrations of mEGF to the glands. mEGF added to culture medium disappeared with time as a function of the number of cellular EGF receptors indicating cellular degradation of the growth factor. The radioreceptor assay for EGF is based on the close biologic relationship between the cell receptor site and the native hormone and should prove to be a useful complementary tool to characterize the physiological role of EGF

  11. The Influence of Nonrandom Mating on Population Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Schindler; Peter Neuhaus; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Tim Coulson

    2013-01-01

    When nonrandom mating alters offspring numbers or the distribution of offspring phenotypes, it has the potential to impact the population growth rate. Similarly, sex-specific demographic parameters that influence the availability of mating partners can leave a signature on the population growth rate. We develop a general framework to explore how mating patterns and sex differences influence the population growth rate. We do this by constructing a two-sex integral projection model to explore w...

  12. Growth Factors and Breast Tumors, Comparison of Selected Growth Factors with Traditional Tumor Markers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ku?era, R.; ?erná, M.; ?aršanská, A.; Svobodová, Š.; Straková, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Fuchsová, R.; T?ešková, I.; Kydlí?ek, T.; T?eška, V.; Pecen, Ladislav; Topol?an, O.; Padziora, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 31, ?. 12 (2011), s. 4653-4656. ISSN 0250-7005 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NS9727; GA MZd(CZ) NS10238; GA MZd(CZ) NS10253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth factor * breast cancer * tumor markers * CA 15-3 * CEA * IGF1 * EGF * HGF Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  13. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  14. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ? 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor profile with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A EL-Attar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The multifunctional hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is the ligand of c-Met receptor; it plays important role in mammary differentiation. HGF-Met signaling is a critical downstream function of c-Src-Stat3 pathway in mammalian tumorigenesis. Aim: Evaluation of tissue c-Met receptor hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR and serum level of HGF in female breast ductal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight premenopausal females were divided as 30 control females subdivided into: [Group 1] 15 healthy volunteer females and [Group 2] five with fibrocystic disease and 10 having fibroadenoma of the breast and patients group [Group 3] consisted of 38 female patients with breast ductal carcinoma. Thorough clinical examination, preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology, estimation of fasting serum glucose, urea, creatinine, and uric acid levels, alanine aminotransferase activities, C-reactive protein, HGF level, before surgery and histopathological examination of the breast masses, and immunohistochemical detection of HGFR were done. Results and Conclusions: Significant increase in serum HGF levels were found in patients with breast cancer as compared with controls. Significant increase was also seen in patients with breast cancer with and without lymph node metastasis when each subgroup was compared with controls. Serum level of HGF is an independent prognostic indicator of breast cancer. Fibrocystic disease of the breast showed weak HGFR expression, while in normal tissue, HGFR was scanty; meanwhile, breast invasive ductal carcinoma showed homogenous strong reaction to HGFR. HGF is only one of a number of key factors involved in breast cancer and preoperative high serum HGF levels and malignancy occur usually together.

  16. Pumpkin Fruit Influence on Calves’ Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SHIMKUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin provides a valuable source of carotenoids and ascorbic acid which have major roles in nutrition as provitamin A and as an antioxidant respectively. Carotenoids are a source of vitamin A, and ?-carotene present in pumpkin is converted to vitamin A in the body. Pumpkins’ biomass is distinguished for having antioxidant and phytobiotic characteristics.The aim of our research is to analyse pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita maxima D. flours’ influence upon calves growth, intestinal microflora, digestibility of rations’ nutrients and health. In pursuance of this aim two groups of 1-month-old Lithuanian Black and White breeds’ heifers were constituted, 10 animals per group: control and experimental. The heifers were fed by the same feeding plan and grown in equal conditions. Except for experimental groups’ animals, each of them was additionally given 120g of pumpkin fruits’ flour with their days’ ration.The results of this research showed that calves which were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour had grown more rapidly. After six months of the research the weight of experimental groups‘ heifers was 9,2 kg or 5,34 pct. bigger than the weight of control groups‘ heifers. Pumpkin fruits‘ flour distinguished for phytobiotic activity in calves‘ intestine, it stimulated the increase of lacto- and bifidobacteria. After four months of the research there were 63,6 pct. (P<0,001 more lactobacteria and 19,3 pct. (P<0,01 more bifidobacteria in the faeces of heifers that were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour comparing to heifers that were not given it. After 6 months of the research respectively there were 10,7 pct. and 34,0 pct. more of lacto- and bifidobacteria. Besides that, pumpkin fruits‘ flour improved digestibility of rations‘ nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter increased by 1,9 pct., organic matter – 2,3 pct., fat – 1,6 pct., proteins – 3,07 pct. (P>0,05. Morphological blood indexes of both calves groups conformed to physiologic norms and defined good animals‘ health. Moreover, with this research it was determined that heifers which were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour had an increase of haemoglobin in their blood.With reference to the data of this research, we made a conclusion that pumpkin fruits‘ flour in the calves‘ ration stimulates calves‘ growth, improves digestibility of rations‘ nutrients, positively affects intestinal microflora and activates vital processes.

  17. Growth factor expression in aorta of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarzani, R; Brecher, P; Chobanian, A. V.

    1989-01-01

    Hypertension causes biochemical and morphological changes in the vessel wall by unknown mechanisms. Locally produced substances may have a role in mediating these vascular changes. We have studied the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B chain and PDGF A chain, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II, endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in aortic tissue from normotensive rats and ra...

  18. Temperature influences on growth of aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature profoundly affects the growth rates of aquatic organisms, and its control is essential for effective aquaculture. Characteristically, both low and high temperatures produce slow growth rates and inefficient food conversion, while intermediate temperature ranges provide rapid growth and efficient food conversion. Distinct, species-specific optimum temperatures and upper and lower temperatures of zero growth can often be defined. Thermal effects can be greatly modified by amounts and quality of food. These data not only provide the basis for criteria which maintain growth of wild organisms but also for effectively using waste heat to create optimal conditions of temperature and food ration for growing aquatic organisms commercially

  19. Aldosterone as a renal growth factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Warren

    2011-04-05

    Aldosterone regulates blood pressure through its effects on the cardiovascular system and kidney. Aldosterone can also contribute to the development of hypertension that leads to chronic pathologies such as nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Aldosterone directly modulates renal cell proliferation and differentiation as part of normal kidney development. The stimulation of rapidly activated protein kinase cascades is one facet of how aldosterone regulates renal cell growth. These cascades may also contribute to myofibroblastic transformation and cell proliferation observed in pathological conditions of the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that is accelerated by hypertension. EGFR-dependent proliferation of the renal epithelium is a factor in cyst development and trans-activation of EGFR is a key feature in initiating aldosterone-induced signalling cascades. Delineating the components of aldosterone-induced signalling cascades may identify novel therapeutic targets for proliferative diseases of the kidney.

  20. Neuropeptides as lung cancer growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Terry W; Moreno, Paola; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript is written in honor of the Festschrift for Abba Kastin. I met Abba at a Society for Neuroscience meeting and learned that he was Editor-in-Chief of the Journal Peptides. I submitted manuscripts to the journal on "Neuropeptides as Growth Factors in Cancer" and subsequently was named to the Editorial Advisory Board. Over the past 30 years I have published dozens of manuscripts in Peptides and reviewed hundreds of submitted manuscripts. It was always rewarding to interact with Abba, a consummate professional. When I attended meetings in New Orleans I would sometimes go out to dinner with him at the restaurant "Commanders Palace". When I chaired the Summer Neuropeptide Conference we were honored to have him receive the Fleur Strand Award one year in Israel. I think that his biggest editorial contribution has been the "Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides." I served as a Section Editor on "Cancer/Anticancer Peptides" and again found that it was a pleasure working with him. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which bombesin-like peptides, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide regulate the growth of lung cancer. PMID:25836991

  1. Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that constitutes one of four members of the erbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Binding of EGFR to its cognate ligands leads to autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways that are involved in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Although present in normal cells, EGFR is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell lines and has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. EGFR activation also plays a role in resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatment in tumor cells. Over the past two decades, much effort has been directed at developing anticancer agents that can interfere with EGFR activity. The most common pharmacologic approaches to inhibiting EGFR have been to develop monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors. Monoclonal antibodies block ligand binding to the extracellular domain, whereas the small-molecule inhibitors exert their effects at the intracellular portion of the receptor to prevent tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways. A number of EGFR inhibitors have been developed that can arrest tumor growth and, in some cases, cause tumor regression. When used in combination with cytotoxic treatments, chemotherapy, and radiation, EGFR inhibitors have been able to potentiate their anticancer activity

  2. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovi? Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  3. Economic growth as the limiting factor for wildlife conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Czech, Brian

    2000-01-01

    The concept of limiting factor includes the lack of welfare factors and the presence of decimating factors. Originally applied to populations and species, the concept may also be applied to wildlife in the aggregate. Because the decimating factor of economic growth eliminates welfare factors for virtually all imperiled species via the principle of competitive exclusion, economic growth may be classified as the limiting factor for wildlife conservation. The wildlife profession has been virt...

  4. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  5. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  6. Platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in disc herniation tissue: an immunohistochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Tolonen, J.; Grönblad, M.; Virri, J.; Seitsalo, S.; Rytömaa, T.; Karaharju, E. O.

    1997-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential in tissue growth and regeneration. There are several factors that are able to stimulate vascular endothelial cell growth, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Disc herniation tissue (DHT) contains vascular ingrowth, which promotes granulation tissue formation. In this study we observed 50 disc herniations for PDGF and VEGF immunoreactivity. PDGF immunopositivity was detected in 38 samples (78%). In 28 samples ...

  7. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  8. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

  9. Growth hormone but not insulin-like growth factor-I improves wound strength in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J G; Walton, P E; Dunshea, F; Dunaiski, V; Ballard, F J

    1997-01-01

    Systemic growth hormone and locally administered insulin-like growth factor-I have been shown in a number of studies to improve the breaking strength of incisional wounds, especially in compromised animals. The objective of the present study was to compare these two agents when administered subcutaneously distant from an incisional wound site in pigs, as well as to examine effects of a combination growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor treatment. Growth hormone was shown to increase wound breaking strength in two experiments, whereas insulin-like growth factor-I or a more potent analog had no effect. Moreover, breaking strength was only minimally improved above the vehicle groups by the combination of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I. These effects could not be explained by changes in plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations which were highest in the combination groups, nor by plasma insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 which was raised equally whenever growth hormone was administered. We conclude that systemic growth hormone but not insulin-like growth factor-I improves wound strength in normal pigs, whereas insulin-like growth factor-I reduces the magnitude of the growth hormone effect by an unknown mechanism. PMID:16984427

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE BIRTH RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVU MIHAELA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.

  11. Influence of ecological factors on molecular structure formation of roots of yellow melillot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to influence of ecological factors on molecular structure formation of roots of yellow melillot. The influence of ecological conditions of the place of growth on physicochemical properties of substances in roots of yellow melillot was studied by means of infrared spectroscopy. The energy values of intermolecular interaction were defined.

  12. Factors influencing model use in occupational therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonette, Owen; Fasloen, Adams; Denise, Franszen.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available STUDY AIM: To determine which models are used by occupational therapists who attended a workshop on the Kawa Model, in their practice, the demographic factors related to the use of these models and the reasons why they use various models in their practice. METHOD: A descriptive, single case study me [...] thod was used with embedded units. The research instrument consisted of a survey questionnaire with closed and some semi-structured questions. RESULTS: The characteristics of therapists influenced their use of models. This was determined by their educational background, their level of experience and exposure in the clinical field and their work setting. Time constraints and the nature of the presenting clients also played a role. The clinicians' overall attitude towards new theory and their habituated ways were highlighted as constant factors influencing model use. The use of models provides structure and assists occupational therapists to produce proper, profession-specific, scientifically-based intervention. Models taught during undergraduate studies need to be relevant to address clients' needs in their specific context.

  13. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Kraatz; W., Berg; R., Brunsch.

    Full Text Available The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of [...] dairy farming is assessed on the basis of direct and indirect energy inputs. The comparison of different replacement rates and milk yields shows clearly that both have a considerable influence on the energy intensity of dairy farming. The feed energy requirement/kg milk produced is decreased with an increase in individual performance of the animals. Nevertheless, this effect diminishes gradually with milk yields higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year. Additionally, energy demand increases with higher replacement rates of cows. Milk yields higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year can clearly not compensate for the increase in the cumulative energy demand. Therefore milk yields considerably higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year are not advisable from the view-point of the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply. A decreasing service life of the dairy cows (increasing replacement rate) causes a higher energy demand per kg milk, but its influence is only marginal.

  14. Challenges and opportunities in the targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vikram K; Turner, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor pathway is a common event in many cancer types. Here we review the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling in breast cancer, from SNPs in FGFR2 that influence breast cancer risk and SNPs in FGFR4 that associate with breast cancer prognosis, and potential therapeutic targets such as receptor amplification and aberrant autocrine and paracrine ligand expression. We discuss the multiple therapeutic strategies in preclinical and clin...

  15. Purification and characterization of native human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6

    OpenAIRE

    Taferner, Andrea; Micutkova, Lucia; Hermann, Martin; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Pircher, Haymo

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are key regulators of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) mediated signal transduction and thereby can profoundly influence cellular phenotypes and cell fate. Whereas IGFBPs are extracellular proteins, intracellular activities were described for several IGFBP family members, such as IGFBP-3, which can be reinternalized by endocytosis and reaches the nucleus through routes that remain to be fully established. Within the family of IGFBPs, IGFBP-...

  16. Factors influencing successful radioiodine therapy of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadi? Silvija M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13, operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1, the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS, and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05 influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.

  17. Maternal insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, body mass index, and fetal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, R.; Holly, J; Soothill, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To examine the hypothesis that the maternal insulin-like growth factor system may constrain fetal growth.?METHODS—A prospective observational study of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and fetal growth was undertaken in neonates with birthweights below the 5th centile. They had been classified either as having fetal growth restriction (FGR) due to placental dysfunction (increased umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI); n...

  18. Modulated Expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Homeotic Protein dlk Influences Stromal-Cell–Pre-B-Cell Interactions, Stromal Cell Adipogenesis, and Pre-B-Cell Interleukin-7 Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Steven R; Ruiz-Hidalgo, María José; Rudikoff, Eva K.; Goldstein, Julia; Laborda, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    A close relationship exists between adipocyte differentiation of stromal cells and their capacity to support hematopoiesis. The molecular basis for this is unknown. We have studied whether dlk, an epidermal growth factor-like molecule that intervenes in adipogenesis and fetal liver hematopoiesis, affects both stromal cell adipogenesis and B-cell lymphopoiesis in an established pre-B-cell culture system. Pre-B-cell cultures require both soluble interleukin-7 (IL-7) and interactions with stroma...

  19. Platelet-rich growth factor in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Uma Shanker; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Rakesh K.; Das, Somdipto; Singh, Nimisha; Singh, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich growth factor is an innovative regenerative therapy used to promote hard and soft tissue healing. It involves the application of autologous platelet-leukocyte-rich plasma containing growth factors and thrombin directly to the site of treatment. It is the intrinsic growth factors released by activated platelets which are concentrated in a topical gel formula. Clinically, it is an affordable treatment with potentially broad spectrum of applications in maxillofacial surgery especia...

  20. Antidepressant drugs modulate growth factors in cultured cells

    OpenAIRE

    Maler Juan M; Bönsch Dominikus; Reichardt Cornelia; Reulbach Udo; Rotter Andrea; Sperling Wolfgang; Henkel Andreas W; Kornhuber Johannes; Wiltfang Jens

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Different classes of antidepressant drugs are used as a treatment for depression by activating the catecholinergic system. In addition, depression has been associated with decrease of growth factors, which causes insufficient axonal sprouting and reduced neuronal damage repair. In this study, antidepressant treatments are analyzed in a cell culture system, to study the modulation of growth factors. Results We quantified the transcription of several growth factors in three ...

  1. Tunable dual growth factor delivery from polyelectrolyte multilayer films

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nisarg J.; Macdonald, Mara L.; Beben, Yvette M.; Padera, Robert F.; Samuel, Raymond E.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    A promising strategy to accelerate joint implant integration and reduce recovery time and failure rates is to deliver a combination of certain growth factors to the integration site. There is a need to control the quantity of growth factors delivered at different times during the healing process to maximize efficacy. Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films, built using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, are attractive for releasing controlled amounts of potent growth factors over a sustained ...

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factors Stimulate Hair Growth through ?-Catenin and Shh Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wei-hong; Xiang, Li-Jun; Shi, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Li-ping; Cai, Ping-tao; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Lin, Bei-Bei; HUANG, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Guo, Ding-Jiong; Li, Xiao-kun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Xiao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors are involved in the regulation of hair morphogenesis and cycle hair growth. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of three approved growth factor drugs, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and the mechanism of action. We observed that FGFs promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric ana...

  3. A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Modiri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

  4. Growth without growth hormone: can growth and differentiation factor 5 be the mediator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtaif, Biana; Dror, Nitzan; Bar-Maisels, Meytal; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2015-08-01

    Growth without growth hormone (GH) is often observed in the setup of obesity; however, the missing link between adipocytes and linear growth was until now not identified. 3T3L1 cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes and their conditioned medium (CM) (adipocytes CM, CMA) was added to metatarsals bone culture and compared to CM derived from undifferentiated cells. CMA significantly increased metatarsals bone elongation. Adipogenic differentiation increased the expression of growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-5, also found to be secreted into the CMA. GDF-5 significantly increased metatarsal length in culture; treatment of the CMA with anti-GDF-5 antibody significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on bone length. The presence of GDF-5 receptor (bone morphogenetic protein receptor; BMPR1) in metatarsal bone was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Animal studies in rodents subjected to food restriction followed by re-feeding showed an increase in GDF-5 serum levels concomitant with nutritional induced catch up growth. These results show that adipocytes may stimulate bone growth and suggest an additional explanation to the growth without GH phenomenon. PMID:26393787

  5. Evaluación de factores ambientales que influyen en características de crecimiento del nacimiento al destete de corderos Hampshire / Environmental factors influencing growth variables from birth to weaning in Hampshire lambs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José A., Ramirez-Tello; Glafiro, Torres-Hernández; Lino, de la Cruz-Colín; Manuel A., Ochoa-Cordero; Javier, Suárez-Espinosa.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar los efectos de sexo de la cría (macho, hembra), tipo de nacimiento de la cría (sencillo, doble), edad de la madre (2 a 7 y más años), granja (10 unidades), semental anidado en granja, así como interacciones dobles, que influyen en el peso al nacimiento (PN), peso [...] al destete ajustado por edad (PDA) y promedio de ganancia diaria de peso pre-destete (GDP) de corderos Hampshire de 10 granjas en Hidalgo, México. Se analizó una base de datos de 2006 a 2009 con 998 observaciones para PN y 933 para PDA y GDP. La alimentación se basó en granos, alfalfa, forraje de avena, y minerales. El análisis estadístico se efectuó con el procedimiento GLM del SAS. Las medias generales fueron PN: 5.1±0.9 kg, PDA: 32.3±5.4 kg, y GDP: 0.300±0.055 kg. Hubo efectos (P Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of sex of lamb (SL: male, female), type of birth (TB: single, twin), age of dam (AD: 2 to 7 years and older), farm (F: 10 units), and sire nested within farm, as well as first-order interactions that influence the variation of birth weight (BW), [...] adjusted weaning weight (AWW) and average pre-weaning daily weight gain (ADG) of Hampshire lambs from 10 farms in Hidalgo, México. A data base from 2006 to 2009 with 998 observations for BW and 933 for AWW and ADG was analyzed. Feeding of parents and lambs was based on grains, alfalfa, oats hay, and minerals. The statistical analysis was carried out with the GLM procedure of SAS. Overall means were BW: 5.1±0.9 kg, AWW: 32.3±5.4 kg, and ADG: 0.300±0.055 kg. Significant effects (P

  6. Clonal variation in growth factor production by human carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, Anne

    1988-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that growth factors play an important role in normal and malignant cell growth. Previous work in this laboratory established that RPMI-2650, a cell line derived from a human carcinoma, produces growth factors including TGF-a, TGF- 3 and an autocrine factor. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether growth factor production is a property of all cells, or of a sub-population of cells. If high-producer clones were available it would greatly facilitate pr...

  7. Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Ya. Hlukha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine exogenous and endogenous factors have been analyzed; - reflexive and elastic economic growth factors have been determined; - economic policy was given the role of reflective element within the system to ensure economic growth. The system of factors should be considered within the system that ensures economic growth. It comprises two important elements which enlist the economic growth factors system, economic growth rates system and two reflexive elements – the state economic policy and economic growth models system. While analyzing the economic growth factors, their quality and impact upon the economy should be considered. Economic growth depends on the factors, consideration of which is one of the most important aspects of the economic growth theory. Economic growth reasons are the factors that cause this growth. These are phenomena and processes that can increase the production output, improve efficiency and quality. Factors classification completeness and their diversity do not necessarily mean the dead end of the study. Any classification has the sense only if it fulfills the certain function. If we take into account economic growth modeling, factors diversification and their characteristics classification it implies that models are becoming more complex, the range of their parameters expands, however it does not necessarily lead to more accurate prognosis. All the factors have different impact upon the economic development. Their first type is elastic ones. These factors directly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand. For instance, net export means the increasing foreign demand for our national products; favorable weather conditions lead to the agricultural produce growing supply without any significant change in the economy. These factors rates can be measured and their impact upon economic growth can be easily determined. Another group of factors that indirectly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand are the reflexive factors. They function through structural changes, distribution and motivation system, insignificant restrictions and stimulus. These factors can only be characterized by indirect rates (human development index to measure human capital and their impact upon economic growth, supply and demand is minor in the long run. This group enlists institutional and social factors that become more and more important in post industrial economy. Taking into account economic growth factors impact upon the supply and demand, we can sate that analysis that has been carried out provides good grounds to improve the research methodology in the field of economic growth modeling. We cannot definitely say if there are certain economic growth factors that are entirely independent from the state regulation. Firstly, government itself indirectly impacts the economic growth, by adopting new laws, for instance. Secondly, the main function of the state is to administratively regulate the economic system. This processit can lead to a significant development. Consequently the state plays one of the major roles in the economic factors development. Conclusions and directions of further researches. To ensure Ukraine’s constant economic development and to establish corresponding strategies to reach that goal it is of utmost importance to classify the economic growth factors and to study carefully their impact on the economic processes as the whole.

  8. Radiotherapy and receptor of epidermal growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression level of the receptor of the epidermal growth factor is in correlation with the tumor cells radiosensitivity. An overexpression of the E.G.F.R. is often present in the bronchi cancer, epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere, esophagus, uterine cervix, and anal duct but also in the rectum cancers and glioblastomas. At the clinical level, the E.G.F.R. expression is in correlation with an unfavourable prognosis after radiotherapy in numerous tumoral localizations. In the rectum cancers it is an independent prognosis factor found in multifactorial analysis: increase of the rate of nodes and local recurrence when the E.G.F.R. is over expressed. In the uterine cervix cancers, the survival is is negatively affected in multifactorial analysis by the E.G.F.R. membranes expression level. At the therapy level, the development of anti E.G.F.R. targeted therapies (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies) opens a new therapy field at radio-sensitivity potentiality. The irradiation makes an activation of the E.G.F.R. way that would be partially responsible of the post irradiation tumoral repopulation. This activation leads the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase ways and M.A.P. kinase ones, then the Akt protein one that acts an apoptotic modulator part. It has been shown that blocking the E.G.F.R. way acts on three levels: accumulation of ells in phase G1, reduction of the cell repair and increasing of apoptosis. he inhibition of post irradiation action of the E.G.F.R. signal way is a factor explaining the ionizing radiation - anti E.G.F.R. synergy. The preclinical data suggest that the E.G.F.R. blocking by the monoclonal antibodies is more important than the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A first positive randomized study with the cetuximab, published in 2006 in the epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere lead to its authorization on the market with the radiotherapy for this localization. The use of cetuximab in other indication with or in chemoradiotherapy association is for the moment kept to the clinical research. Several tests are running in France: the cetuxicol test concerning the locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas with pelvis irradiation associated to cisplatin, the anal duct cancers in chemoradiotherapy association, rectum cancers in preoperative situation or O.R.L. carcinomas in chemoradiotherapy association from the oncology group of head and neck radiotherapy. Among the expected data of these tests, besides the elements of tumor response, the data on sane tissues toxicity will be key elements. (N.C.)

  9. The Influence of the Economic Growth Process on Romanian Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia HERMAN

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the economic growth process on the Romanian employment, in the 1990-2010 period. The results of this study highlight, on the one hand, the existence of a negative employment intensity in Romania (expressed by the employment elasticity of economic growth). This fact invalidates the economic theory, which states that there is a direct relationship between employment and economic growth, but of different intensity from one period to another an...

  10. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student?s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky?s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky?s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor?patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student?s personality.

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  12. "Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

  13. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.

  14. Effects of hepatocyte growth factor on glutathione synthesis, growth, and apoptosis is cell density-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent hepatocyte mitogen that exerts opposing effects depending on cell density. Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in mammalian cells that modulates growth and apoptosis. We previously showed that GSH level is inversely related to cell density of hepatocytes and is positively related to growth. Our current work examined whether HGF can modulate GSH synthesis in a cell density-dependent manner and how GSH in turn influence HGF's effects. We found HGF treatment of H4IIE cells increased cell GSH levels only under subconfluent density. The increase in cell GSH under low density was due to increased transcription of GSH synthetic enzymes. This correlated with increased protein levels and nuclear binding activities of c-Jun, c-Fos, p65, p50, Nrf1 and Nrf2 to the promoter region of these genes. HGF acts as a mitogen in H4IIE cells under low cell density and protects against tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)-induced apoptosis by limiting JNK activation. However, HGF is pro-apoptotic under high cell density and exacerbates TNF?-induced apoptosis by potentiating JNK activation. The increase in cell GSH under low cell density allows HGF to exert its full mitogenic effect but is not necessary for its anti-apoptotic effect

  15. Characterization of transforming growth factor beta superfamily, growth factors, transcriptional factors, and lipopolysaccharide in bovine cystic ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, I M; Alçi?ir, E; Pekcan, M; Vural, S A; Özenç, E; Canatan, H E; Küplülü, ?; Dal, G E; Yazlik, M O; Baklaci, C; Vural, M R

    2015-10-01

    The process of transformation of growing bovine follicles into cysts is still a mystery. Local expression of proteins or factors, including transforming growth factor ?, growth factors, and transcription factors, plays a central role in mammals. Therefore, in abattoir-derived cystic ovarian follicles and follicular fluid, the role of some transforming growth factor ? superfamily proteins, insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and GATA-4 and GATA-6, were investigated. The relationship between intrafollicular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and etiopathogenesis of ovarian cysts was also assessed. Data on the preovulatory follicle and the largest follicle (F1) were compared. The number of intrafollicular LPS-positive samples and LPS concentrations were higher in cysts. Immunohistochemical staining was mildly positive for IGF-1, inhibin alpha, and GATA-4 in thecal cells. Staining for anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6), and GATA-6 was insufficient for their quantitation, and oocytes could not be stained for any of the proteins tested in the cystic follicles. Expression of BMP-6, inhibin alpha, and IGF-1 was moderately higher in granulosa cells of F1 follicles, and all the proteins were moderately expressed in granulosa cells in preovulatory follicles. However, loss of GATA-6 staining was significant in F1 follicles. Intrafollicular progesterone, IGF-1, and AMH concentrations in cysts and F1 follicles were significantly higher than those in preovulatory follicles. Western blot analyses revealed that follicular fluid inhibin-? was strongly expressed, whereas expression of growth differentiation factor-9, BMP-6, GATA-4 and GATA-6 was lower in cysts than in preovulatory follicles. Also, high intrafollicular AMH concentration and low BMP-6 expression were closely associated with cystic degeneration and atresia. In conclusion, immunohistochemical loss of BMP-6 and GATA-6 in the granulosa cells together with high intrafollicular LPS levels may play important roles in disruption of the ovulatory mechanism and steroidogenic reactions in type 2 cyst. Also, high intrafollicular AMH concentration along with low BMP-6 expression may be used as indicators of the bovine degenarative ovarian follicles. PMID:26166168

  16. Push Vs Pull: Factors Influence Student Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Leone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Student retention becomes one of the most significant issues that administrators of colleges and universities must deal with in today?s highly competitive market. Approach: In fact retaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out its mission. A high rate of attrition is not only a fiscal problem for schools, but a symbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose. Results: There are many ways to keep students retain at the same college until graduation, some easier than people may think but great changes will have to be made in order for schools to complete these transformations. This study is a descriptive study about the factors that influence student retention rate at a higher educational institution. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the previous studies of the similar topic and a random sample survey, this study identifies the possible push and pull factors that promote student leave from a specific college and transfer to other colleges to continue their college studies, it probes the implementable solutions to help the college to maintain and increase the student retention rate.

  17. Spatiotemporal control over growth factor signaling for therapeutic neovascularization ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Lan; Mooney, David J

    2007-01-01

    Many of the qualitative roles of growth factors involved in neovascularization have been delineated, but it is unclear yet from an engineering perspective how to use these factors as therapies. We propose that an approach that integrates quantitative spatiotemporal measurements of growth factor signaling using 3-D in vitro and in vivo models, mathematic modeling of factor tissue distribution, and new delivery technologies may provide an opportunity to engineer neovascularization on demand.

  18. Growth Factor Technologies in Cartilage Tissue Engineering (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Novochadov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a systematic review of literature analyzing the prevalence, base technologies, and perspective directions of growth factor usage in cartilage tissue engineering. The main attention is given to problems of combinations of growth factors in modern scaffolds for cellular settlement and options for mechanical and physical-chemical stimulation of chondrogenesis, including the use of bioreactors.

  19. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sands, Michelle

    2011-01-25

    Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.

  20. Factors influencing induction of adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

  1. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth hormone in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Becker, Povl Ulrik

    1992-01-01

    Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are peptides synthesized in the liver. IGFs have different anabolic and metabolic actions and are important in normal growth and development. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is low in patients with chronic liver disease mainly due to the decreased liver function. Low levels of somatomedins are also seen in patients with growth hormone (GH) insufficiency, renal impairment, and malnutrition. GH stimulates the production of...

  2. Extracellular matrix and growth factors in branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    The unifying hypothesis of the NSCORT in gravitational biology postulates that the ECM and growth factors are key interrelated components of a macromolecular regulatory system. The ECM is known to be important in growth and branching morphogenesis of embryonic organs. Growth factors have been detected in the developing embryo, and often the pattern of localization is associated with areas undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Causal relationships between these components may be of fundamental importance in control of branching morphogenesis.

  3. Role of muscle-derived growth factors in bone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamrick, Mark W.; McNeil, Paul L; Patterson, Stella L.

    2010-01-01

    Muscle and bone anabolism and catabolism are tightly coupled during growth, development, and aging, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms linking these two tissues are not well understood. Here we show that FGF-2 and IGF-1, two growth factors known to play a major role in regulating bone formation, are localized to muscle fibers along the muscle-bone interface of the mouse forelimb. Likewise, receptors for these growth factors are also abundant in periosteum adjacent to fleshy muscle atta...

  4. Influence of Microwave Treatment on Root Growth Dynamics in Some Genotypes of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cre?escu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The influence of physical factors, such as microwave radiations, is today an alternative in agriculture for stimulation of plant vitality. In this study we aimed to evaluate the influence of microwaves in the early seedlings stages for 4 Romanian barley genotypes: Cardinal, Sistem, Dana and Maresal. This study was conducted to determine whether there are differentiated responses to microwave irradiation, at different powers and different exposure times, on the dynamics of root growth in some barley cultivars. Root growth measurements were performed after 3, 7 and 14 days of treatment with microwaves. It was observed that genotype, power or exposure time had significant influence both on root growth and on the number of roots of the studied barley genotypes. Microwave treatment caused significant differences in seedlings root growth. The greatest influence on root growth had the time of exposure. The best results in terms of root growth were obtained for the Cardinal and Sistem variety. At these varieties we observed the best stimulation effect, and the lowest influence of the microwave action. The most affected genotype was Dana, with the lowest stimulation effect.

  5. Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugiyarto, Wardani PK, Setyono P, Mahajoeno E, Sunarto. 2013. Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata seedling. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 57-62. The purpose of this research was to find out the influence of mycorrhiza, organic fertilizer and their combination to the growth of seedlings matoa. The reseach was arranged on Completely Randomized design with two treatments factor; i.e. giving mycorrhiza (0 g, 5 g, 10 g/polybag and giving organic fertilizer (0 mL, 1 mL, 2 mL/polybag respectively each in 6 replications. The observed treatments were plant height, leaf number and plant biomass. The observation datas were analyzed by multivariate analysis level of 5 %, continued with LSD test. The result showed that there was no significant influence on given mycorrhiza for matoa seedling growth for all of the growth parameters. There was no influence of organic fertilizer for plant height parameter, but significantly influence for the number of leaf and biomass. The best increase of the number of leaf and biomass was on organic fertilizer treatment at 2 mL dosage. There were no influence in the growth of matoa by the combination treatments betwen mycorrhyza and organik fertilizer.

  6. Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? – ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING PAYMENT OF IRRIGATION SERVICE FEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelar Satya Budhi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to identify factors affecting participation in payment of irrigation service fees. There are five variables comprising demographic and economic of land variables were tested to find the variables that influenced the participation significantly. The five variables tested consisted of age and formal education as demographic variables; land productivity, land size, and land tenure as the economic of land variables. The results showed that formal education (demographic variable had positive relationship and land size (economic of land variable had negative relationship with the participation. Positive relationship between formal education and participation in payment of irrigation service fees meant that the participation increased as farmers’ education increased. Meanwhile, negative relationship between land size and the participation in payment of irrigation service fees showed that the farmers’ participation wouldincrease as the land size owned by farmers decreased. In other words, participation in payment of irrigation service fees was higher among farmers with small lands rather than that among farmers with large lands.

  8. Factors influencing codon usage bias in genomes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hannah M. W., Salim; Andre R. O., Cavalcanti.

    Full Text Available O código genético é degenerado, isto é, o mesmo amino ácido pode ser codificado por vários codons. Apesar de codificarem o mesmo amino ácido, estes codons sinônimos não são utilizados da mesma forma em genomas diferentes, e mesmo em um único genoma o padrão de uso dos codons sinônimos pode variar mu [...] ito entre os genes, ou ainda ao longo de um único gene. Com a recente introdução de seqüências genômicas completas as razões destes desvios no uso de codons estão começando a ser entendidas. Neste artigo nós vamos apresentar alguns dos fatores propostos para as variações no uso de codons sinônimos e as forças seletivas que podem influenciar tais variações. Abstract in english The genetic code is degenerate, i.e. some amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. Although coding for the same amino acid, synonymous codons are not equally used in different genomes, and even in a single genome the synonymous codon usage can vary widely among genes, or even along the gene [...] sequences. With the recent advent of full genome sequences we are starting to unravel the reasons for these deviations. In this review we will cover some of the proposed factors that might cause different codon usage bias and the selective forces influencing it.

  9. Nerve growth factor-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor expression of astrocyte in retinal vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Sun; Jo, Dong Hyun; Lee, Hanjae; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2013-02-22

    The angiogenic aspect of neurotrophins and their receptors rather than the neuroscientific aspect has been focused. However, their role in retinal vascular development is underdiscovered. The purpose of this study is to understand the role of neurotrophin receptors in retinal vascular development and the mechanisms of their action. To identify the expression of tropomyosin receptor kinase receptor (Trk) in developing retina, tissues of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 26 day-old mice were prepared for experiments. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence double staining against glial fibrillary acidic protein and type IV collagen were performed. TrkA was expressed mainly along the vessel structure in inner part of retina, especially in retinal astrocyte. In cultured primary astrocyte, recombinant nerve growth factor (NGF) was used to activate TrkA. NGF induced the phosphorylation of TrkA, and it also enhanced the level of activated Akt and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) reversed the NGF-induced activation of these two molecules. This study demonstrated that TrkA activation on NGF leads to VEGF elevation by PI3K-Akt pathway and therefore suggested that TrkA could be a stimulator of retinal vascular development. PMID:23337506

  10. Tunisian Financial System: A Growth Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Imène Ben Fredj; Christophe Schalck

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth were the subject of many recent theorical and empirical works [Shepherd, Hasan and Klapper, 2004; Gylfason, 2004; Rioja and Valev, 2003; Driffill, 2004; Haas, 2002; Carlin and Mayer, 2000]. These authors generally focused their analysis of the link finance- growth on the mature financial systems. As the Tunisian economy knew a long period of financial repression before starting the phases of liberalization, it w...

  11. Influencing factors of embryo rescue in seedless grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated the impact of inoculating stage, medium type and concentration of plant growth regulators on embryo rescue effectiveness by L25(5)6 orthogonal design using selfed ovules of Venus Seedless as the testing material. The main results were as follows. The most important factor influencing ovule germination was inoculating stage. Ovule germinating rate gradually increased as inoculating being postponed. The highest germinating rate appeared when inoculation was done 55d after flowering. Other influencing factors were IBA concentration, exogenous amino acid, 6-BA concentration, GA3 concentration and medium type in descending order. The best embryo rescue result was based on Nitsch medium including 1.0 mg/L IBA, 0.1 mg/L GA3, 0.7 mg /L 6-BA and 2.0 mmol/L glutamine using ovules inoculated 55d after flowering. The highest germinating rate reached 41.25%, and a batch of seedlings was also obtained. (author)

  12. Growth trajectory influences temperature preference in fish through an effect on metabolic rate

    OpenAIRE

    Killen, Shaun S.

    2014-01-01

    Most animals experience temperature variations as they move through the environment. For ectotherms in particular, temperature has a strong influence on habitat choice. While well-studied at the species level, less is known about factors affecting the preferred temperature of individuals. Especially lacking is information on how physiological traits are linked to thermal preference and whether such relationships are affected by factors such feeding history and growth trajectory. This stud...

  13. Periodontal regeneration: focus on growth and differentiation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jaebum; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Susin, Cristiano; Wikesjö, Ulf M E

    2010-01-01

    Several growth and differentiation factors have shown potential as therapeutic agents to support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, although optimal dosage, release kinetics, and suitable delivery systems are still unknown. Experimental variables, including delivery systems, dose, and the common use of poorly characterized preclinical models, make it difficult to discern the genuine efficacy of each of these factors. Only a few growth and differentiation factors have reached clinical evalua...

  14. Factors influencing the assessment of anticoccidial activity in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latter, V S; Wilson, R G

    1979-08-01

    A comparative study has been made of the factors influencing the assessment of anticoccidial potency in vitro against Eimeria tenella using established anticoccidials and arprinocid and some of its analogues. Drugs whose potency depended upon medium composition were amprolium, lasalocid and halofuginone. There was a difference in strain sensitivity with robenidine. Host cell type had an important effect on potency of monensin, decoquinate, arprinocid and its analogues. Arprinocid was active in chick liver cell systems but totally inactive in chick kidney cell systems, although its N-oxide was active in both cell types. Arprinocid-containing medium, conditioned by supporting the growth of chick embryo liver cell cultures, had an anticoccidial effect on E. tenella growing in chick kidney cells. It is deduced that the anticoccidial activity of arprinocid in the chick is due to a metabolite. PMID:542318

  15. Transforming growth factor-? and breast cancer: Cell cycle arrest by transforming growth factor-? and its disruption in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, Jeffrey; Slingerland, Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Altered responsiveness to extracellular signals and cell cycle dysregulation are hallmarks of cancer. The cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) that integrate mitogenic and growth inhibitory signals. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? mediates G1 cell cycle arrest by inducing or activating cdk inhibitors, and by inhibiting factors required for cdk activation. Mechanisms that lead to cell cycle arrest by TGF-? are reviewed. Loss of growth inhibition by TGF-? occurs early in...

  16. Insulin-like growth factor 1 regulates the location, stability, and transcriptional activity of ?-catenin

    OpenAIRE

    Playford, Martin P; Bicknell, David; Bodmer, Walter F.; Macaulay, Valentine M.

    2000-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) type 1 receptor is required for growth, transformation, and protection from apoptosis. IGFs can enhance cell migration, which is known to be influenced via regulation of the E-cadherin/?-catenin complex. We sought to investigate whether IGF-1 modulated the interaction between E-cadherin and ?-catenin in human colorectal cancer cells. We used the C10 cell line, which we established and have previously shown to lack adenomatous po...

  17. Regulation of transferrin receptor expression at the cell surface by insulin-like growth factors, epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (rIGF-I) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) to BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts causes a marked increase in the binding of [125I] diferric transferrin to cell surface receptors. This effect is very rapid and is complete within 5 minutes. The effect is transient with [125I] diferric transferrin binding returning to control values within 25 minutes. In contrast, PDGF and rIGF-I cause a prolonged stimulation of [125I] diferric transferrin binding that could be observed up to 2 hours. The increase in the binding of [125I] diferric transferrin caused by growth factors was investigated by analysis of the binding isotherm. EGF, PDGF and rIGF-I were found to increase the cell surface expression of transferrin receptors rather than to alter the affinity of the transferrin receptors. Furthermore, PDGF and rIGF-I stimulated the sustained uptake of [59Fe] diferric transferrin by BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts. Thus, the effect of these growth factors to increase the cell surface expression of the transferrin receptor appears to have an important physiological consequence

  18. Influencia de factores morfológicos y ambientales sobre el crecimiento en diámetro de Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm en un bosque tropical caducifolio, en México / Influence of morphological and environmental factors on diameter growth of Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm in a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor M., Interián-Ku; Humberto, Vaquera-Huerta; Juan I., Valdez-Hernández; Edmundo, García-Moya; Angélica, Romero-Manzanares; Amparo, Borja-De la Rosa.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm es una especie de gran importancia económica en la selva baja caducifolia del sureste de México. La madera de esta especie es utilizada como poste en las construcciones rurales. Este estudio tiene por objeto conocer la influencia de los factores morfológicos y ambientales [...] en el crecimiento diamétrico anual, así como el turno para el aprovechamiento de la madera. Se evaluó el crecimiento diamétrico de 32 árboles ubicados en cuatro categorías diamétricas y clasificados de acuerdo con la calidad y la incidencia de luz solar en su copa. El estudio duró 22 meses; el diámetro a la altura del pecho se registró bimensualmente y las variables climáticas (temperatura ambiental, humedad relativa y precipitación total), diariamente. Los resultados sugieren que la tasa de crecimiento anual (TCA) incrementa de las categorías diamétricas menores a las mayores, de las calidades de copa dañadas a las simétricas y de las incidencias intermedias de luz solar a las de incidencia total. La mayor TCA se observó en las categorías diamétricas de 12.50 a 22.49 cm, en árboles con copas simétricas e incidencia de luz solar plena sobre la copa. La TCA acumulada se correlacionó positivamente (r = 0.94) y fue altamente significativa (P Abstract in english Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm is an important timber species in the tropical deciduous forest in southeast Mexico. The trunks of this species are used as posts in rural construction. In this study we investigated which morphological and environmental factors influence annual diameter growth, in order t [...] o establish the best turnover period. Diameter growth in 32 trees located in four diameter categories were evaluated and classified according to quality and sunlight incidence on the crowns of the trees. The study lasted 22 months and the diameter at breast height was measured and recorded bi-monthly. The results indicate that Average Growth Rate (AGR) increased from the smallest to the largest diameter categories, from the damaged to the healthy crown qualities and from intermediate to total incidences of sunlight. Highest AGR was observed in diameter categories of 12.50 to 22.49 cm in trees with symmetrical crown quality and the crown under full sunlight. The cumulative AGR was highly significant (P

  19. Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, and the Skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Giustina, Andrea; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Canalis, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    GH and IGF-I are important regulators of bone homeostasis and are central to the achievement of normal longitudinal bone growth and bone mass. Although GH may act directly on skeletal cells, most of its effects are mediated by IGF-I, which is present in the systemic circulation and is synthesized by peripheral tissues. The availability of IGF-I is regulated by IGF binding proteins. IGF-I enhances the differentiated function of the osteoblast and bone formation. Adult GH deficiency causes low ...

  20. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Drozdowski, Alan BR Thomson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.

  1. Organizational Creativity: A Substantial Factor to Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Malikeh Beheshtifar; Fateme-Begom Kamani-Fard

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea...

  2. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.

  3. Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hruzina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.

  4. Influence of thyroid in nervous system growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, G C; Mussa, F; Bretto, R; Zambelli, M C; Silvestro, L

    2001-08-01

    Nervous system growth and differentiation are closely correlated with the presence of iodine and thyroid hormones in initial development stages. In the human species, encephalon maturation during the first quarter of pregnancy is affected according to recent studies by the transplacenta passage of maternal thyroid hormones while it depends on initial iodiothyronin secretion by the foetal gland after the 12th week of pregnancy. Thyroid hormone deficiency during nervous system development causes altered noble nervous cells, such as the pyramidal cortical and Purkinje cells, during glial cell proliferation and differentiation alike. Neurons present cell hypoplasia with reduced axon count, dendritic branching, synaptic spikes and interneuron connections. Oligodendrocytes decrease in number and average myelin content consequently drops. Biochemical studies on hypothyroid rats have demonstrated alterations to neuron intraplasmatic microtubule content and organisation, changed mitochondria number and arrangement and anomalies in T3 nuclear and citoplasmatic receptor maturation. Alterations to microtubules are probably responsible for involvement of the axon-dendrite system, and are the consequence of deficient thyroid hormone action on the mitochondria, the mitochondria enzymes and proteins associated with microtubules. Nuclear and citoplasmatic receptors have been identified and gene clonation studies have shown two families of nuclear receptors that include several sub-groups in their turn. A complex scheme of temporal and spatial expression of these receptors exists, so they probably contribute with one complementary function, although their physiological role differs. The action of thyroid hormones occurs by changing cell protein levels because of their regulation at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Genes submitted to thyroid hormone control are either expressed by oligodendrytes, which are myelin protein coders or glial differentiation mediators, or are nervous cell specific, genes coding neurotropins or proteins involved in synaptic excitation. The use of new PMRS and MRI non-invasive techniques has enabled identification of metabolic and biochemical markers for alterations in the encephalon of untreated hypothyroid children. Even an excess of thyroid hormones during early nervous system development can cause permanent effects. Hyperthyroidism in fact initially induces accelerated maturation process including cell migration and differentiation, extension of dendritic processes and synaptogenesis but a later excess of thyroid hormones causes reduction of the total number of dendritic spikes, due to early interruption of neuron proliferation. Experimental studies and clinical research have clarified not only the correlation between nervous system maturation and thyroid function during early development stages and the certain finding from this research is that both excess and deficient thyroid hormones can cause permanent anatomo-functional alterations to the nervous system. PMID:11573069

  5. Progress in Relevant Growth Factors Promoting the Growth of Hair Follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a protective appendage on the body that is considered accessory structure of the integument. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. The morphological changes of the hair cycle have been very clear that hair morphogenesis and epidermal development are orchestrated by an array of growth factors. In this review, we summarize the major growth factors involved in promoting growth of hair follicles

  6. Insulin-like growth factor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Hyttel, Poul; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Strøbech, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic defects within the embryos, reflected by elevated cell death and low proliferative ability, are considered the most critical factors associated with bovine infertility. The identification of embryonic factors, which are responsible for successful embryo development, is thus critical in designing strategies for infertility intervention. In this experiment, the possible mechanisms involved in both blastomere proliferation and regulation of cell death were studied by analysis of relative ...

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight. Presented with an imbalanced dietary phosphorus to calcium ratio, increased secretion of FGF23 will inhibit renal phosphorus reabsorption, resulting in increased excretion and reduced circulating phosphorus. Increased intake and excretion of phosphorus is associated with increased kidney stone risk in both the terrestrial and microgravity environments. Highly processed foods and carbonated beverages are associated with higher phosphorus content. Ideally, the dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio should be at minimum 1:1. Nutritional requirements for spaceflight suggest that this ratio not be less than 0.67 (3), while the International Space Station (ISS) menu provides 1020 mg Ca and 1856 mg P, for a ratio of 0.55 (3). Subjects in NASA's bed rest studies, by design, have consumed intake ratios much closer to 1.0 (4). FGF23 also has an inhibitory influence on PTH secretion and 1(alpha)-hydroxylase, both of which are required for activating vitamin D with the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will result in decreased intestinal phosphorus absorption, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion (via decreased renal reabsorption). Should a decrease in 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D be necessary to reduce intestinal phosphorus absorption, calcium absorption will also proportionally be reduced, potentially leading to skeletal demineralization. Demineralization of bone can increase kidney stone risk, a medical issue that could prove detrimental to mission success. Given the interrelationships described above, we sought to determine circulating FGF23 concentrations in spaceflight and ground analog studies to better understand the potential effects of dietary phosphorus on bone and calcium metabolism. We analyzed serum from ISS astronauts participating in studies of bone biochemistry, including the Nutrition SMO and Pro K experiments, and we also evaluated FGF23 during extended-duration bed rest. Serum intact FGF23 levels were determined using an ELISA kit from Kainos laboratories in Japan. While initial evaluation of the data showed no changes over time during flight or bed rest, evaluation continues of FGF23 data in light of dietary factors, PTH, vitamin D status, and other biochemical and endocrine factors.

  8. High-growth-factor implosions (HEP4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, O.L.; Keane, C.J.; Hammel, B.A. [and others

    1996-06-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the kinetic energy of an ablating, inward-driven, solid spherical shell is used to compressionally heat the low-density fuel inside. For a given drive, the maximum achievable compressed fuel density and temperature - and hence the maximum neutron production rate depend on the degree of shell isentropy and integrity maintained during the compression. Shell integrity will be degraded by hydrodynamic instability growth of areal density imperfections in the capsule. Surface imperfections on the shell grow as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities when the shell is accelerated by the ablating lower-density plasma. Perturbations at the outer capsule surface are transferred hydrodynamically to the inner surface, where deceleration of the shell by the lower-density fuel gives rise to further RT growth at the pusher-fuel interface.

  9. Targeting insulin-like growth factor pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Some cancer cells depend on the function of specific molecules for their growth, survival, and metastatic potential. Targeting of these critical molecules has arguably been the best therapy for cancer as demonstrated by the success of tamoxifen and trastuzumab in breast cancer. This review will evaluate the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR) as a potential target for cancer therapy. As new drugs come forward targeting this receptor system, several issues will need to be addressed in the early clini...

  10. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  11. Visualization of growth factor receptor sites in rat forebrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now known that various growth factors may also act in the central nervous system. Among them, it has recently been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) may possess trophic effects in the mammalian brain. We report here on the respective autoradiographic distribution of [125I]EGF and [125I]IGF-I receptor binding sites in the rat brain, both during ontogeny and in adulthood. It appears that [125I]EGF sites are mostly found in the rat forebrain during brain development. On the other hand, [125I]IGF-I sites are more widely distributed both during ontogeny and in adulthood. These results reveal the plasticity of the expression of EGF and IGF-I receptor sites in the mammalian brain. This could be relevant for the respective role of these two growth factors in the development and maintenance of neuronal function

  12. Mutagenesis of the crystal contact of acidic fibroblast growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Honjo, Eijiro; Tamada, Taro; Adachi, Motoyasu; Kuroki, Ryota; Meher, Akshaya; Blaber, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Several mutations at Glu81 located on the crystal contact of human acidic fibroblast growth factor were studied in an effort to improve crystal growth. Mutation to Ser and Thr resulted in crystallization of a rather bulky form of the wild type, whereas mutation to Val prohibited crystallization. These results suggest that crystal growth may be controlled by designing a new interface by protein engineering.

  13. Platelet-derived growth factor in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniades, H. N.; Bravo, M A; Avila, R E; Galanopoulos, T; Neville-Golden, J.; Maxwell, M.; Selman, M

    1990-01-01

    Fibrosis is a complex process involving an inflammatory reaction, fibroblast proliferation, and abnormal accumulation of interstitial collagens. Mononuclear cells are usually present in lung fibrosis. Activated monocytes and macrophages in culture have been shown to produce several growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). PDGF is a potent mitogen and chemoattractant for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and a stimulator of collagen synthesis. We have studied the expre...

  14. Regulation of MAPKs by growth factors and receptor tyrosine kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Menachem; Amit, Ido; Yarden, Yosef

    2007-01-01

    Multiple growth- and differentiation-inducing polypeptide factors bind to and activate transmembrane receptors tyrosine kinases (RTKs), to instigate a plethora of biochemical cascades culminating in regulation of cell fate. We concentrate on the four linear mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, and highlight organizational and functional features relevant to their action downstream to RTKs. Two cellular outcomes of growth factor action, namely proliferation and migration, are crit...

  15. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color form...

  16. Effects of 530 nm monochromatic light on basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-?1 expression in Müller cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yi Fu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To expose rat retinal Müller cells to 530 nm monochromatic light and investigate the influence of varying light illumination times on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1 expression.METHODS: Three groups of rat retinal Müller cells cultured in vitro under a 530 nm monochromatic light were divided into 6, 12 and 24h experimental groups , while cells incubated under dark conditions served as the control group. The bFGF and TGF-?1 mRNA expression, protein levels and fluorescence intensity of the Müller cells were analyzed.RESULTS:ThebFGF mRNA expression and protein levels were significantly upregulated in Müller cells in all three experimental groups compared with the control group (P<0.05, while that of TGF-?1 was downregulated (P<0.05. Also, bFGF expression was positively correlated, but TGF-?1 expression was negatively correlated with illumination time. The largest changes for both cytokines were seen in the 24h group. The changes in bFGF and TGF-?1 fluorescence intensity were highest in the 24h group, and significant differences were observed among the experimental groups (P<0.05.CONCLUSION:The expressions ofbFGF and TGF-?1 changed in a time-dependent manner in Müller cells exposed to 530 nm monochromatic light with 250 lx illumination intensity. Müller cells might play a role in the development of myopia by increasing bFGF expression or decreasing TGF-?1 expression. Changes in cytokine expression in retinal Müller cells may affect monochromatic light-induced myopia.

  17. Growth-rate influences on coral climate proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A.; Hayashi, E.; Nakamura, T.; Iwase, A.; Ishimura, T.; Iguchi, A.; Sakai, K.; Okai, T.; Inoue, M.; Araoka, D.; Kawahata, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coral-based climate reconstruction has been increasingly reported from many tropical sites. Potential ambiguity of coral thermometers intrinsic in biomineralization process attracts much attention, including so-called 'vital effects', 'growth-rate-related kinetic effect', '[CO32-] effect' and so on. Here we study growth-rate influences on skeletal oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (?18O and ?13C), as well as Sr/Ca ratio, based on a long-term culture experiment using Porites australiensis clone colonies. Variation in ?18O showed negligible influence against a large intercolony variation in growth rate based on the comparison of the seasonal minimum ?18O values during summer, while that was relatively sensitive to temporal growth-rate change due to health condition of each colony. Contrary, Sr/Ca ratio was robust against both the inter- and intra- colony variation in growth rate. Positive sift in ?13C for slower-growing corals was found, and it can be attributed to a kinetic behavior of calcification reaction. Seasonal fluctuation pattern in ?13C did not correspond to light intensity nor that in ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater. These lines warrant the signal recording ability of coral skeletal Sr/Ca ratio and ?18O from a long-lived colony of clonal growth as paleo-climate archives, and propose practical guideline for the proper interplication of coral records.

  18. Factors influencing success of dietitians employed in business and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, L J; Shanklin, C W; Johnson, J T

    1991-10-01

    Career opportunities in business and industry have been identified as one area of growth for the dietetics profession. The purposes of this study were to identify the skills, attributes, and knowledge areas dietitians need to succeed in business and industry; ascertain methods used to acquire these; assess factors that influenced career change; and determine the degree of perceived adequacy of academic preparation by practitioners employed in business and industry. A questionnaire, developed on the basis of a Delphi study involving 21 dietitians employed in business and industry, was administered to a national sample of 387 members of the Dietitians in Business and Industry (DIBI) dietetic practice group who were employed in business and industry. The overall response rate was 299 (77%); respondents were from 39 states. Skills, attributes, and knowledge areas were identified for specific employment classifications in business and industry. Self-motivation and work experience in business were identified as the most important methods for acquiring skills for this area of practice. Challenge of a new position and diversity of job responsibilities had the most influence on career change of respondents. Undergraduate and graduate education were rated somewhat inadequate and adequate, respectively, by the majority of respondents. The findings indicate that positions in business and industry require specific skills, attributes, and knowledge that may not necessarily be attained through traditional approaches. Self-assessment and appropriate self-development activities are essential for success. PMID:1918740

  19. Periodontal regeneration: focus on growth and differentiation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jaebum; Stavropoulos, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Several growth and differentiation factors have shown potential as therapeutic agents to support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, although optimal dosage, release kinetics, and suitable delivery systems are still unknown. Experimental variables, including delivery systems, dose, and the common use of poorly characterized preclinical models, make it difficult to discern the genuine efficacy of each of these factors. Only a few growth and differentiation factors have reached clinical evaluation. It appears that well-defined discriminating preclinical models followed by well-designed clinical trials are needed to further investigate the true potential of these and other candidate factors. Thus, current research is focused on finding relevant growth and differentiation factors, optimal dosages, and the best approaches for delivery to develop clinically meaningful therapies in patient-centered settings.

  20. ROLE OF STATISTICS IN RESEARCH FOR DATA ANALYSIS: FOCUS ON CORRELATION OF VARIABLES, INFLUENCING THE GROWTH OF POPULATION: CASE STUDY IN AHMEDNAGAR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Narke Sunil Yuvaraj

    2014-01-01

    The growth of population is influenced by the number of factors in a particular region. The important factors such as the demographic, economic, social and physical factors have great bearing upon the growth of population. Now a day, Geography is not merely descriptive subject.

  1. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Wadie Nasri

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly...

  2. Pedagogical factors influencing pupil achievement at the primary education level

    OpenAIRE

    Hudoklin, Ajda

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis Pedagogical factors influencing pupil achievement at the primary education level aims to establish the pedagogical factors which could improve the learning outcomes of Slovenian pupils. The Slovenian educational system has been thus compared to the Finnish educational system since the latter is very successful and ranked top in international research. I have been dealing with the factors which have influence on the majority of the class and the students who are achieving po...

  3. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; van der Lans, I A; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  4. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...

  5. Biological properties of human skeletal myoblasts genetically modified to simultaneously overexpress the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor-A and fibroblast growth factor-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimna, A; Janeczek, A; Rozwadowska, N; Fraczek, M; Kucharzewska, P; Rucinski, M; Mietkiewski, T; Kurpisz, M

    2014-04-01

    Myocardial infarction results in cardiomyocyte loss and may eventually lead to cardiac failure. Skeletal myoblast transplantation into the scar area may compensate for this observed cell loss by strengthening the weakened myocardium and inducing myogenesis. Moreover, skeletal myoblasts may serve as potential transgene carriers for the myocardium (i.e., delivering pro-angiogenic factors, which may potentially improve blood perfusion in infarcted heart). We examined the influence of the simultaneous overexpression of two potent pro-angiogenic factors, fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on human primary myoblast proliferation, cell cycle, resistance to hypoxic stress conditions and myogenic gene expression, as well as the induction of pro-angiogenic activities. We used a bicistronic plasmid vector encoding two factors introduced via an efficient myoblast electroporation method. The levels of overexpressed proteins were assessed, and their functionality at capillary formation was evaluated. This combined approach led to a high level of non-viral transient overexpression of both pro-angiogenic proteins, which proved to be potent regulators of blood vessel development assayed in capillary formation tests. We demonstrated in in vitro conditions that the transfection of human skeletal myoblasts with both FGF-4 and VEGF did not affect their basic biological properties such as the cell cycle, proliferation or expression of myogenic lineage-specific genes, and the modified cells adapted to oxidative stress conditions. Overall, the results obtained suggest that the applied combined approach with the use of two pro-angiogenic genes overexpressed in skeletal muscle stem cells may be an interesting alternative for the effective therapy of myocardial infarction in animal models and/or prospective clinical trials. PMID:24781729

  6. Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; NexØ, Ebba

    1995-01-01

    We have used rats with epidermal growth factor (EGF) autoantibodies to study the role of EGF deficiency during perinatal development. The study was focused on organs known to contain EGF or its receptor. Compared with controls, the offspring of autoimmune rats had a higher perinatal mortality and a lower birth weight. The weight of the lungs was particularly low in the offspring of EGF-immunized rats, and morphologically the lungs from the surviving pups seemed atelectatic and had alveolar duct dilatation, which indicates mild respiratory distress syndrome. Judged from immunohistochemical studies, the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio was lower in pups from EGF-immunized rats. This difference was, however, not significant (p = 0.07), but flow cytometric analyses showed a significantly lower proportion of the liver cells from newborn EGF-deficient pups to be in S-phase and indicated that these cells were larger than liver cells from controls. To study possible alterations in EGF binding, 125I-EGF was injected i.v. in newborn rats. 125I-EGF bound in all the organs investigated. The binding is listed in decreasing order: liver, gut, skin, kidney, and lungs. In the pups from EGF-immunized rats, the lungs and the skin bound a significantly higher amount than the controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Parents' Perspectives About Factors Influencing Adherence to Pharmacotherapy for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rana; Borst, Jacqueline; Wei, Yong C; Aslani, Parisa

    2013-08-30

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore factors influencing parents' decisions to adhere and persist with ADHD pharmacotherapy in children. Method: Focus groups (n = 3) were conducted with 16 parents recruited from metropolitan Sydney. Group discussions explored factors impacting on treatment initiation, continuation, and cessation. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically content analyzed. Results: Parents commenced and continued pharmacotherapy due to its positive impact on their child's behavior. Improvements in the child's academic performance and social interactions encouraged persistence with therapy. Parents elected to cease therapy after their children experienced side effects including appetite suppression, weight loss, and sleep disturbances. Concerns about long-term effects of ADHD medication use including potential for addiction and growth stunting, in addition to the stigma surrounding ADHD also contributed to parents ceasing treatment. Conclusion: The findings highlight a need for the provision of accurate information about ADHD and its treatments to parents to empower their treatment decisions and promote adherence. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:23995052

  8. Organizational Creativity: A Substantial Factor to Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Beheshtifar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea sources, and evidence of the creative planning process; and organizational creativity is as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The creative climate encourages people to generate new ideas and helps the organization to grow and increase its efficiency and at the same time it enables members to generate and implement creative ideas more effectively.

  9. Integral Role of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor in Mediating Transforming Growth Factor-?1–Dependent Mesenchymal Stem Cell Stiffening

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Deepraj; Lili, Loukia; McGrail, Daniel J.; Matyunina, Lilya V; McDonald, John F.; Dawson, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in matrix remodeling, fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and immunomodulation and are an integral part of fibrovascular networks that form in developing tissues and tumors. The engraftment and function of MSCs in tissue niches is regulated by a multitude of soluble proteins. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF) have previously been recognized for their role in MSC biology; thus, we sought to ...

  10. Cheiradone: a vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nessar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is associated with physiological (for example wound healing and pathological conditions (tumour development. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF are the major angiogenic regulators. We have identified a natural product (cheiradone isolated from a Euphorbia species which inhibited in vivo and in vitro VEGF- stimulated angiogenesis but had no effect on FGF-2 or EGF activity. Two primary cultures, bovine aortic and human dermal endothelial cells were used in in vitro (proliferation, wound healing, invasion in Matrigel and tube formation and in vivo (the chick chorioallantoic membrane models of angiogenesis in the presence of growth factors and cheiradone. In all cases, the concentration of cheiradone which caused 50% inhibition (IC50 was determined. The effect of cheiradone on the binding of growth factors to their receptors was also investigated. Results Cheiradone inhibited all stages of VEGF-induced angiogenesis with IC50 values in the range 5.20–7.50 ?M but did not inhibit FGF-2 or EGF-induced angiogenesis. It also inhibited VEGF binding to VEGF receptor-1 and 2 with IC50 values of 2.9 and 0.61 ?M respectively. Conclusion Cheiradone inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis by binding to VEGF receptors -1 and -2 and may be a useful investigative tool to study the specific contribution of VEGF to angiogenesis and may have therapeutic potential.

  11. Growth/differentiation factor-15: prostate cancer suppressor or promoter?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Va?hara, P.; Hampl, A.; Kozubík, Alois; Sou?ek, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 15, ?. 4 (2012), s. 320-328. ISSN 1365-7852 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9600; GA MZd NS9956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : MACROPHAGE-INHIBITORY CYTOKINE-1 * GROWTH-DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-15 * TGF-BETA SUPERFAMILY Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2012

  12. Instability restricts signaling of multiple fibroblast growth factors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Marcela; Chaloupková, R.; Zakrzewska, M.; Veselá, I.; Celá, Petra; Barathová, J.; Gudernová, I.; Zají?ková, R.; Trantírek, L.; Martin, J.; Kostas, M.; Otlewski, J.; Damborský, J.; Kozubík, Alois; Wiedlocha, A.; Krej?í, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 72, ?. 12 (2015), s. 2445-2459. ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA14-31540S; GA ?R GBP302/12/G157 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor * FGF * unstable Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.808, year: 2014

  13. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand identification

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Daryoush Raoof; Shabnam Haj Seyed Javadi; Hamed Asgari; Hamid Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Building a famous brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. A good brand name plays an important role on increasing word of mouth advertisement, the number of loyal customers and repurchase habits. However, in order to build a good brand, we need to create sustainable brand identification and to do this we need to determine influential factors. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing brand identification. The p...

  14. Empirical Research of the Capital Structure Influencing Factors of Electric Power Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanxin Liu; Xiangbo Ning

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we selected 25 electric power listed companies in the electric power industry as the samples to study the influences of micro factors on the capital structure of listed companies, and the sample period was from 2002 to 2007, and these micro factors mainly included company scale, profitability, growth, non-debt tax shields, fluidity and capital structure. The research results showed that the company scale, non-debt tax shields and assets structure were not significantly correl...

  15. Chemical Influences on Ice Crystal Growth from Vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Bell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We present an investigation of chemical influences on the growth of ice crystals from water vapor. In one set of experiments, we grew ice crystals in a vapor diffusion chamber, observing crystal morphologies at temperatures from 0 C to -25 C in different background gases and with a variety of gaseous chemical additives. In a second set of experiments, we measured ice crystal growth rates at -5 C and -15 C in a free-fall flow chamber, using normal laboratory air and ultra-cle...

  16. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  17. Influence of nutrition and various substrates on spruce seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uki? Matilda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.

  18. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  19. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. PMID:25521518

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of Insulin-like growth factor-1, Transforming growth factor-beta1, and Vascular endothelial growth factor in parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide Sayar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are commonly studied growth factors, but little data are available on the immunohistochemical expression of these factors in parathyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: Tissue specimens from 36 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPT (26 adenomas and 10 primary hyperplasias were examined. Normal parathyroid tissue adjacent to the adenoma or area of hyperplasia was used as control tissue. Preoperative laboratory testing [serum Ca and P, creatinine and parathormone levels (PTH] which led to the diagnosis of P-HPT had been performed, the size and weight of the parathyroid glands measured, and postoperative serum PTH levels determined. Paraffin-embedded parathyroid tissue specimens were stained with antibodies to IGF-1, VEGF, and TGF-?1 using standard immunohistochemical procedures. Results: IGF-1 immunoreactivity was seen in 50% of hyperplasia and in 46% of adenoma samples, but in 87% of normal parathyroid tissue in the vicinity of the adenomas (P = 0.005. TGF-?1 immunoreactivity was observed in 90% of hyperplasia, in 92% of adenoma samples, and in 95% of normal tissues around adenomas. VEGF immunoreactivity was observed in 70% of hyperplastic and 65% of adenomatous tissues, as well as in 54% of normal tissues in the vicinity of the adenoma. No significant differences in the expression of IGF-1, TGF-?1, and VEGF were observed between primary adenomas compared to hyperplasia samples (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Parathyroid tissue is clearly a site for production of IGF-1, TGF-?1, and VEGF. IGF-1 receptor activity was higher in normal parathyroid tissue compared to hyperplastic and adenomatous tissue.

  1. Transforming Growth Factor-? Regulates the Growth of Valve Interstitial Cells in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chen; Gotlieb, Avrum I.

    2011-01-01

    Although valve interstitial cell (VIC) growth is an essential feature of injured and diseased valves, the regulation of VIC growth is poorly understood. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? promotes VIC proliferation in early-stage wound repair; thus, herein, we tested the hypothesis that TGF-? regulates VIC proliferation under normal nonwound conditions using low-density porcine VIC monolayers. Cell numbers were counted during a 10-day period, whereas proliferation and apoptosis were quantifie...

  2. Myoferlin is required for insulin-like growth factor response and muscle growth

    OpenAIRE

    Demonbreun, Alexis R.; Posey, Avery D; Heretis, Konstantina; Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Earley, Judy U.; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is a potent stimulus of muscle growth. Myoferlin is a membrane-associated protein important for muscle development and regeneration. Myoferlin-null mice have smaller muscles and defective myoblast fusion. To understand the mechanism by which myoferlin loss retards muscle growth, we found that myoferlin-null muscle does not respond to IGF1. In vivo after IGF1 infusion, control muscle increased myofiber diameter by 25%, but myoferlin-null muscle was unresponsive...

  3. CoA Synthase influences adherence-independent growth and survival of mammalian cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Panasyuk G. G.; Filonenko V. V.; Gout I. T.; Nemazanyy I. O.; Breus O. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. We aimed to study the influence of the expression level, activity and subcellular localization of CoA Synthase (CoASy) on anchoring independent growth and viability of in vitro cultured cells. Methods. Abilities of cells to form colonies in semisolid agarose and survive in growth factor depleted conditions were tested. A panel of HEK293 stable cell lines which over express wild type, catalytically inactive or mitochondria association mutants of CoASy were used in the study. Effects of C...

  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION TO ADOPT NET BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking while Primary and Secondary Influence was rated the least impacting factor. Both Utilitarian Outcomes and Availability of Internet were rated as second most impacting factor followed by Availability, Cost, Ease of Use, Security, Trust and Self Confidence.

  5. Understanding & Influencing Multilevel Factors Across the Cancer Care Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences is pleased to announce the May 2012 Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI) Special Issue, Understanding and Influencing Multilevel Factors Across the Cancer Care Continuum.

  6. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life. PMID:24028035

  7. Early Growth Response 3 (Egr-3) Is Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-? and Regulates Fibrogenic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    FANG, FENG; Shangguan, Anna J.; Kelly, Kathleen; Wei, Jun; Gruner, Katherine; Ye, Boping; Wang, Wenxia; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Hinchcliff, Monique E; Tourtellotte, Warren G.; Varga, John

    2013-01-01

    Members of the early growth response (Egr) gene family of transcription factors have nonredundant biological functions. Although Egr-3 is implicated primarily in neuromuscular development and immunity, its regulation and role in tissue repair and fibrosis has not been studied. We now show that in normal skin fibroblasts, Egr-3 was potently induced by transforming growth factor-? via canonical Smad3. Moreover, transient Egr-3 overexpression was sufficient to stimulate fibrotic gene expression,...

  8. Quantitation of the mRNA expression of the epidermal growth factor system: selective induction of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and amphiregulin expression by growth factor stimulation of prostate stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B S; Tørring, N; Bor, M V; Nexo, E

    2000-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is a rapidly expanding system of growth factors involved in many aspects of normal and cancerous growth. We have developed a method for the quantitation of mRNA coding for all six growth factors activating the human EGF receptor (HER-1) and for the quantitation of mRNA for the receptors HER-1 and its preferred dimerization partner, HER-2. The method is based on the generation of specific RNA standards, which are amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the sample RNA and a set of calibrators. The resulting calibration curve is used to quantitate the unknown samples, which require only a single RT-PCR reaction. Our method has the advantage that quantitation is based on coamplification of an internal RNA standard, thereby controlling both the PCR and RT reactions. In addition, the RNA standards for all growth factors and receptors are combined in a single RT reaction, which minimizes variation and allows the quantitation of all eight mRNA species with only 0.1 microg RNA. This makes the method suitable for studies in which the supply of material is limited. The developed method has enabled us to demonstrate that prostate stromal cells in primary culture express EGF, heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), amphiregulin, betacellulin, and epiregulin as well as the HER-1 and HER-2 receptors, whereas no transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA is found. Furthermore, activation of the EGF system in these cells by stimulation with HB-EGF or EGF in mitogenic doses causes a selective increase in the expression of amphiregulin and HB-EGF mRNA (more than 15-fold and 25-fold, respectively), whereas there is no increase in the expression of mRNA for the other growth factors or receptors. In accord with the increase in amphiregulin mRNA, the amount of amphiregulin peptide released from the cells is also increased. The selective induction of amphiregulin and HB-EGF by growth factor stimulation may represent a mechanism to amplify the initial growth factor signal in prostate stromal cells. PMID:10985499

  9. Factors Influencing the Elimination of Dietary Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet

    Recent research by Herman, Polivy, and their colleagues has been concerned with the determinants of self-control and disinhibition in dieters. The present paper summarizes a number of studies in which the reactions of dieters and nondieters to a variety of disinhibitory factors (preloading, emotional arousal, intoxication) were investigated. The…

  10. Factors Influencing Persistence among Nontraditional University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Gail

    2015-01-01

    One third of undergraduate students enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities are considered nontraditional as defined by the single criterion of being aged 25 years and older. Nontraditional students have significantly lower graduation rates than traditional students. Using a role theory perspective this mixed-methods study examines the factors

  11. Factors Influencing Faculty Choice of Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Shirley Halpin; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes a replication study in which the following factors were found to be significant in recruiting and retaining faculty: opportunity to utilize own knowledge in area of choice, nature of teaching load and assignment, available clinical facilities for student experiences, curriculum of program to which appointment was sought and opportunities…

  12. Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China. - Highlights: ? We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions. ? Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. ? These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. ? Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO2 emission is different. ? Improving technology level is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China.

  13. Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Sowmya; N. Panchanatham

    2011-01-01

    Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the...

  14. Factors that influence practice nurses to promote physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, N.; McKenna, J; Naylor, P J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate what factors may influence practice nurses to promote physical activity. METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent to all practice nurses in the county of Avon, UK in 1994. Specifically, the questionnaire survey explored whether patient, provider, and practice factors influenced practice nurses promotion behaviour. In addition, the stages of change model was used to measure current levels of promoting behaviour. RESULTS: A response rate of 80.9% was achieved. Over 80%...

  15. Factors that Influence Customers’ Buying Intention on Shopping Online

    OpenAIRE

    Yulihasri Eri; Md Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud

    2011-01-01

    On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing student’s buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence student’s buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public institution of higher l...

  16. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE E-LOYALTY OF INTERNET BANKING USERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ameen M Al-Agaga; Khalil Md. Nor

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfacti...

  17. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

  18. Factors Influencing Agricultural Education Students' Choice to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Rebecca Grace

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence senior level agricultural education students' choice to become secondary agriculture teachers. This study focused on the extent to which beliefs and attitude influenced students' intent to select a teaching secondary agricultural education as a career. The Agricultural…

  19. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  20. An immunologic approach to induction of epidermal growth factor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in pharmacologic doses is able to induce growth and development in the fetus and the newborn. To investigate the opposite situation, the effects of insufficient amounts of EGF during development, we wanted to establish an in vivo model with a state of EGF deficiency. This was attempted by induction of autoimmunity to EGF in rats. Twenty rats were immunized with EGF. Fifteen of these developed autoantibodies against EGF, which, as judged by Scatchard analysis, had a ...

  1. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tina Bøgelund; Knutsson, Malin L T; Wehland, Markus; Laursen, Britt Elmedal; Grimm, Daniela Gabriele; Warnke, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Nils E

    2014-01-01

    Neo-angiogenesis is a critical process for tumor growth and invasion and has become a promising target in cancer therapy. This manuscript reviews three currently relevant anti-angiogenic agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor system: bevacizumab, ramucirumab and sorafenib. The efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs in adjuvant therapy or as neo-adjuvant treatment has been estimated in clinical trials of advanced breast cancer. To date, the overall observed clinical improvements are u...

  2. Erb-B: Growth factor receptor turned oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erb-B oncogene has been shown to be a deleted version of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. These mutations are thought to cause a constitutive activation of the receptor which is then able to induce uncontrolled growth of specific cell types. Mutational analysis of the erb-B gene indicates that specific domains of the erb-B protein interact with specific cellular target proteins to cause transformation

  3. Growth factors, heat-shock proteins and regeneration in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, M; Thorndyke, M C; Candia Carnevali, M D; Bonasoro, F; Beesley, P W

    2001-03-01

    The study of regeneration in armed echinoderm species, including crinoids, ophiuroids and asteroids, is attracting increasing attention. Recent interest has focused on the presence and potential role of growth factors, including members of the nerve growth factor (NGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) families, in the regenerative process and their possible relationship to the normal developmental (ontogenetic) regulatory cascade. In addition, the expression patterns of the heat-shock family of stress proteins (Hsps) during regeneration are also important. Their role forms part of a normal stress response to the trauma of autotomy in combination with a putative function in tissue remodelling and associated protein turnover during regeneration. The temporal dynamics of the stress response may also be strongly indicative of environmentally adaptive pressures operating on these systems. PMID:11171408

  4. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio (S.I.); Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; Olalla, Patricia García de; Joan A. Caylà

    2012-01-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with...

  5. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Proto, V.; F. Gioffré; M.T. Maresca di Serracapriola; F. Masucci; A. Di Francia

    2011-01-01

    Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU) content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995). In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  6. Growth factor-induced acceleration of tissue repair through direct and inductive activities in a rabbit dermal ulcer model.

    OpenAIRE

    Mustoe, T. A.; Pierce, G. F.; Morishima, C; Deuel, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    The roles of polypeptide growth factors in promoting wound healing and in directing the specificity and sequence of responses of different tissues in wounds are little understood. We investigated the influence of four growth factors on the rates of healing of a novel full thickness dermal ulcer placed on an avascular base in the rabbit ear. The wound model precludes significant wound contraction and requires new granulation tissue and epithelial cells for healing to originate centripetally. 5...

  7. Peripheral insulin-like growth factor-I produces antidepressant-like behavior and contributes to the effect of exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Duman, Catharine H.; Schlesinger, Lee; Terwilliger, Rosemarie; Russell, David S.; Newton, Samuel S.; Duman, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Growth factors in the brain are important to depression and it’s treatment and we assessed the ability of peripherally administered insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to influence behavior related to depression. We found that mice that received chronic IGF-I treatment showed antidepressant-like behavior in forced-swim and novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) tests and increased sucrose consumption after chronic mild unpredictable stress exposure. Additionally, peripheral anti-IGF-I administrati...

  8. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Dynamics of National Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kukhtiy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available National savings as a basic investment resource are viewed in modern economic literature not only at the level of national economy but at the level of world economy as well.When the income level is decreased people do not reduce the consumption level but they reduce their level of savings.Having analysed this problem, the following conclusion can be drawn:savings can be negative when income level is low under the condition that the previous income level was higher than the current one;in a short run, by increasing income savings grow in an absolute as well as in a relative expression;in a long run, by increasing income savings grow only in an absolute expression and in a relative expression they remain stable (norm of savings is a ratio of the part of income that is saved to the income itself.Factors that may have influence on the norm of net national savings are as following:Monetization index as a ratio of a monetary aggregate M2 to GDP;Growth rate of GDP per capita;Consumer Price Index;Effective rate of interest;Currency exchange rate;Balance of payments;Level of unemployment;Part of population over 60 years old.

  9. Vascular growth factors play critical roles in kidney glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnudi, Luigi; Benedetti, Sara; Woolf, Adrian S; Long, David A

    2015-12-01

    Kidney glomeruli ultrafilter blood to generate urine and they are dysfunctional in a variety of kidney diseases. There are two key vascular growth factor families implicated in glomerular biology and function, namely the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and the angiopoietins (Angpt). We present examples showing not only how these molecules help generate and maintain healthy glomeruli but also how they drive disease when their expression is dysregulated. Finally, we review how manipulating VEGF and Angpt signalling may be used to treat glomerular disease. PMID:26561594

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for platelet derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together with insulin and epidermal growth factor, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of the most important and powerful mitogens. The authors developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a double incubation solid phase for human PDGF, in some biological fluids. Immunoglobulins were immobilized via protein A. using purified recombinant protein A at 1 mg/L with monoclonal antibody against human recombinant PDGF (BB) at 1000 fmol/tube, a binding capacity of approx. 17% was obtained. Non-specific binding (NSB%) was 50 ng/mL in 9 of 10 serum samples tested. (author). 18 refs, 8 figs

  11. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  12. Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 in diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short-stature children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) is conventionally diagnosed and confirmed by diminished peak Growth Hormone (GH) levels to provocative testing. Serum Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are under the influence of GH and reflect the spontaneous endogenous GH secretion. Owing to the absence of a circadian rhythm, it is possible to take individual measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 at any time of the day for evaluation of GH status instead of subjecting the individual to cumbersome provocative tests. Objectives of this study were to compare IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 assays with Exercise and L-Dopa stimulation tests in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short stature children using ITT as gold standard. Methods: This validation study was conducted at Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP, Rawalpindi, from November 2005 to October 2006. Fifty-two short stature children were included in the study. Basal samples for GH levels and simultaneous IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 measurements were obtained and afterwards all children were subjected to sequential exercise and LDopa stimulation tests. Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) was performed one week later with all the necessary precautionary measures. On the basis of ITT results, children were divided into two groups, i.e., 31 growth hormone deficient and 21 Normal Variant Short Stature (NVSS). Results: The diagnostic value of exercise stimulation test remained highest with sensitivity 90.3%, specificity 76.0%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 84.84%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 84.2% and accuracy 84.6%. The conventional L-Dopa stimulation had sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 38.0%, PPV 69.7%, NPV 88.8 % and accuracy 73.0%. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were positively correlated with post ITT peak GH levels (r= 0.527, r=0.464 respectively, both p<0.001). The diagnostic value of IGF-1 had sensitivity 83.87%, specificity 76.2%, PPV 83.87%, NPV 76.2% and accuracy 80.76%. The diagnostic value of IGFBP-3 had sensitivity 54.83%, specificity 90.47%, PPV 89.47%, NPV 57.57% and accuracy 69.23%. With combined use of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 diagnostic value had sensitivity 69.35%, specificity 83.33% PPV 86%, NPV 64.81% and accuracy 75%. Conclusion Growth Hormones provocative tests still remain the most useful investigations for the diagnosis of GHD. Measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 have shown comparable diagnostic performance with growth hormone stimulation tests and are valuable for patients convenience and ease of performance and can be useful in the initial workup of short stature. (author)

  13. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronk Jack T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which mRNA expression changes are significantly associated. Among key metabolic pathways, this analysis revealed de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides and ATP producing and consuming reactions at fast cellular growth. By scoring the significance of overlap between growth rate dependent genes and known transcription factor target sets, transcription factors that coordinate balanced growth were also identified. Our analysis shows that Fhl1, Rap1, and Sfp1, regulating protein biosynthesis, have significantly enriched target sets for genes up-regulated with increasing growth rate. Cell cycle regulators, such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more conservative estimate of growth rate dependent genes than previously reported. We also provide a global view of how a small set of transcription factors, 13 in total, contribute to control of cellular growth rate. We anticipate that multi-factorial designs will play an increasing role in elucidating cellular regulation.

  14. Factors influencing ring closure through olefin metathesis - A perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar

    2006-05-01

    Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.

  15. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  16. Research of factors influencing the quality of wood briquets

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Križan

    2007-01-01

    In the modern energy carriers producion is very important to know the impacts of several factors which influence the final quality of briquets. In our department we realized opening measurements of some factors’ impact on the briquet quality. I monitored the impact of compacting pressure, fraction largeness and the material humidity. In this contribution, I would like to describe this opening experimental research.

  17. Research of factors influencing the quality of wood briquets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the modern energy carriers production is very important to know the impacts of several factors which influence the final quality of briquets. In our department we realized opening measurements of some factors' impact on the briquette quality. I monitored the impact of compacting pressure, fraction largeness and the material humidity. In this contribution, I would like to describe this opening experimental research. (authors)

  18. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)

  19. Fibroblast growth factor 2 positively regulates expression of activating transcription factor 4 in osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Yurong; Xiao, Liping; Hurley, Marja M.

    2009-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) null mice display markedly reduced bone mass and bone formation. However, the mechanism by which FGF2 regulates bone mass or bone formation is not fully defined. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), one member of activating transcription factor/cAMP response element binding family, is a transcription factor required for osteoblast terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the ability of FGF2 to increase expressi...

  20. Diverse tumorigenesis associated with aberrant development in mice overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor/scatter?factor

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Hisashi; LaRochelle, William?J.; Sharp, Richard; Otsuka, Toshiyuki; Kriebel, Paul; Anver, Miriam; Aaronson, Stuart?A.; Merlino, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a mesenchymally derived, multifunctional paracrine regulator possessing mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenetic activities in cultured epithelial cells containing its tyrosine kinase receptor, Met. c-met has been implicated in oncogenesis through correlation of expression with malignant phenotype in specific cell lines and tumors. Paradoxically, however, HGF/SF can also inhibit the growth of some tumor cells. To elucidate the oncogenic role ...

  1. Extracellular proteolytic cleavage by urokinase is required for activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamagnone, Luca; COMOGLIO, Paolo; Naldini, Luigi; Vigna, Elisa

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular protease urokinase is known to be crucially involved in morphogenesis, tissue repair and tumor invasion by mediating matrix degradation and cell migration. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a secretory product of stromal fibroblasts, sharing structural motifs with enzymes of the blood clotting cascade, including a zymogen cleavage site. HGF/SF promotes motility, invasion and growth of epithelial and endothelial cells. Here we show that HGF/SF is secreted as...

  2. The role of macrophage derived growth factors in pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors released from rat alveolar macrophages exposed to high (95 ?g/mL) concentrations of the fibrogenic agent, nickel subsulfide, were found to inhibit the proliferation of cultured lung epithelial cells and stimulate the growth of fibroblasts. Such factors, if present in the alveoli of rats exposed by inhalation to nickel subsulfide in vivo, may play a role in inhibiting re-epithelization of nickel-damaged lungs and in stimulating fibroblast proliferation, leading to pulmonary fibrosis. (author)

  3. Roles of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Catarina Pronto-Laborinho; Susana Pinto; Mamede De Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal devastating neurodegenerative disorder, involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons in spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex. Riluzole is the only drug approved in ALS but it only confers a modest improvement in survival. In spite of a high number of clinical trials no other drug has proved effectiveness. Recent studies support that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally described as a key angiogenic factor, also plays a...

  4. Factors influencing the exercise behaviour of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J

    1985-01-01

    The sports physician faces major practical problems in stimulating the activity of sedentary patients, and also ensuring their subsequent adherence to a prescribed exercise regimen. Both individual and society bear some responsibility for poor exercise compliance. Patients are most likely to persist with programmes which are well-adapted to their physical, physiological, psychological and socioeconomic characteristics. The quality of leadership is also an important variable. Open-ended and structured questionnaires suggest that motivations to exercise include the improvement of health, the development of fitness, the control of bodyweight as well as an improvement in personal appearance, socialising, and simply a wish to 'feel better'. The main perceived reason why people 'drop out' of formal exercise classes is through lack of time, although often the individuals making this complaint appear to have substantial free time. Personality characteristics of the adherent depend on the type of programme that is offered and the degree of social support that is provided; extraversion, a high self-esteem and self-motivation are common findings. Modelling of exercise behaviour has drawn upon the concepts of Skinner, Becker and most recently Fishbein. Beliefs and their evaluation seem more influential than subjective norms, although exercise behaviour is also heavily influenced by past experience of physical activity. Programmes should be designed to maximise external reinforcement of the exercise habit until the early discomforts of training are overcome, and the patient discovers the internal rewards of a more active lifestyle. PMID:3901174

  5. Decreased level of epidermal growth factor in milk from diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Nexø, Ebba; Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1994-01-01

    Experimental diabetes was induced in rats with streptozocin before mating, and the influence of diabetes on epidermal growth factor (EGF) in milk and on other milk components was studied. Throughout the lactation period, a significant decrease was found both in the production of milk and in the concentration of EGF in milk from untreated diabetic rats compared with an insulin-treated diabetic group and a control group. Thus, the total output of EGF in milk from diabetic rats was considerably dec...

  6. Housing market and urban growth in China: what are the factors affecting housing prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Danyuan

    2012-01-01

    A rapid urbanization process facilitated an enormous expansion of the cities and stimulated the development of the urban housing markets in China. The primary purpose of this thesis is to find factors influencing the urban housing prices. Based on the supply and demand theory, I examine housing prices in 95 cities in 2010 related to population growth, wages, manufacturing employment, human capital, pollution, and housing investment using a cross section data analysis. The empirical results in...

  7. Invasive Candidiasis Stimulates Hepatocyte and Monocyte Production of Active Transforming Growth Factor ?

    OpenAIRE

    Letterio, John J; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Pollack, Greg; Thomas J. Walsh; Chanock, Stephen J

    2001-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with compromised immune function. The cytokine response to tissue invasion by C. albicans can influence the differentiation and function of lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells that are critical components of the host response. While the production of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) has been documented in mice infected with C. albicans and is known to suppress phagocyte functi...

  8. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  9. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  10. Alterations of the genes involved in the PI3K and estrogen-receptor pathways influence outcome in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemotherapy with trastuzumab is widely used for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer, but a significant number of patients with the tumor fail to respond, or relapse. The mechanisms of recurrence and biomarkers that indicate the response to the chemotherapy and outcome are not fully investigated. Genomic alterations were analyzed using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in 46 HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) 3+ or 2+/fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)+ breast cancers that were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel, cyclophosphamid, epirubicin, fluorouracil, and trastuzumab. Patients were classified into two groups based on presence or absence of alterations of 65 cancer-associated genes, and the two groups were further classified into four groups based on genomic HER2 copy numbers or hormone receptor status (HR+/?). Pathological complete response (pCR) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were compared between any two of the groups. The pCR rate was 54% in 37 patients, and the RFS rate at 3 years was 72% (95% CI, 0.55-0.89) in 42 patients. The analysis disclosed 8 tumors with nonamplified HER2 and 38 tumors with HER2 amplification, indicating the presence of discordance in tumors diagnosed using current HER2 testing. The 8 patients showed more difficulty in achieving pCR (P=0.019), more frequent relapse (P=0.018), and more frequent alterations of genes in the PI3K pathway (P=0.009) than the patients with HER2 amplification. The alterations of the PI3K and estrogen receptor (ER) pathway genes generally indicated worse RFS rates. The prognostic significance of the alterations was shown in patients with a HR+ tumor, but not in patients with a HR- tumor when divided. Alterations of the PI3K and ER pathway genes found in patients with a HR+ tumor with poor outcome suggested that crosstalk between the two pathways may be involved in resistance to the current chemotherapy with trastuzumab. We recommend FISH analysis as a primary HER2 testing because patients with IHC 2+/3+ and nonamplified HER2 had poor outcome. We also support concurrent use of trastuzumab, lapatinib, and cytotoxic and anti-hormonal agents for patients having HR+ tumors with alterations of the PI3K and ER pathway genes

  11. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...

  12. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  13. The neurotrophins and neuropoietic cytokines: two families of growth factors acting on neural and hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, N Y

    1998-05-01

    Recent progress has revealed similarities between the receptors and signaling systems used by neurotrophic factors as compared to other growth factors and cytokines. The neurotrophins use a family of receptor tyrosine kinases known as the Trk receptors, whereas ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) uses a "cytokine receptor" system that shares receptor components with a number of distantly related cytokines. We have used a human embryonal carcinoma cell line and human leukemia cell lines to examine the actions of the neurotrophins and CNTF on cellular differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that specific combinations of neurotrophic factors are required to influence the neuronal progenitor cells to become postmitotic mature CNS neurons. Such synergistic interactions may play an important role in modulating the differentiation of a wide assortment of neuronal precursors in the developing nervous system. Furthermore, our studies with leukemia cells suggest that neurotrophic factors may play a similar role in hematopoietic differentiation and that these factors may have therapeutic application in leukemia differentiation. PMID:9629241

  14. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  15. Observational study of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors over rural area near Beijing mega-city

    OpenAIRE

    X. L. Pan; Yan, P; Tang, J.; J. Z. Ma; Wang, Z. F.; Gbaguidi, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with a relative humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city (Jingjintang) from 24th April to15th May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH=80%), varied in a range of 1.07–2.35 during the measurement. Estimated periodic mean v...

  16. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,…

  18. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is the term describing a foetus that has not reached its genetic growth potential. There is no international consensus on the definition of IUGR. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of weight-restricted neonates and their mothers focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24%) and placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special attention must be given to reducing the risk of hypoglycaemia. More studies are needed. Our purpose was to underline the need for a consensus on the definition of IUGR, catch-up and follow-up programmes in order to compare results in the future. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

  19. NEUROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLCHICINE: MODULATION BY NERVE GROWTH FACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    To study the effects of exogenously applied nerve growth factor (NGF) on colchicine-induced neurodegeneration in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal formation, male Fischer 344 rats (n=75) weighing 275-325 grams received colchicine [COLCH; 2.5 ug/site in 0.5 ul of artificial...

  20. Factors Influencing Lesion Detection in Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Jannick Paule Yvette

    An important goal in medical imaging is the assessment of image quality in a way that relates to clinical efficacy. An objective approach is to evaluate the performance of diagnosis for specific tasks, using ROC analysis. We shall concentrate here on classification tasks. While many factors may confine the performance achieved for these tasks, we shall investigate two main limiting factors: image blurring and object variability. Psychophysical studies followed by ROC analysis are widely used for system assessment, but it is of great practical interest to be able to predict the outcome of psychophysical studies, especially for system design and optimization. The ideal observer is often chosen as a standard of comparison for the human observer since, at least for simple tasks, its performance can be readily calculated using statistical decision theory. We already know, however, of cases reported in the literature where the human observer performs far below ideal, and one of the purposes of this dissertation is to determine whether there are other practical circumstances where human and ideal performances diverge. Moreover, when the complexity of the task increases, the ideal observer becomes quickly intractable, and other observers such as the Hotelling and the nonprewhitening (npw) ideal observers may be considered instead. A practical problem where our intuition tells us that the ideal observer may fail to predict human performance occurs with imaging devices that are characterized by a PSF having long spatial tails. The investigation of the impact of long-tailed PSFs on detection is of great interest since they are commonly encountered in medical imaging and even more generally in image science. We shall show that the ideal observer is a poor predictor of human performance for a simple two-hypothesis detection task and that linear filtering of the images does indeed help the human observer. Another practical problem of considerable interest is the effect of background nonuniformity on detectability since, it is one more step towards assessing image quality for real clinical images. When the background is known exactly (BKE), the Hotelling and the npw ideal observers predict that detection is optimal for an infinite aperture; a spatially varying background (SVB) results in an optimum aperture size. Moreover, given a fixed aperture size and a BKE, an increase in exposure time is highly beneficial for both observers. For SVB, on the other hand, the Hotelling observer benefits from an increases in exposure time, while the npw ideal observer quickly saturates. In terms of human performance, results show a good agreement with the Hotelling-observer predictions, while the performance disagrees strongly with the npw ideal observer.

  1. Cow placenta extract promotes murine hair growth through enhancing the insulin - like growth factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.

  2. The use of autologous blood-derived growth factors in bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Civinini, Roberto; Macera, Armando; Nistri, Lorenzo; Redl, Birgit; Innocenti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is defined as a portion of the plasma fraction of autologous blood having platelet concentrations above baseline. When activated the platelets release growth factors that play an essential role in bone healing such as Platelet-derived Growth Factor, Transforming Growth Factor-?, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and others.

  3. Key variables influencing patterns of lava dome growth and collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Lava domes are conical structures that grow by the infusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Dome growth can be characterized by repeated cycles of growth punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for its composite strength. Within these cycles, deformation ranges from slow long term deformation to sudden deep-seated collapses. Collapses may range from small raveling failures to voluminous and fast-moving pyroclastic flows with rapid and long-downslope-reach from the edifice. Infusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the spatial distribution of strength in the structure. Solidification, driven by degassing-induced crystallization of magma leads to the formation of a continuously evolving frictional talus as a hard outer shell. This shell encapsulates the cohesion-dominated soft ductile core. Here we explore the mechanics of lava dome growth and failure using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. This meshless model follows the natural evolution of a brittle carapace formed by loss of volatiles and rheological stiffening and avoids difficulties of hour-glassing and mesh-entangelment typical in meshed models. We test the fidelity of the model against existing experimental and observational models of lava dome growth. The particle-dynamics model follows the natural development of dome growth and collapse which is infeasible using simple analytical models. The model provides insight into the triggers that lead to the transition in collapse mechasnism from shallow flank collapse to deep seated sector collapse. Increase in material stiffness due to decrease in infusion rate results in the transition of growth pattern from endogenous to exogenous. The material stiffness and strength are strongly controlled by the magma infusion rate. Increase in infusion rate decreases the time available for degassing induced crystallization leading to a transition in the growth pattern, while a decrease in infusion rate results in larger crystals causing the material to stiffen leading to formation of spines. Material stiffness controls the growth direction of the viscous plug in the lava dome interior. Material strength and stiffness controled by rate of infusion influence lava dome growth more significantly than coefficient of frictional of the talus.

  4. Factors Influencing Dropouts' GED & Diploma Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Wayman

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.

  5. Steady Impact Factor Growth for MDPI Open Access Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Thiesen

    2012-01-01

    For the past three years MDPI has announced the newly released impact factors for its Open Access journals by the means of an annual editorial [1–3]. In 2012 we are—once again—pleased to report that the growth of the impact factors of MDPI’s Open Access journals continues. This year’s edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR), which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes 10 journals published by MDPI, including three that have received their first official Impact Factors—Inter...

  6. Enhanced Phosphoproteomic Profiling Workflow For Growth Factor Signaling Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike

    Background Our understanding of complex signaling networks is still fragmentary. Isolated processes have been studied extensively but cross-talk is omnipresent and precludes intuitive predictions of signaling outcomes. The need for quantitative data on dynamic systems is apparent especially for our understanding of pathological processes. In our study we create and integrate data on phosphorylations that are initiated by several growth factor receptors. We present an approach for quantitative, time-resolved phosphoproteomic profiling that integrates the important contributions by phosphotyrosines. Methods A549 lung carcinoma cells were used as a model and stimulated with hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor. We employed a quick protein digestion workflow with spin filters without using urea. Phosphopeptides in general were enriched by sequential elution from immobilized metal affinity chromatography (SIMAC) with TiO2 enrichment. Phosphotyrosine containing peptides were enriched by immunoprecipitation. iTRAQ™ labeling enabled multiplexed quantification of changes during stimulation and comparison of different stimuli. Several fragmentation techniques were used in order to maximize identification of peptides as well as localization of phosphorylation sites. Results and Conclusions The combination of SIMAC with phosphotyrosine enrichment leads to a significant increase in identification of potential signaling events in growth factor receptor signaling networks. In a typical set of measurements (time course of one stimulant) 1500 to 2000 unique phosphopeptides are found. 200 of these contain phosphotyrosine. A large fraction of known network components can be identified. Combining data from collision induced dissociation (normal and higher energy) and electron transfer dissociation adds confidence in modification site assignment. The workflow is relatively simple but the integration of complementary techniques leads to a deeper insight into cellular signaling networks and the potential pharmacological intervention thereof.

  7. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and collagen mRNA in mechanically loaded plantaris tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens L; Heinemeier, Katja M; Haddad, Fadia; Langberg, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kjaer, Michael; Baldwin, Kenneth M

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is known to exert an anabolic effect on tendon fibroblast production of collagen. IGF-I's regulation is complex and involves six different IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Of these, IGFBP-4 and -5 could potentially influence the effect of IGF-I in the tendon because they both are produced in fibroblast; however, the response of IGFBP-4 and -5 to mechanical loading and their role in IGF-I regulation in tendinous tissue are unknown. A splice variant of IGF-I, mec...

  8. Factors Influencing Corporate Online Identity: A New Paradigm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.

  9. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  10. Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

  11. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  12. COW PLACENTA EXTRACT PROMOTES MURINE HAIR GROWTH THROUGH ENHANCING THE INSULIN - LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Dongliang; Gu Lijuan; Li Jingjie; Li Zheng; Wang Chunyan; Wang Zhen; Liu Lei; Li Mira; Sung Changkeun

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE), water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice fo...

  13. Exercise and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frystyk, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is a robust physiological stimulator of the pituitary secretion of growth hormone (GH), and within approximately 15 min after the onset of exercise, plasma GH starts to increase. GH and its primary downstream mediator, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), play a critical role in formation, maintenance, and regeneration of skeletal muscles. Consequently, it seems logical to link the exercise-induced stimulation of GH with the hypertrophy observed in exercising muscles. GH stimulates cir...

  14. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor modulates cell motility, proliferation, and proteoglycan synthesis of chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a multifunctional growth factor that promotes proliferation, motility, and morphogenesis in epithelial cells. Recently the HGF receptor, c-met protooncogene product, has been shown to be expressed in developing limb buds (Sonnenberg, E., D. Meyer, M. Weidner, and C. Birchmeiyer, 1993. J. Cell Biol. 123: 223-235), suggesting that some populations of mesenchymal cells in limb buds respond to HGF/SF. To test the possibility that HGF/SF is invol...

  15. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF MARKETING FACTORS INFLUENCING FAIRTRADE FOOD BUYING BEHAVIOUR IN THE UK

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Amofa Yamoah

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the fairtrade industry has attracted increased research interest but little is known as to what marketing factors drive fairtrade retail sales. This gap has profound implications for fairtrade marketing research and the future of the fairtrade industry. To provide a more robust and objective insight this paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million fairtrade shoppers to establish the influence of price, promotion and distribution on f...

  16. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area. PMID:25663236

  17. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo (Research Institute for Growth Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical College (Japan)); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  18. Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees

    OpenAIRE

    Schuppli, C A; FRASER D.

    2007-01-01

    Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal?based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a m...

  19. Potential role of growth factors with particular focus on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the management of chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; El Nahas, Meguid

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) so far primarily has been based on early and aggressive treatment of hypertension. A number of other therapeutic approaches have the potential of being translated to the clinical area within the foreseeable future. In this review, we focus on growth factors and, in particular, on the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the treatment of CKD and the management of its complications. Disturbances of the GH-I...

  20. Nerve Growth Factor from Cobra Venom Inhibits the Growth of Ehrlich Tumor in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Osipov, Alexey V.; Tatiana I. Terpinskaya; Kryukova, Elena V.; Ulaschik, Vladimir S.; Lubov V. Paulovets; Elena A. Petrova; Blagun, Ekaterina V.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Utkin, Yuri N

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) from cobra venom (cvNGF) on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells inoculated subcutaneously in mice have been studied. The carcinoma growth slows down, but does not stop, during a course of cvNGF injections and restores after the course has been discontinued. The maximal anti-tumor effect has been observed at a dose of 8 nmoles cvNGF/kg body weight. cvNGF does not impact on lifespan of mice with grafted EAC cells. K252a, a tyrosine kinase inh...

  1. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  2. Systems analysis of circadian time-dependent neuronal epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zak, Daniel E; Hao, Haiping; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Miller, Gregory M.; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A.; Schwaber, James S.

    2006-01-01

    A systems level analysis of circadian time-dependent signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor in the suprachiasmatic nucleus suggests several transcription factors that mediate the transcriptional response to epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

  3. Transforming growth factor beta stimulation of biglycan gene expression is potentially mediated by sp1 binding factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Anne-Marie; Xie, Zhongjian; Young, Marian Frances; Nielsen, Karina Lishmann

    2004-01-01

    Biglycan is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan which is localized in the extracellular matrix of bone and other specialized connective tissues. Both biglycan mRNA and protein are up-regulated by transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) and biglycan appears to influence TGF-beta(1) activity. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which TGF-beta(1), TGF-beta(2) and TGF-beta(3) stimulate biglycan mRNA expression in the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. The cells were transfected wi...

  4. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake, correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term ?IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc? was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report.

  6. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  7. Ranking different factors influencing on development of tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Khalesi Ardakani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry plays an essential role on development of economy and it is considered as one of green industries. Many countries try to promote investment on tourism to create various job opportunities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on tourism industry in city of Yazd, Iran. The proposed study uses three multiple criteria decision making techniques namely, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW and Taxonomy to rank 40 factors. The results indicate that factors such as Being located in the center axis of communication, Strengths in transportation, The ease of access to tourism destinations and Sufficient knowledge of some historical attractions are among important factors influencing tourism industry.

  8. An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Saleh Ardestani; Kaveh Teymournezhad; Sajad Ahmadvand

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran...

  9. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; LI, XINGANG

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new...

  10. Exploring Factors That Influence Knowledge Sharing Behavior via Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Zamiri; Shadiya Mohamed S; Baqutayan

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS) University Technology Malaysia (UTM) to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the ...

  11. Exploring Factors That Influence Knowledge Sharing Behavior via Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Zamiri; Dr. Shadiya Mohamed S. Baqutayan

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS) University Technology Malaysia (UTM) to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the rel...

  12. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z. Goldani; L.S.B. Haeffner; Agranonik, M.; Barbieri, M.A.; Bettiol, H.; Silva, A A M

    2007-01-01

    The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class) on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of th...

  13. Research on Knowledge Transfer Influencing Factors in Software Process Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Dejie Li; Qingjing Liu; Hongbo Xu; Jiangping Wan

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge transfer model of software process improvement (SPI) and the conceptual framework of influencing factors are established. The model includes five elements which are knowledge of transfer, sources of knowledge, recipients of knowledge, relationship of transfer parties, and the environment of transfer. The conceptual framework includes ten key factors which are ambiguity, systematism, transfer willingness, capacity of impartation, capacity of absorption, incen-tive mechanism, culture,...

  14. Analysis of Factors to Influence Single Yarn Strength CV Value

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Shen; Yi (Leaf) Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The single yarn strength CV value is one important index to measure the quality of yarn. Taking pure cotton and polyester cotton blended yarn as research objects, in this article, we systematically analyze the effects of some factors such as raw material blended ratio, yarn unevenness and twist unevenness on single yarn strength CV value, and use the mathematic analysis method to obtain the relationships between various influencing factors with single yarn strength value, and the result posse...

  15. Factors influencing microtransaction monetization- model success in digital games

    OpenAIRE

    Tuovinen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study were to investigate microtransaction based monetization models in games, and to find factors that influence their success and suitability. The research goal was to interview players, in order to get answers regarding their motivations behind microtransaction purchasing in games. Academic background and methodology The literature review focused on virtual goods research. Overall, there were many factors identified that impact ...

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION TO ADOPT NET BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA; M. V. SURYANARAYANA

    2013-01-01

    This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking w...

  17. Factors Influencing Infant and Child Mortality in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kabir; Mohammad Shahidul Islam; Muhammad Shibbir Ahmed; M. A. Khalique Barbhuiya

    2001-01-01

    This study, based on 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), attempts to identify important factors influencing infant and child mortality. Application of Cox`s proportional hazard model suggest that socio-economic status of the parents are associated with child survival. The factors that have received the most attention are maternal education, sanitation and access to safe drinking water. For instance, risk of infant mortality is 13% lower among the women having primary educ...

  18. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  19. Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-? on hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Afkar Abdel-Ghany; El-Hindawi, Ali; Hammam, Olfat; Moussa, Mona; Gabal, Samia; Said, Noha

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor system plays a central hepato-protective and pro-regenerative role in liver. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is an important autocrine growth regulator of hepatocytes that plays a role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study was done on 40 core liver biopsies from patients with CHC, 20 liver specimens from HCC cases on top of CHC as well as five normal controls. All were immunohistochemically stained with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TGF-? antibodies. Some selected HCC cases were submitted for FISH technique to detect EGFR gene alteration. By immunohistochemistry EGFR and TGF-? were overexpressed in HCC and cirrhotic cases compared to CHC cases without cirrhosis. Also, their expression was stronger in CHC cases with higher grades of activity and stages of fibrosis compared to lower ones. FISH positive results for EGFR were detected in 33.3% of the examined HCC cases. EGFR and TGF-? can be used as predictive markers for activity, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis in CHC patients. Overexpression of EGFR in HCC patients can be promising in selecting those who can get benefit from anti-EGFR target therapy. PMID:26279457

  20. Antitumor effect of hepatocyte growth factor on hepatoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Y; Shibusawa, M; Tsunoda, A; Gomi, A; Yatsuzuka, M; Okamatsu, T

    1998-01-01

    A six month-old girl presented with an abdominal mass, and high serum level of alpha-fetoprotein. She was diagnosed as having a well-differentiated hepatoblastoma by open biopsy. The biopsy specimen was transplanted on a nude mouse, and a xenograft was successfully established. Because the xenograft maintained the characteristics of the original tumor, the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on hepatoblastoma xenograft was investigated. Recently HGF was reported to be involved in growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. Contrary to our expectations, the treatment of hepatoblastoma xenograft with recombinant 20 ng/ml HGF produced a marked inhibition of cell growth and a suppression of producing alpha-fetoprotein. PMID:9891489

  1. Factors influencing the establishment of knowledge-intensive ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2008-01-01

      Purpose: The importance of entrepreneurial activities and the establishment of new ventures for economic growth and employment have long been recognized. However, the interactions of underlying mechanisms that influence this process have not been understood all that well. In the light of this, a deeper understanding of various mechanisms on which knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship hinges is needed. This paper investigates how the make-up of financial, human and social capital impacts on entr...

  2. Equilibrium denaturation studies of mouse beta-nerve growth factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, D. E.; Neet, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Equilibrium denaturation of dimeric mouse beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) has been studied by monitoring changes in the protein's spectroscopic characteristics. Denaturation of beta-NGF in guanidine hydrochloride and urea resulted in an altered intrinsic fluorescence emission spectrum, fluorescence depolarization, and diminished negative circular dichroism. Native-like spectroscopic properties and specific biological activity are restored when denaturant is diluted from unfolded samples, ...

  3. Teamwork and technology: Success factors for creating growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum industry faces many challenges moving toward the next century. How effectively these challenges are addressed and managed will determine whether or not the exploration and production business grows and prospers in the future. This presentation relates to success factors for growth creation. Themes discussed here are succeeding in a global energy market, evolution of relationships between oil and gas companies and service companies, the power of technology, and effectively combining teamwork and technology

  4. UPDATE ON FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 23 IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Myles

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health epidemic that affects millions of people worldwide. Presence of CKD predisposes individuals to high risks of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Disordered phosphate homeostasis with elevated circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an early and pervasive complication of CKD. CKD is likely the most common cause of chronically elevated FGF23 levels, and the clinical condition in which levels ar...

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 and Cardiovascular Events in CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Scialla, Julia J; Xie, Huiliang; Rahman, Mahboob; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Isakova, Tamara; Ojo, Akinlolu; Zhang, XiaoMing; Nessel, Lisa; Hamano, Takayuki; Grunwald, Juan E.; Raj, Dominic S.; Yang, Wei; He, Jiang; Lash, James P.; Go, Alan S

    2013-01-01

    An elevated level of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is the earliest abnormality of mineral metabolism in CKD. High FGF-23 levels promote left ventricular hypertrophy but not coronary artery calcification. We used survival analysis to determine whether elevated FGF-23 is associated with greater risk of adjudicated congestive heart failure (CHF) and atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) in a prospective cohort of 3860 participants with CKD...

  6. Insulin infusion reduces hepatocyte growth factor in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Dougherty, Sonia; Forbes, Josephine M; Potts, Jenna R; Considine, Robert V

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is significantly elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular disease, metabolic syndrome or cancer in obese individuals. The current studies were done to determine if hyperinsulinemia increases plasma HGF. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two participants (10 women/12 men, BMI 20.6-34.5 kg/m(2), age 18-49 years) underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with measurement of HGF at baseline and steady state. Relationships between baseline HGF, a...

  7. Transforming growth factor-?: Biology and application to cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovi? Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), an extensively investigated cytokine, plays a very important role in promoting the spread of cancers in the body, and can play a direct role in facilitating metastasis. Consequently, TGF-? is currently explored as a prognostic candidate biomarker of tumor invasiveness and metastasis. Therefore, in clinical scenarios involving increased TGF-? activity, attempts to decrease or abrogate TGF-? signaling could be used as a therapy for advanced or metastatic di...

  8. Hepatocyte growth factor signaling ameliorates podocyte injury and proteinuria

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Chunsun; Saleem, Moin A.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; Mathieson, Peter; Liu, Youhua

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent antifibrotic protein that inhibits kidney fibrosis through several mechanisms. To study its role in podocyte homeostasis, injury, and repair in vivo, we generated conditional knockout mice in which the HGF receptor, c-met, was specifically deleted in podocytes using the Cre–LoxP system. Mice with podocyte-specific ablation of c-met (podo-met?/?) developed normally. No albuminuria or overt pathologic lesions were detected up to 6 months of age, sugges...

  9. Enhanced Phosphoproteomic Profiling Workflow For Growth Factor Signaling Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike; Leclerc, Gregory; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Lockhart, Brian; Hickman, John; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    Background Our understanding of complex signaling networks is still fragmentary. Isolated processes have been studied extensively but cross-talk is omnipresent and precludes intuitive predictions of signaling outcomes. The need for quantitative data on dynamic systems is apparent especially for our understanding of pathological processes. In our study we create and integrate data on phosphorylations that are initiated by several growth factor receptors. We present an approach for quantitative, t...

  10. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy; Andersen, Jens S

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation-based signaling events happening within the first minute of receptor stimulation have so far only been analyzed by classical cell biological approaches like live-cell microscopy. The development of a quench flow system with a time resolution of one second coupled to a read-out by mass spectrometry-based proteomics has allowed exciting views on the very early events in signal transduction. Activation profiles of regulated phosphorylation sites on epidermal growth factor receptor a...

  11. Targeting insulin-like growth factor axis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jennifer; Zhu Andrew X

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis contains ligands, receptors, substrates, and ligand binding proteins. The essential role of IGF axis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been illustrated in HCC cell lines and in animal xenograft models. Preclinical evidence provides ample indication that all four components of IGF axis are crucial in the carcinogenic and metastatic potential of HCC. Several strategies targeting this system including monoclonal antibodies against the IGF 1 ...

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C Accelerates Diabetic Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Saaristo, Anne; Tammela, Tuomas; F?rkkil?, Anniina; Kärkkäinen, Marika; Suominen, Erkki; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Alitalo, Kari

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes impairs numerous aspects of tissue repair. Failure of wound angiogenesis is known to delay diabetic wound healing, whereas the importance of lymphangiogenesis for wound healing is unclear. We have examined whether overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C via an adenoviral vector could improve the healing of full-thickness punch biopsy wounds in genetically diabetic (db/db) mice. We found that VEGF-C enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the wound and sig...

  13. Role of Topical Application of Growth Factors on Periodontal Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Athraa Yahya Al-Hijazi; Abdul Karim Abed Ali Al-Mahammadawy

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of lost or injured periodontal tissues in such a way that both the original structures and their function are completely restored. Restoring of lost periodontal tissues involves a creation of new attachment, including the formation of a new periodontal ligament with its fibers inserted in newly formed cementum and alveolar bone. The purpose of this research is to illustrate the biological actions of topical application of growth factors TGF-?1, VEGF on pe...

  14. Transforming growth factor-beta in human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Barral; M. Teixeira; Reis, P; V. Vinhas; Costa, J.; Lessa, H.; Bittencourt, A.L.; Reed, S; Carvalho, E M; Barral-Netto, M

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has several downregulatory functions on the immune system: inhibition of interleukin-2 receptor induction, decrease of interferon-gamma-induced class II antigen expression, inhibition of macrophage activation, as well as cytotoxic and lymphokine-activated killer cell generation. TGF-beta has also been recognized as an important immunoregulator in murine leishmaniasis, for which it increases susceptibility to disease. In the present study we evaluate the i...

  15. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Ottesen, B

    1993-01-01

    Little data exist on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-Rs) in human endometrial cancer. EGF-R status was studied in 65 patients with endometrial carcinomas and in 26 women with nonmalignant postmenopausal endometria, either inactive/atrophic endometrium or adenomatous hyperplasia. EGF-R was identified on frozen tissue sections by means of an indirect immunoperoxidase technique with a monoclonal antibody against the external domain of the EGF-R. Seventy-one percent of the c...

  16. Bone matrix to growth factors: location, location, location

    OpenAIRE

    Rifkin, Daniel B.; Todorovic, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    The demonstration that fibrillin-1 mutations perturb transforming growth factor (TGF)–? bioavailability/signaling in Marfan syndrome (MFS) changed the view of the extracellular matrix as a passive structural support to a dynamic modulator of cell behavior. In this issue, Nistala et al. (2010. J. Cell Biol. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201003089) advance this concept by demonstrating how fibrillin-1 and -2 regulate TGF-? and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) action during osteoblast maturation.

  17. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: Biology and Therapeutic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Quoc T.; Kuo, Calvin J.

    2007-01-01

    While the development of anti-angiogenic therapy, as it pertains to cancer treatment, may still be in its infancy relative to well-established modalities such as chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, major strides made in the past several decades have allowed translation of basic science discoveries in this field into clinical reality. The discovery of key molecular modulators of angiogenesis, notably Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), has catalyzed the development of numerous neutral...

  18. Transforming Growth Factor-? Induces Airway Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Adam M; Bentley, J Kelley; Zhou, Limei; Jia, Yue; Bitar, Khalil N; Fingar, Diane C; Marc B. Hershenson

    2005-01-01

    Although smooth muscle hypertrophy is present in asthmatic airways, little is known about the biochemical pathways regulating airway smooth muscle protein synthesis, cell size, or accumulation of contractile apparatus proteins. We sought to develop a model of airway smooth muscle hypertrophy in primary cells using a physiologically relevant stimulus. We hypothesized that transforming growth factor (TGF)-? induces hypertrophy in primary bronchial smooth muscle cells. Primary human bronchial sm...

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor promotes lymphatic vessel formation and function

    OpenAIRE

    Kajiya, Kentaro; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Ma, Beijia; Drinnenberg, Ines; Detmar, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The lymphatic vascular system plays a pivotal role in mediating tissue fluid homeostasis and cancer metastasis, but the molecular mechanisms that regulate its formation and function remain poorly characterized. A comparative analysis of the gene expression of purified lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) versus blood vascular endothelial cells (BVEC) revealed that LEC express significantly higher levels of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGF-R). Whereas little or no HGF-R expression was detec...

  20. Proteasome Inhibition by Fellutamide B Induces Nerve Growth Factor Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, John; Groll, Michael; Fahnestock, Margaret; Crews, Craig M.

    2008-01-01

    Neurotrophic small molecules have the potential to aid in the treatment of neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. The natural product fellutamide B, originally isolated from Penicillium fellutanum, potently induces nerve growth factor (NGF) release from fibroblasts and glial-derived cells, although the mechanism for this neurotrophic activity has not been elucidated. Here, we report that fellutamide B potently inhibits proteasome catalytic activity. High resolution structural informa...

  1. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  2. Growth factors and their impact on transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Y M; Klein, H G

    1996-01-01

    Hematopoietic growth factors, glycoproteins that stimulate self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation of responsive hematopoietic cells, promise to revolutionize transfusion medicine. Recombinant DNA technology has made several of these cytokines available at pharmacologic doses, and new candidate agents for clinical application appear regularly. Growth factors prescribed for patients have already reduced the requirement for red blood cell and granulocyte transfusions in selected clinical circumstances. A lineage-specific thrombopoietin will likely limit the need for platelet transfusions. Hematopoietic cytokine injections have also been used to increase the number of red blood cells, granulocytes and circulating primitive progenitor cells in blood donors. Cytokine-stimulated peripheral blood progenitor cell infusions have complemented and, in some instances, replaced bone marrow for adjunctive cancer chemotherapy and for bone marrow transplantation. Finally, synergistic combinations of cytokines can effect ex vivo expansion of lymphocytes and of progenitor cells to provide novel blood components. Hematopoietic growth factors are still expensive and their long-term effects remain to be determined. However, as the biologic activities of cytokines and the physiology of hematopoietic progenitor cells become better understood, the clinical application of novel cellular components may redefine the concept of blood transfusion. PMID:8958642

  3. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling crosstalk in skeletogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraoui, Hichem; Marie, Pierre J

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play important roles in the control of embryonic and postnatal skeletal development by activating signaling through FGF receptors (FGFRs). Germline gain-of-function mutations in FGFR constitutively activate FGFR signaling, causing chondrocyte and osteoblast dysfunctions that result in skeletal dysplasias. Crosstalk between the FGFR pathway and other signaling cascades controls skeletal precursor cell differentiation. Genetic analyses revealed that the interplay of WNT and FGFR1 determines the fate and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells during mouse craniofacial skeletogenesis. Additionally, interactions between FGFR signaling and other receptor tyrosine kinase networks, such as those mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?, were associated with excessive osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in the human skeletal dysplasia called craniosynostosis, which is a disorder of skull development. We review the roles of FGFR signaling and its crosstalk with other pathways in controlling skeletal cell fate and discuss how this crosstalk could be pharmacologically targeted to correct the abnormal cell phenotype in skeletal dysplasias caused by aberrant FGFR signaling. PMID:21045207

  4. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  5. Factors Influencing the Study Methods of Australian Tertiary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David

    1982-01-01

    Two studies examined factors influencing the study approach of Australian college freshmen and seniors from a traditional psychometric perspective, supported by student comments. The first found that student interest, grades, and essay examinations encourage serious study; the second, that serious students see courses as encouraging independence…

  6. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  7. The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.

  8. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101

  9. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  10. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  11. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  12. Social Factors Influencing Participation in Sport for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)

  13. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  14. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  15. The Remarriage Market: Factors Influencing the Selection of Second Husbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurak, Douglas T.; Dean, Gillian

    1979-01-01

    Examines the influence of factors associated with the remarriage market on two outcome areas: (1) the probability of remarriage and the interval between marital events; and (2) the selectivity of spouse characteristics. Findings are consistent with a remarriage market perspective. (Author)

  16. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  17. The factors that influence CAD/CAM/CAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)

  18. Prevalence and Factors Influencing Perinatal Mortality in Rural Mysore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Siddalingappa, Hugara; Murthy M.R, Nrayana; Kulkarni, Praveen; N.C, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Background: With decreasing Infant Mortality Rate, Perinatal Mortality is gaining importance as it takes into consideration most of the factors influencing child birth and its survival, mortality during this period is a better indicator of quality of Maternal and Child Health services.

  19. Key Factors that Influence Recruiting Young Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenmin

    2007-01-01

    The discussion in this paper is based on the assumption that international education is equated to recruiting and educating international students, even though its true concept goes far beyond this narrow understanding. The purpose of this research is to look at the key factors that influence recruiting young Chinese students, and make sure all…

  20. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  1. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  2. Factors Influencing Student Choice of College and Course of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, W. Rodman; Boruch, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Relates results of a longitudinal study (1958-67) of 16,395 science majors, revealing what grade level (prior to 9th grade through college-6th year) science was chosen as their major interest, when final major was selected, and when highest degree aspiration was decided. Presents discussion of factors influencing students' choice of liberal arts…

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  4. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  5. Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast milk has been shown to enhance neonatal intestinal growth. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in the milk of various mammalian species, the hypothesis was tested that EGF in rodent milk mediates, in part, the breast milk-enhanced intestinal growth in neonatal rat. Fifty-eight rat pups fed artificial formal that contained 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 ?g/ml EGF for 39 h had greater incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and DNA content of intestine than 29 pups fed unsupplemented formula. Pups fed EGF for 5 days had significantly greater body weight, intestinal weight, length, and DNA content than control pups. Conversely, pups fed pooled rat milk containing rabbit-derived antibody to EGF for 39 h had intestines of lower weight that contained less DNA than animals fed rat milk containing normal rabbit serum. EGF appears to mediate, in part, breast milk-enhanced neonatal intestinal growth

  6. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2009-10-15

    This article computes the energy productivity changes of regions in Japan using total-factor frameworks based on data envelopment analysis (DEA). Since the traditional DEA-Malmquist index cannot analyze changes in single-factor productivity changes under the total-factor framework, we apply a new index proposed by Hu and Chang [2009. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in China. Energy Policy, submitted for publication]: a total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPI) that integrates the concept of the total-factor energy efficiency index into the Malmquist productivity index (MPI). Moreover, we separate TFEPI into change in relative energy efficiency, or the 'catching up effect,' and shift in the technology of energy use, or the 'innovation effect.' The data from 47 prefectures during the period of 1993-2003 are used to compute the TFEPI and its components for 4 kinds of energy. The TFEPI of electric power for commercial and industrial use changes -0.6% annually, which can be separated into a total-factor energy efficiency change of 0.2% and a technical change of -0.8%. The TFEPI for coal deteriorates by 1.0%/year, which is mostly caused by a decrease in relative energy efficiency change. We define and identify 'innovators' who cause the frontier to shift. Most regions identified as frontier shifters are located outside of Japan's four major industrial areas. (author)

  7. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article computes the energy productivity changes of regions in Japan using total-factor frameworks based on data envelopment analysis (DEA). Since the traditional DEA-Malmquist index cannot analyze changes in single-factor productivity changes under the total-factor framework, we apply a new index proposed by Hu and Chang [2009. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in China. Energy Policy, submitted for publication]: a total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPI) that integrates the concept of the total-factor energy efficiency index into the Malmquist productivity index (MPI). Moreover, we separate TFEPI into change in relative energy efficiency, or the 'catching up effect,' and shift in the technology of energy use, or the 'innovation effect.' The data from 47 prefectures during the period of 1993-2003 are used to compute the TFEPI and its components for 4 kinds of energy. The TFEPI of electric power for commercial and industrial use changes -0.6% annually, which can be separated into a total-factor energy efficiency change of 0.2% and a technical change of -0.8%. The TFEPI for coal deteriorates by 1.0%/year, which is mostly caused by a decrease in relative energy efficiency change. We define and identify 'innovators' who cause the frontier to shift. Most regions identified as frontier shifters are located outside of Japan's four major industrial areas.

  8. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  9. Transforming growth factor-beta, but not ciliary neurotrophic factor, inhibits DNA synthesis of adrenal medullary cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, N; Krohn, K; Bieger, S; Frödin, M; Gammeltoft, S; Krieglstein, K; Unsicker, K

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-betas are members of a superfamily of multifunctional cytokines regulating cell growth and differentiation. Their functions in neural and endocrine cells are not well understood. We show here that transforming growth factor-betas are synthesized, stored and released by the neuroendocrine chromaffin cells, which also express the transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II. In contrast to the developmentally related sympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells continue to ...

  10. Nucleic acids potentiate Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP)-mediated cleavage of platelet-derived growth factor-BB and inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Shibamiya, Aya; Muhl, Lars; Tannert-Otto, Susanne; Preissner, Klaus T; Kanse, Sandip M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Factor VII activating protease (FSAP) can cleave and inactivate platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and thereby inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. The auto-activation of FSAP is facilitated by negatively charged polyanions such as heparin, dextransulfate or extracellular ribonucleic acids. Since auto-activation is essential for the anti-proliferative function of FSAP, the influence of nucleic acids as cofactors for the FSAP-mediated inhibiti...

  11. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žuni?, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. PMID:26409145

  12. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  13. Smoking, Green Tea Consumption, Genetic Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factors and Lung Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Hsin; Ho, Ming-Lin; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Lee, Hong-Shen; Huang, Chia-Chen; Chu, Yin-Hung; Lin, Shiau-Yun; Deng, Ya-Ru; He, Yu-Hao; Lien, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Chi-Wen; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are mediators of growth hormones; they have an influence on cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 could suppress the mitogenic action of IGFs. Interestingly, tea polyphenols could substantially reduce IGF1 and increase IGFBP3. In this study, we evaluated the effects of smoking, green tea consumption, as well as IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP3 polymorphisms, on lung cancer risk. Questionnaires were administered to obtain th...

  14. Effect of propranolol on the expression of growth factors and apoptotic factors related to infantile hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming LI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To investigate the effects of propranolol on the expression of growth factors and apoptotic factors related to infantile hemangiomas, and explore the underlying mechanisms for treatment of hemangiomas by propranolol. Methods?Oral propranolol was administered to 39 patients ?3 months with hemangiomas during the proliferative phase, and they were in accordance with the inclusion criteria of the treatment. Patients who had contraindications to treatment were excluded, and informed consent from their family members was obtained. Biopsy of the lesion under local anesthesia was done before medication. The oral dose of propranolol was 1mg/kg per 12 hours. After 8 weeks of treatment, the hemangioma was resected. The specimens taken before and after treatment were scrutinized for changes in tissue structure and cell form after HE staining. The expressions of the proteins ADRB1, ADRB2, ERK, Akt, NF-?B, VEGFA, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, Ki-67, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-8, Fas, FasL, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in the focal tissue were determined with immunohistochemistry and real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. At the same time, the microvessel density (MVD value, Ki-67 index and apoptosis index before and after treatment were also determined and compared using CD34, Ki-67 and TUNEL staining technique, respectively. Meanwhile, the mRNA expressions of these factors were assessed with quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results?After 8 weeks of treatment, all the protein content and mRNA expressions of ADRB1, ADRB2, ERK, Akt, NF-?B, VEGFA, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, and MVD value and Ki-67 index were decreased significantly (P<0.01, while the protein and mRNA expressions of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and apoptosis index were increased significantly (P<0.01. However, there was no obvious change in the expressions of Fas, FasL and caspase-8 after treatment. Conclusion?Propranolol can inhibit proliferation and promot intrinsic apoptotic pathway of hemangioma through regulating the MAPKs and PI3K-Akt pathways, but it shows no influence on the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.02.07

  15. Insulin-like growth factor system and inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos K.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Few reports concerning the levels and the importance of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs in the serum of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have been published. Insulin-like growth factor(IGF system has properties that are potentially relevant to IBD. The IGF system is a system complex composed of IGF-I and IGF-II as well as at least six different IGF binding proteins (IGFBP.IGF-I expression has been shown in lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts. IGF-I is a potent mitogen for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and induces collagen synthesis in vitro, appearing to be important in tissue remodeling and repair. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL- 1 may play a role in IGF-I production linking the IGF system with the inflammatory process in IBD patients. It has been suggested that IBD patients may have low IGF-I and IGFBP levels. In recent years the effect of regulatory peptides such as growth hormone (GH and IGF-I in intestinal growth and repair has been emphasized. Trials of growth hormone in combination with a high-protein diet in short bowel syndrome patients as well as Crohn?s disease (CD patients have been encouraging. It has been suggested that the IGF and IGFBP system may be abnormal in IBD patients during this chronic inflammatory process, yet there is no data is on the exact impact of inflammation on this down-regulation and the interaction between the interleukins and the IGF and IGFBP system, in IBD patients. Key words: IGF system, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP3, IGFBP, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, Crohn?s disease (CD, ulcerative colitis (UC.

  16. Potential mechanisms for hypoalgesia induced by anti-nerve growth factor immunoglobulin are identified using autoimmune nerve growth factor deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Anderson, Michael B.; Schechter, Ruben; Kenneth E. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism has long been proposed as a chronic pain treatment. In 2010, the FDA suspended clinical trials using tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, to treat osteoarthritis due to worsening joint damage in 16 patients. Increased physical activity in the absence of acute pain which normally prevents self harm was purported as a potential cause. Such an adverse effect is consistent with an extension of tanezumab's primary mechanism of action by decreasi...

  17. Influence of Rhizobacterial Inoculation on Growth of the Sweetpotato Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Farzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. is the most important of local tuber crops in Malaysia. It is usually planted on marginal soils such as peat and sandy soils. Malaysian?s are consumed a lot of sweetpotatoes and its production requires high fertilizer input, which can lead to increased production cost and environment problems. The use of biofertilizer and bioenhancer such as N2 (nitrogen fixing bacteria and beneficial microorganism can reduce chemical fertilizer applications and consequently lower production cost. The pot experiment was conducted to determine the influence of rhizobacterial isolates on the response of sweetpotato plant growth. A total of five rhizobacterial isolates capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA were used. Four of the isolates were collected from sweetpotato rhizosphere and one isolate was imported. Cuttings of sweetpotato cultivars melaka and oren were planted in plastic pots containing alluvium soil. Cultures of the rhizobacterial isolates were inoculated at planting time, two and four weeks after planting. Plants were harvested 60 days after planting. The results showed that, three of isolates significantly increased the plant growth and the N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake of sweetpotato cultivar.

  18. Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type ? and epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2012-04-06

    The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type ? (TGF?) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGF? regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGF? also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGF? pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGF? are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

  19. Early exposure to ethanol or red wine and long-lasting effects in aged mice. A study on nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Laviola, Giovanni; Rossi, Simona; Romeo, Marina; Fiore, Marco

    2012-02-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure produces severe changes in brain, liver, and kidney through mechanisms involving growth factors. These molecules regulate survival, differentiation, maintenance, and connectivity of brain, liver, and kidney cells. Despite the abundant available data on the short and mid-lasting effects of ethanol intoxication, only few data show the long-lasting damage induced by early ethanol administration. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brain areas, liver, and kidney of 18-mo-old male mice exposed perinatally to ethanol at 11% vol or to red wine at the same ethanol concentration. The authors found that ethanol per se elevated NGF, BDNF, HGF, and VEGF measured by ELISA in brain limbic system areas. In the liver, early exposure to ethanol solution and red wine depleted BDNF and VEGF concentrations. In the kidney, red wine exposure only decreased VEGF. In conclusion, the present study shows that, in aged mice, early administration of ethanol solution induced long-lasting damage at growth factor levels in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and liver but not in kidney. Otherwise, in mice exposed to red wine, significant changes were observed in the liver and kidney but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The brain differences in ethanol-induced toxicity when ethanol is administered alone or in red wine may be related to compounds with antioxidant properties present in the red wine. PMID:20382450

  20. Prognostic value of Thymidylate Synthase, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in patients with stage III colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doder Radoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied the prognostic value of thymidylate synthase (TS, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF expression in primary colon cancer (CC. Patients and Methods : Those three markers were immunohistochemically assessed on tumor sections from 100 patients with CC Dukes C. All patients received the same adjuvant chemotherapy with FU/Leukovocin according to Mayo protocol. Considering the clinical course they were classified in two groups: bad in which all patients progressed and good in which neither progressed during the five year follow up period. Results: TS, EGFR and VEGF were an independent prognostic factor for time to progression (TTP and overall survival (OS. Findings of at least two maximum expressed investigated markers, significantly increases the risk of progression which influences shorter five year survival, and the single maximum expression does not necessarily have to be a bad prognostic sign. Conclusion: Highest expression of TS, EGFR and VEGF carries prognostic significance with respect to TTP and OS for patients with Dukes C colon cancer.

  1. Growth hormone treatment, final height, insulin-like growth factors, ghrelin, and adiponectin in four siblings with Seckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, Niels H; Wolthers, Ole D

    2011-01-01

    To report on the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on final height (FH) and to describe the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, ghrelin, and adiponectin (ADPN) in children with Seckel syndrome.

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I and the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Karen; MØller, SØren

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play an essential role in growth and development, as well as in the overall cellular regulation and metabolism in the human body. In chronic liver disease, IGF levels are decreased, and the circulating levels correlate to the extent of hepatocellular dysfunction. Patients with cirrhosis are characterised by a variety of metabolic disturbances, including nutritional and metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, malnutrition, osteopenia and hypogonadism, all related to IGF-I deficiency. The complex process of hepatic fibrogenesis and the systemic consequences in cirrhosis are only partly understood. Disruption of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis seems to be closely associated with the development of liver disease, and treatment with recombinant human IGF (rhIGF)-I has been shown to halt, and even reverse, the fibrotic degeneration. IGF-I in itself has a strong antifibrotic effect that acts directly through the GH/IGF system and indirectly by the regulation of hepatoprotective and profibrogenic factors. It is most likely that IGF-I deficiency contributes to the diverse metabolic complications of cirrhosis. At present, liver transplantation remains the only efficient treatment of cirrhosis, and thus new methods of managing the disease are called for. RhIGF-I supplementation and IGF-I gene therapy may represent future perspectives of treatment.

  3. Immortalized B lymphocytes produce B-cell growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J; Ley, S C; Melamed, M D; English, L S; Hughes-Jones, N C

    The activation, clonal expansion and terminal differentiation of small resting B lymphocytes primed by an antigen (or antibodies to its receptors) appear to follow an orderly developmental sequence triggered at each stage by distinct soluble cytokines, primarily produced by T lymphocytes. For man, the only known B-cell mitogen independent of accessory cells for its action is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Lymphocytes transformed by EBV are released from the usual constraints on B-cell growth, proliferating continuously in the absence of any exogenous cytokine. The resultant cell lines are of special interest as they possess certain features compatible with a preneoplastic state of Burkitt's lymphoma, one of two human cancers with which the virus is intimately associated. We report here that following EBV-transformation, B lymphoblasts release a soluble factor which mimics the B-cell stimulatory product(s) of mitogen-conditioned T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the virally-transformed cells utilize this activity to sustain their own growth. The ectopic production of an otherwise normal growth factor may represent a critical event in the malignant evolution of human lymphomas harbouring the EBV genome. PMID:6610833

  4. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor stimulates growth of the urinary tract in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Jørgensen, P E; Juhl, C O; Orntoft, T; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four male Wistar rats, 8 weeks old, were allocated into three groups and treated with human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) administered subcutaneously in doses of 0, 30, and 150 micrograms/kg per day for 4 weeks. Blood sampling was done every 2nd week and urine sampling was done for 2 consecutive days every week. The most striking finding was that the ureters were dose dependently enlarged, due to growth of all layers of the ureteric wall. The urothelium of the bladder showed c...

  5. Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Robledo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  7. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22822302

  8. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  9. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  10. 4-hydroxynonenal triggers an epidermal growth factor receptor-linked signal pathway for growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Akhand, A A; Kato, M; Yokoyama, I; Miyata, T; Kurokawa, K; Uchida, K; Nakashima, I

    1999-07-01

    Lipid peroxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. As a major product of membrane lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) appears after various kinds of oxidative stress, and is known to induce cell growth inhibition. We here analysed the HNE-mediated signal transduction cascade for the growth inhibition of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. HNE dose-dependently induced phosphorylation of multiple cellular proteins including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in A431 cells, and rapidly upregulated the catalytic actions of EGFR for autophosphorylation and for phosphorylation of casein as an exogenous substrate. Immunoblot analysis by use of HNE-specific antibody demonstrated the binding of HNE to EGFR along with its activation. This binding, which did not induce cross-linking of EGFR, caused a capping of the receptor on the cell surface which mimicked the capping induced by EGF. Phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were followed by phosphorylation of adaptor protein Shc and activation of MAP kinase. Both genistein as a wide spectrum protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor and AG1478 as a specific EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation blocker inhibited activation of EGFR and MAP kinase by HNE. The same inhibitors prevented HNE-mediated growth inhibition, suggesting a close linkage between EGFR/MAP kinase activation and growth inhibition after exposure to HNE. Our results suggest that EGFR may be one of the primary targets of HNE for an oxidative stress-linked cell growth inhibition. PMID:10381396

  11. CRITICAL FACTORS AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS THAT INFLUENCING THE REGISTRATION OF DOMAIN NAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norul Bahriyah Shaari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and increasing use worldwide domain is inconsistent with growth of world population. Although in terms of domain usage statistics across the world increased, but the distribution of the domain name registration unevenly between countries around the world. There are a number of users of the gap between the domain names countries around the world. The technologies domain name system (DNS, marketing strategic, domain names services and other factors such as economy in the country, culture, environment, educational, geographical location, political, internet activity trends and so on, are also influenced the use and registration of the domain name. Malaysia is also one of the countries categorized as a developing country that is still minimal use of domain names compared to the rate of population, consumer internet and social media. This paper also presents the comparative analysis is the item-by-item comparison critical factors that influence the registration of domain name. This paper shows how perspectives can be used for comparative analysis, summarizes a soundness proof for critical factors that influence the registration of domain name.

  12. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Soepardi Soedibyo; Tinuk Meilany

    2006-01-01

    School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was co...

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 expression in mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ida Holst; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Here, we have studied vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) expression in mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Immunohistochemistry revealed that in two-thirds of 34 patients, VEGFR-3 was expressed in situ by both tumor and stromal cells irrespective of the disease stage. The natural VEGFR-3 ligand, VEGF-C, partially protected malignant T-cell lines from growth inhibition by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Whereas the malignant T cells did not produce VEGF-C in vitro, its expression was induced during tumor formation in vivo in a xenograft mouse model of MF. In conclusion, malignant and stromal cells express high levels of VEGFR-3 in all stages of MF. Moreover, malignant T cells trigger enhanced VEGF-C expression in fibroblasts, suggesting that cross-talk between tumor and stromal cells plays a role in lymphangiogenesis and possibly disease progression.

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berasain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment.

  15. Role of anti vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, is a naturally occurring signal protein which is proinflammatory, stimulates angiogenesis and potent inducer of vascular permeability. Its role in normal physiology includes in embryonic development, wound healing and bone repair, neovascularization following MI and demonstrated in brain, kidney and GI mucosa. VEGF is responsible for many retinal diseases by causing new vessel growth and by increasing leakage and causing retinal swelling. Their use in ophthalmology includes in both anterior and posterior segment pathologies. This article explains the role of VEGFs, their mechanism of action, anti VEGFs, classification, their use, various studies and other aspects. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 683-688

  16. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tina BØgelund; Knutsson, Malin L T

    2014-01-01

    Neo-angiogenesis is a critical process for tumor growth and invasion and has become a promising target in cancer therapy. This manuscript reviews three currently relevant anti-angiogenic agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor system: bevacizumab, ramucirumab and sorafenib. The efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs in adjuvant therapy or as neo-adjuvant treatment has been estimated in clinical trials of advanced breast cancer. To date, the overall observed clinical improvements are unconvincing, and further research is required to demonstrate the efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs in breast cancer treatments. The outcomes of anti-angiogenic therapy have been highly variable in terms of tumor response. New methods are needed to identify patients who will benefit from this regimen. The development of biomarkers and molecular profiling are relevant research areas that may strengthen the ability to focus anti-angiogenic therapy towards suitable patients, thereby increase the cost-effectiveness, currently estimated to be inadequate.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor activity is essential for Kaposi's sarcoma growth and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Catrina, S-B; Lewitt, M; Massambu, C; Dricu, A; Grünler, J; Axelson, M; Biberfeld, P.; Brismar, K

    2005-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly vascular tumour and is the most common neoplasm associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Growth factors, in particular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have been shown to play an important role in its development. The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the pathophysiology of different tumours led us to evaluate the role of IGF system in KS. The IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) were identified by immunohistochemistry in biop...

  18. Observational study of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors over rural area near Beijing mega-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Pan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with a relative humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city (Jingjintang from 24th April to15th May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH=80%, varied in a range of 1.07–2.35 during the measurement. Estimated periodic mean values of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors are 1.27–1.34, 1.17–1.23, 1.55–1.59 and 2.33–2.48 for clean, dust, urban pollution and mixed pollution periods respectively. An examination of chemical composition of daily filter samples highlighted that aerosol hygroscopicity was generally enhanced with the increasing ratio of ammonium sulfate (AS to organic matter (OMC. Furthermore, strong hygroscopic organic aerosols were observed on 11th (f(RH=80%=2.23 and 15th (f(RH=80%=2.21 of May with organic carbon proportions of PM2.1 reaching 42.3% and 43.0% respectively. Back-trajectory analysis indicated that solar radiation and vertical convective movement along the air mass pathway might strongly influence the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  19. Influence of environmental factors on the growth of the juvenile, maturing juvenile, and adult tropical scallop, Euvola ziczac (Pteroida: Pectinidae), in suspended culture conditions / Influencia de los factores ambientales en el crecimiento de juveniles, juveniles con capacidad reproductiva y adultos de la vieira tropical Euvola ziczac (Pteroida: Pectinidae) en condiciones de cultivo suspendido

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César, Lodeiros; Luis, Freites; Alfonso, Maeda-Martínez; John H, Himmelman.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron ensayos de crecimiento en tres grupos de tallas del pectínido Euvola ziczac, durante dos periodos de corto plazo (34-36 días) a 8, 21 y 34 m de profundidad, en el golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela, para evaluar el efecto de factores ambientales en el crecimiento. El crecimiento fue mayor en [...] juveniles (talla inicial 20-22 mm en longitud de concha), que en individuos madurando (30-40 mm) y adultos (70-75 mm). El crecimiento del tejido somático fue más del doble en los juveniles que en los organismos en estado de maduración. Los individuos maduros mostraron pérdidas en la masa de sus tejidos. El primer periodo (diciembre-enero) fue de transición de estratificación del agua a condiciones de surgencia. Se inició con temperaturas elevadas y bajos niveles de biomasa fitoplanctónica, disminuyendo la temperatura y aumentando la abundancia de fitoplancton. El segundo periodo (febrero-marzo), fue de surgencia caracterizado por bajas temperaturas y elevada biomasa fitoplanctónica. El mayor crecimiento de las vieiras juveniles y de mediana talla fue durante el segundo período, particularmente a 8 m de profundidad, asociado con la mayor disponibilidad de fitoplancton, relacionado con la surgencia costera. El primer desarrollo de las gónadas en los individuos de mediana talla sólo se observó en el segundo periodo, asociado a la disponibilidad de alimento, siendo el grado de desarrollo correlativo con la profundidad. Los bioensayos que fueron de corta duración para impedir el impacto negativo del desarrollo del fouling, mostraron que el crecimiento de E. ziczac fue afectado positivamente cuando la biomasa del fitoplancton fue abundante. Abstract in english We carried out growth trials on three size groups of the scallop, Euvola ziczac, during two short-term (34-36 days) periods at 8, 21, and 34 m depth in Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on growth. Growth was greater in juveniles (initial size: 20-22 mm [...] shell length) than in maturing juveniles (30-40 mm) and adults (70-75 mm). Somatic tissue growth was more than two-fold greater in juveniles than in maturing individuals. Adult scallops showed losses of tissue mass. The first period (December-January) covered the transition from a stratified water column to upwelling conditions, with initial high temperatures and low phytoplankton biomass followed by lower temperatures and greater phytoplankton biomass. The second period (February-March) consisted of upwelling, characterized by low temperatures and high phytoplankton production. The greater growth of juvenile and maturing scallops during the second period, particularly at 8 m depth, was associated with the greater availability of phytoplankton, related to coastal upwelling. The first development of gonads in maturing scallops only occurred in the second period, associated with food availability, and the degree of development was correlated with the depth. Our growth trials, which were too short to permit the negative impact of the development of fouling, showed that the growth of E. ziczac was enhanced in the presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass.

  20. Factors influencing CO2 emissions in China's power industry: Co-integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 40% of China's total CO2 emissions originate from the power industry. The realization of energy saving and emission reduction within China's power industry is therefore crucial in order to achieve CO2 emissions reduction in this country. This paper applies the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) co-integration model to study the major factors which have influenced CO2 emissions within China's power industry from 1980 to 2010. Results have shown that CO2 emissions from China's power industry have been increasing rapidly. From 1980 to 2010, the average annual growth rate was 8.5%, and the average growth rate since 2002 has amounted to 10.5%. Secondly, the equipment utilization hour (as an indicator of the power demand) has the greatest influence on CO2 emissions within China's power industry. In addition, the impact of the industrial added value of the power sector on CO2 emissions is also positive from a short-term perspective. Thirdly, the Granger causality results imply that one of the important motivators behind China's technological progress, within the power industry, originates from the pressures created by a desire for CO2 emissions reduction. Finally, this paper provides policy recommendations for energy saving and emission reduction for China's power industry. - Highlights: ? We study the major factors influencing China's power industry CO2 emissions. ? The average annual growth rate of CO2 emission from power industry is calculated. ? Installed capacity has the greatest influence on power industry CO2 emission. ? The Granger causality between CO2 emission and its effecting factors is analyzed

  1. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  2. From shared care to disease management: key-influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard M.J.G. Eijkelberg

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to improve the quality of care of chronically ill patients the traditional boundaries between primary and secondary care are questioned. To demolish these boundaries so-called ‘shared care’ projects have been initiated in which different ways of substitution of care are applied. When these projects end, disease management may offer a solution to expand the achieved co-operation between primary and secondary care. Objective: Answering the question: What key factors influence the development and implementation of shared care projects from a management perspective and how are they linked? Theory: The theoretical framework is based on the concept of the learning organisation. Design: Reference point is a multiple case study that finally becomes a single case study. Data are collected by means of triangulation. The studied cases concern two interrelated Dutch shared care projects for type 2 diabetic patients, that in the end proceed as one disease management project. Results: In these cases the predominant key-influencing factors appear to be the project management, commitment and local context, respectively. The factor project management directly links the latter two, albeit managing both appear prerequisites to its success. In practice this implies managing the factors' interdependency by the application of change strategies and tactics in a committed and skilful way. Conclusion: Project management, as the most important and active key factor, is advised to cope with the interrelationships of the influencing factors in a gradually more fundamental way by using strategies and tactics that enable learning processes. Then small-scale shared care projects may change into a disease management network at a large scale, which may yield the future blueprint to proceed.

  3. Cloning and expression analysis of myostatin, fibroblast growth factor 6, insulin-like growth factor I and II in liver and muscle of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. during long-term fasting and refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saroglia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The exceptionally fast growth that fish experience after periods of fasting has been called “compensatory growth”. This phenomenon has been studied in intensive aquaculture as a means of enhancing growth rates, but the mechanisms by which food intake activates an increase in somatic growth, and especially in muscle growth, are complex and not yet fully understood. In the present paper, we describe the molecular cloning and sequencing of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax myostatin (MSTN and fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6, which have been shown to be major genetic determinants of skeletal muscle growth, together with insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI and IGF-II, which are potent mitogens known to play important roles in growth and development. We then report the pattern of expression of the four aforementioned genes, in liver and myotomal muscle in response to prolonged fasting and refeeding. Nutritional status significantly influenced the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN, whereas the muscular FGF6 expression levels were not affected by the feeding status of the animals. Taken together these data indicate that IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN are involved in the sea bass muscle compensatory growth induced by refeeding, whereas FGF6 probably has not a role in this phenomenon.

  4. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING ON BUYER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS LAPTOP IN DINDIGUL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pandisiva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior is the study of individuals, group, or select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these process have on the consumer and society. Buyer behavior is widely understood as a problem solving and decision making sequence, the outcome of which is determined by the buyer goal directed processing of information. The aim of this paper is to show that to identify reasons for buying laptop, factors influencing for buying laptop, and decision making for product attributes factors in this factors motivated based on Buyer behaviour in Dindigul district general people. The sample included 150 of general people based on laptop buyers. The collected data were coded, calculated and analyzed with the help of statistical tools like t-test, ANOVA, Regression analysis. The result shows that there is no significant difference between products attributes with gender and Occupation, and Buyer behaviour factors contributed in reasons for buying laptop, Influencing factors, and product attributes.

  6. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  7. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration. PMID:25980512

  8. Influencing Factors of Malaria Drug Purchase at Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terang Uli Sembiring

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available About 80% of Indonesia populations lived in malaria endemic areas. AMI reported to date is still high, on the other side of the MDG targets is to reduce AMI (38 ° C, chills, cold sweating, headache, and muscle pain or splenomegaly at 4 health centers in January to April 2011. Interview was assigned to 220 respondents; 53.2% of respondents aged over 40 years, predominantly female (52.7%. In general, respondents have a job (66.4% with low educational level (81.8%, and 67.7% get a pain less than 4 days. Results shows that occupation factor is significantly related to drug purchasing behavior (p = 0.003. Model of risk factors that influencing malaria drug purchases in the stall is the kind of work that is influenced by the low education level (p-value = 0.003 with odds ratio is 15.5%.

  9. Factors influencing implementation of the Community Health Fund in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuzora, Peter; Gilson, Lucy

    2007-03-01

    Although prepayment schemes are being hailed internationally as part of a solution to health care financing problems in low-income countries, literature has raised problems with such schemes. This paper reports the findings of a study that examined the factors influencing low enrollment in Tanzania's health prepayment schemes (Community Health Fund). The paper argues that district managers had a direct influence over the factors explaining low enrollment and identified in other studies (inability to pay membership contributions, low quality of care, lack of trust in scheme managers and failure to see the rationale to insure). District managers' actions appeared, in turn, to be at least partly a response to the manner of this policy's implementation. In order better to achieve the objectives of prepayment schemes, it is important to focus attention on policy implementers, who are capable of re-shaping policy during its implementation, with consequences for policy outcomes. PMID:17299023

  10. A Study of Factors Influencing Students' Authorization of Thesis Digitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Jiuan Chang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study explores graduate students' attitudes toward authorizing digitization rights to their theses. The investigation primarily focused on factors that might influence students' consent. Current domestic copyright management practices of thesis digitization were briefly described. Study methods included questionnaire survey and indepth interviews. Two sets of questionnaires were administrated: one for librarians and the other for graduate students. In addition to payment of royalties, the results identified a number of factors that influence students' willingness to authorize digitization. The results led to suggestions regarding revision of related laws and regulations, cooperation of library professionals, and promotion and better management of thesis digitization, with the intention of improving the effectiveness of thesis digitization.

  11. Factors Influencing the Adoption of E-government Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suha AlAwadhi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available E-government initiatives are in their infancy in many developing countries. The success of these initiatives is dependent on government support as well as citizens’ adoption of e-government services. This research identified the attitudes and perceptions of the citizens of Kuwait, a developing country, towards the adoption of e-government services. Based on previous research exploring the determinants of the adoption of e-government services using an amended version of the UTAUT model, the study reported here investigates the factors that influence the take-up of such services. These factors are related to usefulness, ease of use, reforming bureaucracy, cultural and social influences, technology issues and lack of awareness. Conclusions and implication for decision makers are also considered in this paper.

  12. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  13. Influence of Production System, Sex and Litter Size on Growth Rates in Turcana Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat production has become the main source of income in the Romanian sheep farming industry, representing over 66% of the total returns. Turcana breed represents over 70% of the national flock, and 92% of the sheep bred in western Romania. However, meat production potential and growth rates of the breed are low, and thus strategies to improve performance of the Turcana lambs need to be identified. Aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that sex and litter size have on the growth rates of lambs from Turcana breed under extensive and semi-intensive production systems. Weaning weight was significantly (p?0.001 influenced by the production system, with lambs reared extensively registering a average body weights of 18.23±0.094 kg at the age of 90 days, while the semi-intensively reared lambs registered an average weight of 20.19±0.082 kg. It was concluded that all three factors taken into study significantly influence growth rates in Turcana lambs and that weight of the lamb(s at the age of 28 days should be included as a selection trait within the Turcana breed genetic improvement plan.

  14. Stochastic contribution to the growth factor in the LCDM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A. L.B.; Andrade, A. P.A.; Letelier, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of noise on the evolution of the growth factor of density perturbations in the context of the LCDM model. Stochasticity is introduced as a Wiener process amplified by an intensity parameter alpha. By comparing the evolution of deterministic and stochastic cases for different values of alpha we estimate the intensity level necessary to make noise relevant for cosmological tests based on large-scale structure data. Our results indicate that the presence of random forces underlying the fluid description can lead to significant deviations from the nonstochastic solution at late times for alpha>0.001.

  15. Fibrous Dysplasia and Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, Alison M; Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Collins, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a skeletal disorder caused by activating mutations in Gs? that result in elevations in cAMP. A feature of FD is elevated blood levels of the bone cell-derived phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). FGF23 regulates serum phosphorus and active vitamin D levels by action on proximal renal tubule cells. An essential step in the production of biologically active FGF23 is glycosylation by the UDP-N-acetyl-?-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosam...

  16. Insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulation of lymphopoiesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, R; Strasser, J; McCabe, S; Robbins, K.; Jardieu, P

    1993-01-01

    We show that treatment of adult mice with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 (rhIGF-1) induces striking modifications in lymphocyte number and function. 9-mo-old male mice received rhIGF-1 (4 mg/kg per d) or its excipient by subcutaneous infusion from osmotic minipumps for 7 or 14 d. Mice were weighed daily and bled at sacrifice; the spleen and thymus were harvested and single cell suspensions were made for analysis of cell phenotype and cell number. The responses of splenocytes t...

  17. Insulin infusion reduces hepatocyte growth factor in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is significantly elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular disease, metabolic syndrome or cancer in obese individuals. The current studies were done to determine if hyperinsulinemia increases plasma HGF. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two participants (10 women/12 men, BMI 20.6-34.5 kg/m(2), age 18-49 years) underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with measurement of HGF at baseline and steady state. Relationships between baseline HGF, anthropometrics, triglycerides, liver enzymes, c-reactive protein and adiponectin were also evaluated. RESULTS: Fasting HGF was positively correlated (P

  18. Saccharin and cyclamate inhibit binding of epidermal growth factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, L S

    1981-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reve...

  19. Growth Factor Gradients via Microsphere Delivery in Biopolymer Scaffolds for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Wenk, Esther; Zhang, Xiaohui; Meinel, Lorenz; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Temporally and spatially controlled delivery of growth factors in polymeric scaffolds is crucial for engineering composite tissue structures, such as osteochondral constructs. In the present study, microsphere-mediated growth factor delivery in polymer scaffolds and its impact on osteochondral differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was evaluated. Two growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I), were inc...

  20. Growth factor delivery: How surface interactions modulate release in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    King, William J.; Krebsbach, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds have been extensively used to deliver growth factors to induce new bone formation. The pharmacokinetics of growth factor delivery has been a critical regulator of their clinical success. This review will focus on the surface interactions that control the non-covalent incorporation of growth factors into scaffolds and the mechanisms that control growth factor release from clinically relevant biomaterials. We will focus on the delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenet...

  1. Valproic acid overcomes transforming growth factor-?-mediated sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Yasunobu; WAKAI, TOSHIFUMI; Kubota, Masayuki; Osawa, Mami; Hirose, Yuki; SAKATA, JUN; Kobayashi, Takashi; Fujimaki, Shun; Takamura, Masaaki; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor approved for hepatocellular carcinoma, but rarely causes tumor regression in patients with chronic liver diseases. To investigate whether growth factor-mediated signaling is involved in sorafenib resistance, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells were exposed to epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) prior to treatment with sorafenib. Furthermore, to identify an effective combination treatment wit...

  2. Demographic and Attitudinal Factors Influencing Doctoral Student Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Nwenyi; Timothy Baghurst

    2013-01-01

    Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions, as they must identify factors influencing students’ satisfaction in order to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of doctoral student satisfaction from demographics and attitudes concerning the campus environment. Participants were 132 (33 male, 99 fe...

  3. Radical Service Innovation: Influencing Factors and Mode Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Di Rong; Xu Ming

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, service industry plays a significant role in world. Innovation in service enterprises has become an important competitive concern in many service industries. In order to reasonably analysis the radical service innovation in this area, this paper explores the influencing factors of radical service innovation by using literature analysis method. And an evaluation index system is established in this paper at same time, which is based on the investigation of...

  4. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this review has been to discuss human and environmental factors which may influence the acute irritative and neurotoxic effects of organic solvents. The review is based on a field study and on four human experimental studies. Several studies have shown that printers and other workers exposed to mixtures of solvents experience an increased frequency of work related irritative and neurological symptoms although the exposure has been far below the occupational exposure limits. A seri...

  5. Serum Response Factor and Actin Treadmilling Influence Neuronal Mitochondrial Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Henning

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the influences of the transcription factor SRF, actin treadmilling and cofilin activity on mitochondrial dynamics with regard to size, (ultra)structure and trafficking. In vivo experiments showed that SRF loss-of-function (LOF) resulted in multi-vesiculated mitochondria in corpus-callosal cross-sections and impairment of mitochondrial distribution in cortical neurons. Furthermore, ATP-content of Srf mutant brain was reduced as well as ATP-production capacity. In vitr...

  6. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi; Abdollah Naami; Naser Azad

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts wh...

  7. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah; Seyed Mohsen SeyedAliAkbar; Kiamars Fathi

    2014-01-01

    Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed st...

  8. Ranking different factors influencing on development of tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Khalesi Ardakani

    2014-01-01

    Tourism industry plays an essential role on development of economy and it is considered as one of green industries. Many countries try to promote investment on tourism to create various job opportunities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on tourism industry in city of Yazd, Iran. The proposed study uses three multiple criteria decision making techniques namely, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), Simpl...

  9. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.:

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in production. In principle the welding process is rather simple, the materials to be joined are clamped between two electrodes and pressed together. Because there is an interface present with a higher res...

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCE CONSUMERS' INTENTIONS TO REPURCHASE ONLINE IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Chai Har; Uchenna Cyril Eze

    2011-01-01

    The Internet revolution has created more opportunities for businesses and individuals to explore new ways of life, and online business is a key aspect of these new forms of living. Online transaction systems enable users to buy and make payments for products and services using the Internet platform. While there is increasing research about online business, little research has focused on specific repurchase perspectives in the Malaysian context. This study examines the factors that influence c...

  11. Priceless policies : factors influencing the acceptability of transport pricing policies

    OpenAIRE

    Schuitema, Geertje,

    2010-01-01

    Transport pricing policies are often assumed to be effective strategies to affect people’s car use, but, due to a lack of public support, these policies are often not implemented. Therefore, we examined which factors influence the acceptability of these pricing policies. First, the acceptability of transport pricing policies was shown to be strongly related to the revenue allocation: acceptability increased when revenues were allocated to car users. Second, the acceptability was also shown to...

  12. Factors Influencing Commitment of Volunteers' in Neighborhood Watch Organization

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Thomas; S. Selvadurai; A. C. Er; N. Lyndon; Moorthy, R

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Social ties become less cohesive as society becomes urbanized. The need for social institutions to redress this state of affairs is crucial. There are two objectives of this research: (i) to examine the commitment level of volunteer residents participation in neighborhood watch organization and (ii) to identify attitudinal and motivational factors that influence their level of commitment. Approach: The study was carried out on a neighborhood watch organization called Rukun ...

  13. Guiding Architectural Decisions with the Influencing Factors Method

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Pia; Wall, Anders; Norström, Christer

    2008-01-01

    The Influencing Factors (IF) method guides the architect through stakeholders’ concerns to architectural decisions in line with current business goals. The result is a set of requirements on software quality attributes and business goals and highlighted trade-offs among software quality attributes and among business goals. The IF method is suitable for sustainable software systems since it allows new concerns, resulting from changes in business goals, stakeholder concerns, technical environme...

  14. Factors influencing International Entry Strategies : A Born Global approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tjosevik, Ragnhild; Refsland, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    This study considers small Norwegian high-technology firms, with characteristics similar to those of Born Global firms. These types of firms have received an increasing amount of attention in research the last decade, but the specific field of how different factors affect their international entry strategies is scattered. With a basis of a multiple-case study, this thesis contributes with an assessment of how founder-, market- and product characteristics influence the international entry stra...

  15. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn Wright; Angie Bryans; Kaylin Gray; Leah Skinner; Amanda Verhoeve

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a “mixed methods” design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale—Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study—Student Survey. Q...

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN FACTORS UPON BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    LAVINIA HULEA

    2009-01-01

    Communication is a complex process of transmitting messages, according to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel to a receiver who ultimately is going to decode it. At an ordinary level, communication as a message exchange between individuals is understood as a verbal or written transmission of information. The success of any communication is dependent on several factors that exert their influence both upon the emitter and the receiver. Business commu...

  17. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Nosouzi; Naser Azad; Abdollah Naami

    2013-01-01

    During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was als...

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Yaghoubi; Ali Alikhani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011) [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011). Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME perf...

  19. Product development alliances: factors influencing formation and success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a framework, based on existing literature, for factors influencing the formation and success of product development alliances, and relate this specifically to the food industry. Design/methodology/approach - Case study of a product development alliance, with four partners and an interview survey, with 19 key informants in the Danish food industry. Findings - The nature of the differences between the developed framework for product development a...

  20. [Factors influencing development and progression of alcoholic liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, K; Marot, A; Deltenre, P

    2015-09-01

    Only a minority ot excessive drinkers develop cirrhosis. The main cofactors implicated in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease are obesity, diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Several genetic polymorphisms have been associated with a higher risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Recent data indicate that gut microbiota could play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors that influence development and progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26502621

  1. Factors Influencing on Trout Production in Khorasan Razavi Province

    OpenAIRE

    M.Ghorbani; H. Zare Mirakabad

    2010-01-01

    This research carried out to study of factors influencing on trout production in Khorasan Razavi Province using a cross sectional data of 105 trout producers and estimation of trout production function in 2008. Results showed that farms' area, number of fry, feed, fish farming period and water flow have positive effect on trout production and water temperature and fish losses have negative effect on it. Farms area, water temperature degree, number of fry, feed, fish farming period, water flow...

  2. Factors Influencing the Duration of Urine Leakage following Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Uyeturk, Ugur; Gucuk, Adnan; Kemahli, Eray; Dagistan, Emine; Yildiz, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Burak; Metin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The duration of urine leakage following the removal of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) shows significant variations depending on the techniques used. We aimed to assess the factors likely to influence the duration of urine leakage. Material and Methods. In total, 103 patients who underwent PCNL were reviewed retrospectively. DUL was evaluated regarding patient characteristics, thickness of the access line, presence of hydronephrosis, and residual stones...

  3. Influencing factors for depression among Chinese suicide survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and nine suicide survivors and 128 informants of community controls were investigated in this study to explore how Chinese suicide survivors were affected by the suicide deaths. Variables measured in the survey included demographic status, mental health status, personality, etc. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed in data analyses to explore possible influencing factors for depression among Chinese suicide survivors. ‘Lived with suicide victim’ was found to be the m...

  4. Income inequality in China and its influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolu, Wang

    2006-01-01

    While the average level of income per capita has increased in China rapidly, income inequality is becoming a more serious problem that may threaten social stability and the sustainability of economic development. This paper examines the existence in China of an inverted U-shaped curve for income inequality and economic development (known as the Kuznets curve), and tests for the effects of a series of hypothesized factors influencing income inequality. Panel data modelling based on provincial ...

  5. Factors Influencing Malaysian Consumers’ Intention Towards E-shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Khalilur Rahman; Md Abdul Jalil; Abdullah-Al-Mamun; S.D. Robel

    2014-01-01

    E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experienc...

  6. Influence factor on 11C methylation in PET radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    11C methylation was very important methods for synthesis of PET radiopharmaceuticals. It included C-N, C-O, C-S methylation and so on. There are many influence factors for 11C methylation, such as methylation agents, the base of reagents, the polarity of solvent, the space obstruct. The authors can adjust the methylation agent or change solvent in order to make one reaction as main reaction when a compound had two activity atoms. (authors)

  7. Factors Influencing Depression among Elderly Patients in Geriatric Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Jee, Young Ju; Lee, Yun Bok

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among elderly patients and identify the factors influencing depression in a geriatric hospital in Korea. [Subjects] A self-report questionnaire was administered to the patients in community geriatric hospitals. Participants were 195 elderly patients. [Methods] The instruments utilized in this study were the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea (GDSSF-K), an activity of daily living scale,...

  8. "I Didn't Understand the Damage It Did": Narrative Factors Influencing the Selection of Sexual Abuse as Epiphany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasker, Janice A.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the classification of life experiences as epiphanies is a task critical to personal growth. Uses narrative analysis to illuminate the factors that seem to influence the choice of events as epiphanies for survivors of sexual abuse. Examines such narratives from the life and work of D.H. Lawrence, as well as modern narratives from…

  9. Vlijaet li korrupcija na ustojchivost' jekonomicheskogo rosta? [Does corruption influence the sustainability of economic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polajeva Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is decreasing continuously and the main reason behind this is the change in peoples’ attitude and saturation to ethically questionable actions. Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. There are several factors that influence sustainable development. Among them are: government policies; management and organization; financial and economic factors. The main question for institutional sustainability may be formulated as the following: can the strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to the ultimate end-users? Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. Anticorruption strategies are related to the reform of state institutions. One advantage of the fundamental economic reform approach is that by linking anticorruption strategies to the reform of economic policies and institutions, the struggle against corruption can be seen as one of the issues in economic policy. Finally, all development assistance should be implemented with the aim of achieving sustainable benefits.

  10. An investigation on important factors influencing customer repurchase: A case study of Airline agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Rahimi Shamsabadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been an increase trend on purchasing via internet, which indicates a steady growth on this internet service. There are different advantages on e-purchase services such as availability of usage, fast and reliable services, etc. The purpose of this survey is to investigate on different influencing factors on customer's fidelity on purchasing air ticket from different agencies located in Tehran, Iran. The Cronbach Alpha validates our results. The proposed conceptual model of this paper is estimated using multi-variable regression model and the results indicate that direct factors influence customer satisfaction, significantly. The results indicate that while customer perception does not have any relationship with repurchase but it has direct relationship with customer's perception and trust.

  11. Host influence on irradiation bioefficacy : growth and development of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survival and development of Spodoptera litura(F), a polyphagous pest was ascertained on a range of host plants, common and economic in the Indian context. Castor, cotton, green gram and okra constituted the preferred host group showing significantly better growth rate (GR) and growth index (GI) than the group of less preferred host plants that included groundnut, red gram, rose leaf and rose petal. Ontogenic growth profile vis-a-vis irradiation was studied with recording of GI at L3, pupa and adult levels in response to gamma dosages administered in L1 stage. Irradiation effect on the growth index was mainly due to reduction in survival, which was further pronounced owing to delay in development. On all the preferred host plants, adult-G1 was reduced by more than 50 per cent at 40 Gy gamma dose; whereas the same dose on less preferred host plants could prevent adult emergence on ground nut and red gram, and inhibited pupa formation on rose diet. The percentage mortality of larvae exhibiting delayed development was markedly more in the less preferred host group. Dose dependent reduction was observed in the larval growth rate of L3, L5 and L6 instars on all the host plants. 20 Gy exhibited almost same intensity of adverse impact in less preferred host group as was shown by 40 Gy in preferred hosts. 20 Gy dose reduced the pupal weight and conversion ratio of treated insects significantly. Age influence was evident on irradiation efficacy on all the diets. Insects treated in the later instar had less radiosusceptibility as compared to the young irradiated larvae. Irradiation had a negative correlation with survival and weight gain during the course of development that in turn bore a positive relation with the increase in radiation dosage. Food is an important governing factor in influencing the insects survival value and developmental behaviour and may modify its intrinsic sensitivity towards irradiation stress. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety. PMID:23551380

  13. Influencing Factors of Rural Human Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.

  14. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in endometrioid endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Sørensen, Boe Sandahl; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Forman, Axel; Nexø, Ebba; Mogensen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) system is expressed in healthy premenopausal endometrium. We describe the expression of the four receptors, HER1, HER2, HER3, HER4 and the six ligands amphiregulin, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), heparin binding EGF like growth factor (HB-EGF), betacellulin, epiregulin and EGF in endometrioid endometrial cancer.

  15. Factors influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions: implications for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Roger B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65–79. Methods Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65–79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in English (60% response rate. The survey addressed the following factors in regards to older women's mammography screening decisions: perceived importance of a history of breast disease, family history of breast cancer, doctor's recommendations, habit, reassurance, previous experience, mailed reminder cards, family/friend's recommendations or experience with breast cancer, age, health, and media. The survey also assessed older women's preferred role in decision making around mammography screening. Results Of the 200 women, 65.5% were non-Hispanic white and 82.8% were in good to excellent health. Most (81.3% had undergone mammography in the past 2 years. Regardless of age, older women ranked doctor's recommendations as the most important factor influencing their decision to get screened. Habit and reassurance were the next two highly ranked factors influencing older women to get screened. Among women who did not get screened, women aged 80 and older ranked age and doctor's counseling as the most influential factors and women aged 65–79 ranked a previous negative experience with mammography as the most important factor. There were no significant differences in preferred role in decision-making around mammography screening by age, however, most women in both age groups preferred to make the final decision on their own (46.6% of women aged 80+ and 50.5% of women aged 65–79. Conclusion While a doctor's recommendation is the most important factor influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions, habit and reassurance also strongly influence decision-making. Interventions aimed at improving clinician counseling about mammography, which include discussions around habit and reassurance, may result in better decision-making.

  16. Mo polyoxometalate nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth and vascular endothelial growth factor induced angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Yang, Licong; Liu, Ying; Qin, Xiuying; Zhou, Yanhui; Zhou, Yunshan; Liu, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Tumor growth depends on angiogenesis, which can furnish the oxygen and nutrients that proliferate tumor cells. Thus, blocking angiogenesis can be an effective strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this work, three typical nanoparticles based on polyoxometalates (POMs) have been prepared; we investigated their capability as antitumor and anti-angiogenesis agents. We found that Mo POM nanoparticles, especially complex 3, inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) through cellular reactive oxygen species levels’ elevation and mitochondrial membrane potential damage. Complex 3 also suppressed the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro and chicken chorioallantoic membrane development ex vivo. Furthermore, western blot analysis of cell signaling molecules indicated that Mo POMs blocked the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated their cellular uptake and localization within the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells. These results indicate that, owing to the extraordinary physical and chemical properties, Mo POM nanoparticles can significantly inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, which makes them potential drug candidates in anticancer and anti-angiogenesis therapies.

  17. A review on the factors affecting mite growth in stored grain commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D A

    2012-03-01

    A thorough review of the literature has identified the key factors and interactions that affect the growth of mite pests on stored grain commodities. Although many factors influence mite growth, the change and combinations of the physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity and/or moisture content) during the storage period are likely to have the greatest impact, with biological factors (e.g. predators and commodity) playing an important role. There is limited information on the effects of climate change, light, species interactions, local density dependant factors, spread of mycotoxins and action thresholds for mites. A greater understanding of these factors may identify alternative control techniques. The ability to predict mite population dynamics over a range of environmental conditions, both physical and biological, is essential in providing an early warning of mite infestations, advising when appropriate control measures are required and for evaluating control measures. This information may provide a useful aid in predicting and preventing mite population development as part of a risk based decision support system. PMID:22270112

  18. Growth hormone-insuline-like growth factor-I system in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.E., Arranz; A. A., Sciara; P., Botta; P., Cerutti; M., Tobin; G.M., Somoza.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Using biotechnology to increase the growth rates of fish is likely to reduce production costs per unit of food. Among vertebrates, fish appear to occupy a unique position, when growth patterns are considered. With few exceptions, fish species tend to grow indeterminately, implying that size is never [...] fixed. Both hyperplasia and hypertrophy contribute to post-larval muscle growth in fish. Growth hormone (GH) - Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) is the most important growth axis in fish. Our experimental model, the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis (Ateriniformes) is a South American inland water fish considered to be a promising species for intensive aquaculture. However, one major drawback to achieve this goal is its slow growth in captivity. In order to understand how growth is regulated in this species, our first objective was to characterized pejerrey GH- IGF-I axis. We first cloned and characterized pejerrey (pj) GH, IGF-I and the growth hormone receptors (GHRs) I and II. In addition to providing valuable data for evolutionary comparison of GH, investigation of GH action in teleosts is particularly important because of its potential application in aquaculture. GH can not only promote the somatic growth in fish but also lower dietary protein requirements. A prerequisite for providing sufficient amounts of GH for basic research and aquaculture application is a large-scale production of GH. For that purpose, recombinant pjGH was expressed in a bacterial system. Protocols for solubilization and proper folding were achieved. Activity of recombinant pjGH was assessed in fish by measuring the liver IGF-I response to different doses of GH. IGF-I transcript was measured in the liver after pjGHr in vivo stimulation by means of quantitative real-time PCR assays. A dose-dependent response of IGF-I mRNA was observed after pjGHr administration, and reached a 6 fold IGF-I maximum increase over control group when 2.5 µg pjGH /g-body weight were injected. Temporal analysis of hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels showed that administration of a single dose of pjGHr into juvenile pejerrey resulted in a significant increase (P

  19. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a 6-fold increase in the phosphorylation state of a cytosolic protein (pp36, M/sub r/ = 36,000, pI = 5.5) in hepatocytes isolated from fasted, male, Wistar rats. Stimulation of 32P incorporation is observed as early as 1 min following treatment of hepatocytes with EGF and is still present at 30 min after exposure to the growth factor. The phosphate incorporated into pp36 in response to EGF is located predominantly in serine but not tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of pp36 does not occur in response to insulin or to agents which specifically activate the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (S/sub p/ -cAMPS), protein kinase C (PMA) or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (A23187) in these cells. Prior treatment of hepatocytes with the cAMP analog, S/sub p/-cAMPS, or ADP-ribosylation of N/sub i/, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, does not prevent EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of pp36. However, as seen in other cell types, pretreatment of hepatocytes with PMA abolishes all EGF-mediated responses including phosphorylation of pp36. These results suggest that EGP specifically activates an uncharacterized, serine protein kinase in hepatocytes that is distal to the intrinsic EGF receptor tyrosine protein kinase. The rapid activation of this kinase suggests that it may play an important role in the early response of the cell to EGF

  20. Epidermal growth factor in the treatment of radiogenic proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiogenic proctitis is a frequent complication of therapeutic radiation at the pelvic region. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) in treating patients with proctitis as a complication of radiotherapy of gynecological tumors. A phase II, placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind clinical trial was carried out. The treatment groups were: A) a solution of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (10 ?g/ml) in carboxymethyl cellulose or B) placebo (carboxymethylcellulose solution alone); the treatment was administered as a retention enema (20 mL) twice a day after bowel movement for 6 months. We included women of 18-75 years of age with proctitis as a complication of an ionizing radiation treatment of gynecological malignant tumors, confirmed by endoscopy, who gave their consent to participate. Thirty-seven patients were included. The basic demographic variables and were homogeneous among groups, which were comparable. There were more responses in group A (EGF) than in the control (placebo), but the difference was not statistically significant. Considering only those patients who completed the treatment, the difference in response was greater with EGF (86% vs60%). The symptoms disappeared more rapidly in the group treated with EGF (p=0.027 and p=0.016, for bleeding and tenesmus, respectively). The product under study was well tolerated. Although there are signs of improvement in some symptoms, the sample was too small to demonstrate the effectiveness of Hebervis in the treatment of proctitis. (Author)