Korityak, Anton; Fichtel, Tomasz
This paper focuses on identifying factors influencing the financing decisions of growth-oriented start-ups. A sample of 8 business incubator start-ups has been studied within a qualitative research so as to reach that goal. Their fundraising choices are analyzed using supporting financial and psychological theories. Also, the thesis examines the start-ups’ interaction with a business incubator and investors.It is found that growth oriented start-ups use internal funds in the first instance,...
Paunovi? Ivan R.
The present data of growth factors, oncogenes, tumor-suppressor-genes and environmental factors can be summarized in thus: thyrotropin, growth factors and other hormones do increase thyrocyte growth and specific mutations of growth factor receptors (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], alpha subunit of hetero-trimeric transducer protein [GSP]) cause autonomously functioning thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In the thyroid, as in other organs, genes that are found to be differentia...
Paunovi? Ivan R.
Full Text Available The present data of growth factors, oncogenes, tumor-suppressor-genes and environmental factors can be summarized in thus: thyrotropin, growth factors and other hormones do increase thyrocyte growth and specific mutations of growth factor receptors (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], alpha subunit of hetero-trimeric transducer protein [GSP] cause autonomously functioning thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In the thyroid, as in other organs, genes that are found to be differentially expressed between normal thyroid tissue and thyroid carcinomas can be used as targets for molecular-based diagnosis and therapy. Deregulation of tumor suppressor gene p53, however, parallels dedifferentiation of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer but has been found in few cases only. Iodide inhibiting thyrocyte growth will have to be investigated more intensively after sodium-iodide-symporter (NIS has been cloned, and studies may now be available that could lead to form of conservative treatment in especially dedifferentiated thyroid cancer.
Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela
Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871) and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812). A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614) were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.
Catering industry in China is a traditional and generally upward industry; most restaurants are small entrepreneurial restaurants, and growth is a trend. Consequently, there is a need to research the factors of owners influencing the growth decisions, and this thesis will focus on the internal factors of small entrepreneurial restaurant owners. The research method was interviews, five interviewees were chosen as samples, and the whole process was recorded by camera. D. J. Storey. Factors Infl...
Ruth Niva Ongachi; Henry M. Bwisa
This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with s...
Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said
Puberty is a period of development characterized by partially concurrent changes which includes growth acceleration, alteration in body composition and appearance of secondary sex characteristics. Puberty is characterized by an acceleration and then deceleration in skeletal growth. The initiation, duration and amount of growth vary considerably during the growth spurt. Pubertal growth and biological maturation are dynamic processes regulated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Changes in skeletal maturation and bone mineral accretion concomitant with the stage of pubertal development constitute essential components in the evaluation of growth during this pubertal period. Genetic, endocrine and nutritional factors and ethnicity contribute variably to the amount of growth gained during this important period of rapid changes. Many studies investigated the possibility of increasing pubertal growth to gain taller final adult height in adolescents with idiopathic short stature (ISS). The pattern of pubertal growth, its relation to sex maturity rating and factors affecting them has been addressed in this review. The results of different trials to increase final adult height of adolescents using different hormones have been summarized. These data enables Endocrinologists to give in-depth explanations to patients and families about the efficacy and clinical significance as well as the safety of using these therapies in the treatment of adolescents with ISS. PMID:25538878
?. S. Rossikhina
Full Text Available The influence of growth stimulators «Appin-extra», «Vympel» and «Agat» on the activity of aminotransferases inthe seedlings of early-mid ripening hybrids of maize has been studied. It has been established that growth-stimulating processing causes the rise of aspartat aminotransferaseand alaninaminotransferase activities and accumulation of easily soluble proteins at the early stages of growth. Against the background of clear tendency of the aminotransferases activities increase under the influence of growth-promoting factors the cultivar-specific reactions have been revealed. It has been registered the existence of a correlation (r = 0.88–0.99 between enzymatic activity of aminotransferases and growth stimulation in the maize seedlings.
Dubuisson, A S; Beuermann, R W; Kline, D G
The effects of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) on axonal regeneration of a sectioned sciatic nerve within collagen tubes were investigated in 15 rats. Following baseline electrophysiologic assessment, bilateral 7-mm nerve gaps were created and repaired by interposition of collagen tubes, into which EGF (left side) or type I collagen (right side) was instilled. After 4 or 8 weeks, axonal regeneration, measured by electrophysiologic and histologic means, was identical for the EGF and control legs. The conclusion is that EGF does not influence nerve regeneration within a collagen chamber. PMID:8301632
Ruth Niva Ongachi
Full Text Available This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with structured and unstructured questions. The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing the growth of women entrepreneurship in Kitale and specifically to determine, the women’s level of education, skills and technology they employ, the social/cultural environmental conditions within which they operate and their financial capacity. The 70 respondents represented the target population which was within Kitale Municipality, selected by stratified random sampling procedures. Details in this project include the introduction, problem statement, the purpose, main and specific objectives of the study, research questions and the scope. A discussion of the available literature on women owned micro and small enterprises, included the enterprises’ start- up, undertakings and growth, the missing middle, the social, cultural and environmental conditions , the entrepreneur’s education level, skills technology and financing they access. The interventional efforts and growth models were also discussed. The literature review wound up with a critique, a conclusion and the missing gap. The methodology used in conducting the study was explained in details that included descriptive research design, the population, target population, sample size, sampling technique and procedure, the instruments, data collection procedure, processing and analysis. A questionnaire was administered orally to 70 women in MSE within the municipality in order to gather data. The research findings analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences(SPSS, were discussed using a triangulation style along with tables and figures the major factors affecting growth were found to be lack of training, finance, and multiple roles. The rate of growth was found to be between low and moderate. The whole research process was summarized concisely, concluded and relevant recommendations outlined. This study has made some contribution to research and added to knowledge in the existing literature all of which have been pinpointed in the summary and conclusion. The appendix included the research instrument, some tables, figures, introduction letters, a budget and a work plan. The research findings have helped unravel the problem by answering the research questions outlined and may therefore significantly play the role of assisting the stakeholders in addressing the problem of women in the MSE sector. The stakeholders include the government organs, NGOs, financial institutions, women proponents, the women entrepreneur’s, professionals and the society at large. It is hoped that the recommendation made shall be adopted by the concerned party to improve the growth of women owned MSEs in Kitale municipality and the nation at large.
Elfving, Betina; ButtenschØn, Henriette N
Recent studies suggest that the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. However, only a few studies have investigated serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression, or the possible association between genetic variants within the VEGF gene and depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression vs. control individuals, and associations between genetic markers located within VEGF and depression. In addition, determinants of the serum VEGF levels were identified. One-hundred and fifty-five depressed subjects and 280 controls were included in the study. All individuals returned a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms were successfully analysed. VEGF levels were measured in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The genetic marker rs10434 was significantly associated with depression after correction for multiple testing, but not with the serum VEGF level. Our final model included depression and BMI as predictors of serum VEGF levels. Our study suggests a role for circulating serum VEGF in depression. Furthermore, our data also demonstrate that other factors than a diagnosis of depression influence the serum VEGF level. The importance of these factors should be emphasized when studies are compared.
Boutsivongsakd, Monique; Farwell, Andrea J; Chen, Hao; Dixon, D George
Previous studies reported (15)N enrichment of biota in reclamation wetlands that contain oil sands processed material (e.g., processed water and tailings); however, there is little information on the factors controlling (15)N enrichment in these systems. In this microcosm study, the aim was to examine stable C and N isotopes and growth (chlorophyll a [chl a] and dry weight) of algae as a function of exposure to different sources and concentrations of water-soluble fractions (WSF) derived from tailings. Two sources of tailings including mature fine tailings (MFT) and consolidated tailings (CT) and peat-mineral overburden were utilized to generate separate WSF that differed in water quality. In general, there was (15)N enrichment of filamentous algae along the increasing gradient of WSF/nutrient concentrations in both CT and peat microcosms, and among the different sources, algae were more (15)N enriched in CT WSF than in peat WSF. Growth of filamentous algae was inhibited at higher WSF concentrations, possibly due to reduced light availability at elevated levels of fine clay particles in MFT microcosms and colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in peat microcosms. Filamentous algae displayed lower biomass and (15)N depletion in 100% peat WSF. This study indicated that both the quality (source) and quantity of WSF affected algal growth and directly and/or indirectly influenced ?(15)N of algae. The distinct (15)N enrichment of primary producers derived from tailings suggest that stable N isotopes might be useful to trace exposure to oil sands processed material in biota that utilize these resources in reclaimed systems constructed with tailings or natural systems that receive tailings dyke seepage. PMID:25506635
Andersen, Niels Frost; Vogel, Ulla
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent proangiogenic factor. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene with influence on VEGF expression have been described. In multiple myeloma, VEGF stimulates angiogenesis which is correlated with disease progression and prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the association between genetic variations in the VEGF gene in patients with multiple myeloma and time to treatment failure (TTF) after high-dose melphalan and stem cell support (HDT), overall survival (OS) and efficacy of the anti-angiogenic drug thalidomide. Retrospectively, the SNPs -2,578C>A (rs699947), -460C>T (rs833061), +405G>C (rs2010963) and +936C>T (rs3025039) in the VEGF gene were examined in 348 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma initially treated with HDT, where 176 patients were treated with thalidomide at relapse. None of the examined geno- or haplotypes was associated with differences in TTF after initial therapy or OS. A possible relation between the haplotype -2,578A/-460C/+405G (ACG) and effect of thalidomide was seen. Patients with no copies of the haplotype ACG had a longer time to next treatment than patients with one or two copies of the haplotype ACG, median 13.7 months vs. 9.2 months, p = 0.007. In conclusion, the haplotype ACG in the VEGF gene may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma. Further analyses are needed to confirm these findings and get insight into the functional effect of these polymorphisms, so in the future we may be able to select multiple myeloma patients who especially will benefit from treatment with thalidomide.
Ruijter, F. J.
The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that potato growers can use to minimise nematode damage.The research concentrated on the interaction between nematodes and soil-related factors. Experiments were carried out, mainly under field conditions, in w...
Wilson, R T
Data on weight and growth of indigenous African cattle under a traditional management system are reported. In semi-arid central Mali (14 degrees N, 6 degrees W) calf birth weight was 16.6 kg, growth rates to weaning at seven months averaged 185 grams per day. Cows did not reach mature weights (230 kg) until after five years of age and work oxen did not achieve a mature weight of 297 kg until after six years. Effects of season of birth were significant on growth throughout life but effects of year of birth only persisted for nine months. Parity of cow, season and year had significant influences on post-partum weight. Seasonal changes in weight were severe for both work oxen (87 to 107% of mean weight) and for cows (88 to 110%). Over a seven year study period the decline in mature weights of oxen was 4% per year equivalent to about 80 kg over the period. For cows the decline was proportionately less severe (2.7%) these animals averaging 40 kg less in 1984 than they did in 1978. The slow growth rates, low mature weights and reduction in adult size is considered to be due to chronic overstocking on already denuded feed resources and to a decline in rainfall over the period. Current research programmes aimed at finding solutions to these problems are outlined. PMID:3629718
This paper presents a study on the crystallization and growth mechanism of selenium nanowires induced by silver nanoparticles at ambient conditions with special reference to the effects of factors such as the shapes and size of silver nanoparticles, the induced reaction time, and the molar ratio of Ag0 to SeO32- ions. The synthesis approach is conducted with no need of any stabilizers, and with no sonochemical process and/or templates. It is found that whether silver spherical particles or colloids can lead to the formation of nanowires with average diameter of 25 nm and lengths up to a few micrometers, and silver nanoplates lead to the formation of flat Se nanostructures. In particular, Au, Cu, Pt, and Pd particles cannot induce the growth of selenium nanowires in aqueous solution at room temperature. The results indicate that silver particles play a critical role in determining the growth of selenium nanowires. The lattice match between hexagonal-Se and orthorhombic- or trigonal-Ag2Se particles is the major driving force in the growth of such nanostructures. The findings would be useful for design and construction of heterogeneous nanostructures with similar lattice parameter(s)
Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of Feixian Formula, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treating pulmonary fibrosis, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and its influence on serum transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF.Methods: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were infused with bleomycin (1 mg/kg through tracheal intubation to induce pulmonary fibrosis, and they were randomly divided into untreated group (n=24, prednisone-treated group (n=24 and Feixian Formula-treated group (n=24. Fifteen male Wistar rats of the sham-operated group were infused with equivalent normal saline. Twenty-four hours after operation, prednisone (5 mg/kg and Feixian Formula (1.25 g/kg were given to the prednisone-treated group and Feixian Formula-treated group respectively by intragastric administration once a day. Equivalent saline was administered to rats of the untreated group and sham-operated group. On the 14th, 28th and 45th day, 5 rats in the sham-operated group and 8 rats in each of the other three groups were dissected to observe pathologic changes of the lung tissues, and the levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: At the 45th day, the degree of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was lesser in rats of the Feixian Formula-treated group as compared with those of the untreated group and prednisone-treated group. The levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were increased, and were significantly higher than those of the sham-operated group, especially on the 45th day (P0.05, and there was no significant difference between the prednisone-treated group and the Feixian Formula-treated group (P>0.05. PDGF in the Feixian Formula-treated group reached the highest level on the 14th day, significantly higher than those of the other three groups (P<0.01. Then it decreased, and was close to that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P=0.792. The levels of PDGF in untreated group and prednisone-treated group were increased depending on time, and were obviously higher than that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P<0.01. Conclusion: Feixian Formula can relieve bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and the mechanism of its action may be related to down-regulating serum PDGF.
A.K., Thiruvenkadan; S., Panneerselvam; R., Rajendran.
Full Text Available Live weight data from 590 Murrah buffalo calves (140 male and 450 female calves) maintained at the Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India, born in the period between 1990 and 2004 were used for this study. Data were analysed using least-squares procedures. The adjusted birth weigh [...] ts of male and female calves were 33.0 ± 0.49 and 31.9 ± 0.27 kg, respectively, with an overall value of 32.4 ± 0.30 kg. The mean body weight at three, six, nine and 12 months of age pooled over periods, season and sex were 62.0 ± 0.65, 87.9 ± 0.95, 112.4 ± 1.23 and 134.16 ± 1.41 kg, respectively. Period of calving influenced the weight significantly at birth, three and six months of ages only. The effect of dam parity on body weight at different ages was highly significant. The calves born during the dam's second parity were generally heavier than those born in other parities. Generally, males had a higher body weight than females at all age groups. All the growth traits showed medium heritability (direct) estimates, which ranged between 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.22 ± 0.16. The genetic correlations were all medium to high and positive. The genetic parameter estimates indicated that the six months weight can be used as a selection tool for genetic improvement of growth traits considering its high heritability and positive genetic correlations with succeeding growth traits.
Kuespert, Sabrina; Junglas, Benjamin; Braunger, Barbara M; Tamm, Ernst R; Fuchshofer, Rudolf
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induces extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and contractility in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. Both processes are involved in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma. To date, little is known about regulation and function of CTGF expression in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Therefore, we analysed the effects of different aqueous humour proteins and stressors on CTGF expression in HTM cells. HTM cells from three different donors were treated with endothelin-1, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, angiotensin-II, H2 O2 and heat shock and were analysed by immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Viability after H2 O2 treatment was measured in CTGF silenced HTM-N cells and their controls. Latrunculin A reduced expression of CTGF by about 50% compared to untreated HTM cells, whereas endothelin-1, IGF-1, angiotensin-II, heat shock and oxidative stress led to a significant increase. Silencing of CTGF resulted in a delayed expression of ?B-crystallin and in reduced cell viability in comparison to the controls after oxidative stress. Conversely, CTGF treatment led to a higher cell viability rate after H2 O2 treatment. CTGF expression is induced by factors that have been linked to glaucoma. An increased level of CTGF appears to protect TM cells against damage induced by stress. The beneficial effect of CTGF for viability of TM cells is likely associated with the effects on increased ECM synthesis and higher contractility of the TM, thereby contributing to reduced aqueous humour outflow facility causing increased intraocular pressure. PMID:25704370
CECILIA ELENA V?DUVA
In the national economy system, investments are an accelerator formultiplying receipts of material and labour resources thus causing a growth of disbursementsfrom the system32. Therefore, in the system of factors influencing the economic development of acountry, investments have a strategic role. This is why, investments are the main method forachieving economic growth.
Hunt, J. D.; Watkins, J. M.; Tripati, A.; Ryerson, F. J.; DePaolo, D. J.
Clumped isotope paleothermometry is based on the association of 13C and 18O within carbonate minerals. Although the influence of temperature on equilibrium 13C-18O bond ordering has been studied, recent oxygen isotope studies of inorganic calcite demonstrate that calcite grown in laboratory experiments and in many natural settings does not form in equilibrium with water. It is therefore likely that the carbon and clumped isotope composition of these calcite crystals are not representative of true thermodynamic equilibrium. To isolate kinetic clumped isotope effects that arise at the mineral-solution interface, clumped isotopic equilibrium of DIC species must be maintained. This can be accomplished by dissolving the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) into the solution, thereby reducing the time required for isotopic equilibration of DIC species by approximately two orders of magnitude between pH 7.7 and 9.3. We conduct calcite growth experiments aimed specifically at measuring the pH-dependence of kinetic clumped isotope effects during non-equilibrium precipitation of calcite. We precipitated calcite from aqueous solution at a constant pH and controlled supersaturation over the pH range 7.7-9.3 in the presence of CA. For each experiment, a gas mixture of N2 and CO2 is bubbled through a beaker of solution without seed crystals. As CO2 from the gas dissolves into solution, calcite crystals grow on the beaker walls. The pH of the solution is maintained by use of an autotitrator with NaOH as the titrant. We control the temperature, pH, the pCO2 of the gas inflow, and the gas inflow rate, and monitor the total alkalinity, the pCO2 of the gas outflow, and the amount of NaOH added. A constant crystal growth rate of ~1.6 mmol/m2/hr is maintained over all experiments. Results from these experiments are compared to predictions from a recently-developed isotopic ion-by-ion growth model of calcite. The model describes the rate, temperature and pH dependence of oxygen isotope uptake into calcite under non-equilibrium conditions. Adaptation of the model for clumped isotope uptake under non-equilibrium conditions requires knowledge of the clumped isotopic compositions of DIC species and any mass-dependent kinetic fractionation that arises during ion transport to or from the mineral surface.
Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.
The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.
Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Madic, Jordan; Doudin, Florent; Martin, Christine
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants is the main reservoir of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which is responsible for food-borne infections in humans that can lead to severe kidney disease. Characterization of biotic and abiotic factors that influence the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help in the development of ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the GIT and to decrease the risk of contamination of animal products. We found that growth of E. coli O157:H7 in rumen fluid was inhibited by the autochthonous microflora. Growth was also reduced when rumen fluid came from sheep fed a mixed diet composed of 50% wheat and 50% hay, as opposed to a 100% hay diet. In fecal suspensions, E. coli O157:H7 growth was not suppressed by the autochthonous flora. However, a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibited E. coli O157:H7 growth in fecal suspensions. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent. These lactic acid bacteria could be a relevant tool for controlling O157:H7 development in the terminal part of the ruminant GIT, which has been shown to be the main site of colonization by these pathogenic bacteria. PMID:16751525
Goyal, Mayank; Rizzo, Michael; Schumacher, Frank; Wong, Chung F.
We modeled the kinetics of drug binding to protein kinases in the EGF signaling pathway relevant to non-small cell lung cancer and found that binding kinetics could influence therapeutic potential, that fast binding kinetics was advantageous for most targets with a couple of exceptions, that targeting some protein kinases could enhance rather than attenuate the pathway, and that IC50 could be sensitive to the kinetic parameters of drug binding. PMID:19702309
Different regions of the world have to face distinct processes of economic growth. The measure of growth is divergent; countries carry distinct evolutionary ways into execution. The state of development as the result of the above processes is different, too. What is the reason? It is the question I would like to answer. My further questions are: What is the reason for economic growth? What kind of factors determines the level of development and cause regional differences? I deal with concentr...
Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)
The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.
Zhao, W; Cai, W M
When ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) cells were subjected horizontal rotation on a clinostat, their growth and ginseng saponin content differed from those cultured in normal gravitational environments (control). Both fresh and dry weights of ginseng cells rotating on clinostat were higher than those of the control, and the difference in dry weight was particularly obvious. After 3 weeks of cultivation, saponin content in ginseng was 10% higher under the horizontal rotation treatment on the clinostat than that of the control. When ginseng cells were cultured on Ca2(+)-deprived medium and clinostatted for 3 weeks, their ginseng saponin content was almost twice of that of the control. Besides, in our experiments, the higher the Ca2+ concentration in medium, the lower the ginseng saponin content in the ginseng cells cultured. PMID:11541754
Full Text Available Different regions of the world have to face distinct processes of economic growth. The measure of growth is divergent; countries carry distinct evolutionary ways into execution. The state of development as the result of the above processes is different, too. What is the reason? It is the question I would like to answer. My further questions are: What is the reason for economic growth? What kind of factors determines the level of development and cause regional differences? I deal with concentration of economical activities, centre-periphery ratio, relationship between economic growth and sustainable development. This article reviews what I realized in the course of my research.
Sarunya Lertputtarak; Surat Supitchayangkool
The main purposes of this study were to study demographic factors, academic system, and social networks andother communication tools which can influence alumni donations. Using quantitative research involvingquestionnaires, the participants of this study were former and current students of master and doctoral degreeprograms in business from one of the government universities in Thailand. The results showed that academicsystem, social networks and other communication tools have an influence on...
Angela Simalcsik; Robert-Daniel Simalcsik
Viewed as a phenomenon with multi-factorial determination, the growth and development of the human organism depend equally on the hereditary patrimony and on the environmental conditions, the socio-economic ones, especially. As a critical transition period from childhood to adult age, adolescence is characterized by increased nutritional needs. The main factor responsible for the variations manifested in human physical development is alimentation – a factor correlated with the socio-economic ...
The growth of cracks from spark machined slits and gouged grooves has been studied in a CDFR specification cast of 316 stainless steel under thermal shock conditions using sodium as the heat transfer medium. Comparative uniaxial creep fatigue tests have also been performed in servohydraulic machines under isothermal conditions. The cycles used for the thermal shock tests consisted of step increases in temperatures of between 75 and 300 C followed by tensile holds at 600 C of duration 0.05 to 24 hours, and finally slow cooling to the initial temperature ready for the next cycle. The results are presented showing the influence on crack growth of strain range, hold time, number of cycles, types of defect and ferrite stringer direction. (author)
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta
The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...
Hand, Brian D.; Kostek, Matthew C; Ferrell, Robert E; DELMONICO, MATTHEW J.; Douglass, Larry W.; ROTH, STEPHEN M.; HAGBERG, JAMES M.; Ben F. Hurley
To examine the influence of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway gene polymorphisms on muscle mass and strength responses to strength training (ST), we studied 128 White and Black men and women before and after a 10-wk single-leg knee extension ST program. One-repetition maximum strength, muscle volume (MV) via computed tomography, and muscle quality (MQ) were assessed at baseline and after 10 wk of ST. There was a significant combined IGF1 cytosine adenine (CA) repeat gene effect, which ...
Cruz, E M Vera; Brown, C L
The effects of the duration of the light phase photoperiod (8 h light or 16 h light) on the growth and hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. There was a slight but not significant tendency for fish in the long light phase group (L(P)) to display elevated specific growth rate (G) both in mass (M) and standard length (L(S)) compared with that in the short light phase group (S(P);P = 0.057 for G(M);P = 0.055 for G(L)). Significantly, higher food conversion efficiency was observed in the L(P) than in the S(P). There were significant positive correlations between IGF-I concentrations and G, both in M and L(S). A significantly negative correlation was observed between IGF-I mRNA level and eye colour pattern. The lack of significant differences in G and hepatic IGF-I gene expression, despite the significant difference in feed conversion efficiency, may be related partly to the development of different levels of social interactions in the different groups within a photoperiod regime leading to increased variation of results within each group. These findings suggest that hepatic IGF-I gene expression has potential utility as a growth rate indicator for this species of fish and social status, as quantified by eye colour pattern, appears to be a much stronger determinant of growth rate and IGF-I transcript level than does light phase photoperiod length. PMID:20738487
Pufe, T; Claassen, H; Scholz-Ahrens, K E; Varoga, D; Drescher, W; Franke, A T M; Wruck, C; Petersen, W; Cellarius, C; Schrezenmeir, J; Glüer, C-C
Ovariectomy (OVX) in animal models is an accepted method to simulate postmenopausal osteoprosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been recently shown to play an important role during endochondral bone formation, hypertrophic cartilage remodeling, ossification, and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that reduced VEGF expression in bone contributes to OVX-induced bone loss and tested it in a miniature pig model and in vitro using human osteoblasts. Seventeen primiparous sows (Göttingen miniature pigs) were allocated to two experimental groups when they were 30 months old: a control group (n = 9) and an OVX group (n = 8). After 15 months, VEGF levels in lumbar vertebrae were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and verified by Western blot analysis. VEGF and its receptor (VEGFR) were localized by immunohistochemistry. Expression of VEGF mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Differently sulfated glycosaminoglycans were localized in subchondral bone histochemically. Osteoblasts were immunopositive for VEGF. VEGF concentration in the vertebra was 27% lower in OVX miniature pigs. VEGFR-2 could be immunostained on osteoblasts. VEGF mRNA and protein were detectable in the lumbar vertebrae of all animals. In subchondral trabecular bone of OVX animals, significantly more islands of mineralized cartilage containing chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate or keratan sulfate occurred compared to the control group. The occurrence of remnants of mineralized cartilage in subchondral bone of the OVX group may be caused by a delayed bone turnover due to low VEGF levels. In vitro experiments revealed an increase of VEGF in the supernatant of osteoblasts after incubation with estradiol. In conclusion, estrogen seems to be a key factor for regulation of VEGF expression in bone. Loss of VEGF due to menopause may be a reason for reduction of bone density. PMID:17334879
Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.
Brittain, Julia E.
In this issue of Blood, Wang et al describe for the first time a vital link between iron overload and pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease (SCD). They report this link is likely placenta growth factor (PlGF).1
Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee
Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P?P?=?0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P?=?0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.
Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro
This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs. Am J Phys Anthropol 157:94-106, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641623
Haynes, Laura; Cohen, Nicholas
Both TGF/?2 and 5 have been described in the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis and have been cloned from the tadpole-derived fibroblast cell line, XTC. Because TGF? has such a profound inhibitory effect on the mammalian immune system, this study was performed to determine whether TGF?: (a) has any in vitro effects on the growth of Xenopus lymphoblasts, and (b) is produced by mitogen-activated Xenopus lymphocytes.
O'Sullivan, Julian; Whelan, Thomas A.
The aims of this study were to investigate the level of adversarial growth among telephone counsellors, and to examine the influence of psychological and environmental factors on growth. In particular, the effect of compassion fatigue, empathy, environmental support and calls per shift on posttraumatic growth was assessed. Sixty-four telephone…
Full Text Available Differentiation of the particular tissues in shoots inhibited in growth by chlormequat occurs differently than in vigorously growing ones. After the end of elongation growth, in the subapical part of shoots sprayed with chlormequat the cortex extends and secondary xylem develops less intensively, this leading to an increased participation of parenchymatous tissue in the stem.
Factores que influyen en el crecimiento endocondral: experimentos y modelos / Facteurs influençant la croissance de l'os endochondral: expériences et modèles. Une révision / Factors influencing on the endochondral growth: experiments and models. A review
Diego Alexander, Garzón Alvarado; Máximo Alejandro, Roa Garzón; Angélica María, Ramírez Martínez.
Full Text Available Se presentan los principales factores que influyen durante el desarrollo endocondral a nivel pre y postnatal. Los factores más importantes del desarrollo de los huesos largos se pueden clasificar en moleculares y mecánicos, los cuales a su vez se clasifican como intrínsecos y extrínsecos. En este ar [...] tículo se presentan los principales avances en el conocimiento del desarrollo endocondral para lo cual se hace una revisión del estado del arte sobre los modelos experimentales, animales y algunos computacionales del conjunto de todos los factores que influyen en el crecimiento de un hueso largo. La última parte del artículo hace referencia a la aparición y desarrollo de los centros secundarios de osificación y como la mecánica y los factores moleculares, se encuentran íntimamente regulados para controlar la total formación de un hueso. Abstract in english The main factors influencing on the endochondral development at the pre- and postnatal level are presented. The most important factors of the development of the long bones may be classified into molecular and mechanical, which at the same time, may be defined as intrinsic and extrinsic. In this pape [...] r, the fundamental advances attained in the knowledge of the endochondral development are presented, for which a review of the state of the art regarding the experimental, animal and some computer models of the set of all the factors influencing on the growth of a long bone is made. The last part of the article refers to the appearance and development of the secondary centres of ossification and to how mechanics and the molecular factors are closely regulated to control total bone formation.
Full Text Available To assess gender-, pubertal-, age-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation score (, data from 5,797 growth hormone (GH naïve pediatric patients ( at year 1 was significantly greater for males versus females (, but no other gender differences were observed. For patients with GHD, was greater in prepubertal than in pubertal patients. Younger patients for both genders ( ( for GHD, MPHD, and ISS. Overall, positive were observed in all patients, with greater growth responses in younger prepubertal children, emphasizing the importance of starting GH treatment early.
Cost and benefits of high individual growth rates are likely to vary across different environments leading to geographic differentiation in growth strategies. In ectotherms, habitats constrained by short growing seasons favour rapid growth and development leading to adaptive latitudinal clines in these traits. Geographic variation in growth strategies should be influenced by physiological variation as well as environmental factors, however many of these mechanisms remain largely unexplored. I...
Full Text Available The permeability of coal reservoir is the most important influencing factor for choosing favorable area and production of coalbed methane, this article takes a detailed analysis of coal rank, thickness of coal seam, coal structure, construct curvature, effective stress, Klingberg effect and matrix shrinkage effect on reservoir permeability with comprehensive information consulting, literature review methods. The results show that coal reservoir is dual pore structure; the degree of development of fracture directly influences the size of the coal seam permeability. The growth of natural fracture density and lithotype band or negatively correlate to the layer thickness.
Ripa, R.S.; Jorgensen, E.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that mutations in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene are associated with plasma concentration of VEGF and subsequently the ability to influence coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Blood samples from patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (n=53) and acute coronary syndrome (n=61) were analysed. Coronary collaterals were scored from diagnostic biplane coronary angiograms. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of VEGF was increased in patients with acute compared to chronic CHD (p=0.01). The genotype frequencies differed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in three of 15 examined loci. Four new mutations in addition to the already described were identified. The VEGF haplotype did not seem to predict plasma VEGF concentration (p=0.5). There was an association between the genotype in locus VEGF-1154 and coronary collateral size (p=0.03) and a significant association between the VEGF plasma concentration and the collateral size (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: VEGF plasma concentration seems related to coronary collateral function in patients with CHD. The results did not support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the untranslated region of the VEGF gene were associated with the concentration of circulating VEGF. Increased understanding of VEGF in the regulation of myocardial collateral flow may lead to new therapies in CHD Udgivelsesdato: 2009
Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad
Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...
Back ground and purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific pro-angiogenic factor is proposed to be involved in cancer progression and resistance to radiation therapy by promoting angiogenesis and by protecting endothelial cells from radiation induced apoptosis. The aim of this study, was first to assess the influence of ionizing radiation on plasma VEGF concentration in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy with curative or palliative intent and second to analyze plasma VEGF concentration as predictor for treatment outcome. Patients and methods: For plasma VEGF analysis a human VEGF enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used. Sixty dogs with various tumor types were included in this study. Dogs were irradiated with either low dose per fx (3-3.5 Gy per fraction, total dose: 42-49 Gy, group A: curative intent) or high dose per fx (6-8 Gy per fraction, total dose: 24-30 Gy, group B: palliative intent). Blood samples were taken before and after dose application at certain time points during therapy. Follow-up evaluation was performed for analysis of time to treatment failure and survival. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed no increase of plasma VEGF in dogs treated with fractionated radiation therapy (group A and B). Dichotomizing baseline plasma VEGF into two groups with high and low plasma VEGF, resulted in shorter time to treatment failure in dogs with high plasma VEGF levels (TTF, group A: P=0.038, group B: P=0.041s (TTF, group A: P=0.038, group B: P=0.041). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that dogs with a plasma VEGF level higher than 5 pg/ml had a poorer outcome after radiation therapy. It is therefore, suggested, to use plasma VEGF as predictor for treatment outcome in radiation therapy
This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly rk force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation
Ting, Adrian C H; Craft, Randall O; Palmer, Jason A; Gerrand, Yi-Wen; Penington, Anthony J; Morrison, Wayne A; Mitchell, Geraldine M
The extracellular matrix (ECM) Matrigel™ has frequently and successfully been used to generate new adipose tissue experimentally, but is unsuitable for human application. This study sought to compare the adipogenic potential of a number of alternative, biologically derived or synthetic ECMs with potential for human application, with and without growth factors and a small fat autograft. Eight groups, with six severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice per group, were created with bilateral chambers (silicone tubes) implanted around the epigastric vascular pedicle, with one chamber/animal containing a 5mg fat autograft. Two animal groups were created for each of four ECMs (Matrigel™, Myogel, Cymetra® and PuraMatrix™) which filled the bilateral chambers. One group/ECM had no growth factors added to chambers whilst the other group had growth factors (GFs) (vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plus fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plus platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)) added to both chambers. At 6weeks, chamber tissue was morphometrically assessed for percent and absolute adipose tissue volume. Overall, the triple GF regime significantly increased percent(?) and absolute(#) adipose tissue volume (p<0.0005(?#)) compared to chambers without triple GF treatment. The fat autograft also significantly increased percent (p<0.0005) and absolute (p<0.011) adipose tissue volume. Cymetra® (human collagen) constructs yielded the largest total tissue and absolute adipose tissue volume. We found that the pro-angiogenic FGF-2, VEGF-A and PDGF-BB combination in ECMs of synthetic and biological origin produced an overall significantly increased adipose tissue volume at 6weeks and may have clinical application, particularly with Cymetra. PMID:24296126
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih
Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.
The objective of this study was to determine if plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) differed among heifers and steers produced from three-breed diallel matings using temperate and tropically adapted breeds of cattle in Brooksville, FL. Additionally, for steers only, body w...
Steffens, Sandra; Gru?nwald, Viktor; Ringe, Kristina I.; Seidel, Christoph; Eggers, Hendrik; Schrader, Mark; Wacker, Frank; Kuczyk, Markus A.; Schrader, Andres J.
Whether or not obesity (measured in terms of body mass index, body surface area, visceral fat area, and s.c. fat area) can predict the long-term prognosis of renal cell cancer patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy is examined.
?TEFAN CRISTIAN CIUCU; RALUCA DRAGOESCU
In transition countries affected by uncertainty, the educational system usually suffers from lack of funds from the government and it is affected by various reforms. It is important to see how education influences economic growth and how this growth can be improved by investing in education. In this article, after a literature and econometric models review, the influence of primary, secondary and tertiary education over the GDP growth will be analyzed for Bulgaria, Czech Republic and ...
Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K
Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258
Yong Jun Park
Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.
Uneven economic growth during the recent years raise the question whether any factor of economic growth aside economic cycle fluctuations exists in Latvia. The objective of the Doctoral Thesis is, to assess the factors of economic growth in Latvia using econometric modelling techniques, and to solve various problems that arise when such techniques are used in Latvia's case. The Doctoral Thesis has identified the main factor of economic growth in Latvia – fixed capital accumulation. Alt...
Yu, Sang Kyun; Kwon, Oh Sang; Jung, Hyuk Sang; Bae, Kyung Suk; Kwon, Kwang An; Kim, Yu Kyung; Kim, Yun Soo; Kim, Ju Hyun
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 is a key cytokine producing extracellular matrix. We evaluated the effect of TGF-?1 gene polymorphism at codon 10 on the development of cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. One hundred seventy eight patients with chronic hepatitis (CH, n=57) or liver cirrhosis (LC, n=121), who had HBsAg and were over 50 yr old, were enrolled. The genotypes were determined by single strand conformation polymorphism. There were no significant differences in age a...
Walid Sasi; Lin Ye; JIANG, WEN G.; Sharma, Anup K; Kefah Mokbel
Purpose. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 7 (SOCS7) is a member of the SOCS family and is known to interact with phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1), a key downstream mediator of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/C-MET axis. Here, we report our observations of the effect of knocking down SOCS7 gene on the behaviour of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate whether this involves HGF/C-MET pathway using the PLC?-1 blocker U73122. Methods. MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...
Student Claudia MOIS?
Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive) and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.
Student Claudia MOIS?
Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.
Corda, S; Samuel, J L; Rappaport, L
The effects of growth factors on tissue remodeling and cell differentiation depend on the nature of the extracellular matrix, the type and organization of integrins, the activation of metalloproteinases and the presence of secreted proteins associated to the matrix. These interactions are actually poorly known in the cardiovascular system. We describe here: 1) the main components of extracellular matrix within the cardiovascular system; 2) the role of integrins in the transmission of growth signals; 3) the shift in the expression of the components of the extracellular matrix (fibronectin and collagens) and the stimulation of the synthesis of metalloproteinases during normal and hypertrophic growth of the myocardium; 4) the effects of growth factors, such as Angiotensin II, Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGF), Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta), on the synthesis of proteins of the extracellular matrix in the heart. PMID:16228139
Dennehy John J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible ? lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of ? lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.
Full Text Available Purpose to research the therapeutic affect of the allograft of Bones Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs on the acute injury of the spinal nerve of the rat. Method: Take 1 Westar healthy rat, collect the bone marrow, adopt the adherence method to separate BMSCs and culture and mark them, cultivate the BMSCs culture solution with the cell population of about 5H104 ?L-1 for transplantation. Establish 40 westar rat models with the acute injury of the spinal cord, which shall be divided as the transplantation group and the control group, 20 pieces for each group. After a week of injury, inject BMSCs slowly to the injury center of the rat's spinal cord, inject the physiological saline to the control group and observe and inspect the rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function and the protein expression of the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF of the rats of two groups. Result: The rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function of the transplantation group is obvious better than that of the control group after 3-8 weeks of injury and the difference is of significance (p<0.05. Kill two groups of rats after 8 weeks and it is found that the transplantation group is obviously higher than the control group through inspection of the protein expression of NGF and BDNF. The difference is of significance (p<0.05. Conclusion the allograft of BMSCs can remarkably improve the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rats with acute injury of the spinal nerve, which is possibly related with that the transplantation of BMSCs can promote the regeneration and repair of the rat's spinal nerves. It is proven through the NGF and BDNF protein expression data from the experiment of the transplantation group and the control group that BMSCs transplantation can improve the expression of some NGF of the rats with spinal nerve injury. These nerve factors are beneficial for regeneration, growth and repair of the injured nerve tissue cells, so as to further confirm that the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rat's with acute injury of the spinal nerve thanks to the induced regeneration, growth and repair of the spinal nerve cells by BMSCs transplantation.
Randelli, Pietro; Margheritini, Fabrizio; Cabitza, Paolo; Dogliotti, Giada; Corsi, Massimiliano M
It has recently been postulated that a variety of growth factors may be released from cancellous bone after an acromioplasty. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of growth factors in the subacromial space after acromioplasty. Between October 2006 and March 2007, 23 patients underwent arthroscopic acromioplasty. A sample of at least 3 ml of fluid from the shoulder was obtained 15 min after the end of the procedure. At the same time another sample of 3 ml of the patient's venous blood was obtained as a control. The concentrations of growth factors in the fluids collected were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The growth factors assayed were platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), basic fibroblast growth factor basic (bFGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1). The concentrations of TGF-beta1 (p = 0.0001), PDGF-AB (p = 0.02), and bFGF (p < 0.0001) were significantly higher in the fluid from the subacromial space than in the blood sample. There are high concentrations of several growth factors in the subacromial space after acromioplasty. PMID:18974971
DANA-CODRU?A DUD?-D?IANU; DANIELA HARANGU?
Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main d...
Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C ve humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)
Vandenburgh, Herman H.
Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.
Genistein-mediated inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which corrects storage in cells of patients suffering from mucopolysaccharidoses, acts by influencing an epidermal growth factor-dependent pathway
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are inherited metabolic disorders caused by mutations leading to dysfunction of one of enzymes involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Due to their impaired degradation, GAGs accumulate in cells of patients, which results in dysfunction of tissues and organs. Substrate reduction therapy is one of potential treatment of these diseases. It was demonstrated previously that genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone inhibits synthesis and reduces levels of GAGs in cultures of fibroblasts of MPS patients. Recent pilot clinical study indicated that such a therapy may be effective in MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome. Methods To learn on details of the molecular mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis, efficiency of this process was studied by measuring of incorporation of labeled sulfate, storage of GAGs in lysosomes was estimated by using electron microscopic techniques, and efficiency of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor was determined by using an ELISA-based assay with fluorogenic substrates. Results Effects of genistein on inhibition of GAG synthesis and accumulation in fibroblasts from patients suffering from various MPS types were abolished in the presence of an excess of EGF, and were partially reversed by an increased concentration of genistein. No such effects were observed when an excess of 17?-estradiol was used instead of EGF. Moreover, EGF-mediated stimulation of phsophorylation of the EGF receptor was impaired in the presence of genistein in both wild-type and MPS fibroblasts. Conclusion The results presented in this report indicate that the mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis operates through epidermal growth factor (EGF-dependent pathway.
Martorell, Reynaldo; Zongrone, Amanda
Intergenerational effects on linear growth are well documented. Several generations are necessary in animal models to 'wash out' effects of undernutrition, consistent with the unfolding of the secular trend in height in Europe and North America. Birthweight is correlated across generations and short maternal stature, which reflects intrauterine and infant growth failure, is associated with low birthweight, child stunting, delivery complications and increased child mortality, even after adjusting for socio-economic status. A nutrition intervention in Guatemala reduced childhood stunting; it also improved growth of the next generation, but only in the offspring of girls. Possible mechanisms explaining intergenerational effects on linear growth are not mutually exclusive and include, among others, shared genetic characteristics, epigenetic effects, programming of metabolic changes, and the mechanics of a reduced space for the fetus to grow. There are also socio-cultural factors at play that are important such as the intergenerational transmission of poverty and the fear of birthing a large baby, which leads to 'eating down' during pregnancy. It is not clear whether there is an upper limit for impact on intrauterine and infant linear growth that programmes in developing countries could achieve that is set by early childhood malnutrition in the mother. Substantial improvements in linear growth can be achieved through adoption and migration, and in a few selected countries, following rapid economic and social development. It would seem, despite clear documentation of intergenerational effects, that nearly normal lengths can be achieved in children born to mothers who were malnourished in childhood when profound improvements in health, nutrition and the environment take place before conception. To achieve similar levels of impact through public health programmes alone in poor countries is highly unlikely. The reality in poor countries limits the scope, quality and coverage of programmes that can be implemented and modest impact should be expected instead. The Lancet series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition estimated that implementation to scale of proven interventions in high burden countries would reduce stunting by one-third; this is perhaps a realistic upper bound for impact for high quality programmes, unless accompanied by sweeping improvements in social services and marked reductions in poverty. Finally, because so much can be achieved in a single generation, intergenerational influences are unlikely to be an important explanation for lack of programme impact aimed at the window of the first 1000 days. Failure to prevent linear growth failure in developing countries has serious consequences for short- and long-term health as well as for the formation of human capital. The nutrition transition has created a double burden by adding obesity and related chronic diseases to the public health agenda of countries still struggling with the 'old' problems of maternal and child undernutrition. The challenge ahead is to increase efforts to prevent linear growth failure while keeping child overweight at bay. PMID:22742617
Full Text Available Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature and society make up the outer environment for Huck’s growth. They have great effect on the development of his growth. On the other hand, his own instinct and his sound heart finally decide the direction of his growth.
Full Text Available In recent years, growth factor therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for ischemic brain injury. The efficacy of therapies that either directly introduce or stimulate local production of growth factors and their receptors in damaged brain tissue has been tested in a multitude of models for different Central Nervous System (CNS diseases. These growth factors include erythropoietin (EPO, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, among others. Despite the promise shown in animal models, the particular growth factors that should be used to maximize both brain protection and repair, and the therapeutic critical period, are not well defined. We will review current pre-clinical and clinical evidence for growth factor therapies in treating different causes of brain injury, as well as issues to be addressed prior to application in humans.
Caldwell, L C; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Spicer, L J; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D
In an effort to determine whether tropical adaptation influences circulating concentrations of the growth-related hormone IGF-I, 3-breed diallel matings were conducted using temperate Bos taurus (Angus), tropical Bos indicus (Brahman), and tropical Bos taurus (Romosinuano). Purebred Angus, Braham, and Romosinuano and crossbred Angus-Braham, Angus-Romosinuano, and Braham-Romosinuano heifers and steers were evaluated in 2 separate calf crops from 2003 and 2004. Blood samples were obtained from 10 heifers of each breed group (n = 90) for each year at weaning and on d 0 and 84 of postweaning trials. Samples were also taken from 10 steers of each breed group (n = 90) at weaning and on d 0 and 60 of individual finishing phase feeding trials for each year. Concentrations of IGF-I were determined by RIA. Analyses included effects of sire breed, dam breed, year of record, the age of the dam of the calf in years, and interactions. Age of calf in days was investigated as a linear and quadratic covariate. Separate analyses were conducted for steers and heifers. The direct effect of Angus was to reduce (P < 0.03) heifer concentrations of IGF-I at d 84 and in the repeated measures analysis. In the repeated measures analysis, the direct effect of Romosinuano was to increase concentrations of IGF-I (P = 0.01). Relative to the temperate Bos taurus breed, plasma concentrations of IGF-I were numerically greater in male and female tropically adapted breed groups. PMID:21724947
Sanz, M. A.
Full Text Available The terpenoid profile could give information about the water status in Scots pine, especially for trees growing in the same geographical area but under contrasting local environmental conditions. Terpenes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in needles, twigs and wood of ten affected and ten unaffected Scots pines in the southern “Sistema Ibérico” range (Teruel, Spain, where forest decline has been recently reported. Soil depth and secondary growth was also studied in both types of trees. Needles and twigs total resin acids were significantly higher in affected trees. The pimarane type resin acids were also higher in the twigs of affected trees. Secondary growth was lower in affected trees and it showed higher climate sensitivity. The use of the terpenoid profile may be used as an additional tool for the estimation of the water status, especially for situations inducing moderate but relatively prolonged stress conditions.El perfil terpénico podría dar información sobre el estado hídrico en el pino albar, especialmente cuando se comparen especímenes de una zona geográfica concreta afectados por factores ambientales locales. Los terpenos de acículas, brotes del año y madera fueron analizados en diez ejemplares afectados y otros tantos no afectados por el decaimiento mediante cromatografía de masas acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La serie de crecimiento secundario en ambos tipos de ejemplares fue también estudiada. La concentración total de ácidos resínicos aumentó de modo significativo en los árboles afectados tanto en brotes del año como en acículas. La cantidad de ácidos de tipo pimarano también aumentó en los brotes de los árboles afectados. La profundidad del suelo y el crecimiento secundario era menor en este tipo de ejemplares, que muestran una mayor sensibilidad en términos dendrocronológicos. El perfíl terpénico podría utilizarse como una herramienta adicional a la estimación del estado hídrico, especialmente cuando el árbol está afectado por condiciones de estrés moderadas pero prolongadas en el tiempo.
Reynolds, Carl L.
A recent study conducted at the University of Illinois on what influences college students to consider the agricultural education curriculum showed that the curriculum choice process is somewhat different for agricultural education majors than for students in the non-agricultural education group. Important influences include vocational agriculture…
Full Text Available Introduction Growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals with endogenous neuroendocrine responses to the genetic programs that determine the body plan. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are integral components of multiple systems controlling both growth and metabolism. The IGF system The IGF system is thought to be more complex than other endocrine systems, as genes for six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs have been identified so far. The IGFs play a critical role in both cell cycle control and apoptosis, two functions involved in regulation of tumorigenesis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I is essential for normal growth. Confirmation of the significance of IGF-I in human physiology was obtained by the discovery of a patient with intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with a mutation in the IGF-1 gene. Stages of evolution of the somatomedin hypothesis The original somatomedin hypothesis postulated that somatic growth was regulated by growth hormone's (GH's stimulation of hepatic IGF-1 production, with IGF-1 acting in an endocrine fashion to promote growth. The dual effectors theory proposed an alternative view, involving direct effects by GH on peripheral tissues not mediated by IGF-1 and GH-stimulated local IGF-1 production for autocrine/paracrine action. It is now clear that G H stimulates the formation of ternary IGF binding complex, which stabilizes IGF-I in the serum.
María José García
Full Text Available Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and management practices; in 2013, they were re-analyzed to investigate the factors that contributed to continued growth for certain companies. Contributions: Through diverse statistical techniques, business policies related to quality, innovation, internationalization and finance were shown to influence business growth and sustainability over time. Limitations of the Research: This study focuses on industrial businesses at least ten years old in Catalonia; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations and economic sectors, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical Implications: Because growth is a measure of business success, identifying variables that contribute to high growth and its sustainability is helpful for businesses that seek to adopt effective policies. Social Implications: Generating employment is one of the primary contributions by high-growth businesses. For years with high unemployment, authorities may be interested in corporate policies that strengthen high-growth businesses. Originality/Added Value: High-growth businesses have been studied throughout the world, but this is the first study to investigate the evolution of businesses after a high-growth phase.
Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R.; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.
Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight.
Collins, Mary K. L.; Perkins, Gordon R.; Rodríguez-Tarduchy, Gemma; Nieto, M. Ángela; López-Rivas, Abelardo
Apoptosis is now widely recognized as a common form of cell death and represents a mechanism of cell clearance in many physiological situations where deletion of cells is required. Peptide growth factors, initially characterised as stimulators of cell proliferation, have now been shown to inhibit death in many cell types. Deprivation of growth factors leads to the induction of apoptosis, i.e. condensation of chromatin and degradation in oligonucleosomesized fragments, formation of plasma and ...
Luciana Cavalheiro Marti
Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGNand mature(CD83 dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb. Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.
Burt, Wayne R.; Underwood, Anthony L.; Appleton, Georgia L.
Growth factor(s) present in a spent liquid medium after culture of the yeast form of Histoplasma capsulatum enhanced both yeast and mycelial growth of nine isolates tested. Hydroxamic acid extracted from the culture fluid displayed growth factor activity.
Anna-Maija Pietilä; Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen; Päivi Kankkunen; Merja Nikkonen
Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political a...
Golbus, M S; Djalali, M; Klagsbrun, M; Kaback, M M; Levenson, R M; Epstein, C J
Cartilage growth factor (CGF) stimulates the growth of primary and secondary cultures of human amniotic fluid cells. Over a 14--16-day period there is an approximately 70% enhancement in the number of cells in primary cultures and a 170% increase in secondary cultures. Neither the karyotype or the specific activities of lysosomal enzymes are altered by the presence of CGF in the medium. PMID:6108715
... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...
Zizi GOSCHIN; Zaman, Gheorghe
Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...
Tengood, Jillian E.; Ridenour, Ryan; Brodsky, Ross; Russell, Alan J; Little, Steven R.
An externally regulated delivery model that permits temporal separation of multiple angiogenic factors was used for the delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). While bFGF plays a significant role in the sprouting of new capillaries, PDGF plays a role in the recruitment of mural cells, which stabilize neovessels. However, these two factors have been shown to inhibit each other, when presented together. Using the externally regulated model, s...
Villella, Edward F.
Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…
Abounader, Roger; Laterra, John
The multifunctional growth factor scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor (SF/HGF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met have emerged as key determinants of brain tumor growth and angiogenesis. SF/HGF and c-Met are expressed in brain tumors, the expression levels frequently correlating with tumor grade, tumor blood vessel density, and poor prognosis. Overexpression of SF/HGF and/or c-Met in brain tumor cells enhances their tumorigenicity, tumor growth, and tumor-associated angiogenesis. Conv...
Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.
Donnez, Jacques; Smoes, Pierre; Gillerot, Ste?phane; Casanas-roux, Franc?oise; Nisolle, Michelle
Angiogenesis is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. According to the transplantation theory, when the exfoliated endometrium is attached to the peritoneal layer, the establishment of a new blood supply is essential for the survival of the endometrial implant and development of endometriosis. From the known angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has emerged as a pivotally important regulator of normal angiogenesis and pathological neovascularizati...
Mahmood Modiri; Abdollah Naami; Ebrahim Abedini
Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommen...
Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop applicat...
An overview of preharvest factors influencing mango fruit growth, quality and postharvest behaviour / Uma revisão dos fatores pré-colheita que influenciam o crescimento, qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de manga
Mathieu, Léchaudel; Jacques, Joas.
Full Text Available Manga, um fruto tropical de grande importância, é geralmente colhido verde e comercializado após um período de armazenamento. Infelizmente, a qualidade final da manga na prateleira é altamente heterogênea, em termos de tamanho do fruto, qualidade do paladar e comportamento pós-colheita. Tem-se obtid [...] o uma quantidade expressiva de informações sobre os efeitos do estádio de maturação e condições pós-colheita sobre a qualidade final da manga. Contudo, tem-se dado atenção consideravelmente menor à influência dos fatores ambientes sobre o crescimento da manga, características de qualidade e comportamento pós-colheita. Neste artigo, faz-se uma revisão dos estudos sobre manga, evidenciando-se como fatores ambientes afetam o acúmulo de água e de matéria seca estrutural e não-estrutural nos frutos durante o seu desenvolvimento. Discutem-se essas alterações com relação à evolução de atributos de qualidade dos frutos ainda nas plantas e após a colheita. Os fatores de pré-colheita abordados são luz, temperatura, disponibilidades de água e de carbono, raleio de frutos e manejo da irrigação. Discutem-se também recentes avanços sobre modelagem associada à função do fruto na planta, conforme as condições ambientes que, combinados com estudos experimentais, pode melhorar a nossa compreensão sobre como as condições de pré-colheita afetam o crescimento e a qualidade da manga. Abstract in english Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance, is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous, in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of [...] knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits, and postharvest behaviour. In this paper, we provide a review of studies on mango showing how environmental factors influence the accumulation of water, structural and non-structural dry matter in the fruit during its development. These changes are discussed with respect to the evolution of quality attributes on the tree and after harvest. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities, which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. We also discuss recent advances in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that, combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality.
DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.
Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.
Ku, L; Sonenstein, F L; Pleck, J H
Analyses of a nationally representative survey of 1,880 15- to 19-year-old men were conducted to examine factors associated with (a) the age when first sexual intercourse occurred and (b) whether a condom or other contraceptive method was used at first intercourse. Discrete time-event history models assessed factors influencing their age until first intercourse. Black males began sexual activity significantly earlier than white or Hispanic males. Males who had been held back in school also be...
Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi
The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-...
Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani
Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation in genetic potential manifestations. Because of the complex nature of infant growth, several studies have been developed aiming at relating biological, socio-economic, maternal, environmental, cultural, demographic and nutritional determinants among others, with the etiology, development and maintenance of growth. This review reinforces the value of permanent investigation on infant growth, especially concerning the long term impact on infant health.
Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.
Full Text Available The sustained economic growth in Romania during the period 2000-2008 was not accompanied by a regional convergence of the living standards. Specific factors, such as the persistence of regional specialization of employment and the dominance of subsistence households in rural areas still shape the regional disparities in economic performance. The economic crisis determined a decrease in the average household income, while the impact was unequally distributed by regions. The paper aims at measuring the cross-regional variation of the household income at NUTS2 level. In order to identify the specific factors which have mostly influenced the income changes, panel estimation is used.
Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.
Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.
GrØnvold, J.; Wolstrup, J.
A series of experiments on corn meal agar was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in different abiotic and biotic conditions which occur in cow pats. Above a concentration of 50 parasitic larvae (L-3) cm(-2) the fungus produced a maximum of between 500 and 600 nets cm(-2) at 20 degrees C in 2 days on the surface of corn meal agar. There were no differences in the trap-producing capacity of three strains of D. flagrans (CIII4, CI3 and Trol A). On agar at 30 degrees and 20 degrees C, the fungus responded to Coaperia oncophora L-3 very quickly producing a maximum of trapping nets 1 day after induction. At 10 degrees C, traps were produced slowly starting on day 4 after induction and continued over the following week. Duddingtonia flagrans (CI3) grew at a normal rate at least down to an oxygen concentration of 6 vol.% O-2, but it did not grow anaerobically. On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) did not produce trapping nets in an anaerobic atmosphere. Moreover, C. oncophora L-3 stopped migration under anaerobic conditions. When the fungal cultures were transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere, after 1 and 2 weeks under anaerobic conditions, the C. oncophora L-3 resumed migrating on the agar and, in response, D, flagrans produced traps in the same amount as when it had not been under anaerobic stress. Under microaerophilic conditions (6 vol.% O-2) D flagrans was able to grow, but the C, oncophora L-3 were not able to induce trapping nets in D, flagrans (Trol A) because of larval immobility. But, as under anaerobic conditions, the fungus could return to a nematode-trapping state when transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere within 1 or 2 weeks if migrating nematodes were present. Under natural conditions in the cow pat it is expected that the fungus will be ready to attack parasitic larvae, when the oxygen tension increases as a result of, for example the activity of the coprophilic fauna. Artificial light giving 3000-3400 Lux on the surface of the agar significantly depressed the growth rate and the production of trapping nets in D, flagrans (CI3). On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) could grow and produce trapping nets at pH levels of 6.3 to 9.3. Net-production has its optimum between pH 7 and 8. On dry faeces mycelial growth was 7-10 mm during a 15 day period while on moist faeces the fungus expanded 15-20 mm during the same period. Based on the parameters investigated, D. flagrans is expected to be especially active in the well aerated surface layer of a cow pat, an area which normally contains a high concentration of infective nematode parasite larvae, but also an area where the temperature can be high and the water content low.
The unified expression of the separation power and the overall separation factor, the cut and the concentration of the feed were derived. The influence of the three factors to the separation was described also. The results showed that the separation power increase along with the overall separation factor increase, the separation power can acquire the maximum value when the cut is about 0.5, the separation power is lower in the high feed concentration and the low feed concentration, and the maximum when the feed concentration is about 0.5. (authors)
Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.
Atria, Catherine Graczyk
Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.
Naot, Dorit; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R.; Cornish, Jillian
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein that belongs to the transferrin family. It is present in breast milk, in epithelial secretions, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. In healthy subjects lactoferrin circulates at concentrations of 2–7 x 10?6 g/ml. Lactoferrin is a pleiotropic factor with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Recently, we have shown that lactoferrin can also promote bone growth. At physiological concentrations, lactoferrin potently stimulates...
Nielsen, Jens HØiriis; Svensson, C
Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). Receptors for both GH and PRL are expressed in islet cells and are upregulated during pregnancy. By mutational analysis we have identified different functional domains of the cytoplasmic part of the GH receptor. Thus the mitotic signaling only requires the membrane proximal part of the receptor and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and 3. The activation of the insulin gene however also requires the distal part of the receptor and activation of calcium uptake and STAT5. In order to identify putative autocrine growth factors or targets for growth factors we have cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved in beta cell differentiation and proliferation may lead to new ways of forming beta cells for treatment of diabetes in man.
Vandenburgh, Herman H.
The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we have performed experiments to determine whether mechanical stimulation of cultured avian muscle cells alters their response to anabolic steroids or glucocorticoids. In static cultures, testosterone had no effect on muscle cell growth, but 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and the synthetic steroid stanozolol increased cell growth by up to 18% and 30%, respectively, after a three day exposure. We completed development of a new IBM-based mechanical cell stimulator system to provide greater flexibility in operating and monitoring our experiments. Our previous long term studies on myofiber growth were designed around a perfusion system of our own design. We have recently changed to performing these studies using a modified CELLCO cartridge bioreactor system Z since it has been certified as the ground-based model for the Shuttle's Space Tissue Loss (STL) F= Cell Culture Module. The current goals of this aspect of the project are three fold: 1) to design a Z cell culture system for studying avian skeletal myofiber atrophy on the Shuttle and Space Station; 0 2) to expand the use of bioreactors to cells which do not grow in either suspension or attached to the hollow fibers; and 3) to combine the bioreactor system with our computerized mechanical cell stimulator to have a better in vitro model to study tension/gravity/stretch regulation of skeletal muscle size. Preliminary studies also reported on involved : (1) how release of tension can induce rapid atrophy of tissues cultured avian skeletal muscle cells, and (2) a mechanism to transfer and maintain avian skeletal muscle organoids in modified cartridges in the Space Tissue Loss Module.
Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.
Chen, Xiaochuan; Rozance, Paul J; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W
Placental insufficiency results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), impaired fetal insulin secretion and less fetal pancreatic ?-cell mass, partly due to lower ?-cell proliferation rates. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate fetal ?-cell proliferation and pancreas development, along with transcription factors, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1). We determined expression levels for these growth factors, their receptors and IGF binding proteins in ovine fetal pancreas and isolated islets. In the IUGR pancreas, relative mRNA expression levels of IGF-I, PDX-1, FGF7 and FGFR2IIIb were 64% (P < 0.01), 76% (P < 0.05), 76% (P < 0.05) and 52% (P < 0.01) lower, respectively, compared with control fetuses. Conversely, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) mRNA and protein concentrations were 2.25- and 1.2-fold greater (P < 0.05) in the IUGR pancreas compared with controls. In isolated islets from IUGR fetuses, IGF-II and IGFBP-2 mRNA concentrations were 1.5- and 3.7-fold greater (P < 0.05), and insulin mRNA was 56% less (P < 0.05) than control islets. The growth factor expression profiles for IGF and FGF signaling pathways indicate that declines in ?-cell mass are due to decreased growth factor signals for both pancreatic progenitor epithelial cell and mature ?-cell replication. PMID:22581814
There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
A R C Jones
Full Text Available Lubricin, also commonly referred to as superficial zone protein (SZP and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, is a multifaceted, cytoprotective glycoprotein that contributes to the boundary lubrication properties facilitating low friction levels at interfacing surfaces of articular cartilage. Biological processes effecting the gain or loss of lubricin function may therefore have important consequences relevant to joint physiology and pathology. Herein, we describe experiments conducted to extend our understanding of the influence of various cytokines and growth factors on lubricin gene expression and protein secretion in synovial tissues. Exposure of synoviocytes, chondrocytes and cartilage explants to proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha results in a marked reduction in the expression and/or abundance of secreted lubricin, with corresponding alterations in the amounts of cartilage-associated (boundary lubricin. Conversely, treatment with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta significantly upregulates lubricin synthesis, secretion and cartilage boundary association. Oncostatin M also appears to be capable of modulating lubricin metabolism, with the potential to induce lubricin synthesis by chondrocytes. Collectively, the results of studies on cytokine and growth factor regulation of lubricin biosynthesis and biodistribution may help provide new insights and therapeutic perspectives for promoting joint function.
Yong Jun Park; Chang Min Moon; Hwang Jae Yoo
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and prese...
Meysam Kazemi Asfe
Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.
Full Text Available Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is decreasing continuously and the main reason behind this is the change in peoples’ attitude and saturation to ethically questionable actions. Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. There are several factors that influence sustainable development. Among them are: government policies; management and organization; financial and economic factors. The main question for institutional sustainability may be formulated as the following: can the strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to the ultimate end-users? Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. Anticorruption strategies are related to the reform of state institutions. One advantage of the fundamental economic reform approach is that by linking anticorruption strategies to the reform of economic policies and institutions, the struggle against corruption can be seen as one of the issues in economic policy. Finally, all development assistance should be implemented with the aim of achieving sustainable benefits.
Which factors most influence heartwood distribution and radial growth in plantation teak?
Quels facteurs influencent le plus la distribution du bois de cœur et la croissance radiale dans les plantations de teck ?
Kokutse, Adzo Dzifa; Stokes, Alexia; Kokutse, Nomessi Kuma; Kokou, Kouami
* To investigate the effect of climate on radial growth in young plantation grown teak (Tectona grandis L.), growth ring width was measured in 105 trees and correlated to precipitation and temperature data.* The social status of trees within the stand was also determined and cross-sectional area (CSA) for the trunk correlated to the proportion of heartwood (HW) within the tree. HW develops asymmetrically in leaning stems of some conifer species, but it is not known if this phenomenon also occ...
The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...
The major factors that influence economics of application of radiation polymerisation technique for industrial production of polymers and polymer composites are discussed. The effects of factors such as product characteristics, physical and chemical state of polymerisation, radiation polymerisation kinetics, radiation source and field characteristics, including source utilisation efficiency, dose rate radiation safety requirements etc. on the engineering cost and economy of radiation processes are briefly outlined. The need for accurate understanding and exploitation of radiation polymerisation kinetics and precise control of dosimetric and other process parameters for a successful radiation process utilisation is highlighted with specific examples. (author)
Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.
?ilda Pe?ari?; Miroslav Tu?man
Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on th...
Objectives of the Study: The aim of the research is to define and assess the importance of the factors that influence online shoppers' choices of merchants. The previous literature mainly focuses on loyalty of users to websites and online purchase decision-making process within one website. No literature studies the situation under which the customer has already decided the item to purchase and needs to compare different merchants selling the same item. Since this situation is very common...
Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil
Rebecca L. Lander
Full Text Available Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD, wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%, notably Trichuris trichiura (12% and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%, and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13% were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches sobre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2, desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%, notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12% e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5% e protozoário Giardia duodenalis (13% foram os mais comuns; < 1% tinha ancilostomíase e Cryptosporidium sp.; 25% apresentaram protozoários cistos não patogênicos. Meninos de famílias muito pobres tiveram menor crescimento e maior risco de helmintose. A desparasitação pode ser considerada uma alternativa para a redução da prevalência de parasitoses intestinais nesse grupo etário.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, there has been growing interest in m-learning consequently emerging m-learning technology is promising technological and educational business. Nevertheless, m-learning is a new business and the different actors are still trialing by ways of a diversity of business models to overcome in able to achieve a sustainable and profitable place in this market. Numbers of m-learning products providers do not succeed in supplying m-learning products. In this situation not only a suitable business model is vital but also environmental and external factors have impact on mobile learning business model. Overall objective of this study was to survey the business model framework of m-learning with effect of external and environmental factors. Approach: Methodical approach was based on a classification of m-learning actors and its environmental factors. Based on this, we analyzed case studies description and developed main environmental factors that constitute the m-learning environment. Factors were summarized in morphological boxes and then through out its three steps result came up. Results: The results indicated technology, market and regulation are three major environmental factors which were forcing m-learning business model and business model should react to changes of these three factors to keep sustainable business. The research further argued the external factors of m-learning environment in order to understanding and developing the m-learning business and the ways these factors influence the business model of m-learning as well. Conclusion/Recommendations: M-learning business is based on many factors such as technology, changes in society, educational drivers, demand for flexible learning and the new learning paradigm but only three major drivers(technology, market and regulation had considerable effect on m-learning business model and should be taken into account as a result if they change business model should be changed.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a monocyte-derived protein cytotoxic or cytostatic for some tumor cell lines. Here we show that highly purified E. coli-derived recombinant human TNF stimulated the growth of human FS- 4 diploid fibroblasts. Stimulation of cell growth was demonstrable at a TNF concentration of 10 pg/ml (3 X 10(-13) M). Maximal stimulation was attained at TNF concentrations of 10 ng/ml (3 X 10(-10) M) or higher. Growth-stimulatory activity of TNF was inhibited by an mAb neutraliz...
BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.
Tengood, Jillian E; Ridenour, Ryan; Brodsky, Ross; Russell, Alan J; Little, Steven R
An externally regulated delivery model that permits temporal separation of multiple angiogenic factors was used for the delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). While bFGF plays a significant role in the sprouting of new capillaries, PDGF plays a role in the recruitment of mural cells, which stabilize neovessels. However, these two factors have been shown to inhibit each other, when presented together. Using the externally regulated model, sequential delivery of bFGF and PDGF led to not only increased endothelial cell migration, but also endothelial cell and vascular pericyte colocalization. More importantly, this delivery strategy was able to induce red blood cell-filled neovessels, suggesting integration of angiogenesis with the existing vasculature. PMID:21142700
Ku?era, R.; ?erná, M.; ?aršanská, A.; Svobodová, Š.; Straková, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Fuchsová, R.; T?ešková, I.; Kydlí?ek, T.; T?eška, V.; Pecen, Ladislav; Topol?an, O.; Padziora, P.
Ro?. 31, ?. 12 (2011), s. 4653-4656. ISSN 0250-7005 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NS9727; GA MZd(CZ) NS10238; GA MZd(CZ) NS10253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth factor * breast cancer * tumor markers * CA 15-3 * CEA * IGF1 * EGF * HGF Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011
The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms
Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.
Full Text Available Pumpkin provides a valuable source of carotenoids and ascorbic acid which have major roles in nutrition as provitamin A and as an antioxidant respectively. Carotenoids are a source of vitamin A, and ?-carotene present in pumpkin is converted to vitamin A in the body. Pumpkins’ biomass is distinguished for having antioxidant and phytobiotic characteristics.The aim of our research is to analyse pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita maxima D. flours’ influence upon calves growth, intestinal microflora, digestibility of rations’ nutrients and health. In pursuance of this aim two groups of 1-month-old Lithuanian Black and White breeds’ heifers were constituted, 10 animals per group: control and experimental. The heifers were fed by the same feeding plan and grown in equal conditions. Except for experimental groups’ animals, each of them was additionally given 120g of pumpkin fruits’ flour with their days’ ration.The results of this research showed that calves which were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour had grown more rapidly. After six months of the research the weight of experimental groups‘ heifers was 9,2 kg or 5,34 pct. bigger than the weight of control groups‘ heifers. Pumpkin fruits‘ flour distinguished for phytobiotic activity in calves‘ intestine, it stimulated the increase of lacto- and bifidobacteria. After four months of the research there were 63,6 pct. (P<0,001 more lactobacteria and 19,3 pct. (P<0,01 more bifidobacteria in the faeces of heifers that were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour comparing to heifers that were not given it. After 6 months of the research respectively there were 10,7 pct. and 34,0 pct. more of lacto- and bifidobacteria. Besides that, pumpkin fruits‘ flour improved digestibility of rations‘ nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter increased by 1,9 pct., organic matter – 2,3 pct., fat – 1,6 pct., proteins – 3,07 pct. (P>0,05. Morphological blood indexes of both calves groups conformed to physiologic norms and defined good animals‘ health. Moreover, with this research it was determined that heifers which were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour had an increase of haemoglobin in their blood.With reference to the data of this research, we made a conclusion that pumpkin fruits‘ flour in the calves‘ ration stimulates calves‘ growth, improves digestibility of rations‘ nutrients, positively affects intestinal microflora and activates vital processes.
Koochekpour, S; Merzak, A; Pilkington, G
Neovascularization is essential for tumour growth and is mediated by physiological substances produced by tumours. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one such potent angiogenic factor. Human gliomas, the most important class of intrinsic brain tumours, express VEGF both in vivo and in vitro. Factors involved in the control of VEGF production by glioma cells are not well known. In this study, we investigated the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and platelet derived growth factors (PDGF) on VEGF production by four different glioma cell lines in vitro. With the exception of PDGF A/A and B/B in one cell line, all growth factors differentially stimulated VEGF production in all cell lines investigated. These data suggest that VEGF production in human glioma may be regulated by other growth factors which are also known to be expressed in such tumours. PMID:21597853
Astrocytoma is the most malignant intracranial neoplasm and is characterized by high neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. Angiogenesis is a complicated process in oncogenesis regulated by the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. The expression of two angiogenic growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were investigated using immunohistochemistry for astrocytoma from 82 patients and 11 normal human tissues. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor positively correlate with the pathological grade of astrocytoma, microvessel density numbers and brain oedema, which may be responsible for the increased tumour neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. The results support the idea that inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor are useful for the treatment of human astrocytoma and to improve patient's clinical outcomes and prognosis. (author)
Jovanovi? Snežana T.
Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.
Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variabl...
Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh
Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.
Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance
Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)
The concept of limiting factor includes the lack of welfare factors and the presence of decimating factors. Originally applied to populations and species, the concept may also be applied to wildlife in the aggregate. Because the decimating factor of economic growth eliminates welfare factors for virtually all imperiled species via the principle of competitive exclusion, economic growth may be classified as the limiting factor for wildlife conservation. The wildlife profession has been virt...
Guo, Yu-Chen; Yuan, Quan
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that is mainly secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in bone. The critical role of FGF23 in mineral ion homeostasis was first identified in human genetic and acquired rachitic diseases and has been further characterised in animal models. Recent studies have revealed that the levels of FGF23 increase significantly at the very early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may play a critical role in mineral ion disorders and bone metabolism in these patients. Our recent publications have also shown that FGF23 and its cofactor, Klotho, may play an independent role in directly regulating bone mineralisation instead of producing a systematic effect. In this review, we will discuss the new role of FGF23 in bone mineralisation and the pathophysiology of CKD-related bone disorders. PMID:25655009
Objective: The present study was to establish and estimate a 125I label and an radioimmunoassay (RIA) of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Methods: The iodinated recombinant human bFGF (rhbFGF) was prepared using chloramine T(Ch-T), and levels of bFGF in rabbit serum were determined by a double antibody-polyethylene glycol (PEG) RIA protocol. Results: The radioiodine utilization ratio, specific radioactivity and radiochemical purity of 125I labelling bFGF were 81.98%, 3.03 MBq/?g and over 95%, respectively. The sensitivity of bFGF RIA reached 0.4 ng. Conclusion: The present study may provide a convenient and reliable method for 125I label and quantitative determination of bFGF
Aldosterone regulates blood pressure through its effects on the cardiovascular system and kidney. Aldosterone can also contribute to the development of hypertension that leads to chronic pathologies such as nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Aldosterone directly modulates renal cell proliferation and differentiation as part of normal kidney development. The stimulation of rapidly activated protein kinase cascades is one facet of how aldosterone regulates renal cell growth. These cascades may also contribute to myofibroblastic transformation and cell proliferation observed in pathological conditions of the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that is accelerated by hypertension. EGFR-dependent proliferation of the renal epithelium is a factor in cyst development and trans-activation of EGFR is a key feature in initiating aldosterone-induced signalling cascades. Delineating the components of aldosterone-induced signalling cascades may identify novel therapeutic targets for proliferative diseases of the kidney.
Antonette, Owen; Fasloen, Adams; Denise, Franszen.
Full Text Available STUDY AIM: To determine which models are used by occupational therapists who attended a workshop on the Kawa Model, in their practice, the demographic factors related to the use of these models and the reasons why they use various models in their practice. METHOD: A descriptive, single case study me [...] thod was used with embedded units. The research instrument consisted of a survey questionnaire with closed and some semi-structured questions. RESULTS: The characteristics of therapists influenced their use of models. This was determined by their educational background, their level of experience and exposure in the clinical field and their work setting. Time constraints and the nature of the presenting clients also played a role. The clinicians' overall attitude towards new theory and their habituated ways were highlighted as constant factors influencing model use. The use of models provides structure and assists occupational therapists to produce proper, profession-specific, scientifically-based intervention. Models taught during undergraduate studies need to be relevant to address clients' needs in their specific context.
Ornitz, David M; Itoh, Nobuyuki
The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLC?, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25772309
Popadi? Silvija M.
Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13, operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1, the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS, and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05 influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.
Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.
Full Text Available Teaching and learning a foreign language is a social process which requires theinteraction of two important parts of the process, the teacher and the students, in a socialenvironment. As this process takes place in a social context, it is inevitable toexperience some problems while teaching the students having different needs, interestsand levels. These problems may be caused by the students, teachers as well as thephysical environment in which teaching and learning take place. It is clear that languageteaching skill is not enough to handle these problems; teachers also need classroommanagement skills so that they are able to manage their classrooms. It is believed thatsuccessful classroom management is highly related to effective instruction. Asclassroom management is a general term that is affected by many factors, theeffectiveness of classroom environment depends on how teachers cope with thesefactors and provide their students with a positive and friendly classroom atmosphere. Itis clear that a detailed analysis of the factors that affect successful classroommanagement and adequate teacher training on how to cope with them will makeunmanageable classrooms manageable which will immediately result in effectiveteaching and learning process. In this article, factors that influence successful classroommanagement will be analyzed and possible solutions to these problems will bepresented.
Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders
Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree competition studies, in which tree spatial patterning is typically not taken into account. Our findings highlight the importance of forest structure – particularly the spatial arrangement of trees – in regulating inter-tree competition and growth in structurally diverse forests, and they provide insight into the causes and consequences of heterogeneity in this old-growth system.
Clarke, D.E.; Marsh, H. (University of Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
To maximize the efficiency of manufasture of smokeless fuel briquettes from blends of high-rank coals and pitches, it is necessary to optimize feedstock selection to maintain strength during carbonization and subsequent handling. From an understanding of carbonization behaviour of feedstock components and of microcarbonization phenomena at interfaces, the contribution of interfacial interactions to strength properties of briquettes is assessed. The crushing strength, microstrength and optical texture of briquettes from a range of feedstocks were determined before and after carbonization at 970 K. These techniques promoted understanding of the carbonization behaviour of blends of feedstocks and strength-structure relations in resultant briquettes. Factors of feedstock selection that influenced the strength of carbonized briquettes were identified. 19 refs., 7 tabs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.
Human platelet-derived transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) has been shown to be present as a high molecular weight latent form in human serum. Appearance of transforming growth factor activity, along with the change from high molecular weight form to low molecular weight form, was observed following treatment of the latent form of TGF? with acid or urea, suggesting that the latent form of TGF? is a complex of TGF? and a high molecular weight binding protein. Human ?2-M has been found to be a plasma binding protein for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in serum or plasma. TGF? and PDGF share similar properties. They, therefore, investigated the interaction between 125I-TGF? and ?2M. 125I-TGF? and purified human ?2M formed a complex as demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Most of the 125I-TGF?-?2M complex could be dissociated by acid or urea treatment. These results suggest that ?2M is a binding protein for TGF? and that TGF?-?2M complex may be the latent form of TGF? in serum
Shi, Shuiliang; Wang, Congrong; Acton, Anthony J; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B
Chondrogenic polypeptide growth factors influence articular chondrocyte functions that are required for articular cartilage repair. Sox9 is a transcription factor that regulates chondrogenesis, but its role in the growth factor regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis is poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that selected chondrogenic growth factors regulate sox9 gene expression and protein production by adult articular chondrocytes and that sox9 modulates the actions of these growth factors. To test these hypotheses, we delivered insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and/or bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), or their respective transgenes to adult bovine articular chondrocytes, and measured changes in sox9 gene expression and protein production. We then knocked down sox9 gene expression with sox9 siRNA, and measured changes in the expression of the genes encoding aggrecan and types I and II collagen, and in the production of glycosaminoglycan, collagen and DNA. We found that FGF-2 or the combination of IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 increased sox9 gene expression and protein production and that sox9 knockdown modulated growth factor actions in a complex fashion that differed both with growth factors and with chondrocyte function. The data suggest that sox9 mediates the stimulation of matrix production by the combined growth factors and the stimulation of chondrocyte proliferation by FGF-2. The mitogenic effect of the combined growth factors and the catabolic effect of FGF-2 appear to involve sox9-independent mechanisms. Control of these molecular mechanisms may contribute to the treatment of cartilage damage. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1391-1400, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25708223
Recent research has indicated that growth factors play an important role in normal and malignant cell growth. Previous work in this laboratory established that RPMI-2650, a cell line derived from a human carcinoma, produces growth factors including TGF-a, TGF- 3 and an autocrine factor. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether growth factor production is a property of all cells, or of a sub-population of cells. If high-producer clones were available it would greatly facilitate pr...
Shi-Min, Yuan; Yan-Qing, Wang; Yi, Shen; Hua, Jing.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The biological functions of transforming growth factor-? signaling that involves Smad proteins have not been previously investigated with respect to coronary artery bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to observe the immunostaining of proteins that are related to this signalin [...] g pathway. METHODS: Fifteen remnants of coronary artery bypass grafts, including nine saphenous veins, three radial arteries and three mammary arteries, were collected from 12 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 were performed. RESULTS: The saphenous veins showed more severe intimal degeneration, more severe smooth muscle cell proliferation and more collagen deposition than the arterial grafts, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that the majority of the transforming growth factor-?1 signaling cytokines were primarily localized in the cytoplasm in the medial layers of all three types of grafts, whereas ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the interstices were observed particularly in the saphenous vein and radial arterial grafts. CONCLUSION: Enhanced transforming growth factor-?1 signal transduction with medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, the presence of the type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the extracellular matrix may provide primary evidence for early or late graft failure.
Madry, Henning; Langer, Robert S.; Freed, Lisa E.; Trippel, Stephen; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
A method of growing bioengineered tissues includes, as a major component, the use of mammalian cells that have been transfected with genes for secretion of regulator and growth-factor substances. In a typical application, one either seeds the cells onto an artificial matrix made of a synthetic or natural biocompatible material, or else one cultures the cells until they secrete a desired amount of an extracellular matrix. If such a bioengineered tissue construct is to be used for surgical replacement of injured tissue, then the cells should preferably be the patient s own cells or, if not, at least cells matched to the patient s cells according to a human-leucocyteantigen (HLA) test. The bioengineered tissue construct is typically implanted in the patient's injured natural tissue, wherein the growth-factor genes enhance metabolic functions that promote the in vitro development of functional tissue constructs and their integration with native tissues. If the matrix is biodegradable, then one of the results of metabolism could be absorption of the matrix and replacement of the matrix with tissue formed at least partly by the transfected cells. The method was developed for articular chondrocytes but can (at least in principle) be extended to a variety of cell types and biocompatible matrix materials, including ones that have been exploited in prior tissue-engineering methods. Examples of cell types include chondrocytes, hepatocytes, islet cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, other organ cells, bone- and cartilage-forming cells, epithelial and endothelial cells, connective- tissue stem cells, mesodermal stem cells, and cells of the liver and the pancreas. Cells can be obtained from cell-line cultures, biopsies, and tissue banks. Genes, molecules, or nucleic acids that secrete factors that influence the growth of cells, the production of extracellular matrix material, and other cell functions can be inserted in cells by any of a variety of standard transfection techniques.
da Fonseca, F G; Silva, R L; Marques, J T; Ferreira, P C; Kroon, E G
Cowpox virus (CPV) is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus and has the genetic capacity to encode a multitude of genes that interfere with the host inflammatory and immune response or modulate the physiological state of infected and non-infected cells. Among these CPV factors are receptors homologous to interferon and tumor necrosis factor receptors and also a viral cellular serine-proteinase analog. Here we describe the detection of a CPV gene that encodes a protein homologous to epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha and poxvirus growth factors, such as the vaccinia growth factor (VGF). The VGF and other poxvirus growth factors are produced early in the infection and are secreted into the medium where they bind to the EGF receptors, generating mytotic responses. The cowpox growth factor (CGF) gene was detected in three copies on the virus genome by PCR, and by northern and southern blot hybridization using VGF nucleotide sequences as primers and probes. The CPV gene has a strong nucleotide and predicted amino acid similarity with VGF, and is also produced early in the infection. PMID:10403701
Evaluación de factores ambientales que influyen en características de crecimiento del nacimiento al destete de corderos Hampshire / Environmental factors influencing growth variables from birth to weaning in Hampshire lambs
José A., Ramirez-Tello; Glafiro, Torres-Hernández; Lino, de la Cruz-Colín; Manuel A., Ochoa-Cordero; Javier, Suárez-Espinosa.
Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar los efectos de sexo de la cría (macho, hembra), tipo de nacimiento de la cría (sencillo, doble), edad de la madre (2 a 7 y más años), granja (10 unidades), semental anidado en granja, así como interacciones dobles, que influyen en el peso al nacimiento (PN), peso [...] al destete ajustado por edad (PDA) y promedio de ganancia diaria de peso pre-destete (GDP) de corderos Hampshire de 10 granjas en Hidalgo, México. Se analizó una base de datos de 2006 a 2009 con 998 observaciones para PN y 933 para PDA y GDP. La alimentación se basó en granos, alfalfa, forraje de avena, y minerales. El análisis estadístico se efectuó con el procedimiento GLM del SAS. Las medias generales fueron PN: 5.1±0.9 kg, PDA: 32.3±5.4 kg, y GDP: 0.300±0.055 kg. Hubo efectos (P Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of sex of lamb (SL: male, female), type of birth (TB: single, twin), age of dam (AD: 2 to 7 years and older), farm (F: 10 units), and sire nested within farm, as well as first-order interactions that influence the variation of birth weight (BW), [...] adjusted weaning weight (AWW) and average pre-weaning daily weight gain (ADG) of Hampshire lambs from 10 farms in Hidalgo, México. A data base from 2006 to 2009 with 998 observations for BW and 933 for AWW and ADG was analyzed. Feeding of parents and lambs was based on grains, alfalfa, oats hay, and minerals. The statistical analysis was carried out with the GLM procedure of SAS. Overall means were BW: 5.1±0.9 kg, AWW: 32.3±5.4 kg, and ADG: 0.300±0.055 kg. Significant effects (P
Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M
Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503
Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy
Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth
Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. PMID:25433777
Solorio, Loran D.; Dhami, Chirag D.; Dang, Phuong N.; Vieregge, Eran L.; Alsberg, Eben
The precise spatial and temporal presentation of growth factors is critical for cartilage development, during which tightly controlled patterns of signals direct cell behavior and differentiation. This study elucidates the effects of varied conditions of transforming growth factor-?1-loaded microsphere incorporation on human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis, demonstrating that both spatiotemporal growth factor presentation and donor variability influence chondrogenic differentiation with...
IIDA, Gentoku; ASANO, Kazushi; SEKI, Mamiko; SAKAI, Manabu; KUTARA, Kenji; Ishigaki, Kumiko; Kagawa, Yumiko; YOSHIDA, Orie; TESHIMA, Kenji; EDAMURA, Kazuya; Watari, Toshihiro
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), t...
Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…
Cristina, Romeo T.
Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.
Full Text Available This paper empirically uses data from the world economy to show that performance of domestic factors are equally important to external factors when comes to growth. Various external and domestic factors are used to construct two separate indices and the principal component method is applied in the analysis. The empiri- cal results show that given a different level of performance in the economy’s external factors, a higher per- formance in the internal factors will produce a higher growth rate. When the performance of an economy’s internal factors is extremely low, it would be appropriate for that economy first to improve its internal factors.
Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)
Kuzmin Oleg Ye.
Full Text Available The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? – ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.
Full Text Available Abstract The influence of physical factors, such as microwave radiations, is today an alternative in agriculture for stimulation of plant vitality. In this study we aimed to evaluate the influence of microwaves in the early seedlings stages for 4 Romanian barley genotypes: Cardinal, Sistem, Dana and Maresal. This study was conducted to determine whether there are differentiated responses to microwave irradiation, at different powers and different exposure times, on the dynamics of root growth in some barley cultivars. Root growth measurements were performed after 3, 7 and 14 days of treatment with microwaves. It was observed that genotype, power or exposure time had significant influence both on root growth and on the number of roots of the studied barley genotypes. Microwave treatment caused significant differences in seedlings root growth. The greatest influence on root growth had the time of exposure. The best results in terms of root growth were obtained for the Cardinal and Sistem variety. At these varieties we observed the best stimulation effect, and the lowest influence of the microwave action. The most affected genotype was Dana, with the lowest stimulation effect.
The role of angiogenic molecules, like vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in tumor angio genesis was well confirmed. Photodynamic therapy action is, to very high degree, based on tumor vasculature damage. Therefore, it seemed to be important to evaluate growth factor receptors after photodynamic therapy. The extent of receptor expression was studied by immuno-histochemical method. In this study, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor have been evaluated at different time points after photodynamic therapy of tumor- bearing BALB/c mice. Two sensitizer: hematoporphyrin derivative and 21, 23-dithia porphyrin were given intraperitoneally in doses: 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg followed by light irradiation at total doses: 50 and 100 J/sq.cm 24 hours later. The number of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor and fibroblast growth factor in control samples did not exceed 40 per one vessel, whereas after photodynamic therapy, a significant decrease in the number of both receptors was observed. No differences between hematoporphyrin derivative and dithia porphyrin- photodynamic therapy in anti- receptor activities were observed (p<0.001 for vascular endothelial growth factor and p<0.002 for receptor and fibroblast growth factor ). The observed decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor and fibroblast growth factor amount confirms that after photodynamic therapy, some proteins are inacttodynamic therapy, some proteins are inactivated and such a decrease may influence photodynamic therapy effectiveness
Full Text Available Sugiyarto, Wardani PK, Setyono P, Mahajoeno E, Sunarto. 2013. Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata seedling. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 57-62. The purpose of this research was to find out the influence of mycorrhiza, organic fertilizer and their combination to the growth of seedlings matoa. The reseach was arranged on Completely Randomized design with two treatments factor; i.e. giving mycorrhiza (0 g, 5 g, 10 g/polybag and giving organic fertilizer (0 mL, 1 mL, 2 mL/polybag respectively each in 6 replications. The observed treatments were plant height, leaf number and plant biomass. The observation datas were analyzed by multivariate analysis level of 5 %, continued with LSD test. The result showed that there was no significant influence on given mycorrhiza for matoa seedling growth for all of the growth parameters. There was no influence of organic fertilizer for plant height parameter, but significantly influence for the number of leaf and biomass. The best increase of the number of leaf and biomass was on organic fertilizer treatment at 2 mL dosage. There were no influence in the growth of matoa by the combination treatments betwen mycorrhyza and organik fertilizer.
Jones, A.; Torn, M. S.; Riley, W. J.; Collins, W.
Large scale deployment of new biofuel crops has the potential to influence climate through biogeophysical and biogeochemical mechanisms operating at the land surface. In turn, climatic variability influences the productivity of biofuel crops and thus their potential contribution as a source of energy. In order to characterize this two-way interaction between biofuels and climate, we are conducting a series of modeling experiments within the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM). Key questions that this study attempts to address include 1) In what ways (e.g. at what spatial and temporal scales, under what land cover and management scenarios) does a transition to biofuel crops represent a climate stabilizing versus a climate destabilizing endeavor? 2) Which vegetation properties and management choices are most influential in determining key climatic outcomes associated with biofuels? 3) Are biofuel crop yields robust to changing climatic conditions? Our approach is to develop new biofuel plant functional types (PFTs) for the land surface component of CESM - the Community Land Model (CLM) - and to examine climatic implications of future biofuel deployment scenarios within the coupled land-atmosphere framework of CESM. We are focusing initially on c4 grass crops - i.e. switchgrass, miscnathus, sugarcane, and maize. CLM represents plant functional types with more than 50 parameters that describe aerodynamic, physiological, optical, and biogeochemical properties etc. We are also making structural modification to the model in order to represent unique features of biofuel crops and their management, such as changes to the phenology and carbon allocation schema for c4 grasses. Detailed observational data from new biofuel crops such as switchgrass and miscanthus is limited and offers a weak constraint on the full set of PFT parameters. To address this problem, we are conducting systematic sensitivity analysis on the default c4 grass parameters in CLM in order to identify a smaller set of parameters that exerts the most control on climatically relevant terms such as energy and carbon fluxes. By revealing those parameters that are most and least influential in terms of climate forcing, systematic sensitivity analysis helps to prioritize the search for observational data, constrains the process of tuning parameters to limited data, and leads the way to characterizing the uncertainty in biofuel crops’ influence on climate. Furthermore, due to similarities across managed ecosystems, these results offer general insight into those plant physiological properties and management factors that must be well-characterized in order to model changes in energy and carbon fluxes resulting from human land use.
Marcos Gimenes Fernandes
Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.
Shaheen, R M; Ahmad, S. A.; Liu, W.; Reinmuth, N; Jung, Y D; Tseng, W W; Drazan, K E; Bucana, C. D.; Hicklin, D J; Ellis, L. M.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulate colon cancer growth and metastasis. Previous studies utilizing antibodies against the VEGF receptor (DC101) or EGF receptor (C225) have demonstrated independently that these agents can inhibit tumour growth and induce apoptosis in colon cancer in in vivo and in vitro systems. We hypothesized that simultaneous blockade of the VEGF and EGF receptors would enhance the therapy of colon cancer in a mouse model of ...
Leung, David W.; Cachianes, George; Kuang, Wun-Jing; Goeddel, David V.; Ferrara, Napoleone
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was purified from media conditioned by bovine pituitary folliculostellate cells (FC). VEGF is a heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells that is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo. Complementary DNA clones for bovine and human VEGF were isolated from cDNA libraries prepared from FC and HL60 leukemia cells, respectively. These cDNAs encode hydrophilic proteins with sequences related to those of the A and B chains of platelet-derived growth factor. DNA sequencing suggests the existence of several molecular species of VEGF. VEGFs are secreted proteins, in contrast to other endothelial cell mitogens such as acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor. Human 293 cells transfected with an expression vector containing a bovine or human VEGF cDNA insert secrete an endothelial cell mitogen that behaves like native VEGF.
Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2 or hypoxia (10% O2 for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.
Quangyen Tran; Yezhuang Tian
The influence of certain factors on organizational structure has been in researchers’ focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Many of these factors are from the environment where traditional view commonly divided into internal and external factors. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate the influencing factors and impact on organizational structure of a sample of firms located in Hanoi, Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were a...
Zagon, Ian S; Donahue, Renee; McLaughlin, Patricia J
The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a biological pathway that is present in human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. OGF, chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is an endogenous opioid peptide that interfaces with OGFr to delay cells moving through the cell cycle by upregulation of cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways. OGF inhibitory activity is dose dependent, receptor mediated, reversible, protein and RNA dependent, but not related to apoptosis or necrosis. The OGF-OGFr axis can be targeted for treatment of human ovarian cancer by (i) administration of exogenous OGF, (ii) genetic manipulation to over-express OGFr and (iii) use of low dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, which stimulates production of OGF and OGFr for subsequent interaction following blockade of the receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis may be a feasible target for treatment of cancer of the ovary (i) in a prophylactic fashion, (ii) following cytoreduction or (iii) in conjunction with standard chemotherapy for additive effectiveness. In summary, preclinical data support the transition of these novel therapies for treatment of human ovarian cancer from the bench to bedside to provide additional targets for treatment of this devastating disease. PMID:23856908
Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is...
Imène Ben Fredj; Christophe Schalck
The relationship between financial development and economic growth were the subject of many recent theorical and empirical works [Shepherd, Hasan and Klapper, 2004; Gylfason, 2004; Rioja and Valev, 2003; Driffill, 2004; Haas, 2002; Carlin and Mayer, 2000]. These authors generally focused their analysis of the link finance- growth on the mature financial systems. As the Tunisian economy knew a long period of financial repression before starting the phases of liberalization, it w...
Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ?. Whereas transforming growth factor ? reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult ski medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated
Influencia de factores morfológicos y ambientales sobre el crecimiento en diámetro de Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm en un bosque tropical caducifolio, en México / Influence of morphological and environmental factors on diameter growth of Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm in a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico
Víctor M., Interián-Ku; Humberto, Vaquera-Huerta; Juan I., Valdez-Hernández; Edmundo, García-Moya; Angélica, Romero-Manzanares; Amparo, Borja-De la Rosa.
Full Text Available Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm es una especie de gran importancia económica en la selva baja caducifolia del sureste de México. La madera de esta especie es utilizada como poste en las construcciones rurales. Este estudio tiene por objeto conocer la influencia de los factores morfológicos y ambientales [...] en el crecimiento diamétrico anual, así como el turno para el aprovechamiento de la madera. Se evaluó el crecimiento diamétrico de 32 árboles ubicados en cuatro categorías diamétricas y clasificados de acuerdo con la calidad y la incidencia de luz solar en su copa. El estudio duró 22 meses; el diámetro a la altura del pecho se registró bimensualmente y las variables climáticas (temperatura ambiental, humedad relativa y precipitación total), diariamente. Los resultados sugieren que la tasa de crecimiento anual (TCA) incrementa de las categorías diamétricas menores a las mayores, de las calidades de copa dañadas a las simétricas y de las incidencias intermedias de luz solar a las de incidencia total. La mayor TCA se observó en las categorías diamétricas de 12.50 a 22.49 cm, en árboles con copas simétricas e incidencia de luz solar plena sobre la copa. La TCA acumulada se correlacionó positivamente (r = 0.94) y fue altamente significativa (P Abstract in english Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm is an important timber species in the tropical deciduous forest in southeast Mexico. The trunks of this species are used as posts in rural construction. In this study we investigated which morphological and environmental factors influence annual diameter growth, in order t [...] o establish the best turnover period. Diameter growth in 32 trees located in four diameter categories were evaluated and classified according to quality and sunlight incidence on the crowns of the trees. The study lasted 22 months and the diameter at breast height was measured and recorded bi-monthly. The results indicate that Average Growth Rate (AGR) increased from the smallest to the largest diameter categories, from the damaged to the healthy crown qualities and from intermediate to total incidences of sunlight. Highest AGR was observed in diameter categories of 12.50 to 22.49 cm in trees with symmetrical crown quality and the crown under full sunlight. The cumulative AGR was highly significant (P
Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.
Wajeeh, Emad M.; Micceri, Ted
This study examined differences in ratings between students in a metropolitan university system and traditional university freshmen on a set of factors that influence college choice. Data in regard to factors influencing college choice was collected from a sample of 1,795 University of South Florida (USF) freshmen and 1,108 USF students at various…
Murphy-ullrich, J. E.; Schultz-cherry, S.; Ho?o?k, M.
Thrombospondin (TSP) was demonstrated to inhibit the growth of bovine aortic endothelial cells, an activity that was not neutralized by antibodies to TSP or by other agents that block TSP-cell interactions but that partially was reversed by a neutralizing antibody to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Similar to TGF-beta, TSP supported the growth of NRK-49F colonies in soft agar in a dose-dependent manner, which required epidermal growth factor and was neutralized by anti-TGF-beta an...
Addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (rIGF-I) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) to BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts causes a marked increase in the binding of [125I] diferric transferrin to cell surface receptors. This effect is very rapid and is complete within 5 minutes. The effect is transient with [125I] diferric transferrin binding returning to control values within 25 minutes. In contrast, PDGF and rIGF-I cause a prolonged stimulation of [125I] diferric transferrin binding that could be observed up to 2 hours. The increase in the binding of [125I] diferric transferrin caused by growth factors was investigated by analysis of the binding isotherm. EGF, PDGF and rIGF-I were found to increase the cell surface expression of transferrin receptors rather than to alter the affinity of the transferrin receptors. Furthermore, PDGF and rIGF-I stimulated the sustained uptake of [59Fe] diferric transferrin by BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts. Thus, the effect of these growth factors to increase the cell surface expression of the transferrin receptor appears to have an important physiological consequence
Abramovitch, R; Marikovsky, M.; Meir, G.; Neeman, M
The goal of this work was to determine the molecular basis for the induction of tumour vascularization and progression by injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated that administration of wound fluid derived from cutaneous injuries in pigs reduced the lag for vascularization and initiation of growth of C6 glioma spheroids, implanted in nude mice, and accelerated tumour doubling time. The former effect can be attributed to the angiogenic capacity of wound fluid as detected i...
Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.
The influence factors of dynamic adsorption of noble gases in activated carbon is discussed in this paper. The influence of flow rate in a certain range and of CO2 concentration in normal environment may be ignored. Dynamic absorption coefficient increases with the increase in system pressure and decreases with the increase in temperature and relative humidity. Water content in activated carbon is practically used as an influence factor instead of relative humidity in the condition of unbalanced adsorption. (authors)
Laurie Drozdowski, Alan BR Thomson
Full Text Available There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.
Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)
The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.
The Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is the progenitor of a family of growth factors which is still expanding. The history of its discovery is very colorful; it is a rare combination of scientific reasoning, intuition, fortuities, and good luck. In addition, I believe that the collaboration of three scientists with very different backgrounds contributed to the success: I had grown up in a laboratory of experimental embryology, Dr. Levi-Montalcini came from neurology, and Dr. Stanley Cohen was from biochemistry. The decision where to begin the history of a discovery is always arbitrary. I shall give my reasons why I begin this story with my wing bud extirpations on chick embryos and the analysis of the effects of the operation on the development of spinal nerve centers, published in 1934. Of course, I am aware of the fact that the analysis of neurogenesis had been pioneered by Dr. R. G. Harrison and his students at Yale University since the beginning of this century. It should be mentioned that their experiments had been done on amphibian embryos. My own interest in problems of neurogenesis dates back to my Ph.D. thesis in the Zoology Department of Professor H. Spemann at the University of Freiburg in (the Federal Republic of) Germany; it dealt with the influence of the nervous system on the development of limbs in frog embryos. After I had obtained some inconclusive results I did the crucial experiment of producing nerveless legs. I removed the lumbar part of the spinal cord and the spinal ganglia before the outgrowth of nerve fibers. The nerveless legs developed normally in every respect, but the muscles atrophied eventually. PMID:8228966
Woost, P G; Jumblatt, M M; Eiferman, R A; Schultz, G S
Peptide growth factors and other physiological growth modifiers were evaluated for their ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in early passage cultures of bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCEC). Increasing concentrations of newborn bovine serum (0.5-10%) causes a progressive increase in DNA synthesis, which approached a plateau at 10% serum. Supplementing medium with 10% serum from different lots of newborn bovine serum or fetal bovine serum stimulated significantly different levels of DNA synthesis by BCEC. Addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) (2 nM) to medium containing 10% newborn or fetal bovine serum further increased DNA synthesis. Dose-response curves for EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and insulin-like growth factor I showed that each significantly stimulated high levels of DNA synthesis (200-700% increase) compared with BCEC cultured in serum-free medium. Vaccinia growth factor, insulin, and transforming growth factor-beta each significantly stimulated lower levels of DNA synthesis (30-200% increase), whereas nerve growth factor, multiplication stimulating activity, and platelet-derived growth factor all failed to significantly stimulate DNA synthesis above the level of serum-free medium. Other physiological growth modifiers were tested for their effects on DNA synthesis of BCEC. Transferrin and low levels of 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) stimulated very low levels of DNA synthesis (50% increase) whereas linoleic acid, high levels of selenium, or cAMP each inhibited DNA synthesis 25-75% below the level of BCEC cultured in serum-free medium. A series of eight formulations containing various combinations of EGF, FGF, insulin, transferrin, selenium, linoleic acid, retinoic acid, cAMP, heparin, and endothelial cell growth factor were tested for their mitogenic action on BCEC cultures. A formulation containing EGF, insulin, transferrin, selenium, and linoleic acid (EGF + ITSL) stimulated the highest level of DNA synthesis of BCEC, which was approximately 25% higher than the increase stimulated by addition of 10% newborn bovine serum. The formulation consisting of EGF + ITSL was also evaluated as a supplement to corneal storage media. Addition of EGF + ITSL to three corneal storage media (McCarey-Kaufman, K-Sol, CSM) significantly stimulated increases in cell numbers of approximately 50% above the unsupplemented corneal storage media. These results demonstrate that BCEC respond selectively to different defined peptide growth factors and physiological growth modifiers, and suggest that supplementation of corneal storage media with a defined formulation (EGF + ITSL) may enhance corneal endothelial cell density. PMID:1559341
The present study estimated total factor productivity (TFP) growth of agriculture sector of Pakistan for the period 1971-2006 by employing Tornqvist-Theil (T-T) index number methodology. Most of the conventional inputs were used in constructing the input index. The output index includes major crops, minor crops, important fruits and vegetables and four categories of livestock products. The study estimated TFP growth rates for different decades. The results showed that TFP growth rate was lowest during the decade of 70s (0.96 percent) and highest during the last six years of the study period (2.86 percent). The decade of 80s and 90s registered TFP growth rate of 2.24 percent and 2.46 percent, respectively. The results also explained that TFP growth contributed about 33 percent to total agricultural output growth during the decade of 70s and this contribution increased up to 83 percent during the last six years of the study period. The contribution of TFP growth to total agricultural output growth was 53 and 81 percent during the decades of 80s and 90s, respectively. The study observed that macro level government policies, institutional factors and weather conditions are the major key factors that influenced TFP growth. (author)
Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni
There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.
Masud, E. [ed.
This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)
Narke Sunil Yuvaraj
The growth of population is influenced by the number of factors in a particular region. The important factors such as the demographic, economic, social and physical factors have great bearing upon the growth of population. Now a day, Geography is not merely descriptive subject.
Malikeh Beheshtifar; Fateme-Begom Kamani-Fard
Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea...
Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.
Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight. Presented with an imbalanced dietary phosphorus to calcium ratio, increased secretion of FGF23 will inhibit renal phosphorus reabsorption, resulting in increased excretion and reduced circulating phosphorus. Increased intake and excretion of phosphorus is associated with increased kidney stone risk in both the terrestrial and microgravity environments. Highly processed foods and carbonated beverages are associated with higher phosphorus content. Ideally, the dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio should be at minimum 1:1. Nutritional requirements for spaceflight suggest that this ratio not be less than 0.67 (3), while the International Space Station (ISS) menu provides 1020 mg Ca and 1856 mg P, for a ratio of 0.55 (3). Subjects in NASA's bed rest studies, by design, have consumed intake ratios much closer to 1.0 (4). FGF23 also has an inhibitory influence on PTH secretion and 1(alpha)-hydroxylase, both of which are required for activating vitamin D with the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will result in decreased intestinal phosphorus absorption, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion (via decreased renal reabsorption). Should a decrease in 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D be necessary to reduce intestinal phosphorus absorption, calcium absorption will also proportionally be reduced, potentially leading to skeletal demineralization. Demineralization of bone can increase kidney stone risk, a medical issue that could prove detrimental to mission success. Given the interrelationships described above, we sought to determine circulating FGF23 concentrations in spaceflight and ground analog studies to better understand the potential effects of dietary phosphorus on bone and calcium metabolism. We analyzed serum from ISS astronauts participating in studies of bone biochemistry, including the Nutrition SMO and Pro K experiments, and we also evaluated FGF23 during extended-duration bed rest. Serum intact FGF23 levels were determined using an ELISA kit from Kainos laboratories in Japan. While initial evaluation of the data showed no changes over time during flight or bed rest, evaluation continues of FGF23 data in light of dietary factors, PTH, vitamin D status, and other biochemical and endocrine factors.
Giustina, Andrea; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Canalis, Ernesto
GH and IGF-I are important regulators of bone homeostasis and are central to the achievement of normal longitudinal bone growth and bone mass. Although GH may act directly on skeletal cells, most of its effects are mediated by IGF-I, which is present in the systemic circulation and is synthesized by peripheral tissues. The availability of IGF-I is regulated by IGF binding proteins. IGF-I enhances the differentiated function of the osteoblast and bone formation. Adult GH deficiency causes low ...
The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly...
Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, I.A., van der; Frewer, L.J.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...
Choi, Jaehoon; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Sang Woo
Background Hypertrophic scars and keloids are associated with abnormal levels of growth factors. Silicone gel sheets are effective in treating and preventing hypertrophic scars and keloids. There has been no report on the change in growth factors in the scar tissue following the use of silicone gel sheeting for scar prevention. A prospective controlled trial was performed to evaluate whether growth factors are altered by the application of a silicone gel sheet on a fresh surgical scar. Methods Four of seven enrolled patients completed the study. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were investigated immunohistochemically in biopsies taken from five scars at 4 months following surgery. Results In both the epidermis and the dermis, the expression of TGF-?1 (P=0.042 and P=0.042) and PDGF (P=0.043 and P=0.042) was significantly lower in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars. The expression of bFGF in the dermis was significantly higher in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars (P=0.042), but in the epidermis, the expression of bFGF showed no significant difference between the groups (P=0.655). Conclusions The levels of TGF-?1, PDGF, and bFGF are altered by the silicone gel sheet treatment, which might be one of the mechanisms of action in scar prevention. PMID:25606485
Wang, J. M.; Zhang, J. T.
Hair is a protective appendage on the body that is considered accessory structure of the integument. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. The morphological changes of the hair cycle have been very clear that hair morphogenesis and epidermal development are orchestrated by an array of growth factors. In this review, we summarize the major growth factors involved in promoting growth of hair follicles
Shao, Minghai; Hollar, Stacy; Chambliss, Daphne; Schmitt, Jordan; Emerson, Robert; Chelladurai, Bhadrani; Perkins, Susan; Ivan, Mircea; Matei, Daniela
Antiangiogenic therapy is emerging as a highly promising strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer, but the clinical benefits are usually transitory. The purpose of this study was to identify and target alternative angiogenic pathways that are upregulated in ovarian xenografts during treatment with bevacizumab. For this, angiogenesis-focused gene expression arrays were used to measure gene expression levels in SKOV3 and A2780 serous ovarian xenografts treated with bevacizumab or control. Reverse transcription-PCR was used for results validation. The insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was found upregulated in tumor and stromal cells in the two ovarian xenograft models treated with bevacizumab. Cixutumumab was used to block IGF-1 signaling in vivo. Dual anti-VEGF and IGF blockade with bevacizumab and cixutumumab resulted in increased inhibition of tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry measured multivessel density, Akt activation, and cell proliferation, whereas terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay measured apoptosis in ovarian cancer xenografts. Bevacizumab and cixutumumab combination increased tumor cell apoptosis in vivo compared with therapy targeting either individual pathway. The combination blocked angiogenesis and cell proliferation but not more significantly than each antibody alone. In summary, IGF-1 activation represents an important mechanism of adaptive escape during anti-VEGF therapy in ovarian cancer. This study provides the rationale for designing bevacizumab-based combination regimens to enhance antitumor activity. PMID:22700681
Iyer, Anand Krishnan V; Tran, Kien T; Borysenko, Christopher W; Cascio, Michael; Camacho, Carlos J; Blair, Harry C; Bahar, Ivet; Wells, Alan
Select epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like (EGFL) repeats of human tenascin cytotactin (tenascin C) can stimulate EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling, but activation requires micromolar concentrations of soluble EGFL repeats in contrast to subnanomolar concentrations of classical growth factors such as EGF. Using in silico homology modeling techniques, we generated a structure for one such repeat, the 14th EGFL repeat (Ten14). Ten14 assumes a tight EGF-like fold with truncated loops, consistent with circular dichroism studies. We generated bound structures for Ten14 with EGFR using two different approaches, resulting in two distinctly different conformations. Normal mode analysis of both structures indicated that the binding pocket of EGFR exhibits a significantly higher mobility in Ten14-EGFR complex compared to that of the EGF-EGFR complex; we hypothesized this may be attributed to loss of key high-affinity interactions within the Ten14-EGFR complex. We proved the efficacy of our in silico models by in vitro experiments. Surface plasmon resonance measurements yielded equilibrium constant K(D) of 74 microM for Ten14, approximately three orders of magnitude weaker than that of EGF. In accordance with our predicted bound models, Ten14 in monomeric form does not bind EGFR with sufficient stability so as to induce degradation of receptor, or undergo EGFR-mediated internalization over either the short (20 min) or long (48 h) term. This transient interaction with the receptor on the cell surface is in marked contrast to other EGFR ligands which cause EGFR transit through, and signaling from intracellular locales in addition to cell surface signaling. PMID:17311283
Cristina, Romeo T
The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics), sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, ...
Honjo, Eijiro; Tamada, Taro; Adachi, Motoyasu; Kuroki, Ryota; Meher, Akshaya; Blaber, Michael
Several mutations at Glu81 located on the crystal contact of human acidic fibroblast growth factor were studied in an effort to improve crystal growth. Mutation to Ser and Thr resulted in crystallization of a rather bulky form of the wild type, whereas mutation to Val prohibited crystallization. These results suggest that crystal growth may be controlled by designing a new interface by protein engineering.
Yuanxin Liu; Xiangbo Ning
In this article, we selected 25 electric power listed companies in the electric power industry as the samples to study the influences of micro factors on the capital structure of listed companies, and the sample period was from 2002 to 2007, and these micro factors mainly included company scale, profitability, growth, non-debt tax shields, fluidity and capital structure. The research results showed that the company scale, non-debt tax shields and assets structure were not significantly correl...
Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard; Nayereh Rahimi
Measuring the effects of various factors influencing on risk of return in banking system plays essential role on making managerial decisions. This paper investigates the effects of seven factors including equities, leverage, dividend, size, growth domestic products, bank concentration and market return on risk of return in selected banks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects the necessary data through financial statements announced on exchange as well as macro-economic figures re...
Amarjit Singh Gill
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence financial leverage of small business firms in India. This study also seeks to extend the findings of Michaelas et al. (1999. Small business owners from Punjab area of India were surveyed in order to gather information. Subjects were asked about their perceptions, beliefs, and feelings regarding the factors that influence financial leverage of their firms. This study utilized survey research (a non-experimental field study design. The findings of this paper show that small business growth, small business performance, total assets, sales, tax, and family have positive influence on the financial leverage of small business firms in India. This study contributes to the literature on the factors that influence financial leverage of small business firms. The findings may be useful for the financial managers, investors, and financial management consultants.
Suzuki, A.; Hayashi, E.; Nakamura, T.; Iwase, A.; Ishimura, T.; Iguchi, A.; Sakai, K.; Okai, T.; Inoue, M.; Araoka, D.; Kawahata, H.
Coral-based climate reconstruction has been increasingly reported from many tropical sites. Potential ambiguity of coral thermometers intrinsic in biomineralization process attracts much attention, including so-called 'vital effects', 'growth-rate-related kinetic effect', '[CO32-] effect' and so on. Here we study growth-rate influences on skeletal oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (?18O and ?13C), as well as Sr/Ca ratio, based on a long-term culture experiment using Porites australiensis clone colonies. Variation in ?18O showed negligible influence against a large intercolony variation in growth rate based on the comparison of the seasonal minimum ?18O values during summer, while that was relatively sensitive to temporal growth-rate change due to health condition of each colony. Contrary, Sr/Ca ratio was robust against both the inter- and intra- colony variation in growth rate. Positive sift in ?13C for slower-growing corals was found, and it can be attributed to a kinetic behavior of calcification reaction. Seasonal fluctuation pattern in ?13C did not correspond to light intensity nor that in ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater. These lines warrant the signal recording ability of coral skeletal Sr/Ca ratio and ?18O from a long-lived colony of clonal growth as paleo-climate archives, and propose practical guideline for the proper interplication of coral records.
Antras, Pol; Voth, Hans-Joachim
This paper presents new estimates of total factor productivity growth in Britain for the period 1770–1860. We use the dual technique and argue that the estimates we derive from factor prices are of similar quality to quantity-based calculations. Our results provide further evidence, calculated on the basis of an independent set of sources, that productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution was relatively slow. The Crafts–Harley view of the Industrial Revolution is thus rein...
Lee Se-Jin; Huynh Thanh V; McPherron Alexandra C
Abstract Background Myostatin (Mstn) and growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) are highly related transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) family members that play important roles in regulating embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Despite their high degree of sequence identity, targeted mutations in these genes result in non-overlapping phenotypes affecting distinct biological processes. Loss of Mstn in mice causes a doubling of skeletal muscle mass while loss of Gdf11 in mice ...
Stroobant, P.; WATERFIELD, M. D.
The purification to homogeneity of a potent growth factor from porcine platelets is described. This cationic mitogen is named porcine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on the basis of close structural, functional and immunological similarities to human PDGF. Porcine PDGF, like its human homologue, is a hydrophobic, disulphide cross-linked protein, which is stable to heat, acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), and guanidine. The purified protein has an apparent mol. wt. on SDS-polyacrylamid...
Fontana, Luigi; Partridge, Linda; Longo, Valter D.
Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced growth factor signaling both elevate resistance to oxidative stress, reduce macromolecular damage, and increase lifespan in model organisms. In rodents, both DR and decreased growth factor signaling reduce the incidence of tumors and slow down cognitive decline and aging. DR reduces cancer and cardiovascular disease and mortality in monkeys, and reduces metabolic traits associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in humans. Neoplasias and d...
Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier
Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) is a polypeptide with well-characterized growth promoting properties. The effects are exerted through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF receptor), which is present on many different kinds of cells. The growth factor was initially shown to induce anchorage-independent growth of normal cells and was, therefore, considered as an "oncogenic" growth factor. Later, its immunohistochemical presence in normal human cells as well as its biological effects in normal human tissues have been demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical immunoreactivity. TGF-alpha was found to be widely distributed in cells of normal human tissues derived from all three germ layers, most often in differentiated cells. In epithelial cells, three different kinds of staining patterns were observed, either diffuse cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic in the basal parts of the cells, or distinctly localized adjacent to the nucleus, usually on the luminal aspect, corresponding to the localization of the Golgi complex. The latter staining pattern was seen predominantly in secretory epithelial cells. The present study thus confirms previous studies and elaborates new localizations of TGF-alpha in normal human tissues by investigating a broad spectrum of tissues in detail.
Landen, O.L.; Keane, C.J.; Hammel, B.A. [and others
In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the kinetic energy of an ablating, inward-driven, solid spherical shell is used to compressionally heat the low-density fuel inside. For a given drive, the maximum achievable compressed fuel density and temperature - and hence the maximum neutron production rate depend on the degree of shell isentropy and integrity maintained during the compression. Shell integrity will be degraded by hydrodynamic instability growth of areal density imperfections in the capsule. Surface imperfections on the shell grow as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities when the shell is accelerated by the ablating lower-density plasma. Perturbations at the outer capsule surface are transferred hydrodynamically to the inner surface, where deceleration of the shell by the lower-density fuel gives rise to further RT growth at the pusher-fuel interface.
Sande, G.P.C.M., van de
Rhizobium bacteria induce the formation of nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. The nodules create the right biological niche for the rhizobia to carry out biological nitrogen fixation by which atmospheric nitrogen is reduced to ammonia. The nodule is a new organ that provides the plant with a nitrogen source for its growth and development. The formation of a nitrogen fixing root nodule is the final result of an extensive collaboration between the plant and the bacterium, which starts w...
Lee, Jaebum; Stavropoulos, Andreas
Several growth and differentiation factors have shown potential as therapeutic agents to support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, although optimal dosage, release kinetics, and suitable delivery systems are still unknown. Experimental variables, including delivery systems, dose, and the common use of poorly characterized preclinical models, make it difficult to discern the genuine efficacy of each of these factors. Only a few growth and differentiation factors have reached clinical evaluation. It appears that well-defined discriminating preclinical models followed by well-designed clinical trials are needed to further investigate the true potential of these and other candidate factors. Thus, current research is focused on finding relevant growth and differentiation factors, optimal dosages, and the best approaches for delivery to develop clinically meaningful therapies in patient-centered settings.
This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…
This paper reports on the influence that temperature during irradiation and dose-rate have on the radiation-induced free-radical yield and time stability in non de-proteinized bone. Bone from chicken legs was irradiated in the 253-293 K temperature range and with two different sources (60Co, 0.6 Gy/s and 12 MeV electrons, 6 x 106 Gy/s). Temperature influences type and number of radicals, while radical concentration seems to slightly decrease with dose rate. (author)
Onori, S; Pantaloni, M; Baccaro, S; Fuochi, P G
This paper reports on the influence that temperature during irradiation and dose-rate have on the radiation-induced free-radical yield and time stability in non de-proteinized bone. Bone from chicken legs was irradiated in the 253-293 K temperature range and with two different sources (60Co, 0.6 Gy/s and 12 MeV electrons, 6 x 10(6) Gy/s). Temperature influences type and number of radicals, while radical concentration seems to slightly decrease with dose rate. PMID:9022202
Giustina, Andrea; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Canalis, Ernesto
GH and IGF-I are important regulators of bone homeostasis and are central to the achievement of normal longitudinal bone growth and bone mass. Although GH may act directly on skeletal cells, most of its effects are mediated by IGF-I, which is present in the systemic circulation and is synthesized by peripheral tissues. The availability of IGF-I is regulated by IGF binding proteins. IGF-I enhances the differentiated function of the osteoblast and bone formation. Adult GH deficiency causes low bone turnover osteoporosis with high risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and the low bone mass can be partially reversed by GH replacement. Acromegaly is characterized by high bone turnover, which can lead to bone loss and vertebral fractures, particularly in patients with coexistent hypogonadism. GH and IGF-I secretion are decreased in aging individuals, and abnormalities in the GH/IGF-I axis play a role in the pathogenesis of the osteoporosis of anorexia nervosa and after glucocorticoid exposure. PMID:18436706
Signorello, L B; Kuper, H; Lagiou, P; Wuu, J; Mucci, L A; Trichopoulos, D; Adami, H O
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a potentially important determinant of disease; hence epidemiological identification of factors that influence circulating IGF-1 is merited. We therefore analysed data collected in Greece to determine the relationship between anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary variables and serum levels of IGF-1 among elderly men. We identified 51 men with prostate cancer, 50 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 52 apparently healthy elderly men (controls), all matched for age (+/- 1 year). These 153 men provided blood specimens and were interviewed using a validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire. We performed multivariate linear regression to identify potential predictors of circulating IGF-1. After controlling for age, body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol drinking and coffee consumption, each 5 cm increase in height predicted a 13.0% increase in IGF-1 (95% CI 0.4-27.2%) among the controls and a 11.3% increase in IGF-1 (95% CI 4.5-18.6%) among the entire study group. None of the investigated dietary factors (total fat, carbohydrate, protein, dairy products, tomatoes, calcium) were strongly related to IGF-1 levels. The positive association between IGF-1 and height integrates the empirical evidence linking IGF-1 and height with prostate cancer risk. PMID:10954256
Goldman, C. K.; Kim, J.; Wong, W. L.; King, V.; Brock, T.; Gillespie, G. Y.
Hypervascularity, focal necrosis, persistent cerebral edema, and rapid cellular proliferation are key histopathologic features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and malignant of human brain tumors. By immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence, we definitively have demonstrated the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in five out of five human glioma cell lines (U-251MG, U-105MG, D-65MG, D-54MG, and CH-235MG) and in eig...
Schuliga, Michael; Javeed, Aqeel; Harris, Trudi; Xia, Yuxiu; Qin, Chengxue; Wang, Zhexing; Zhang, Xuehua; Lee, Peter V. S.; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Alastair G. Stewart
In asthma, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) plays an important (patho)physiological role. This study examines the effects of FGF-2 on the transforming growth factor–? (TGF-?)–stimulated differentiation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in vitro. The differentiation of human ASM cells after incubation with TGF-? (100 pM) and/or FGF-2 (300 pM) for 48 hours was assessed by increases in contractile protein expression, actin-cytoskeleton reorganization, enhancements in cell stiffnes...
Davis, R. J.; Czech, M. P.
Addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to quiescent WI-38 human fetal lung fibroblasts mimics the effect of tumor-promoting phorbol diesters to inhibit the high-affinity binding of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor (125I-EGF). PDGF, like phorbol diesters, was found to increase the phosphorylation state of EGF receptors immunoprecipitated from intact fibroblasts that were labeled to equilibrium with [32P]phosphate. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the EGF receptors indicated that bo...
Full Text Available Electronic Data Interchange (EDI implementation is viewed as an important tool for transmission of business data. Yet, its implementation has not reached the predicted level whereby the implementation is often stalled at infancy stage. Many factors were pinpointed as inhibitors or barriers for success of EDI implementation. This study examines key EDI influencing factors and their relationship with implementation level, firm size and type of users. Mail surveys on 108 manufacturers were the main data collection method. Findings indicate that implementation level differs based on influencing factors, while these factors differ based on type of users and do not differ based on firm size. Relatively, internal factors were found to be more significant than external factors. This study also recommends future research to further examine influences of users’ type with different EDI aspects.
Raaberg, Lasse; NexØ, Ebba
We have used rats with epidermal growth factor (EGF) autoantibodies to study the role of EGF deficiency during perinatal development. The study was focused on organs known to contain EGF or its receptor. Compared with controls, the offspring of autoimmune rats had a higher perinatal mortality and a lower birth weight. The weight of the lungs was particularly low in the offspring of EGF-immunized rats, and morphologically the lungs from the surviving pups seemed atelectatic and had alveolar duct dilatation, which indicates mild respiratory distress syndrome. Judged from immunohistochemical studies, the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio was lower in pups from EGF-immunized rats. This difference was, however, not significant (p = 0.07), but flow cytometric analyses showed a significantly lower proportion of the liver cells from newborn EGF-deficient pups to be in S-phase and indicated that these cells were larger than liver cells from controls. To study possible alterations in EGF binding, 125I-EGF was injected i.v. in newborn rats. 125I-EGF bound in all the organs investigated. The binding is listed in decreasing order: liver, gut, skin, kidney, and lungs. In the pups from EGF-immunized rats, the lungs and the skin bound a significantly higher amount than the controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is associated with physiological (for example wound healing and pathological conditions (tumour development. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF are the major angiogenic regulators. We have identified a natural product (cheiradone isolated from a Euphorbia species which inhibited in vivo and in vitro VEGF- stimulated angiogenesis but had no effect on FGF-2 or EGF activity. Two primary cultures, bovine aortic and human dermal endothelial cells were used in in vitro (proliferation, wound healing, invasion in Matrigel and tube formation and in vivo (the chick chorioallantoic membrane models of angiogenesis in the presence of growth factors and cheiradone. In all cases, the concentration of cheiradone which caused 50% inhibition (IC50 was determined. The effect of cheiradone on the binding of growth factors to their receptors was also investigated. Results Cheiradone inhibited all stages of VEGF-induced angiogenesis with IC50 values in the range 5.20–7.50 ?M but did not inhibit FGF-2 or EGF-induced angiogenesis. It also inhibited VEGF binding to VEGF receptor-1 and 2 with IC50 values of 2.9 and 0.61 ?M respectively. Conclusion Cheiradone inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis by binding to VEGF receptors -1 and -2 and may be a useful investigative tool to study the specific contribution of VEGF to angiogenesis and may have therapeutic potential.
Fontana, Luigi; Partridge, Linda; Longo, Valter D
Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced growth factor signaling both elevate resistance to oxidative stress, reduce macromolecular damage, and increase lifespan in model organisms. In rodents, both DR and decreased growth factor signaling reduce the incidence of tumors and slow down cognitive decline and aging. DR reduces cancer and cardiovascular disease and mortality in monkeys, and reduces metabolic traits associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in humans. Neoplasias and diabetes are also rare in humans with loss of function mutations in the growth hormone receptor. DR and reduced growth factor signaling may thus slow aging by similar, evolutionarily conserved, mechanisms. We review these conserved anti-aging pathways in model organisms, discuss their link to disease prevention in mammals, and consider the negative side effects that might hinder interventions intended to extend healthy lifespan in humans. PMID:20395504
Popadi? Silvija M.; Voji?i? Jelena V.; Peter Andrea; Maleševi? Milica ?.; Mihailovi? Jasna; Kermeci Katarina
Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13), operated during the yea...
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with having preventive screening tests in a population-based sample of Ontario women. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey linked to data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to ascertain whether women aged 20 or older had Pap smears, mammography, bone densitometry, or cholesterol testing. Factors associated with having testing were subjected to logistic regression analysis. SETTING: Ontario....
Va?hara, P.; Hampl, A.; Kozubík, Alois; Sou?ek, Karel
Ro?. 15, ?. 4 (2012), s. 320-328. ISSN 1365-7852 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9600; GA MZd NS9956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : MACROPHAGE-INHIBITORY CYTOKINE-1 * GROWTH-DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-15 * TGF-BETA SUPERFAMILY Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2012
Buchtová, Marcela; Chaloupková, R.; Zakrzewska, M.; Veselá, I.; Celá, Petra; Barathová, J.; Gudernová, I.; Zají?ková, R.; Trantírek, L.; Martin, J.; Kostas, M.; Otlewski, J.; Damborský, J.; Kozubík, Alois; Wiedlocha, A.; Krej?í, P.
Ro?. 72, ?. 12 (2015), s. 2445-2459. ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA14-31540S; GA ?R GBP302/12/G157 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor * FGF * unstable Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.856, year: 2013
With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China. - Highlights: ? We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions. ? Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. ? These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. ? Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO2 emission is different. ? Improvingission is different. ? Improving technology level is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China.
Full Text Available Abstract Background p8 is a stress-induced protein with multiple functions and biochemically related to the architectural factor HMG-I/Y. We analyzed the expression and function of p8 in pancreatic cancer-derived cells. Methods Expression of p8 was silenced in the human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 and BxPc-3 by infection with a retrovirus expressing p8 RNA in the antisense orientation. Cell growth was measured in control and p8-silenced cells. Influence on p8 expression of the induction of intracellular pathways promoting cellular growth or growth arrest was monitored. Results p8-silenced cells grew more rapidly than control cells transfected with the empty retrovirus. Activation of the Ras?Raf?MEK?ERK and JNK intracellular pathways down-regulated p8 expression. In addition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 up-regulates expression of p8. Conversely, p38 or TGF?-1 induced p8 expression whereas the specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 down-regulated p8 expression. Finally, TGF?-1 induction was in part mediated through p38. Conclusions p8 inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. p8 expression is induced through pathways involved in growth inhibition and repressed by factors that promote cell growth. These results suggest that p8 belongs to a pathway regulating the growth of pancreatic cancer cells.
In this paper we discuss the influence of using different production functions on modeling the resource extraction rates and economic growth. The focus is set on the modeling of the production sector, which requires either non-renewable resources, renewable resources or a combination of both resources for production. There are great differences between the possible assumptions when modeling the substitution process between the different input factors. It is shown that the existence of an opti...
Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Bell, Robert
We present an investigation of chemical influences on the growth of ice crystals from water vapor. In one set of experiments, we grew ice crystals in a vapor diffusion chamber, observing crystal morphologies at temperatures from 0 C to -25 C in different background gases and with a variety of gaseous chemical additives. In a second set of experiments, we measured ice crystal growth rates at -5 C and -15 C in a free-fall flow chamber, using normal laboratory air and ultra-cle...
Full Text Available The influence of ultrasound introduced into the melt during the growth of single crystals of gallium arsenide. Ultrasonic vibrations had a frequency of 820 kHz and amplitude of 0.1-0.2 micrometer. Found an increase in the homogeneity of impurity distribution of the bands growth without change of the dislocation structure of single crystals. In the simulation result of the ultrasonic wave interaction with the melt in the crucible on the basis of the theory of formation of phases is established that nucleation rate associated with the frequency and amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration acting on the melt.
Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea sources, and evidence of the creative planning process; and organizational creativity is as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The creative climate encourages people to generate new ideas and helps the organization to grow and increase its efficiency and at the same time it enables members to generate and implement creative ideas more effectively.
Buchtova, Marcela; Chaloupkova, Radka; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Vesela, Iva; Cela, Petra; Barathova, Jana; Gudernova, Iva; Zajickova, Renata; Trantirek, Lukas; Martin, Jorge; Kostas, Michal; Otlewski, Jacek; Damborsky, Jiri; Kozubik, Alois; Wiedlocha, Antoni; Krejci, Pavel
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) deliver extracellular signals that govern many developmental and regenerative processes, but the mechanisms regulating FGF signaling remain incompletely understood. Here, we explored the relationship between intrinsic stability of FGF proteins and their biological activity for all 18 members of the FGF family. We report that FGF1, FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF16, FGF17, FGF18, FGF20, and FGF22 exist as unstable proteins, which are rapidly degraded in cell cultivation media. Biological activity of FGF1, FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF8, FGF10, FGF16, FGF17, and FGF20 is limited by their instability, manifesting as failure to activate FGF receptor signal transduction over long periods of time, and influence specific cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. Stabilization via exogenous heparin binding, introduction of stabilizing mutations or lowering the cell cultivation temperature rescues signaling of unstable FGFs. Thus, the intrinsic ligand instability is an important elementary level of regulation in the FGF signaling system. PMID:25854632
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences is pleased to announce the May 2012 Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI) Special Issue, Understanding and Influencing Multilevel Factors Across the Cancer Care Continuum.
The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated
Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.
Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira
This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads. PMID:21476837
Caihong Chen; Wencong Ma; Guilong Zhu
From the view of university character, this study discussed the influencing factors of University-Industry collaboration. Using negative binomial regression and quantile regression model, the study empirically analyzed the U-I collaboration of 431 Universities in China. The results showed that: There are differences of influencing factors between high-quality and medium-quality universities and under the control of area and university type, the research qua...
Al-agaga, Ameen M.; Khalil Md Nor
The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfacti...
Yulihasri Eri; Md. Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud
On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing student’s buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence student’s buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public institution of higher l...
In an attempt to enhance the core professional values of tax practitioners in South Africa, the South African Revenue Service has proposed the regulation of tax practitioners’ services. It is arguable whether or not this would be the only factor to influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. A literature review was conducted to identify factors that could influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. Numerous possibilities emerged. It is therefore recommended that if regul...
Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...
Kim, K. Jin; Li, Bing; Winer, Jane; Armanini, Mark; Gillett, Nancy; Phillips, Heidi S.; Ferrara, Napoleone
THE development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis, wound healing and corpus luteum formation1,2. Blood vessel neoformation is also important in the pathogenesis of many disorders1-5, particularly rapid growth and metastasis of solid tumours3-5. There are several potential mediators of tumour angiogenesis, including basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors, tumour necrosis factor-? and transforming factors-? and -? 1,2. But it is unclear whether any of these agents actually mediates angiogenesis and tumour growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and an angiogenesis inducer released by a variety of tumour cells and expressed in human tumours in situ. To test whether VEGF may be a tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo, we injected human rhabdomyosar-coma, glioblastoma multiforme or leiomyosarcoma cell lines into nude mice. We report here that treatment with a monoclonal antibody specific for VEGF inhibited the growth of the tumours, but had no effect on the growth rate of the tumour cells In vitro. The density of vessels was decreased in the antibody-treated tumours. These findings demonstrate that inhibition of the action of an angiogenic factor spontaneously produced by tumour cells may suppress tumour growth in vivo.
Su, Ye; Cui, Lili; Piao, Chunshu; Li, Bin; Zhao, Li-ru
Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are initially discovered as the essential hematopoietic growth factors regulating bone marrow stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and SCF in combination with G-CSF (SCF+G-CSF) has synergistic effects on bone marrow stem cell mobilization. In this study we have determined the effect of SCF and G-CSF on neurite outgrowth in rat cortical neurons. Using molecular and cellular biology and live cell imaging approaches...
McCullough, K C; Pullen, L; Parkinson, D
Recombinant and pure "natural" IL-1 and IL-2 were compared with the muramyl dipeptide (MDP) component of Freund's adjuvant for their capacity to enhance the humoral immune response against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus antigen. Using a dose of this antigen which alone did not give a detectable immune response, anti-FMD virus antibody was measured at 14 and 28 days post-vaccination. Although IL-1 could enhance the response against the virus antigen, in particular when administered 24 h before the vaccine, this was not as strong as that obtained when MDP was adjuvant. In contrast, IL-2 was at least as efficient as MDP when applied concomitantly with the antigen. If the IL-2 treatment preceded the vaccination by 24 h, a diminution in the magnitude of the response was seen; however, this was countered by the fact that 10 times less IL-2 was required, compared with concomitant cytokine/vaccine administration, in order to have the maximum effect. When both IL-1 and IL-2 were used together, an even greater enhancement of the immune response against FMD virus antigen was observed, but only when given concomitantly with the antigen. These results demonstrate the relevance of T lymphocyte growth factors to the immune response against FMD virus, and how current immunological and biotechnological knowledge could be applied to the improvement of adjuvant systems in a chemically and biologically defined manner. PMID:1312510
Yin, Xin; Johns, Scott C.; Lawrence, Roger; Xu, Ding; Reddi, Krisanavane; Bishop, Joseph R.; Varner, Judith A.; Fuster, Mark M.
Growth and remodeling of lymphatic vasculature occur during development and during various pathologic states. A major stimulus for this process is the unique lymphatic vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). Other endothelial growth factors, such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) or VEGF-A, may also contribute. Heparan sulfate is a linear sulfated polysaccharide that facilitates binding and action of some vascular growth factors such as FGF-2 and VEGF-A. However, a direct role for ...
M. Kür?ad Özlen
Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and student’s self efficacy.
Iwelunmor, Juliet; Sofolahan-Oladeinde, Yewande; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O
In South Africa, more than 2 million people living with HIV are men aged 15 years and older, and heterosexual intercourse remains the predominant mode of HIV transmission. Knowledge of the sociocultural factors that influence men's decisions about whether, when, or how to disclose seropositive status remains incompletely understood. Using the PEN-3 cultural model as a guide, this study explored the sociocultural factors influencing HIV disclosure among men in South Africa. Four focus group discussions with 27 participants were used to determine the perceptions, enabling and nurturing factors that influence how men chose to reveal or conceal knowledge of their seropositive status. The results revealed that notions of male identity in the South African context, family, and community factors contribute to disclosure and nondisclosure of seropositive status among men living with HIV/AIDS. Future interventions should work to address these factors, as they are necessary with supporting disclosure among men living with HIV. PMID:24871161
Shah, Nisarg J.; Macdonald, Mara L.; Beben, Yvette M.; Padera, Robert F.; Samuel, Raymond E.; Hammond, Paula T.
A promising strategy to accelerate joint implant integration and reduce recovery time and failure rates is to deliver a combination of certain growth factors to the integration site. There is a need to control the quantity of growth factors delivered at different times during the healing process to maximize efficacy. Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films, built using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, are attractive for releasing controlled amounts of potent growth factors over a sustained period. Here, we present PEM films that sequester physiological amounts of osteogenic rhBMP-2 (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein - 2) and angiogenic rhVEGF165 (recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor) in different ratios in a degradable [poly(?-amino ester)/polyanion/growth factor/ polyanion] LbL tetralayer repeat architecture where the biologic load scaled linearly with the number of tetralayers. No burst release of either growth factor was observed as the films degraded. The release of rhBMP-2 was sustained over a period of 2 weeks, while rhVEGF165 eluted from the film over the first 8 days. Both growth factors retained their efficacy, as quantified with relevant in vitro assays. rhBMP-2 initiated a dose dependent differentiation cascade in MC3T3-E1S4 pre-osteoblasts while rhVEGF165 upregulated HUVEC proliferation, and accelerated closure of a scratch in HUVEC cell cultures in a dose dependent manner. In vivo, the mineral density of ectopic bone formed de novo by rhBMP-2/rhVEGF165 PEM films was approximately 33% higher than when only rhBMP-2 was introduced, with a higher trabecular thickness, which would indicate a decrease in the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Bone formed throughout the scaffold when both growth factors were released, which suggests more complete remodeling due to an increased local vascular network. This study demonstrates a promising approach to delivering precise doses of multiple growth factors for a variety of implant applications where control over spatial and temporal release profile of the biologic is desired. PMID:21645919
Lawlor Peadar G
Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.
Seeley, P. J.; Greene, L. A.
Cultures of neurite-bearing pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and of sympathetic neurons have been examined by time-lapse video microscopy. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), the neurites of such cultures elongated and their growth cones changed geometry, via microspike and lamellipodial motion, on a time scale of minutes. Withdrawal of NGF caused process extension to cease and a progressive reduction in growth-cone area as a result of retraction of lamellipodia and microspikes. By app...
Aziato, Lydia; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe Nat A
Researchers in this study explored the reactions of women with breast cancer and identified factors influencing treatment decisions. A qualitative exploratory approach was employed. Participants were recruited from a tertiary hospital and a breast cancer support group. Purposive sampling recruited 12 women. It was found that women identified breast lesions accidentally or intentionally and that diagnosis was delayed. Emotional reactions to diagnosis included shock and sadness. Factors that influenced treatment were the influence of other people, alternative sources of treatment, faith and support, knowledge, "tuning the mind," and effects on intimacy. Health professionals should develop effective communication and counseling skills for clients. PMID:24750095
Lança, Carla Costa; Carolino, Elisabete
Amblyopia develops in an early period and is a decrease of visual acuity (unilateral or bilateral) caused by a deprivation of vision or abnormal binocular interaction. Prognosis of Amblyopia is better when occlusive treatment is implemented in an early stage. Visual acuity of amblyopic eye does not improve without effective occlusive therapy. The aim of this study is to identify potential risk factors of noncompliance with treatment when it is implemented by parents in amblyopic children.
Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark
The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...
Full Text Available Decision-making is one of the most important functions of managers in any kind of organization. Among different manager's decisions strategic decision-making is a complex process that must be understood completely before it can be practiced effectively. Those responsible for strategic decision-making face a task of extreme complexity and ambiguity. For these reasons, over the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to the construction of models to aid managers and executives in making better decisions concerning the complex and highly uncertain business environment. In spite of much work that has been conducted in the area of strategic decision-making especially during the 1990's, we still know little about strategic decision-making process and factors affecting it.This paper builds on previous theoretical and empirical studies to determine the extent to which contextual factors impact the strategic decision-making processes. Results showed that researches on contextual factors effecting strategic decision-making process are either limited or have produced contradictory results, especially studies relating decision’s familiarity, magnitude of impact, organizational size, firm’s performance, dynamism, hostility, heterogeneity, industry, cognitive diversity, cognitive conflict, and manager’s need for achievement to strategic decision-making processes. Thus, the study of strategic decision-making process remains very important and much more empirical research is required before any definitive conclusion can be reached.
Shah, Nirao M.; Anderson, David J.
Growth factors can influence lineage determination of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) in an instructive manner, in vitro. Because NCSCs are likely exposed to multiple signals in vivo, these findings raise the question of how stem cells would integrate such combined influences. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) promotes neuronal differentiation and glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) promotes glial differentiation; if NCSCs are exposed to saturating concentrations of both factors, BMP2 appears domi...
Raaberg, Lasse; NexØ, Ebba
The concentration of EGF immunoreactivity in rat whey increases from 0.3 pmol/ml at lactation day 1 to 2.0 pmol/ml at lactation day 19. The concentration of EGF is not influenced when the rats undergo sialoadenectomy prior to mating. On S-200 gel chromatography, almost all EGF-reactivity in rat whey elutes as a broad peak corresponding to a Stokes radius of 4.0 nm (an approximate molecular weight of 80 kDa). Almost no 6 kDa EGF is present. Judged by gel filtration of whey pre-incubated with 125I-EGF (6 kDa), no binding protein for EGF is present in rat whey. When rat milk is incubated overnight at 37 degrees C, the 80 kDa EGF is degraded and elutes as a peak with a Stokes radius of 2.7 nm, corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa EGF and as a peak corresponding to 6 kDa EGF. Also, after partial purification by immuno-affinity chromatography, the EGF-reactive material in rat whey behaves as a peptide with a Stokes radius of 2.7 nm, corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa at gel filtration. Comparative binding studies between EGF purified from the submandibular glands and the EGF purified from rat whey confirm differences in the binding to antibodies raised against submandibular EGF, but not in binding to the EGF-receptor. Our results make it unlikely that EGF in rat whey is derived from the submandibular glands.
Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin
Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…
Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.
Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…
Leroy, E. C.; Mercurio, S.; Sherer, G. K.
To explore the mechanism of increased collagen synthesis by scleroderma skin fibroblasts in vitro, control and scleroderma fibroblasts were compared in confluent monolayer cultures growth-arrested by serum deprivation; responses to optimal mitogenic doses of platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor were compared. Platelet-derived growth factor had a selective mitogenic effect on control skin fibroblasts not observed with sclerod...
Finigan, James H.; Downey, Gregory P.; Kern, Jeffrey A.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a syndrome marked by increased permeability across the pulmonary epithelium resulting in pulmonary edema. Recent evidence suggests that members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family are activated in alveolar epithelial cells during ALI and regulate alveolar epithelial barrier function. These tyrosine kinase receptors, which also participate in the pathophysiology of pulmonary epithelial malignancies, regulate cell growth, differentiation, and mi...
Pandey, Achyut N.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a naturally occurring signal protein which is proinflammatory, stimulates angiogenesis and potent inducer of vascular permeability. Its role in normal physiology includes in embryonic development, wound healing and bone repair, neovascularization following MI and demonstrated in brain, kidney and GI mucosa. VEGF is responsible for many retinal diseases by causing new vessel growth and by increasing leakage and causing retinal swelling. Their use i...
LIU, QIANG; XU, ZHENG; MAO, SHUNBAO; CHEN, WENYOU; ZENG, RONGYAO; ZHOU, SONG; LIU, JING
Hypoxic microenvironments and angiogenesis have been a focus of tumor research in previous years. The aim of the the present study was to create a hypoxic model and observe the effect of hypoxia on the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The hypoxia model was generated using cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and an MTT assay was used to observe the influence of hypoxia on HepG2 cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, ELISA and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy were used to detect the expression of HIF-1?, IGF-1 and VEGF in HepG2 cells, in which hypoxia was induced by various concentrations of CoCl2 and for various incubation times. The cell viability worsened with increasing concentrations of CoCl2. The expression of HIF-1? and IGF-1R was observed in hypoxic HepG2 cells, with the exception of HIF-1? mRNA. The expression of IGF-1R and VEGF mRNA and protein was correlated with the concentration of CoCl2 and the time that hypoxia was induced for. The expression of HIF-1? mRNA and protein was positively correlated with the expression of the VEGF mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner under hypoxic conditions. Using immunofluorescence, it was observed that IGF-1R and HIF-1? were secreted from the hypoxic HepG2 cells. It was concluded that hypoxia induces the accumulation of IGF-1R and HIF-1? mRNA and protein, which regulates the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein in hypoxic HepG2 cells. PMID:25663870
Purified human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) from urine promotes anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar medium. This growth is enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and is specifically inhibited by hEGF antiserum. Transforming growth factors of the alpha type (TGF-alpha), potentially present in normal human urine or urine from tumor-bearing patients, also promote anchorage-independent cell growth and compete with EGF for membrane receptor binding. Consequently, TGF-alpha cannot be distinguished from urinary hEGF by these two functional assays. Therefore, a technique for separation of TGF-alpha and related peptides from urinary EGF based on biochemical characteristics would be useful. Radioiodination of characterized growth factors [mouse EGF (mEGF), hEGF, and rat TGF-alpha (rTGF-alpha)], which were then separately added to human urine, was used to evaluate a resolution scheme that separates TGF-alpha from the high level of background hEGF present in human urine. Methyl bonded microparticulate silica efficiently adsorbed the 125I-labeled mEGF, 125I-labeled hEGF, and 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha that were added to 24-h human urine samples. Fractional elution with acetonitrile (MeCN) of the adsorbed silica released approximately 70 to 80% of the 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF between 25 and 30% MeCN, and over 80% of the 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha between 15 and 25% MeCN, with retention after dialysis of less than 0.2 and 1.7% of the original urinary protein, respectively. A single-step enrichment of about 400-fold for mEGF and hEGF, and 50-fold for rTGF-alpha were achieved rapidly. 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF eluted later than would be predicted on the basis of their reported molecular weight of approximately 6000, whereas 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha eluted from Bio-Gel P-10 at an approximate molecular weight of 8000 to 9000
Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly that use of internet banking in Tunisia is influenced moststrongly by convenience, risk, security and prior internet knowledge. Only information on online banking did notaffect intention to use internet banking service in Tunisia. The results also propose that demographic factorsimpact significantly internet banking behaviour, specifically, occupation and instruction. Finally, this papersuggests that an understanding the factors affecting intention to use internet banking is very important to thepractitioners who plan and promote new forms of banking in the current competitive market.
Naser Azad; Mina Mohammadi
Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employ...
Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.
Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care. PMID:25068881
The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)
Tzouvelekis Argyris; Ntolios Paschalis; Karameris Andreas; Koutsopoulos Anastasios; Boglou Panagiotis; Koulelidis Andreas; Archontogeorgis Kostas; Zacharis George; Drakopanagiotakis Fotis; Steiropoulos Paschalis; Anevlavis Stavros; Polychronopoulos Vlassis; Mikroulis Dimitrios; Bouros Demosthenes
Abstract Background Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. The term of immunoangiostasis has been addressed by various studies as potentially involved in the disease pathogenesis. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of the master regulator of angiogenesis hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a – vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- inhibitor of growth factor 4-(ING4) - axis within sarcoid granuloma. Methods A total of 37 patients with sarcoidosis st...
The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 ?g, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 ?g Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 ?g Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability
Mitchell Goldfarb (Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV)
Polypeptide growth factors bind to the extracellular domains of cell surface receptors, triggering activation of receptor-intrinsic or receptor-associated protein kinases. Although this central thesis is widely accepted, one family of proteins, the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), have for more than a decade attracted a research "counterculture" looking for direct FGF actions inside cells. Goldfarb discusses how the search for alternative signaling pathways is moving mainstream with the help of two recent publications reporting specific intracellular targets for FGF and FGF-like proteins.
Together with insulin and epidermal growth factor, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of the most important and powerful mitogens. The authors developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a double incubation solid phase for human PDGF, in some biological fluids. Immunoglobulins were immobilized via protein A. using purified recombinant protein A at 1 mg/L with monoclonal antibody against human recombinant PDGF (BB) at 1000 fmol/tube, a binding capacity of approx. 17% was obtained. Non-specific binding (NSB%) was 50 ng/mL in 9 of 10 serum samples tested. (author). 18 refs, 8 figs
OANA SIMONA (CARAMAN) HUDEA
This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries s...
A rapid urbanization process facilitated an enormous expansion of the cities and stimulated the development of the urban housing markets in China. The primary purpose of this thesis is to find factors influencing the urban housing prices. Based on the supply and demand theory, I examine housing prices in 95 cities in 2010 related to population growth, wages, manufacturing employment, human capital, pollution, and housing investment using a cross section data analysis. The empirical results in...
Gredmark, Sara; Strååt, Klas; Homman-Loudiyi, Mohammed; Kannisto, Katja; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia
Infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is associated with the development of vascular diseases and may cause severe brain damage in infected fetuses. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta (PDGFR-? and -?) control important cellular processes associated with atherosclerosis and fetal development. In the present investigation, our goal was to determine whether infection by HCMV can influence the expression of PDGFR-? and -? in human smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In connection...
Olsen, P. S.; Poulsen, S. S.; Kirkegaard, P.
The influence of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenergic agonists on flow rate and secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from Brunner's glands has been investigated in the rat. Chemical sympathectomy by administration of 6-hydroxydopamine increased volume secretion and output of EGF from Brunner's glands but depleted the glands of EGF. Infusion of noradrenaline, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, inhibited basal and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) stimulated flow rate and output ...
Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher
Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which mRNA expression changes are significantly associated. Among key metabolic pathways, this analysis revealed de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides and ATP producing and consuming reactions at fast cellular growth. By scoring the significance of overlap between growth rate dependent genes and known transcription factor target sets, transcription factors that coordinate balanced growth were also identified. Our analysis shows that FhII, Rap1, and Sfp1, regulating protein biosynthesis, have significantly enriched target sets for genes up-regulated with increasing growth rate. Cell cycle regulators, such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion: Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more conservative estimate of growth rate dependent genes than previously reported. We also provide a global view of how a small set of transcription factors, 13 in total, contribute to control of cellular growth rate. We anticipate that multi-factorial designs will play an increasing role in elucidating cellular regulation.
Helena Ann Ferris
Full Text Available There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. However, it is imperative that we overcome these barriers and arm our future doctors with the knowledge and skills to serve the needs of the 21st Century patient. As we will discuss, the imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. We will also explore how medical emigration has a negative impact on the delivery of services in Ireland and in maintaining a sustainable workforce. In addition, financial constraints will always play a role in the logistics of Medical education and it is important that we try to get the best value for money by adding more cost effective virtual learning modules to the traditional classroom based approach. Further research is needed into career satisfaction within Medicine. If we can begin to understand what motivates doctors to stay within the Irish Medical system, then we can design a curriculum with retention of graduates in mind. We believe that if we foster a culture of education, guidance and support in our universities and hospitals, we will ensure that a strong, competent and resilient breed of doctors emerge to serves future generation.
Xing, Zhiqing; Katz, Jonathan; Jiranek, William
Currently, the outcome and indications of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) are still controversial. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive case series of UKA done by a single surgeon between 2004 and 2007 including 178 knees (140 patients). There were 31 lateral UKA and 147 medial UKA. With a minimum follow-up of 24 months (average 54 months) in 159 knees (other 19 knees were lost to follow-up at 3 to 18 months after surgery), 6 knees (3.8%, all medial UKA) were converted to total knee arthroplasty in 17 to 66 months (average 33 months). We found that the outcome of UKA was not influenced by the patient's age, body mass index, or early degeneration in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). Compared with other reports, there was a greater proportion of lateral UKA in our series (17.4%). Although lateral UKA showed a trend toward less complications and implant failure compared with medial UKA, WOMAC scores (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) were similar between the two types of partial knee arthroplasty. Our results indicate that young age, obesity, and early degeneration in the PFJ may not be contraindications to UKA, and lateral UKA functions as well as, if not better than medial UKA. However, a long-term follow-up is required to confirm these findings. PMID:23150345
Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-? family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-?, and third IGF-I. TGF-? enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-? affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-? mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-? is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-? and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.
The CCN family comprise the products of six immediate-early response genes (Cyr61, Ctgf, Nov and Wisp1-3) and are multi-functional proteins, characterised by four discrete protein modules in which reside functional domains: an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-like module (IGFBP) but has low affinity for IGFBPs, a von Willebrand factor type C repeat module (VWC) which mediates integrin and growth factor binding, a thrombospondin type-1 repeat module (TSP-1), and a cysteine-knot-containing module (CT). These modules mediate a host of interactions such as growth factor binding, integrin recognition, and interaction(s) with heparin and proteoglycans (reviewed in Holbourn et al., 2008; Chen and Lau, 2009). The CCN family are involved in many normal and pathological cellular processes and have a plethora of functions including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, wound healing, and fibrogenesis, tumourigenesis. In addition, many roles have been described for CCN family members in the cardiovascular system (Table 1). The focus of this review is the role of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2, CTGF) in blood vessels and in vascular pathology. PMID:23380714
Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research
Hao, Xuejun; Wang, Tong
This study constructed a mathematic model of a variable frequency centrifugal chiller using Simulink software. By running the simulation, it was discovered that when the other factors are constant, the EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) of the chiller increases with decreases in the temperature of the cooling water and increases in the temperature of the chilled water. The effect of changes in the cooling water temperature on the EER of the chiller is stronger than that of changes in the chilled water temperature. In addition, as the chiller load decreases, the EER increases until reaching a maximum, after which it decreases. Furthermore, the EER of chillers working under a constant flow rate is slightly higher than that of those working under varying flow rates.
Cobb, Brian A.; Petrash, J. Mark
Purpose Lens lipids undergo a number of changes with age, including an overall increase in phospholipid acyl chain saturation and a decrease in length. In addition, the amount of membrane bound ?-crystallin increases dramatically with age and with the onset of cataract. The aim of this study was to determine if a link exists between age and cataract associated changes in lens lipids and the changes in ?-crystallin membrane association. Methods Protein-free lipid vesicles composed of a wide variety of synthetic and lens-derived lipid vesicles were formed by sonication. These vesicles were used with fluorescent native and recombinant ?-crystallin conjugates in vesicle binding assays. Vesicles were collected by centrifugation and bound ?-crystallin was quantified with fluorescence intensity measurements. Results ?-Crystallin complexes showed remarkably similar binding profiles for all lipid vesicles tested, regardless of lipid origin, phospholipid head group, acyl chain length or saturation, and inclusion of cholesterol. In addition, recombinant ?-crystallin complexes bind to these vesicles in a manner that is essentially indistinguishable from that of native human and bovine ?-crystallins. Unlike ?-crystallin binding to lens membranes containing intrinsic proteins, binding of ?-crystallin to protein-free vesicles was very high capacity and unsaturable. Conclusions We conclude from these data that the binding of ?-crystallin to lens membranes is not lipid-specific. Furthermore, protein post-translational changes, such as phosphorylation, do not appear to alter ?-crystallin binding to these vesicles. Given the linearity of the binding curves, we propose that the only limiting factor for normal ?-crystallin membrane binding is available surface area on the bilayer. Finally, the present data suggests that increased in vivo membrane association of ?-crystallin is not a result of lipid changes, but more likely a result of non-lipid factors such as the accumulation of high molecular weight forms of ?-crystallin. PMID:11951084
Full Text Available Studying the causes of hospitalization prolongation terms in COPD exacerbation may help optimize treatment, reduce expenditures on the patient and avoid episodes relapses. The aim of the work was to determine the factors affecting the length of hospitalization due to COPD exacerbation. A retrospective analysis of medical records of inpatients hospitalized with COPD exacerbation to therapeutic department of CI "Dnipropetrovsk municipal clinical hospital N 6" of “Dnipropetrovsk regional council" during three years was done. It was found that age, height, number of comorbidities, presence of any symptoms or changes in laboratory analyses do not affect the duration of hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbations. Regardless of the frequency of hospital admissions, length of hospitalization moderately positively and reliably correlates with the disease stage (R = 0,516, p <0,001. Decrease of respiratory function indices, especially FEV1, significantly increases the length of stay in the hospital both in case of one (R = -0,457, p <0.001 or multiple hospitalization during three years (R = -0,512, p <0.001. Reduced body weight and low body mass index during hospitalization are prognostically unfavorable factors, because these parameters, though weakly, but reliably negatively correlate with the number of days spent in the hospital (R = -0,195, p = 0,028 and R = -0,246, respectively, p = 0,005. In the population of patients hospitalized due to COPD exacerbation, moderately positive reliable correlation (R = 0,392, p <0,001 between the length of hospital stay and number of hospitalizations during three years was established. The dependence of hospitalization duration in COPD exacerbations on patient’s gender requires further investigation.
Nam, Hyun-ja; Park, Yun-yeon; Yoon, Gyesoon; Cho, Hyeseong; Lee, Jae-ho
Wound healing requires re-epithelialization from the wound margin through keratinocyte proliferation and migration, and some growth factors are known to influence this process. In the present study, we found that the co-treatment with hapatocyte growth factor (HGF) and TGF-?1 resulted in enhanced migration of HaCaT cells compared with either growth factor alone, and that N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant agent, was the most effective among several inhibitors tested, suggesting the involvement...
Holmes, David Ir; Zachary, Ian
Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are a family of polypeptides with a highly conserved structure. In mammals, VEGFs have roles in vascular development, development of lymphatic vessels and disease-related angiogenesis.The existence of VEGF-like molecules and their receptors in simple invertebrates without a vascular system indicates that this family of growth factors emerged at a very early stage in the evolution of multicellular organisms to mediate primordial developmental functions.
Kim, Woo-young; Jin, Quanri; Oh, Seung-hyun; Kim, Edward S.; Yang, Youn Joo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Feng, Lei; Behrens, Carmen; Prudkin, Ludmila; Miller, York E.; Lee, J. Jack; Lippman, Scott M.; Hong, Waun Ki; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Lee, Ho-young
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling has been implicated in several human neoplasms. However, the role of serum levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in lung cancer risk is controversial. We assessed the role of tissue-derived IGFs in lung carcinogenesis. We found that IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels in bronchial tissue specimens containing high-grade dysplasia were significantly higher than in those containing normal epithelium, hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. Derivat...
Tamagnone, Luca; Comoglio, Paolo; Naldini, Luigi; Vigna, Elisa
The extracellular protease urokinase is known to be crucially involved in morphogenesis, tissue repair and tumor invasion by mediating matrix degradation and cell migration. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a secretory product of stromal fibroblasts, sharing structural motifs with enzymes of the blood clotting cascade, including a zymogen cleavage site. HGF/SF promotes motility, invasion and growth of epithelial and endothelial cells. Here we show that HGF/SF is secreted as...
Stavropoulos, A; Wikesjö, U M E
A large body of evidence implies that growth and differentiation factors, based on their ability to regulate various functions of cells originating in the periodontal tissues, may support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, creating an environment conducive to and/or immediately inducing de novo tissue formation. This study presents a short systematic overview on growth and differentiation factor technologies evaluated in the clinic for their potential to enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration.
Avella, Diego M.; Kimchi, Eric T; Donahue, Renee N.; Tagaram, Hephzibah Rani S.; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S; Staveley-O'Carroll, Kevin F
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with a mortality rate approximating its incidence. Understanding the biology of these tumors, as well as treatment modalities, has been challenging. The opioid growth factor (OGF; [Met5]-enkephalin) and the OGF receptor (OGFr) form an endogenous growth-regulating pathway in homeostasis and neoplasia. In this investigation, we examined the relationship of the OGF-OGFr axis in HCC and define its presence, func...
Full Text Available Loading parameters (frequency, amplitude ratio and waveform are varied to determine their influence on fatigue crack growth in rubber. Up to three different rubber blends are investigated: one actual engineering material and two model materials. Fatigue crack growth curves and strain distributions of pure shear and faint waist pure shear samples are compared for a model material. Fatigue behavior is studied for three different frequencies (1 Hz, 3 Hz and 5 Hz. Amplitude ratio appears to be another important influence factor concerning fatigue crack growth in rubber. The beneficial effect of positive amplitude ratios (tensional loading conditions is shown for different materials. However, fatigue crack growth is considerably increased for negative amplitude ratios (tensional-compressional loading conditions. Furthermore, the influence of the waveform is determined for three different waveform shapes. One is sinusoidal, and two have a square shape, including dwell periods and sinusoidal slopes. Special focus lies on heat build-up, which is substantial, especially for large loads, high frequencies and/or highly filled rubber blends. Plateau temperatures are determined for various loading conditions and rubber blends. A very simple linear relationship with dissipated energy per time and unit area is obtained. Results gathered with dynamic mechanical analyses show, likewise, a linear trend, but the heat build-up is very small, due to different sample geometries.
This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.
Agarwal, Isha; Ide, Noriko; IX, JOACHIM H.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Lanske, Beate; Schiller, Nelson B; Whooley, Mary A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.
Background: Fibroblast growth factor–23 (FGF?23) is a phosphaturic factor previously associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction among individuals with chronic kidney disease. Whether FGF?23 acts directly to induce left ventricular hypertrophy, potentially independent of its klotho coreceptor, remains uncertain. We investigated associations of FGF?23 with cardiac structural abnormalities among individuals with a broad range of kidney function and explored pot...
Factors released from rat alveolar macrophages exposed to high (95 ?g/mL) concentrations of the fibrogenic agent, nickel subsulfide, were found to inhibit the proliferation of cultured lung epithelial cells and stimulate the growth of fibroblasts. Such factors, if present in the alveoli of rats exposed by inhalation to nickel subsulfide in vivo, may play a role in inhibiting re-epithelization of nickel-damaged lungs and in stimulating fibroblast proliferation, leading to pulmonary fibrosis. (author)
Schönbauer, Bernd M; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E
In the present work, the influence of different environments on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of 12% Cr steam turbine blade steel is investigated. Fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) in the near threshold regime are measured with ultrasonic fatigue testing technique. Fatigue tests are performed in vacuum, air and different aqueous environments with defined chloride and oxygen content. Furthermore, the influence of different stress ratios is investigated. It is found that crack propagation is not necessarily enhanced with increasing corrosiveness. In the aqueous environments, the FCGRs below 10?? m/cycle are lower than in air. The threshold stress intensity factor ranges are higher or equal. Observation of the fracture surfaces shows oxide formation and partly intergranular fracture for specimens tested in aqueous environments. Crack closure effects seem to be responsible for this unexpected behaviour. PMID:23490013
Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.
Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.
Full Text Available Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.
The fatigue seen in many cancer cases is considered to be decrease quality of life. We clarified factors related to such fatigue and used out result to relieve fatigue. We conducted a questionnaire using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) on 204 cancer outpatients at the A hospital. We studied 16 factors influencing fatigue and analyzed the relationships among these factors and CFS scores. The mean of total fatigue scores was 23.0 points (standard deviation: 10.0). The fatigue is strong by higher than 19 points of the CFS scores. That frequency was 64.7%. The logistic regression analysis was conducted the influence factors of fatigue. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for items showing a significant difference Performance States (PS), loneliness, hormonal therapy, and radiation therapy. The conclusion of this study was to reduce fatigue in outpatient cancer treatment, it was suggested to that importance to assess a related factor of fatigue. (author)
Jeffrey C. Wayman
Full Text Available This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.
Mohammadreza Rahimi Shamsabadi; Naser Azad
During the past few years, there has been an increase trend on purchasing via internet, which indicates a steady growth on this internet service. There are different advantages on e-purchase services such as availability of usage, fast and reliable services, etc. The purpose of this survey is to investigate on different influencing factors on customer's fidelity on purchasing air ticket from different agencies located in Tehran, Iran. The Cronbach Alpha validates our results. The proposed con...
Ndukwe Henry C.; Fola Tayo; Sariem Nanbam C.
Time, money and expertise are resources that are indispensable to productivity, performance, efficiency, success and growth of any health institution. This research was aimed at identifying and measuring some of the factors influencing patient waiting time in an outpatient pharmacy. The study employed the use of time monitoring card and time study analysis to volunteered participants. A situation analysis conducted revealed an average of 167 minutes of waiting time. The dispensing time averag...
Fred Amofa Yamoah
The phenomenal growth of the fairtrade industry has attracted increased research interest but little is known as to what marketing factors drive fairtrade retail sales. This gap has profound implications for fairtrade marketing research and the future of the fairtrade industry. To provide a more robust and objective insight this paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million fairtrade shoppers to establish the influence of price, promotion and distribution on f...
Akanbi, Paul Ayobami; Ofoegbu, Onyema E.
Entrepreneurship is a key driver of economic growth and economic development. It is also a medium through which unemployment can be reduced and innovation can be promoted. It is a truism that entrepreneurship is a panacea for poverty reduction and eradication which is one of the cardinal eight point agenda of millennium development goals.
This study examined the influence of some selected situational factors on entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate students...
Olashaw, N. E.; O Keefe, E. J.; Pledger, W. J.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) decrease high affinity binding of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) and potentiate mitogenesis in BALB/c 3T3 cells, and both have been shown to induce the phosphorylation of the EGF receptor at threonine residues. These similarities suggest that the actions of PDGF on EGF binding may be mediated by protein kinase C, the cellular effector of PMA. We show that in density-arrested BALB/c 3T3 cells PDGF and P...
Scientific analysis of energy consumption and its influencing factors is of great importance for energy strategy and policy planning. The energy consumption in China 1953-2006 is estimated by applying the energy ecological footprint (EEF) method, and the fluctuation periods of annual China's per capita EEF (EEFcpc) growth rate are analyzed with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method in this paper. EEF intensity is analyzed to depict energy efficiency in China. The main timescales of the 37 factors that affect the annual growth rate of EEFcpc are also discussed based on EMD and factor analysis methods. Results show three obvious undulation cycles of the annual growth rate of EEFcpc, i.e., 4.6, 14.4 and 34.2 years over the last 53 years. The analysis findings from the common synthesized factors of IMF1, IMF2 and IMF3 timescales of the 37 factors suggest that China's energy policy-makers should attach more importance to stabilizing economic growth, optimizing industrial structure, regulating domestic petroleum exploitation and improving transportation efficiency
Bishop, D. A.; Beier, C. M.; Pederson, N.; Lawrence, G. B.; Stella, J. C.; Sullivan, T. J.
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is among the most ecologically, economically and culturally important trees in North America, but has experienced a decline disease across much of its range. We investigated the climatic and edaphic factors associated with A. saccharum growth in the Adirondack Mountains (USA) using a well-replicated tree-ring network incorporating a range of soil fertility (base cation availability). We found that nearly 3 in 4 A. saccharum trees exhibited declining growth rates during the last several decades, regardless of tree age or size. Although diameter growth was consistently higher on base-rich soils, the negative trends in growth were largely consistent across the soil chemistry gradient. Sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic variability was overall weaker than expected, but were also non-stationary during the 20th century. We observed increasingly positive responses to late-winter precipitation, increasingly negative responses to growing season temperatures, and strong positive responses to moisture availability during the 1960s drought that became much weaker during the recent pluvial. Further study is needed of these factors and their interactions as potential mechanisms for sugar maple growth decline.
Full Text Available For the past three years MDPI has announced the newly released impact factors for its Open Access journals by the means of an annual editorial [1–3]. In 2012 we are—once again—pleased to report that the growth of the impact factors of MDPI’s Open Access journals continues. This year’s edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR, which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes 10 journals published by MDPI, including three that have received their first official Impact Factors—International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH, Materials and Nutrients. Table 1 reports the latest Impact Factors for 2011. Figure 1 graphically depicts the evolution of the Impact Factors for four MDPI open access journals that have received Impact Factors in the past. Table 2 reports the ranking of the MDPI journals within the subject categories of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE.
Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Kent, Stephen B.H. (UC)
The 204-residue covalent-dimer vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, see picture) with full mitogenic activity was prepared from three unprotected peptide segments by one-pot native chemical ligations. The covalent structure of the synthetic VEGF was confirmed by precise mass measurement, and the three-dimensional structure of the synthetic protein was determined by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.
To study the effects of exogenously applied nerve growth factor (NGF) on colchicine-induced neurodegeneration in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal formation, male Fischer 344 rats (n=75) weighing 275-325 grams received colchicine [COLCH; 2.5 ug/site in 0.5 ul of artificial...
Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille
INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is the term describing a foetus that has not reached its genetic growth potential. There is no international consensus on the definition of IUGR. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of weight-restricted neonates and their mothers focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24%) and placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special attention must be given to reducing the risk of hypoglycaemia. More studies are needed. Our purpose was to underline the need for a consensus on the definition of IUGR, catch-up and follow-up programmes in order to compare results in the future. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.
Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)
Reid, Anthony J.; Carroll, June C.
To document their plans for practising obstetrics and factors influencing these decisions, a questionnaire was sent to all 79 residents graduating from the University of Toronto's Department of Family and Community Medicine. Fifty-one percent of the 53 residents who responded (67%) planned to practise obstetrics on graduation; 21% planned antenatal care only; 11% planned no obstetrics; and 17% were undecided. The family practice program appeared to influence the residents positively.
Schuppli, C. A.; Fraser, D.
Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal?based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. ...
Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.
TØrring, N; Jensen, L V
OBJECTIVE: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is expressed in the rat prostate, and growth factors from this system induce proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cell cultures. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible growth-promoting effects of the system during the hyperplastic growth phase of the prostate in newborn rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Newborn rats were treated for 8 weeks with EGF (150 microg/kg body weight per day), administered as daily subcutaneous injections. Sections of the prostate tissue were examined by a stereological technique to determine tissue composition. RESULTS: Treatment with EGF increased the weight of the ventral prostate, relative to body weight, by 50% compared with placebo (p < 0.005). Neither the dorsolateral prostate, seminal vesicles nor coagulating glands were affected by EGF. Prostate tissue showed a significant increase in the volume of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001) of the volume fraction of the lumen with the glandular weight of the ventral prostate was seen. Serum testosterone was not affected by chronic EGF administration. CONCLUSIONS: EGF selectively induces growth of the ventral lobe of the prostate in newborn rats, in a pattern comparable to normal physiological growth. It may be hypothesized that the physiological growth of the prostate is directly correlated to endogenous activity of the EGF system in the rat prostate gland.
Full Text Available In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa, addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH. The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30–90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.
Al-dissi, Ahmad N.; Haines, Deborah M.; Singh, Baljit; Kidney, Beverly A.
The expression of 5 markers associated with angiogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis was studied in 26 canine simple mammary gland adenocarcinomas (SMGAs). The adenocarcinomas were graded histologically, and tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), intra-tumor microvessel density, and tumor proliferation (PI) using antibodies against VEGF, VEGFR-2, von Willebrand factor, and Ki-67 antigen, ...
Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike
Background Our understanding of complex signaling networks is still fragmentary. Isolated processes have been studied extensively but cross-talk is omnipresent and precludes intuitive predictions of signaling outcomes. The need for quantitative data on dynamic systems is apparent especially for our understanding of pathological processes. In our study we create and integrate data on phosphorylations that are initiated by several growth factor receptors. We present an approach for quantitative, time-resolved phosphoproteomic profiling that integrates the important contributions by phosphotyrosines. Methods A549 lung carcinoma cells were used as a model and stimulated with hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor. We employed a quick protein digestion workflow with spin filters without using urea. Phosphopeptides in general were enriched by sequential elution from immobilized metal affinity chromatography (SIMAC) with TiO2 enrichment. Phosphotyrosine containing peptides were enriched by immunoprecipitation. iTRAQ™ labeling enabled multiplexed quantification of changes during stimulation and comparison of different stimuli. Several fragmentation techniques were used in order to maximize identification of peptides as well as localization of phosphorylation sites. Results and Conclusions The combination of SIMAC with phosphotyrosine enrichment leads to a significant increase in identification of potential signaling events in growth factor receptor signaling networks. In a typical set of measurements (time course of one stimulant) 1500 to 2000 unique phosphopeptides are found. 200 of these contain phosphotyrosine. A large fraction of known network components can be identified. Combining data from collision induced dissociation (normal and higher energy) and electron transfer dissociation adds confidence in modification site assignment. The workflow is relatively simple but the integration of complementary techniques leads to a deeper insight into cellular signaling networks and the potential pharmacological intervention thereof.
Yonemura, K; Raines, E W; Ahn, N G; Narayanan, A S
Cementum-derived growth factor (CGF) is a M(r) 23,000 protein, which is sequestered in the mineralized matrix of tooth cementum. We have investigated the mitogenic signaling reactions induced by CGF using quiescent human gingival fibroblasts as target cells. Cells activated with CGF were compared with those treated with CGF plus epidermal growth factor (EGF) and other growth factors. CGF caused a transient increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and this was accompanied by enhancement of membrane protein kinase C activity, myelin basic protein and S6 kinase activities, inositol phosphate levels, and activation of c-fos and jun-B gene expression. Membranes obtained from cells activated with CGF contained several protein bands, which cross-reacted with antiphosphotyrosine antibody; however, proteins corresponding to a putative phosphorylated CGF receptor were not detected. DNA synthesis induced by CGF was inhibited by 65% in cells treated with pertussis toxin but only 25-29% in cultures exposed to H7 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate; these values were different from those obtained when EGF, PDGF, or fetal bovine serum were used as mitogens. CGF and TGF-beta, but not EGF, caused an increase of PDGF-A chain mRNA expression 4 h after mitogen addition. However, while CGF was mitogenic for gingival fibroblasts, TGF-beta was not. Kinetics of DNA stimulation and experiments with anti-PDGF antibodies indicated that PDGF-A expression does not contribute significantly to CGF-induced DNA synthesis. When the stimulation of various signaling pathways induced by CGF and other growth factors was compared, the pattern of stimulation by CGF was different from other growth factors. The characteristic signaling reactions of CGF are likely to be important components of the mechanisms that regulate the formation and regeneration of cementum and adjacent connective tissues. PMID:8253729
Ameen M Al-Agaga
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging were found to have a significant impact on customer e-loyalty in Internet banking.
Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.
Lip, P. L.; Felmeden, D. C.; Blann, A. D.; Matheou, N.; Thakur, S.; Cunliffe, I. A.; Lip, G. Y. H.
Aim: To investigate plasma indices of vascular permeability (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF—also an index of angiogenesis, as well as the soluble receptor for VEGF, sFlt-1) and endothelial damage/dysfunction (von Willebrand factor, vWf) in glaucoma.
Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on organizational structure has been in researchers’ focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Many of these factors are from the environment where traditional view commonly divided into internal and external factors. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate the influencing factors and impact on organizational structure of a sample of firms located in Hanoi, Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were administered with respect to these factors. The variables studied were identified from among the factors considered in contingency theory and by incorporating elements of the strategic choice approach. After grouping the variables into two factors (related to external and internal respectively, the results revealed three groups of firms according to how they regarded the impact of these factors on organizational structures. In those groups that consider the variables of internal factors to be modifiers of structure the organizational structures are of the “complex classical” type, whereas simple forms predominate in the group that believes these variables do not modify their structure.
Stepan, J J; Mohan, S; Jennings, J C; Wergedal, J E; Taylor, A K; Baylink, D J
Study was undertaken to identify polypeptide factors in the commercially available ossein-mineral-compound and to see if they are present in a biologically relevant quantity. Using the guanidine-EDTA extraction, 35.7 +/- 0.1 mg proteins were obtained from 1 g of the ossein-mineral-compound. At concentration 1 micrograms/ml, guanidine-EDTA-extractable proteins stimulated the incorporation of thymidine into DNA by human bone cells to 581 +/- 122% (p less than 0.001) of that by bovine serum albumin-treated control cells, decreasing thereafter. Similarly, it stimulated the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the human bone cells. Growth factors IGF-I, IGF-II, and TGF-beta were identified in the ossein-mineral-compound. This leads to speculation regarding possible role of growth factors in explaining the beneficial effects of the compound in retarding bone loss in patients with osteoporosis. PMID:1653384
Coroller, Louis; Guerrot, Virginie; Huchet, Véronique; Le Marc, Yvan; Mafart, Pierre; Sohier, Danièle; Thuault, Dominique
Depending on environmental factors, the prediction of bacterial growth is made difficult by the complexity of foodstuff. Although the influence of temperature, pH, and water activity are usually taken into account, models have to be completed with the influence of acid mixture. Nine strains of Listeria spp., four Salmonella spp., one Staphylococcus aureus, one Escherichia coli, and Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 were used for this study to extend model proposed by [Le Marc, Y., Huchet, V., Bourgeois, C., Guyonnet, J., Mafart, P., Thuault, D., 2002. Modelling the growth kinetics of Listeria as a function of temperature, pH and organic acid concentration. International Journal of Food Microbiology 73, 219-237]. Derived from data of [Houtsma, P.C., Kusters, B.J., De Wit, J.C., Rombouts, F.M., Zwietering, M.H., 1994. Modelling growth rates of Listeria innocua as a function of lactate concentration. International Journal of Food Microbiology 24, 113-123] and our own data, the extended model described accurately different effects of addition of acid salts in the medium (decrease of water activity and pH, variation of undissociated weak acid form, and variation of synergetic effect between environmental factors). This previous model was implemented to describe the observed variability of behaviour of the different studied strains. alpha reflected the general behaviour of species (sensitiveness to low or high undissociated acid concentration), and MIC(U) reflected the various resistances of strains. From this simple model, a new model was built for describing the effects of concentrations of several mixed acids on bacterial growth rates. Simulations of growth were carried out from three acids mixtures by inputting parameter estimates previously obtained. Despite a very variable effect of investigated acids on growth, the new model yielded fair predictions. PMID:15854702
Full Text Available Black rice production in organic farming system does not meet the demand of local customers because of its low productivity. This research aimed to set an interaction model using multivariate analysis via smartPLS to identify environmental factors which simultaneously affects the growth of black rice. The growth of black rice in two irrigated organic paddy field in Malang, Indonesia was observed during planting period from November 2011 to March 2012. In each rice field, the growth was periodically recorded during planting periods: 19-29 days after planting (dap, 41-45 dap, 62-66 dap, 77-81 dap, 90-94 dap and 104-106 dap. Environmental factors such as water quantities, soil conditions, weed communities and cultivation system around the black rice population were also measured. Black rice growth was influenced simultaneously by water quantities, soil, weed communities and cultivating systems with predictive-relevance value reaching 92.83%. Based on the model, water quantities in paddy field is a key factor which directly and indirectly determined the growth and productivity of black rice.
Mojtaba Esmaeeli; Hamid Bagheri; Sina Nobahari; Naser Azad; Mohammad Rikhtegar
These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distr...
Electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs is based on the additive dose or the calibration curve methods. In both cases the practical assumption is made that the behaviour of the chicken bone does not depend on factors such as temperature during irradiation, storage conditions and dose rate. So the aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent the above mentioned factors could influence the post-irradiation dose assessment using the ESR technique. (author)
SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA; Suryanarayana, M. V.
This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking w...
Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study were to investigate microtransaction based monetization models in games, and to find factors that influence their success and suitability. The research goal was to interview players, in order to get answers regarding their motivations behind microtransaction purchasing in games. Academic background and methodology The literature review focused on virtual goods research. Overall, there were many factors identified that impact ...
Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi
Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our s...
Zhang Dongliang; Gu Lijuan; Li Jingjie; Li Zheng; Wang Chunyan; Wang Zhen; Liu Lei; Li Mira; Sung Changkeun
Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE), water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice fo...
Witthuhn, R Corli; Smit, Yvette; Cameron, Michelle; Venter, Pierre
Alicyclobacillus species are thermo-acidophilic, endospore-forming bacteria that are able to survive pasteurisation and have been implicated in a number of spoilage incidents involving acidic foods and beverages. The aim of this study was to compare three isolation methods used for the detection of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and to investigate the influence of incubation temperature on the growth of A. acidoterrestris and A. acidocaldarius. Peach juice samples inoculated with A. acidoterrestris K47 were analysed using either the International Federation of Fruit Juice Producers (IFU) Method No. 12 (Method A), which involved spread plating onto Bacillus acidoterrestris (BAT) agar at pH 4.0; Method B, which involved pour plating using potato dextrose agar (PDA) at pH 3.7; or Method C, which made use of membrane filtration followed by incubation on K agar at pH 3.7. The performance of the three methods differed significantly, with the IFU Method No. 12 recovering the highest percentage of cells at 75.97%, followed by Method B at 66.79% and Method C at 3.43%. These findings strengthen the proposal of the IFU for the use of the IFU Method No. 12 as a standard international method for the detection of Alicyclobacillus. To investigate the effect on growth of different incubation temperatures A. acidoterrestris (three strains) and A. acidocaldarius (two strains) were incubated at either 45 °C or 25 °C. Growth at 25°C was slower and maximum cell concentrations were lower (1 x 10?-10? cfu/mL compared to 1 x 10?-10? cfu/mL) than at 45 °C for A. acidoterrestris. A. acidocaldarius was unable to grow at 25°C and cell concentrations decreased by 1-2 logs. Since a growth temperature of 25 °C could not inhibit growth of A. acidoterrestris, cooling to room temperature (20°-25 °C) is not an effective control measure for A. acidoterrestris inhibition. PMID:21371767
Ford, R J; Tamayo, A; Li, D J; Cabanillas, F
The B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL-B) are a common, but heterogeneous group of human lymphoid neoplasms, consisting of monoclonal populations of neoplastic B lymphocytes demonstrating non-random chromosomal abnormalities, often associated with proto-oncogene translocations. Clinically and pathologically, these lymphomas are classified as low, intermediate, or high grade, according to the clinical aggressiveness of the NHL-B subtype. The clinical behavior can also be correlated with biological function regarding proliferative capabilities of the tumor cells. Our studies have shown that the low grade B cell lymphomas have low constitutive proliferative capacity in vitro and do not respond to cytokine growth factors (CGF), while the high grade NHL-B respond to the B cell growth factor (BCGF) family of CGFs. The high grade NHL-B also secrete BCGFs both in vitro and in vivo, as autocrine growth factors that may provide a target for new therapeutic approaches to therapy. PMID:8481670
Fujimori, Yoshitaka; Otsuki, Sho; Sato, Yuya; Nakagawa, Masatoshi
Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer (GC), although outcomes remain unfavorable. Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed, and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have become standard therapy for HER2-positive GC. An inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 or MET has also produced promising results in patients with GC. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) play key roles in tumor growth via activated signaling pathways in GC. Genomic amplification of FGFR2 leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC. This review discusses the clinical relevance of FGFR in GC and examines FGFR as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC. Preclinical studies in animal models suggest that multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including FGFR inhibitor, suppress tumor cell proliferation and delay tumor progression. Several TKIs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatment for metastatic or unresectable GC harboring FGFR2 amplification. PMID:26000013
Aricò, A; Guadagnin, E; Ferraresso, S; Gelain, M E; Iussich, S; Rütgen, B C; Mazzariol, S; Marconato, L; Aresu, L
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) belong to a family of polypeptide growth factors that signal through cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors to stimulate growth, proliferation and differentiation. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) are also considered important targets for specific kinase inhibitors in the treatment of several human tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PDGF-A, PDGF-B, PDGFR-? and PDGFR-? in canine lymphoma by determining gene and protein expression in lymph nodes of dogs with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) and in healthy control dogs. One lymph node was also studied at the end of therapy in a subset of dogs in remission for DLBCL. In controls, PDGF-A, PDGFR-? and PDGFR-? mRNA levels were significantly higher than in DLBCLs, PTCLs and T-LBLs. However, PDGFR-? and PDGFR-? were minimally expressed by lymphocytes and plasma cells in normal lymph nodes as determined by immunohistochemistry, while neoplastic B and T cells showed the highest score (P canine T-cell lymphomas. These data provide a rationale for the use of PDGFR antagonists in the therapy of aggressive T-cell lymphomas, but not in DLBCLs. PMID:25172054
Kona, Soujanya; Chellamuthu, Prithiviraj; Xu, Hao(School of Physics, Nankai University, 300071, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China); Hills, Seth R; Nguyen, Kytai Truong
Under physiological and pathological conditions, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) are exposed to different biochemical factors and biomechanical forces. Previous studies pertaining to SMC responses have not investigated the effects of both factors on SMCs. Thus, in our research we investigated the combined effects of growth factors like Bfgf (basic fibroblast growth factor), TGF-? (transforming growth factor ?) and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) along with physiological cyclic stra...
Radial growth variability and response to interannual climate variation of Cembran pine (Pinus cembra L.) were studied in the timberline ecotone on Mt. Patscherkofel (2246 m a.s.l.). The study area, which is in the inner alpine dry region of the Central Austrian Alps, is characterized by a continental climate with minimum precipitation in winter (about 150 mm during December-February) and frequent occurrence of warm dry winds (Föhn) in early spring. The hypothesis that spatial and temporal variability of radial growth is caused by site-related differences in sensitivity to winter stress (i.e., desiccation) was examined by applying dendroclimatological techniques. Ordination methods applied to tree ring time series revealed that spatial variability in radial growth is influenced by the local site factors elevation and slope aspect. Growth-climate relationships were explored using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. Radial growth at the timberline was positively correlated with temperature in July and was also strongly correlated with mild temperatures in the previous autumn and high precipitation in winter (January-March). At the tree line, temperatures in the previous autumn and precipitation in late winter (March) also controlled radial growth, whereas July temperature was not significantly correlated with ring width. Because previous autumn temperature and winter precipitation were the main growth-determining factors at the timberline and the tree line, and both of these climate variables are known to influence susceptibility of trees to winter stress, the results support the working hypothesis. Analysis of climatic conditions in extreme growth years confirmed the high sensitivity of tree ring growth to precipitation in late winter (March) at the tree line plots. Furthermore, extent of growth reduction and release varied spatially and temporarily, with south- and west-facing stands showing a higher sensitivity to climate variation in the most recent decade (1990s) than the north-facing stand. This aspect-related change in sensitivity to climate may be associated with effects of climate warming on cambial activity. PMID:14704138
Full Text Available In this article, we selected 25 electric power listed companies in the electric power industry as the samples to study the influences of micro factors on the capital structure of listed companies, and the sample period was from 2002 to 2007, and these micro factors mainly included company scale, profitability, growth, non-debt tax shields, fluidity and capital structure. The research results showed that the company scale, non-debt tax shields and assets structure were not significantly correlated with the capital structure, and the profitability was significantly negatively correlated with the capital structure, and the fluidity of the assets was negatively correlated with the capital structure. Finally, we put forward that the share-reform and the macro influencing factors should be further researched.
Bry, Maija; Kivelä, Riikka; Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Alitalo, Kari
Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B), discovered over 15 years ago, has long been seen as one of the more ambiguous members of the VEGF family. VEGF-B is produced as two isoforms: one that binds strongly to heparan sulfate in the pericellular matrix and a soluble form that can acquire binding via proteolytic processing. Both forms of VEGF-B bind to VEGF-receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) and the neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) coreceptor, which are expressed mainly in blood vascular endothelial cells. VEGF-B-deficient mice and rats are viable without any overt phenotype, and the ability of VEGF-B to induce angiogenesis in most tissues is weak. This has been a puzzle, as the related placenta growth factor (PlGF) binds to the same receptors and induces angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in a variety of tissues. However, it seems that VEGF-B is a vascular growth factor that is more tissue specific and can have trophic and metabolic effects, and its binding to VEGFR-1 shows subtle but important differences compared with that of PlGF. VEGF-B has the potential to induce coronary vessel growth and cardiac hypertrophy, which can protect the heart from ischemic damage as well as heart failure. In addition, VEGF-B is abundantly expressed in tissues with highly active energy metabolism, where it could support significant metabolic functions. VEGF-B also has a role in neuroprotection, but unlike other members of the VEGF family, it does not have a clear role in tumor progression. Here we review what is hitherto known about the functions of this growth factor in physiology and disease. PMID:24987005
Tumor angiogenesis is the foundation of tumor growth and metastasis. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) plays a pivotal role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. VEGFR has become a common molecular target which has a potential value in angiogenesis diagnosis and therapy at present. Radionuclide receptor imaging has the advantage of high sensitivity and specificity, by which distribution density of VEGFR and its affinity with its ligand in tumor tissue can be revealed. VEGFR imaging is helpful in diagnosis, staging and detection of recurrence and metastasis of tumor and plays an instructive role in biological therapy of tumor mediated by VEGFR. (authors)
Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.
To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.
Wang, Lihong; Park, Hangil; Chhim, Sophea; DING, YI; Jiang, Wei; Queen, Cary; Kim, K. Jin
Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is believed to be a contributing factor to the growth of a number of tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the potential of monoclonal antibodies that neutralize FGF2 for treatment of cancer patients has not yet been explored in clinical trials. We therefore generated a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), GAL-F2, specific for FGF2 and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. GAL-F2 binds to a different epitope th...
Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…
Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli
This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…
Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…
Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma
Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…
A survey of one Australian university's faculty found that research activity is highly variable and influenced by a number of factors including personal characteristics; differences in research style, methods, and strategies within and between disciplines; and funding. Individual autonomy in topic selection was important. (Author/MSE)
Fisher, Molly H.
This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…
Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.
Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…
Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin
Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…
Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.
Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…
Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen
The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…
Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.
General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…
Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.
Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans
When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…
Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A
A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101
CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)
Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA
This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.
Type ? transforming growth factor (TGF-?), a factor produced by many cell types, is a potent inhibitor of hepatocyte DNA synthesis in vitro. To determine whether TGF-? can influence hepatocyte proliferation in vivo, its effects were examined on the regenerative response of liver to partial hepatectomy (PH) in the rat. Porcine platelet-derived TGF-?1, administered intravenously at the time of PH and 11 hr later, reduced the fraction of hepatocytes engaged in DNA synthesis 22 hr after PH by 67% and inhibited the rate of hepatic [3H]thymidine incorporation by 50%. TGF-?2 produced a similar effect. Although sensitive to TGF-? administered 11 hr after PH, late in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, a single does of 0.5 ?g given at the time of PH did not significantly influence DNA synthesis 22 hr after PH. The inhibitory effects of TGF-? were transient. The nuclear labeling index of the TGF-?-treated animals was significantly higher than that of the controls. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity from TGF-?, as determined by liver histology and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin-like growth factor I, and two hepatic enzymes. Thus, TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 reversibly inhibit the proliferative response of liver to PH and may be important in the modulation of normal liver growth and repair
Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role on profitability of organizations, it can build a bridge between customers and business owners and anyone could purchase products and services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing internet marketing on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 280 out of 1040 managers who were involved in this industry during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors including internal/external factors, ease of use and electronic marketing. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four items were mostly above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results indicate that among internal factors, knowledge management, organizational culture and resources influence on acceptance of internet marketing, while these factors do not show any meaningful impact on ease of use. In addition, external factors including trend on market growth, competition and infrastructure influence on ease of use and acceptance of internet marketing but infrastructure and competition do not impact on ease of internet marketing.
Mavis, B E; Stöffelmayr, B E
There is little documentation about how the union of self-help and professional treatment services influences client treatment satisfaction. This study examines the relationship of treatment characteristics indicative of program size, staffing patterns, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) influence, and staff recovery status to client satisfaction. Thirty-six public substance abuse treatment programs participated in this study. At outpatient programs, satisfaction was related to program size, and the number of paraprofessional and medical staff; satisfaction was unrelated to AA influence on treatment. For residential clients, AA influence on treatment and AA beliefs held by staff were consistently related to satisfaction; factors related to program size and staffing patterns were independent of satisfaction. The results question the appropriateness of self-help interventions in all settings, and emphasize contextual differences in outpatient and residential programs. PMID:7703712
The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has profound effects on growth and differentiation of many types of cells, which are in many cases opposite to those of transforming growth factor-? on similar cells. To determine the possible role of TGF-? in the mechanism of TCDD-induced changes in cell growth, human squamous carcinoma cells (SCC-15G) were treated with TCDD and TGF-?, together and separately, and the effects on growth, differentiation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were observed. TCDD markedly stimulated growth and cytochrome P450 activity, and inhibited differentiation of SCC-15G cells, but had no effect on binding of [125I]-TGF-?. TCDD-induced proliferation resulted from failure of treated cells to reach density-dependent arrest at the same density as untreated cells, rather than from direct stimulation of cell division. TGF-? strongly suppressed cell growth with or without TCDD in the medium, and TGF-?-resistant cells continued to respond to TCDD with increases in growth. The induction of EROD by TCDD was inhibited by TGF-?. These results indicate that modulation of TGF-? binding and/or sensitivity is not involved in the mechanism of growth alterations caused by TCDD
Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang
Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.
Allen Jeremy T
Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients has evolved very slowly; the fundamental approach of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents has had little impact on long-term survival. The continued use of corticosteroids is justified because of the lack of a more effective alternative. Current research indicates that the mechanisms driving idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis reflect abnormal, dysregulated wound healing within the lung, involving increased activity and possibly exaggerated responses by a spectrum of profibrogenic growth factors. An understanding of the roles of these growth factors, and the way in which they modulate events at cellular level, could lead to more targeted therapeutic strategies, improving patients' quality of life and survival.
Plate, Karl H.; Breier, Georg; Weich, Herbert A.; Risau, Werner
CLINICAL and experimental studies suggest that angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumour growth1,2. Several growth factors with mitogenic or chemotactic activity for endothelial cells in vitro have been described, but it is not known whether these mediate tumour vascularization in vivo3,4. Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant brain tumour in humans, is distinguished from astrocytoma by the presence of necroses and vascular prolifer-ations5'6. Here we show that expression of an endothelial cell-specific mitogen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is induced in astrocytoma cells but is dramatically upregulated in two apparently different subsets of glioblastoma cells. The high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF, flt, although not expressed in normal brain endothelium, is upregulated in tumour endothelial cells in vivo. These observations strongly support the concept that tumour angiogenesis is regulated by paracrine mechanisms and identify VEGF as a potential tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo.
Ali, Syed Sadat
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highly prevalent risk factors influencing growth and development among pre-school children in rural population of developing countries. A child's brain during the first 3 years of life is rapidly developing through generation of neurons, synaptogenesis, axonal, and dendric growth and synaptic pruning each of which build upon each other. Any interruption in this process, such as trauma, stress, under-nutrition or lack of nutrients ca...
Abé Shin-ichi; Eto Ko; Abé Keisuke
Abstract The complex processes of spermatogenesis are regulated by various factors. The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on spermatogonial proliferation and clarify the mechanism causing the proliferation in newt testis. In the organ culture, EGF stimulated spermatogonial proliferation, but not their differentiation into spermatocytes. cDNA cloning identified 3 members of the EGF receptors, ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4, in the testis. RT-PCR show...
Chan, C. P.; Krebs, E. G.
Addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to quiescent cultured cells was found to stimulate the activity of glycogen synthase (UDPglucose:glycogen 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase, EC 126.96.36.199), an enzyme subjected to regulation by covalent modification. In Swiss mouse 3T3 cells, the activation by EGF paralleled the effect seen with insulin; the time course and dose-response curves of the two polypeptide factors were similar. Stimulation of enzyme activity ratio [(activity in the absence of glu...
Ryder, K.; Nathans, D.
We have previously reported that one of the genes that is rapidly induced in mouse 3T3 cells by serum growth factors (jun-B) encodes a protein related to the onco-protein v-jun. By using jun-B as a probe, we have isolated a cDNA encoding a second member of the jun family (jun-A) that is the murine version of the protooncogene c-jun, which encodes the mammalian transcription factor AP-1. jun-B and jun-A (c-jun) have two highly conserved regions and two regions with little sequence similarity. ...
Florian, M.; Jahnke, F. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen (Germany); Pretorius, A.; Rosenauer, A.; Dartsch, H.; Kruse, C.; Hommel, D. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen (Germany)
For vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser pillar microcavities with three-dimensional optical mode confinement, we theoretically study the influence of growth imperfections on the cavity quality factor. Mode calculations based on a vectorial transfer-matrix approach are used to simulate layer thickness fluctuations as well as a gradual variation of the layer thickness across the micropillar for an AlGaN/GaN material system. Experimental estimates for the layer thickness profile are obtained with transmission electron microscopy Z-contrast images. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Kajiya, Kentaro; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Ma, Beijia; Drinnenberg, Ines; Detmar, Michael
The lymphatic vascular system plays a pivotal role in mediating tissue fluid homeostasis and cancer metastasis, but the molecular mechanisms that regulate its formation and function remain poorly characterized. A comparative analysis of the gene expression of purified lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) versus blood vascular endothelial cells (BVEC) revealed that LEC express significantly higher levels of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGF-R). Whereas little or no HGF-R expression was detec...
Corn, Paul; Wang, Fen; Mckeehan, Wallace L.; Navone, Nora
Advanced prostate cancer carries a poor prognosis and novel therapies are needed. Research has focused on identifying mechanisms that promote angiogenesis and cellular proliferation during prostate cancer progression from the primary tumor to bone—the principal site of prostate cancer metastases. One candidate pathway is the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) axis. Aberrant expression of FGF ligands and FGF receptors leads to constitutive activation of multiple downstream pathways involved in p...
The petroleum industry faces many challenges moving toward the next century. How effectively these challenges are addressed and managed will determine whether or not the exploration and production business grows and prospers in the future. This presentation relates to success factors for growth creation. Themes discussed here are succeeding in a global energy market, evolution of relationships between oil and gas companies and service companies, the power of technology, and effectively combining teamwork and technology
Francisco Botelho; Francisco Pina; Pedro Silva; Gabriela Figueiredo; Francisco Cruz; Nuno Lunet
PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) circulating levels might improve identification of patients with prostate cancer but results are conflicting. Our aim was to compare serum VEGF levels across different prostate pathologies (including benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer) in patients at high risk of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 186 subjects...
Pena, J. (collab.); TAYLOR, A; Ricard, C.; Vidal, I.; Hernandez, M.
AIM—To determine if the isoforms of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) are present in fetal, normal adult, and glaucomatous optic nerve heads.?METHODS—To localise cells synthesising TGF-?, optic nerve heads were stained using antibodies to TGF-?1, TGF-?2, and TGF-?3. To demonstrate synthesis, human optic nerve heads from fetal, glaucomatous, and normal age matched subjects were explanted, cultured overnight, and the culture supernatant was assayed for the presence of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 by bi...
Oefner, C.; D'Arcy, A.; Winkler, F K; Eggimann, B; Hosang, M
The crystal structure of the homodimeric BB isoform of human recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) has been determined by X-ray analysis to 3.0 A resolution. The polypeptide chain is folded into two highly twisted antiparallel pairs of beta-strands and contains an unusual knotted arrangement of three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Dimerization leads to the clustering of three surface loops at each end of the elongated dimer, which most probably form the receptor recognition si...
Rifkin, Daniel B.; Todorovic, Vesna
The demonstration that fibrillin-1 mutations perturb transforming growth factor (TGF)–? bioavailability/signaling in Marfan syndrome (MFS) changed the view of the extracellular matrix as a passive structural support to a dynamic modulator of cell behavior. In this issue, Nistala et al. (2010. J. Cell Biol. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201003089) advance this concept by demonstrating how fibrillin-1 and -2 regulate TGF-? and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) action during osteoblast maturation.
Chen, Gregory J.; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Newcomb, Elizabeth W; Zagzag, David
Hemangioblastomas frequently develop in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. The tumors are characterized by a dense network of blood capillaries, often in association with cysts. Although activation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the development of malignant brain tumors such as high-grade gliomas, little is known about the role of RTK signaling in hemangio...
Aune, T. M.
Soluble immune response suppressor (SIRS), a protein of Mr 14,000, is a lymphokine produced by interferon- or concanavalin A-activated suppressor T cells and is oxidized to its activated form, SIRSox, by H2O2 produced by macrophages. SIRSox inhibits antibody secretion by B lymphocytes and cell division by normal or transformed cell lines. Effects of purified growth factors on suppression of antibody secretion were examined to determine whether any would oppose the inhibitory effects of SIRS o...
Koutras, Angelos K.; Evans, T. R. Jeffry
The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family comprises four homologous members: EGFR, HER-2, HER-3, and HER-4. The activation of these receptors triggers a complex series of signal transduction pathways which affect pivotal tumorigenic processes. The deregulation of HER signaling is seen in several human malignancies. HER-2 is now recognized as a key oncogene in breast cancer pathogenesis. Assessment of HER-2 status is of central importance in the prognosis of breast cancer patient...
Schultz-cherry, S.; Hinshaw, V. S.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a family of proteins secreted by virtually all cells in a biologically inactive form. TGF-beta levels increase during many pathophysiological situations, including viral infection. The mechanism for increased TGF-beta activity during viral infection is not understood. We observed an increase in active TGF-beta levels within 1 day in mice infected with influenza virus. Further studies showed that the neuraminidase glycoprotein of influenza A and B ...
Missale, C.; Boroni, F; Losa, M.; Giovanelli, M.; Zanellato, A; Dal Toso, R; Balsari, A.; Spano', P.
The most effective therapy of human prolactinomas is represented by dopamine D-2 receptor agonists; there is, however, a population of nonresponder patients who require surgical intervention. In the present study, we report that prolactinomas totally resistant to pharmacological therapy have a high potential of both growing in soft agar and forming tumors in nude mice and lack D-2 receptors for dopamine. These tumors express the receptors for nerve growth factor (NGF) and are sensitive to its...
Huang, Xinqiang; Yang, Chaofeng; Jin, Chengliu; Luo, Yongde; Wang, Fen; MCKEEHAN, WALLACE L.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family signaling mediates cell-to-cell communication in development and organ homeostasis in adults. Of the FGF receptor (FGFR) isotypes, FGFR4 is the sole resident isotype present in mature parenchymal hepatocytes. FGFR1 that is normally associated with activated nonparenchymal cells appears ectopically in hepatoma cells. Ectopic expression and chronic activity of FGFR1 in hepatocytes accelerates diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis by drivin...
Caballero, M.; Berlanga, J.; Ramirez, D.; Lopez-saura, P.; Gozalez, R.; Floyd, D.; Marchbank, T.; Playford, R.
BACKGROUND—Multiorgan failure is a severe life threatening state where present therapeutic approaches are suboptimal. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent stimulant of repair in in vitro and in vivo models. We therefore examined its potential beneficial effect in reducing mortality and injury induced by the noxious agent thioacetamide (TAA).?METHODS—Mice (20 per group) were fasted overnight and received a single intraperitoneal dose of human recombinant EGF at 10 or 30 µg/kg or...
Boztosun, Abdullah; Deveci, Ko?ksal; At?lgan, Remzi; So?ylemez, Melike Sinem; Yan?k, Ali; Mu?derris, I?ptisam I?pek
Abstract Aim. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is associated with angiogenesis but it can also affect glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine AGF levels in preeclampsia. Method. The study included 32 women with preeclampsia (preeclampsia group) and 32 non-preeclamptic, healthy, third trimester pregnant women (Control group). We analyzed serum levels of AGF and other biochemical and anthropometric markers in all subjects. Results. Serum AGF levels were sig...
The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay
Swider, Pascal; Ambard, D
A theoretical rationale, which could help in the investigation of mechanobiological factors affecting periprosthetic tissue healing, is still an open problem. We used a parametric sensitivity analysis to extend a theoretical model based on reactive transport and computational cell biology. The numerical experimentation involved the drill hole, the haptotactic and chemotactic migrations, and the initial concentration of an anabolic growth factor. Output measure was the mineral fraction in tissue surrounding a polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) canine implant (stable loaded implant, non-critical gap). Increasing growth factor concentration increased structural matrix synthesis. A cell adhesion gradient resulted in heterogeneous bone distribution and a growth factor gradient resulted in homogeneous bone distribution in the gap. This could explain the radial variation of bone density from the implant surface to the drill hole, indicating less secure fixation. This study helps to understand the relative importance of various host and clinical factors influencing bone distribution and resulting implant fixation.
Cicione, Claudia; Muiños-López, Emma; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; Díaz-Prado, Silvia; Blanco, Francisco J
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an accepted candidate for cell-based therapy of multiple diseases. The interest in MSCs and their possible application in cell therapy have resulted in a better understanding of the basic biology of these cells. Recently, like aggregation and transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) delivery, hypoxia has been indicated as crucial for complete chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to test different culture conditions for directing stem cell differentiation into the chondrogenic lineage in vitro by testing different TGF? superfamily members into the culture media under normoxic conditions. All chondrogenic culture conditions used allowed the differentiation of bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) into chondrogenic lineage. Chondrogenic induction capacity depended on the growth factor added to the culture media. In particular, the chondrogenic culture condition that better induced chondrogenesis was the medium that included the combination of three growth factors: bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), BMP-7 and TGF?-3. In this culture media, differentiated cells showed the highest levels expression of two markers of chondrogenesis, SOX9 and COL2A1, compared to the control points (p BMP-2, BMP-7 and TGF?-3 was the most effective in promoting chondrogenesis of BM-MSCs. These results underline the importance of determining in each experimental design the best protocol for in vitro directing stem cell differentiation into the chondrogenic lineage. PMID:25204398
Polizzi, Viviana; Adams, An; De Saeger, Sarah; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Moretti, Antonio; De Kimpe, Norbert
A Penicillium polonicum, an Aspergillus ustus and a Periconia britannica strain were isolated from water-damaged environments and the production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was investigated by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. The most important MVOCs produced were 2-methylisoborneol, geosmin and daucane-type sesquiterpenes for P. polonicum, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, germacrene D, ?-cadinene and other sesquiterpenes for A. ustus and the volatile mycotoxin precursor aristolochene together with valencene, ?-selinene and ?-selinene for P. britannica. Different growth conditions (substrate, temperature, relative humidity) were selected, resembling indoor parameters, to investigate their influence on fungal metabolism in relation with the sick building syndrome and the results were compared with two other fungal strains previously analyzed under the same conditions. In general, the range of MVOCs and the emitted quantities were larger on malt extract agar than on wallpaper and plasterboard, but, overall, the main MVOC profile was conserved also on the two building materials tested. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on growth and metabolism is different for different fungal species, and two main patterns of behavior could be distinguished. Results show that, even at suboptimal conditions for growth, production of fungal volatiles can be significant. PMID:22169393
Full Text Available The mRNA binding protein HuR is over expressed in cancer cells and contributes to disease progression through post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA. The regulation of HuR and how this relates to glioma is the focus of this report. SRC and c-Abl kinases regulate HuR sub-cellular trafficking and influence accumulation in the pericentriolar matrix (PCM via a growth factor dependent signaling mechanism. Growth factor stimulation of glioma cell lines results in the associate of HuR with the PCM and amplification of centrosome number. This process is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of HuR and is abolished by mutating tyrosine residues. HuR is overexpressed in tumor samples from patients with glioblastoma and associated with a reduced survival. These findings suggest HuR plays a significant role in centrosome amplification and genomic instability, which contributes to a worse disease outcome.
Filippova, Natalia; Yang, Xiuhua; Nabors, Louis Burt
The mRNA binding protein HuR is over expressed in cancer cells and contributes to disease progression through post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA. The regulation of HuR and how this relates to glioma is the focus of this report. SRC and c-Abl kinases regulate HuR sub-cellular trafficking and influence accumulation in the pericentriolar matrix (PCM) via a growth factor dependent signaling mechanism. Growth factor stimulation of glioma cell lines results in the associate of HuR with the PCM and amplification of centrosome number. This process is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of HuR and is abolished by mutating tyrosine residues. HuR is overexpressed in tumor samples from patients with glioblastoma and associated with a reduced survival. These findings suggest HuR plays a significant role in centrosome amplification and genomic instability, which contributes to a worse disease outcome. PMID:25803745
Filippova, Natalia; Yang, Xiuhua; Nabors, Louis Burt
The mRNA binding protein HuR is over expressed in cancer cells and contributes to disease progression through post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA. The regulation of HuR and how this relates to glioma is the focus of this report. SRC and c-Abl kinases regulate HuR sub-cellular trafficking and influence accumulation in the pericentriolar matrix (PCM) via a growth factor dependent signaling mechanism. Growth factor stimulation of glioma cell lines results in the associate of HuR with the PCM and amplification of centrosome number. This process is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of HuR and is abolished by mutating tyrosine residues. HuR is overexpressed in tumor samples from patients with glioblastoma and associated with a reduced survival. These findings suggest HuR plays a significant role in centrosome amplification and genomic instability, which contributes to a worse disease outcome. PMID:25803745
The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) represents a critical factor in the malignant growth of solid tumors and metastases. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR2 represent central molecular targets for antiangiogenic intervention, because of their integral involvement in endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In the current study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo effects of receptor blockade on various aspects of the angiogenic process using monoclonal antibodies against VEGFR2 (cp1C11, which is human specific, and DC101, which is mouse specific). Molecular blockade of VEGFR2 inhibited several critical steps involved in angiogenesis. VEGFR2 blockade in endothelial cells attenuated cellular proliferation, reduced cellular migration, and disrupted cellular differentiation and resultant formation of capillary-like networks. Further, VEGFR2 blockade significantly reduced the growth response of human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in athymic mice. The growth-inhibitory effect of VEGFR2 blockade in tumor xenografts seems to reflect antiangiogenic influence as demonstrated by vascular growth inhibition in an in vivo angiogenesis assay incorporating tumor-bearing Matrigel plugs. Further, administration of VEGFR2-blocking antibodies in endothelial cell cultures, and in mouse xenograft models, increased their response to ionizing radiation, indicating an interactive cytotoxic effect of VEGFR2 blockade with radiation. Thfect of VEGFR2 blockade with radiation. These data suggest that molecular inhibition of VEGFR2 alone, and in combination with radiation, can enhance tumor response through molecular targeting of tumor vasculature
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socioeconomic characteristics, dichotomous choice method questions pertaining to ambulance calls in hypothetical nonemergency situations, and questions on the city's emergency medical system. The probit model was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 2,029 out of 3,363 targeted recipients completed the questionnaire (response rate, 60.3%. Probit regression analyses showed that several demographic and socioeconomic factors influence the decision to call an ambulance. Male respondents were more apt than female respondents to state that they would call an ambulance in nonemergency situations (p Conclusion Results of the study suggest that several socioeconomic factors, i.e., age, gender, household income, and possession of a car, influence a person's decision to call an ambulance in nonemergency situations. Hesitation to use an ambulance and knowledge of the city's primary emergency medical center are likely to be important factors limiting ambulance overuse. It was estimated that unnecessary ambulance use is increased approximately 10% to 20% by socioeconomic factors.
Versteeg, M. N.
The objective of the study was to determine the growth potential of alfalfa, potato, Rhodes grass and maize in the irrigated desert of S. Peru, as at that production level the highest utilization efficiency of irrigation water is usually obtained. Important growth- influencing factors were identified for each crop. In addition, measured results were compared to results from simulation models developed in Wageningen.Maximum annual alfalfa production was 27 t/ha dry forage. Experimental evidenc...
This article computes the energy productivity changes of regions in Japan using total-factor frameworks based on data envelopment analysis (DEA). Since the traditional DEA-Malmquist index cannot analyze changes in single-factor productivity changes under the total-factor framework, we apply a new index proposed by Hu and Chang [2009. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in China. Energy Policy, submitted for publication]: a total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPI) that integrates the concept of the total-factor energy efficiency index into the Malmquist productivity index (MPI). Moreover, we separate TFEPI into change in relative energy efficiency, or the 'catching up effect,' and shift in the technology of energy use, or the 'innovation effect.' The data from 47 prefectures during the period of 1993-2003 are used to compute the TFEPI and its components for 4 kinds of energy. The TFEPI of electric power for commercial and industrial use changes -0.6% annually, which can be separated into a total-factor energy efficiency change of 0.2% and a technical change of -0.8%. The TFEPI for coal deteriorates by 1.0%/year, which is mostly caused by a decrease in relative energy efficiency change. We define and identify 'innovators' who cause the frontier to shift. Most regions identified as frontier shifters are located outside of Japan's four major industrial areas.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.
Juana Robledo Martín
Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.
More than 40% of China's total CO2 emissions originate from the power industry. The realization of energy saving and emission reduction within China's power industry is therefore crucial in order to achieve CO2 emissions reduction in this country. This paper applies the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) co-integration model to study the major factors which have influenced CO2 emissions within China's power industry from 1980 to 2010. Results have shown that CO2 emissions from China's power industry have been increasing rapidly. From 1980 to 2010, the average annual growth rate was 8.5%, and the average growth rate since 2002 has amounted to 10.5%. Secondly, the equipment utilization hour (as an indicator of the power demand) has the greatest influence on CO2 emissions within China's power industry. In addition, the impact of the industrial added value of the power sector on CO2 emissions is also positive from a short-term perspective. Thirdly, the Granger causality results imply that one of the important motivators behind China's technological progress, within the power industry, originates from the pressures created by a desire for CO2 emissions reduction. Finally, this paper provides policy recommendations for energy saving and emission reduction for China's power industry. - Highlights: ? We study the major factors influencing China's power industry CO2 emissions. ? The average annual growth rate of CO2 emission from power industry is calculated. ? Installed capacity has the greatest influence on power industry CO2 emission. ? The Granger causality between CO2 emission and its effecting factors is analyzed
Smith, L E; Shen, W; Perruzzi, C; Soker, S; Kinose, F; Xu, X; Robinson, G; Driver, S; Bischoff, J; Zhang, B; Schaeffer, J M; Senger, D R
Although insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been associated with retinopathy, proof of a direct relationship has been lacking. Here we show that an IGF-1 receptor antagonist suppresses retinal neovascularization in vivo, and infer that interactions between IGF-1 and the IGF-1 receptor are necessary for induction of maximal neovascularization by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). IGF-1 receptor regulation of VEGF action is mediated at least in part through control of VEGF activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, establishing a hierarchical relationship between IGF-1 and VEGF receptors. These findings establish an essential role for IGF-1 in angiogenesis and demonstrate a new target for control of retinopathy. They also explain why diabetic retinopathy initially increases with the onset of insulin treatment. IGF-1 levels, low in untreated diabetes, rise with insulin therapy, permitting VEGF-induced retinopathy. PMID:10581081
Goldfarb, Mitchell; Schoorlemmer, Jon; Williams, Anthony; Diwakar, Shyam; Wang, Qing; Huang, Xiao; Giza, Joanna; Tchetchik, Dafna; Kelley, Kevin; Vega, Ana; Matthews, Gary; ROSSI, PAOLA; Ornitz, David M; D’Angelo, Egidio
Nerve cells integrate and encode complex synaptic inputs into action potential outputs through a process termed intrinsic excitability. Here we report the essential contribution of fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs), a family of voltage-gated sodium channel binding proteins, to this process. In mouse cerebellar slice recordings, wild-type and Fhf1?/? granule neurons generate sustained trains of action potentials up to high frequencies (~60 Hz), but Fhf4?/? neurons typically fi...
Yun Wang; Xin-Yu Xu; Yu-Rong Tang; Wei-Wei Yang; Yu-Feng Yuan; Yue-Ji Ning; Yin-Juan Yu; Lin Lin
AIM: To investigate whether the reduction of stem cell factor (SCF) is mediated by decreased endogenous insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in diabetic rat colon smooth muscle. METHODS: Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group. After 8 wk of streptozotocin administration, colonic motility function and contractility of circular muscle strips were measured. The expression of endogenous IGF-1 and SCF was tested in c...
Full Text Available SUMMARY Few reports concerning the levels and the importance of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs in the serum of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have been published. Insulin-like growth factor(IGF system has properties that are potentially relevant to IBD. The IGF system is a system complex composed of IGF-I and IGF-II as well as at least six different IGF binding proteins (IGFBP.IGF-I expression has been shown in lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts. IGF-I is a potent mitogen for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and induces collagen synthesis in vitro, appearing to be important in tissue remodeling and repair. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL- 1 may play a role in IGF-I production linking the IGF system with the inflammatory process in IBD patients. It has been suggested that IBD patients may have low IGF-I and IGFBP levels. In recent years the effect of regulatory peptides such as growth hormone (GH and IGF-I in intestinal growth and repair has been emphasized. Trials of growth hormone in combination with a high-protein diet in short bowel syndrome patients as well as Crohn?s disease (CD patients have been encouraging. It has been suggested that the IGF and IGFBP system may be abnormal in IBD patients during this chronic inflammatory process, yet there is no data is on the exact impact of inflammation on this down-regulation and the interaction between the interleukins and the IGF and IGFBP system, in IBD patients. Key words: IGF system, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP3, IGFBP, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, Crohn?s disease (CD, ulcerative colitis (UC.
Lahm, H.; Suardet, L.; Laurent, P. L.; Fischer, J. R.; Ceyhan, A.; Givel, J. C.; Odartchenko, N.
We have tested growth factor responsiveness of a panel of eight human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) stimulated growth of five lines (HT-29, LS411N, LS513, SW480, WiDr). At 30 ng ml-1 both factors enhanced growth up to 3-fold. They induced half-maximal stimulation at 1.9-6.51 ng ml-1. Even after delayed addition IGF-I and II significantly enhanced growth in a short-term proliferation assay. They exerted maximal effects under limiting serum conditions (0.5% FCS) and at low cell density (1.25-5 x 10(4) ml-1). Using these conditions transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) enhanced proliferation of all IGF-responsive cell lines, except SW480. 1.11-3.31 ng ml-1 were required to obtain a half-maximal response. With 10-20 ng ml-1 maximal stimulation occurred at plateau values different from those for IGF-I/II. Proliferation of all cell lines responsive to both IGF-I and TGF alpha was further enhanced by combining both factors, resulting a synergistic response of LS513, while the effects on HT-29, LS411N and WiDr were additive. With HT-29 and LS411N a 24 h exposure to TGF alpha was sufficient to obtain a full response in the co-stimulatory assay. Our results illustrate the importance of IGF-I/II and TGF alpha as stimulators of growth of colorectal carcinomas. PMID:1558785
Furuta, Takahisa; Kimura, Mikio; Watanabe, Naohiro
In cerebral malaria, the binding of parasitized erythrocytes to the cerebral endothelium and the consequent angiogenic dysregulation play a key role in pathogenesis. Because vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is widely regarded as a potent stimulator of angiogenesis, edema, inflammation, and vascular remodeling, the plasma levels of VEGF and the soluble form of the VEGF receptor (sVEGFR)-1 and -2 in uncomplicated malaria patients and healthy adults were measured by enzyme-linked immuno...
Munger, John S.; Harpel, John G.; Giancotti, Filippo G.; Rifkin, Daniel B.
The multipotential cytokine transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is secreted in a latent form. Latency results from the noncovalent association of TGF-? with its processed propeptide dimer, called the latency-associated peptide (LAP); the complex of the two proteins is termed the small latent complex. Disulfide bonding between LAP and latent TGF-?–binding protein (LTBP) produces the most common form of latent TGF-?, the large latent complex. The extracellular matrix (ECM) modulates the...
Following damage to skeletal muscle, satellite cells become activated, migrate towards the injured area, proliferate, and fuse with each other to form myotubes which finally mature into myofibers. We tested a new approach to muscle regeneration by incorporating myoblasts, with or without the exogenous growth factors bFGF or HGF, into three-dimensional gels of reconstituted basement membrane (matrigel). In vitro, bFGF and HGF induced C2C12 myoblast proliferation and migration and were synergis...
Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Anderson, Michael B.; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism has long been proposed as a chronic pain treatment. In 2010, the FDA suspended clinical trials using tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, to treat osteoarthritis due to worsening joint damage in 16 patients. Increased physical activity in the absence of acute pain which normally prevents self harm was purported as a potential cause. Such an adverse effect is consistent with an extension of tanezumab's primary mechanism of action by decreasi...
Soepardi Soedibyo; Tinuk Meilany
School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study wa...
Kosslak, Renee M.; Bohlool, B. Ben
The effect of several biotic and abiotic factors on the pattern of competition between two strains of Rhizobium japonicum was examined. In two Minnesota soils, Waseca and Waukegan, strain USDA 123 occupied 69% (Waseca) and 24% (Waukegan) of the root nodules on Glycine max L. Merrill cv. Chippewa. USDA 110 occupied 2% of the root nodules in the Waseca soil and 12% of the nodules in the Waukegan soil. Under a variety of other growth conditions—vermiculite, vermiculite amended with Waseca soil...
Full Text Available Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. is the most important of local tuber crops in Malaysia. It is usually planted on marginal soils such as peat and sandy soils. Malaysian?s are consumed a lot of sweetpotatoes and its production requires high fertilizer input, which can lead to increased production cost and environment problems. The use of biofertilizer and bioenhancer such as N2 (nitrogen fixing bacteria and beneficial microorganism can reduce chemical fertilizer applications and consequently lower production cost. The pot experiment was conducted to determine the influence of rhizobacterial isolates on the response of sweetpotato plant growth. A total of five rhizobacterial isolates capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA were used. Four of the isolates were collected from sweetpotato rhizosphere and one isolate was imported. Cuttings of sweetpotato cultivars melaka and oren were planted in plastic pots containing alluvium soil. Cultures of the rhizobacterial isolates were inoculated at planting time, two and four weeks after planting. Plants were harvested 60 days after planting. The results showed that, three of isolates significantly increased the plant growth and the N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake of sweetpotato cultivar.
Birkebaek, Niels H; Wolthers, Ole D
To report on the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on final height (FH) and to describe the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, ghrelin, and adiponectin (ADPN) in children with Seckel syndrome.
Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.
Broussaud, A.; Guyot, O. [Svedala Cisa, Orleans Cedex 2 (France)
Optimizing control systems supplement conventional Distributed Control Systems and Programmable Logic Controllers. They continuously implement set points, which aim at maximizing the profitability of plant operation. They are becoming an integral part of modern mineral processing plants. This trend is justified by economic considerations, optimizing control being among the most cost-effective methods of improving metallurgical plant performance. The paper successively analyzes three sets of factors, which influence the profitability of optimizing control systems, and provides guidelines for analyzing the potential value of an optimizing control system at a given operation: external factors, such as economic factors and factors related to plant feed; features of the optimizing control system; and subsequent maintenance of the optimizing control system. It is shown that pay back times for optimization control projects are typically measured in days. The OCS software used by the authors for their applications is described briefly. (author)
Mohammadreza Rahimi Shamsabadi
Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been an increase trend on purchasing via internet, which indicates a steady growth on this internet service. There are different advantages on e-purchase services such as availability of usage, fast and reliable services, etc. The purpose of this survey is to investigate on different influencing factors on customer's fidelity on purchasing air ticket from different agencies located in Tehran, Iran. The Cronbach Alpha validates our results. The proposed conceptual model of this paper is estimated using multi-variable regression model and the results indicate that direct factors influence customer satisfaction, significantly. The results indicate that while customer perception does not have any relationship with repurchase but it has direct relationship with customer's perception and trust.
Walker, P. A.; And Others
The factors influencing student choice of an admission to three institutions are examined. A survey of entering full-time first degree students set out to compare: factors influencing decisions to enter higher education, sources of information which influenced decisions, pattern of applications, and factors influencing final choice. (Author/MLW)
Deliyski, Dimitar D; Shaw, Heather S; Evans, Maegan K; Vesselinov, Roumen
Multiple factors influence voice quality measurements (VQM) obtained during an acoustic voice assessment including: gender, intrasubject variability, microphone, environmental noise (type and level), data acquisition (DA) system, and analysis software. This study used regression trees to investigate the order and relative importance of these factors on VQM including interaction effects of the factors and how the outcome differs when the acoustic environment is controlled for noise. Twenty normophonic participants provided 20 voice samples each, which were recorded synchronously on five DA systems combined with six different microphones. The samples were mixed with five noise types at eight signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. The resulting 80,000 audio samples were analyzed for fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter and shimmer using three software analysis systems: MDVP, PRAAT, and TF32 (CSpeech). Fifteen regression trees and their Variable Importance Measures were utilized to analyze the data. The analyses confirmed that all of the factors listed above were influential. The results suggest that gender, intrasubject variability, and microphone were significant influences on F(0). Software systems and gender were highly influential on measurements of jitter and shimmer. Environmental noise was shown to be the prominent factor that affects VQM when SNR levels are below 30 dB. PMID:16825780
Full Text Available Buyer behavior is the study of individuals, group, or select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these process have on the consumer and society. Buyer behavior is widely understood as a problem solving and decision making sequence, the outcome of which is determined by the buyer goal directed processing of information. The aim of this paper is to show that to identify reasons for buying laptop, factors influencing for buying laptop, and decision making for product attributes factors in this factors motivated based on Buyer behaviour in Dindigul district general people. The sample included 150 of general people based on laptop buyers. The collected data were coded, calculated and analyzed with the help of statistical tools like t-test, ANOVA, Regression analysis. The result shows that there is no significant difference between products attributes with gender and Occupation, and Buyer behaviour factors contributed in reasons for buying laptop, Influencing factors, and product attributes.
Lu, C L; Yan, J; Zhi, X; Xia, X; Wang, T R; Yan, L Y; Yu, Y; Ding, T; Gao, J M; Li, R; Qiao, J
Fertility preservation is an important type of frontier scientific research in the field of reproductive health. The culture of ovarian cortices to i) initiate primordial follicle growth and ii) procure developing follicles for later oocyte maturation is a promising fertility preservation strategy, especially for older women or cancer patients. At present, this goal remains largely unsubstantiated in primates because of the difficulty in attaining relatively large follicles via ovarian cortex culture. To overcome this hurdle, we cultured macaque monkey ovarian cortices with FSH, kit ligand (KL), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The various factors and factor combinations promoted primordial follicle development to different extents. Notably, both bFF (bFGF, 100?ng/ml and FSH, 50?ng/ml) and KF (KL, 100?ng/ml and FSH, 50?ng/ml) contributed to the activation of primordial follicles at day 12 (D12) of culture, whereas at D18, the proportions of developing follicles were significantly higher in the bFF and KF groups relative to the other treatment groups, particularly in the bFF group. Estradiol and progesterone production were also highest in the bFF group, and primary follicle diameters were the largest. Up until D24, the bFF group still exhibited the highest proportion of developing follicles. In conclusion, the bFGF-FSH combination promotes nonhuman primate primordial follicle development in vitro, with the optimal experimental window within 18 days. These results provide evidence for the future success of human ovarian cortex culture and the eventual acquisition of mature human follicles or oocytes for fertility restoration. PMID:25687412
Full Text Available The single yarn strength CV value is one important index to measure the quality of yarn. Taking pure cotton and polyester cotton blended yarn as research objects, in this article, we systematically analyze the effects of some factors such as raw material blended ratio, yarn unevenness and twist unevenness on single yarn strength CV value, and use the mathematic analysis method to obtain the relationships between various influencing factors with single yarn strength value, and the result possesses directional meanings to enhance the quality of yarn in actual production.
The purpose of the research was to examine the behaviour of Russian con-sumers and find out what different factors influence the final purchase decision. The study investigated these factors from the view point of leisure related tourism and our target group was those Russians who travel to the area of Lappeenranta and use local hospitality services for at least one night. The main goal was to help improve the knowledge about Russian customers through theory, as well as to understand the expe...
Full Text Available Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above.
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie
This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration. PMID:25980512
Full Text Available To suggest its available financial resources, consumer of rural and farm tourism, according to its preferences, must maximize the utility of purchases within own available budget. Consumer of rural and farm tourism products and services, in economic terms, is characterized through the option to chose a competitive market, outside his professional activity (public, private or commercial. The study evaluates consumer behavior influences that are exerted on consumer by family groups, friends and society in general. Consumer of agro-tourist farm goods and services behavior is influenced by a number of factors that make them come more often or less often or only seasonal to the farm: endogenous and exogenous factors.
Terang Uli Sembiring
Full Text Available About 80% of Indonesia populations lived in malaria endemic areas. AMI reported to date is still high, on the other side of the MDG targets is to reduce AMI (38 ° C, chills, cold sweating, headache, and muscle pain or splenomegaly at 4 health centers in January to April 2011. Interview was assigned to 220 respondents; 53.2% of respondents aged over 40 years, predominantly female (52.7%. In general, respondents have a job (66.4% with low educational level (81.8%, and 67.7% get a pain less than 4 days. Results shows that occupation factor is significantly related to drug purchasing behavior (p = 0.003. Model of risk factors that influencing malaria drug purchases in the stall is the kind of work that is influenced by the low education level (p-value = 0.003 with odds ratio is 15.5%.
Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)
We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)
X. L. Pan
Full Text Available We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with a relative humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city (Jingjintang from 24th April to15th May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH=80%, varied in a range of 1.07–2.35 during the measurement. Estimated periodic mean values of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors are 1.27–1.34, 1.17–1.23, 1.55–1.59 and 2.33–2.48 for clean, dust, urban pollution and mixed pollution periods respectively. An examination of chemical composition of daily filter samples highlighted that aerosol hygroscopicity was generally enhanced with the increasing ratio of ammonium sulfate (AS to organic matter (OMC. Furthermore, strong hygroscopic organic aerosols were observed on 11th (f(RH=80%=2.23 and 15th (f(RH=80%=2.21 of May with organic carbon proportions of PM2.1 reaching 42.3% and 43.0% respectively. Back-trajectory analysis indicated that solar radiation and vertical convective movement along the air mass pathway might strongly influence the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.
Cloning and expression analysis of myostatin, fibroblast growth factor 6, insulin-like growth factor I and II in liver and muscle of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. during long-term fasting and refeeding
Full Text Available The exceptionally fast growth that fish experience after periods of fasting has been called “compensatory growth”. This phenomenon has been studied in intensive aquaculture as a means of enhancing growth rates, but the mechanisms by which food intake activates an increase in somatic growth, and especially in muscle growth, are complex and not yet fully understood. In the present paper, we describe the molecular cloning and sequencing of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax myostatin (MSTN and fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6, which have been shown to be major genetic determinants of skeletal muscle growth, together with insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI and IGF-II, which are potent mitogens known to play important roles in growth and development. We then report the pattern of expression of the four aforementioned genes, in liver and myotomal muscle in response to prolonged fasting and refeeding. Nutritional status significantly influenced the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN, whereas the muscular FGF6 expression levels were not affected by the feeding status of the animals. Taken together these data indicate that IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN are involved in the sea bass muscle compensatory growth induced by refeeding, whereas FGF6 probably has not a role in this phenomenon.
Central to the present concepts of the origin of the radiation-induced creep, growth and swelling phenomena is the relative interaction of interstitials and vacancies with various sinks. Radiation-induced climb of dislocations, which figures in many theories of radiation creep and growth, requires the absorption of an excess of either vacancies or interstitials. On the other hand, radiation swelling requires the absorption of an excess of vacancies to affect void growth. These relative preferences are normally expressed in theoretical models by certain bias factors, or capture efficiencies, usually assumed to be constant. Several attempts have been made to estimate their magnitude theoretically but all are seen to involve errors or physically unrealistic assumptions. We present here a unified treatment in which these various bias factors are estimated in a self-consistent model which incorporates, for the first time, all the essential physics, i.e., defect production, interactions of both vacancies and interstitials with sinks and the presence of two types of sinks. We present quantitative evaluations for the SIPA creep model and for radiation swelling, and compare with previous estimates of these phenomena
Bonefeld, Karen; MØller, SØren
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play an essential role in growth and development, as well as in the overall cellular regulation and metabolism in the human body. In chronic liver disease, IGF levels are decreased, and the circulating levels correlate to the extent of hepatocellular dysfunction. Patients with cirrhosis are characterised by a variety of metabolic disturbances, including nutritional and metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, malnutrition, osteopenia and hypogonadism, all related to IGF-I deficiency. The complex process of hepatic fibrogenesis and the systemic consequences in cirrhosis are only partly understood. Disruption of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis seems to be closely associated with the development of liver disease, and treatment with recombinant human IGF (rhIGF)-I has been shown to halt, and even reverse, the fibrotic degeneration. IGF-I in itself has a strong antifibrotic effect that acts directly through the GH/IGF system and indirectly by the regulation of hepatoprotective and profibrogenic factors. It is most likely that IGF-I deficiency contributes to the diverse metabolic complications of cirrhosis. At present, liver transplantation remains the only efficient treatment of cirrhosis, and thus new methods of managing the disease are called for. RhIGF-I supplementation and IGF-I gene therapy may represent future perspectives of treatment.
Stoll, Pia; Wall, Anders; Norstro?m, Christer
The Influencing Factors (IF) method guides the architect through stakeholders’ concerns to architectural decisions in line with current business goals. The result is a set of requirements on software quality attributes and business goals and highlighted trade-offs among software quality attributes and among business goals. The IF method is suitable for sustainable software systems since it allows new concerns, resulting from changes in business goals, stakeholder concerns, technical environ...
Communication is a complex process of transmitting messages, according to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel to a receiver who ultimately is going to decode it. At an ordinary level, communication as a message exchange between individuals is understood as a verbal or written transmission of information. The success of any communication is dependent on several factors that exert their influence both upon the emitter and the receiver. Business commu...
Tjosevik, Ragnhild; Refsland, Birgitte
This study considers small Norwegian high-technology firms, with characteristics similar to those of Born Global firms. These types of firms have received an increasing amount of attention in research the last decade, but the specific field of how different factors affect their international entry strategies is scattered. With a basis of a multiple-case study, this thesis contributes with an assessment of how founder-, market- and product characteristics influence the international entry stra...
Brissaud, Florent; Charpentier, Dominique; Fouladirad, Mitra; Barros, Anne; Bérenguer, Christophe
The relevance of reliability evaluation strongly depends on the quality of input data as failure rates. Reliability data handbooks give generic values which do not often fit system specificities. This paper deals with influencing factors in order to take into account some aspects as design, environment and use in reliability evaluations. Once a definition and a classification are proposed, a brief review of existing models is presented. This paper also introduces a new failure rate evaluation...
Jee, Young Ju; Lee, Yun Bok
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among elderly patients and identify the factors influencing depression in a geriatric hospital in Korea. [Subjects] A self-report questionnaire was administered to the patients in community geriatric hospitals. Participants were 195 elderly patients. [Methods] The instruments utilized in this study were the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea (GDSSF-K), an activity of daily living scale,...
The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return ...
Short, Jodi; Toffel, Michael Wayne; Hugill, Andrea Read
Supply chain auditors provide companies with strategic information about the practices of suppliers, yet little is known of what influences auditors’ ability to identify and report dangerous, illegal, and unethical behavior at factories. Drawing on insights from the literatures on street-level bureaucracy and on regulatory and audit design, we theorize and investigate the factors that shape the practices of private supply chain auditors. We find evidence that their reporting practices are s...
Lee Chai Har; Uchenna Cyril. Eze
The Internet revolution has created more opportunities for businesses and individuals to explore new ways of life, and online business is a key aspect of these new forms of living. Online transaction systems enable users to buy and make payments for products and services using the Internet platform. While there is increasing research about online business, little research has focused on specific repurchase perspectives in the Malaysian context. This study examines the factors that influence c...
Oindo, B.O.; De By, R.A.; A.K Skidmore
Sustainable resource management requires understanding the factors that increase or decrease species richness. Regional species richness patterns may be predicted by analysing patterns of variation in the environment. A number of studies have shown that bird species richness at a regional scale is influenced by climatic variables. We examined environmental correlates of bird species richness at a quarter degree square scale (55 × 55 km). Mean annual potential evapotranspiration accounts for 4...
Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adju...
Kerstens, N. F. H.
The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in production. In principle the welding process is rather simple, the materials to be joined are clamped between two electrodes and pressed together. Because there is an interface present with a higher res...
Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Huang, Ding-ming
The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these an...
Pascoe, G. A.; Ward, Mike; Mackenzie, D. J.
This study investigates a number of economic factors to determine whether individually or collectively they affect the share price response to a rights issue announcement on the JSE. It adds to the existing body of literature on new equity issue announcements and it will assist issuing firms and investors in obtaining a better understanding of what influences the valuation of shares when undertaking new equity issuances.
Rui Gao; Dong Xiang; Luyuan Zhang; Longwei Yin; Chengxiang Wang
Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humi...
Lestari, V. S.; Natsir, A.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Kasim, K.; Ali, H. M.; Saadah; Mawardi
The present study was undertaken to identify factors that influences biosecurity adoption on laying hen farmers in Sidrap district, South Sulawesi. This district was choosen because beside it was famous as the center of laying hen farms, it was also as one of districts in South Sulawesi which suffered from Avian influenza outbreak. Total sample was 60 respondents. The sample was choosen through stratified random sampling from two subdistricts which was the most populous of layer smallholders,...
Garraway, W. M.; Lee, A. J.; Macleod, D. A.; Telfer, J. W.; Deary, I. J.; Murray, G. D.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby mat...
Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.
This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes we...
Guishu Zhong; Xia Xiong
This study aims to analyze the factors that influence current practice of clinical medicine education through questionnaire among the undergraduates of 2003rd year (of graduation) in Luzhou Medical College who have just finished practice education. The sample comprises of 206 students. Then we get the first-hand data based on the personal experience of interns by analyzing the questionnaire, make clear the inherent reasons, thus take measures to achieve an etiological treatment and provide ev...
Transport pricing policies are often assumed to be effective strategies to affect people’s car use, but, due to a lack of public support, these policies are often not implemented. Therefore, we examined which factors influence the acceptability of these pricing policies. First, the acceptability of transport pricing policies was shown to be strongly related to the revenue allocation: acceptability increased when revenues were allocated to car users. Second, the acceptability was also shown ...
Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi; Abdollah Naami; Naser Azad
During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts wh...
Li, Ning; Zhang, Jie
One hundred and nine suicide survivors and 128 informants of community controls were investigated in this study to explore how Chinese suicide survivors were affected by the suicide deaths. Variables measured in the survey included demographic status, mental health status, personality, etc. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed in data analyses to explore possible influencing factors for depression among Chinese suicide survivors. ‘Lived with suicide victim’ was found to be t...
Sianesi M; Di Mario F; Gm, Cavestro; Gg, Japichino; Piccolo D; Dell'Abate P; Del Rio P; Ziegler S.; Franzini C; Soliani P
CONTEXT: The natural history of pancreatic pseudocysts has become well known in recent years, but the choice of a proper treatment still remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at establishing whether predictive factors influencing therapeutic outcomes exist. SETTING: Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts following an episode of acute pancreatitis treated from January 1980 to December 2001 at the Department of General Surgery and Organ Transplantation of the University of Parma, Ital...
Korhan Kahraman; Göksu Göç; Salih Ta?k?n; P?nar Haznedar; Selen Karagözlü; Burak Kale; Zeynep Kurtipek; Batuhan Özmen
Objective: To analyze the factors influencing behavior of women in choosing contraceptive methods.Material and Methods: A total of 4022 women who were admitted to our clinic in a year, were the subjects in this current study for contraception choices. Relationship between the current contraceptive choice and the age, marital status, educational level, gravidity and induced abortions were evaluated. Results: Current users of any contraceptive methods were found to make up thirty-three percent ...
Ugur Uyeturk; Adnan Gucuk; Eray Kemahli; Emine Dagistan; Mevlut Yildiz; Burak Yilmaz; Ahmet Metin
Purpose. The duration of urine leakage following the removal of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) shows significant variations depending on the techniques used. We aimed to assess the factors likely to influence the duration of urine leakage. Material and Methods. In total, 103 patients who underwent PCNL were reviewed retrospectively. DUL was evaluated regarding patient characteristics, thickness of the access line, presence of hydronephrosis, and residual stones...
Muhammad Khalilur Rahman; Md Abdul Jalil; Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Robel, S. D.
E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experienc...
Wilkins, Melinda A
The study's aim was to examine factors that may influence health information managers in the adoption of electronic health records. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) served as theoretical foundation for this quantitative study. Hospital health information managers in Arkansas were queried as to the constructs of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior intention. The study population comprised 94 health information managers with a return rate of 74.5 percent. One manager ...
Lewis, Gary J.; Bates, Timothy C.
Although it has been shown that prosocial behaviour is heritable, it has not yet been established whether narrower aspects of prosociality are heritable, nor whether a common mechanism influences prosociality across its multiple domains. Here, we examine civic duty, work-place commitment and concern for the welfare of others with a study of prosocial obligations in 958 adult twin-pairs. Multivariate modelling indicated the existence of genetic factors underlying general prosocial obligations ...
Di Rong; Xu Ming
With the rapid development of economy, service industry plays a significant role in world. Innovation in service enterprises has become an important competitive concern in many service industries. In order to reasonably analysis the radical service innovation in this area, this paper explores the influencing factors of radical service innovation by using literature analysis method. And an evaluation index system is established in this paper at same time, which is based on the investigation of...
Taub, M; Wang, Y; Szczesny, T M; Kleinman, H K
The ability of matrigel, a reconstituted basement membrane gel, to induce the differentiation of baby mouse kidney cells has been examined in a hormonally defined serum-free medium. Primary cultures of baby mouse kidney cells were observed to form tubules over a time interval of 1-2 weeks in matrigel. Electron microscopic studies showed that tubules with lumens were present, and the tubule morphology was similar to that of the collecting duct. When using matrigel from which the growth factors had been removed, tubule formation no longer occurred, unless the medium was further supplemented with epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml). Transforming growth factor alpha stimulated tubule formation as effectively as epidermal growth factor, whereas transforming growth factor beta had an inhibitory effect on tubule formation. These data suggest that both an extracellular matrix and specific growth factors may regulate kidney differentiation during development. Images PMID:2339133
Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Kramerov, Andrei A.; Tajbakhsh, Jian; Aoki, Annette M.; Wang, Charles; Chai, Ning-Ning; Ljubimova, Julia Y.; Sasaki, Takako; Sosne, Gabriel; Carlson, Marc R. J.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ljubimov, Alexander V
PURPOSE. To identify proteinases and growth factors abnormally expressed in human corneas of donors with diabetic retinopathy (DR), additional to previously described matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10 and -3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I.
Ikezawa, K; Hart, C E; Williams, D C; Narayanan, A S
Cementum is the thin calcified outer layer through which tooth-root surfaces are anchored to soft periodontal connective tissues. A variety of growth factors and adhesion molecules are sequestered in the extracellular matrix of cementum, and we have purified and characterized one of the growth factors. This growth factor, the cementum derived growth factor (CGF), was purified from bovine cementum by acetic acid extraction followed by heparin affinity chromatography and HPLC using cation exchange, molecular sieve, and reverse-phase columns. NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified CGF preparation revealed the presence of two major protein bands migrating with Mr 18,000-22,000 and 14,000-16,000. The latter was associated with the major part of the mitogenic activity. The activity of CGF was inhibited by antibodies to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-I receptor. Both CGF and IGF-I were mitogenic to human gingival fibroblasts and alveolar bone cells, but the bone cells responded better to CGF than to IGF-I. The IGF-I did not bind to heparin-sepharose, while CGF bound to it and was eluted with 0.6M NaCl from heparin-sepharose columns. Heparin-sepharose 0.2M NaCl fractions of cementum extracts contained IGF-I migrating with Mr 7,500, but its mobility was not affected by N-glycosidase treatment. Western analysis using anti-IGF-I antibodies showed that CGF preparations contained cross-reacting species migrating with Mr 18,000-22,000, 14,000-16,000 and 11,000-12,000, however after treatment with N-glycosidase the Mr 18,000-22,000 component was absent. Internal amino acid sequences of six tryptic peptides of CGF were determined by microsequencing. The sequence of one 15-amino acid long peptide was the same as the receptor binding domain of IGF-I, and another 9-amino acid peptide had 78 % homology to a sequence derived from an untranslated region of sheep IGF-I exon 1. Four other peptides had no apparent homology with IGF-I. From these results we conclude that the CGF is an IGF-I like molecule. PMID:9610889
Ahmad Nazrin Aris Anuar
Full Text Available The tourist friendly destination is a concept, which satisfies the tourists through utilization and the relationship between elements of activity, space and product without any interruption and difficulties starting from the resident to the preferred of tourism destination. It has been seen as a customer-oriented concept where the tourists regarded as the customers at the tourist friendly destination. However, studies that of such initiatives are quite limited and sector based, thus leaving a gap of knowledge and misunderstanding what makes constitutes a tourist friendly destination. Therefore, this study is a concept paper with the aim of identifying the factors underlying and influencing the formation of tourist friendly destination at a macro level perspective. Through this study, it is found that five factors influencing the formation of tourist friendly destination. The implication of this study provides better insight into the factors, which influenced the formation of tourist friendly destination and its significance as a picture of those responsible for tourism destination development, as part to follow the demand and need of tourist as a customer, the basic practice in the tourist friendly destination concept.
Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.
Lo, Neng-Wen; Intawicha, Payungsuk; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Lee, Kun-Hsiung; Lu, Hsi-Chi; Chen, Chien-Hong; Chang, Yong-Hsuan; Chen, Chun-Da; Ju, Jyh-Cherng
Effects of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on establishment and maintenance of rabbit embryonic stem cell (rESC) lines were assessed. When grown on MEF feeders, rESC lines derived from fertilized embryos were established and maintained in medium containing paracrine factors LIF (via STAT3) and/or FGF2 (via MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT). However, high levels of ERK1/2 and AKT activities in rESCs were crucial for maintaining their undifferentiated proliferation. Although rESCs under the influence of either LIF (500, 1,000, and 2,000 U/ml) or FGF2 (5, 10, and 20 ng/ml) alone had enhanced expression of pluripotency markers, peak expression occurred when both LIF (1,000 U/ml) and FGF2 (10 ng/ml) were applied. Induced dephosphorylation of STAT3, ERK1/2, and AKT by specific inhibitors limited growth of rESCs and caused remarkable losses of self-renewal capacity; therefore, we inferred that STAT3, ERK, and AKT had essential roles in maintaining rESC proliferation and self-renewal. We concluded that LIF and FGF2 jointly maintained the undifferentiated state and self-renewal of rESCs through an integrative signaling module. PMID:25671819
Joseph-Silverstein, J; Rifkin, D B
The role of endothelial cell growth factors in the maintenance of the blood vessel wall is, as we have described here, much more complex than merely stimulating the mitogenesis of endothelial cells. The FGFs are capable of eliciting an array of responses in endothelial cells, some, or all, of which are important for neovascularization and the control of clot dissolution. These endothelial cell responses include protease elaboration, chemotaxis, and mitogenesis. That these growth factors seem neither to be constitutively released into the medium of cultured cells that synthesize bFGF, nor released into the bloodstream in vivo suggests that the temporal and local control of neovascularization may involve the regulation of growth factor release from cells such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages. Although there is no known example of this for bFGF, it is well known that both thrombin and Factor Xa stimulate the release of a mitogenic protein from endothelial cells and that low oxygen tension stimulates the release of macrophage-derived angiogenesis factor. In addition, both TGF beta and heparin alone appear to play a role in wound healing and vessel wall maintenance. The work of Roberts et al suggests that TGF beta is not only angiogenic, but also stimulates the growth of fibrotic tissue as well. Studies on mast cells demonstrated that released heparin is chemotactic for endothelial cells and can potentiate tumor angiogenesis. An attractive hypothesis is that these molecules not only act as FGF potentiators or inhibitors but that they also may exert their angiogenic effects by inducing FGF release from cells. Perhaps angiogenin, an angiogenic molecule with no mitogenic activity, works in this way. However, no evidence as yet exists concerning this point. A second level of control of neovascularization may involve the interaction of FGF with other molecules released into the same microenvironment. For example, thrombin and TGF beta released from platelets, as well as heparin released from mast cells, have all been demonstrated to affect bFGF activity in vitro and may act as modifiers of FGF activity in vivo. Since bFGF can modulate fibrinolytic activity, one could imagine that its release into a wound region of the vasculature could have detrimental effects on clot formation and subsequent wound healing. Thus, the transient inhibition of bFGF activity by TGF beta would allow clot formation before the induction of neovascularization by bFGF, TGF beta thereby playing a role in the regulation of the sequence in which events occur.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3321439
Influence of environmental factors on the growth of the juvenile, maturing juvenile, and adult tropical scallop, Euvola ziczac (Pteroida: Pectinidae), in suspended culture conditions / Influencia de los factores ambientales en el crecimiento de juveniles, juveniles con capacidad reproductiva y adultos de la vieira tropical Euvola ziczac (Pteroida: Pectinidae) en condiciones de cultivo suspendido
César, Lodeiros; Luis, Freites; Alfonso, Maeda-Martínez; John H, Himmelman.
Full Text Available Se efectuaron ensayos de crecimiento en tres grupos de tallas del pectínido Euvola ziczac, durante dos periodos de corto plazo (34-36 días) a 8, 21 y 34 m de profundidad, en el golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela, para evaluar el efecto de factores ambientales en el crecimiento. El crecimiento fue mayor en [...] juveniles (talla inicial 20-22 mm en longitud de concha), que en individuos madurando (30-40 mm) y adultos (70-75 mm). El crecimiento del tejido somático fue más del doble en los juveniles que en los organismos en estado de maduración. Los individuos maduros mostraron pérdidas en la masa de sus tejidos. El primer periodo (diciembre-enero) fue de transición de estratificación del agua a condiciones de surgencia. Se inició con temperaturas elevadas y bajos niveles de biomasa fitoplanctónica, disminuyendo la temperatura y aumentando la abundancia de fitoplancton. El segundo periodo (febrero-marzo), fue de surgencia caracterizado por bajas temperaturas y elevada biomasa fitoplanctónica. El mayor crecimiento de las vieiras juveniles y de mediana talla fue durante el segundo período, particularmente a 8 m de profundidad, asociado con la mayor disponibilidad de fitoplancton, relacionado con la surgencia costera. El primer desarrollo de las gónadas en los individuos de mediana talla sólo se observó en el segundo periodo, asociado a la disponibilidad de alimento, siendo el grado de desarrollo correlativo con la profundidad. Los bioensayos que fueron de corta duración para impedir el impacto negativo del desarrollo del fouling, mostraron que el crecimiento de E. ziczac fue afectado positivamente cuando la biomasa del fitoplancton fue abundante. Abstract in english We carried out growth trials on three size groups of the scallop, Euvola ziczac, during two short-term (34-36 days) periods at 8, 21, and 34 m depth in Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on growth. Growth was greater in juveniles (initial size: 20-22 mm [...] shell length) than in maturing juveniles (30-40 mm) and adults (70-75 mm). Somatic tissue growth was more than two-fold greater in juveniles than in maturing individuals. Adult scallops showed losses of tissue mass. The first period (December-January) covered the transition from a stratified water column to upwelling conditions, with initial high temperatures and low phytoplankton biomass followed by lower temperatures and greater phytoplankton biomass. The second period (February-March) consisted of upwelling, characterized by low temperatures and high phytoplankton production. The greater growth of juvenile and maturing scallops during the second period, particularly at 8 m depth, was associated with the greater availability of phytoplankton, related to coastal upwelling. The first development of gonads in maturing scallops only occurred in the second period, associated with food availability, and the degree of development was correlated with the depth. Our growth trials, which were too short to permit the negative impact of the development of fouling, showed that the growth of E. ziczac was enhanced in the presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass.
Catrina, S-b; Lewitt, M.; Massambu, C.; Dricu, A.; Gru?nler, J.; Axelson, M.; Biberfeld, P.; Brismar, K.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly vascular tumour and is the most common neoplasm associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Growth factors, in particular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have been shown to play an important role in its development. The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the pathophysiology of different tumours led us to evaluate the role of IGF system in KS. The IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) were identified by immunohistochemistry in biop...
Full Text Available Lamb meat production has become the main source of income in the Romanian sheep farming industry, representing over 66% of the total returns. Turcana breed represents over 70% of the national flock, and 92% of the sheep bred in western Romania. However, meat production potential and growth rates of the breed are low, and thus strategies to improve performance of the Turcana lambs need to be identified. Aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that sex and litter size have on the growth rates of lambs from Turcana breed under extensive and semi-intensive production systems. Weaning weight was significantly (p?0.001 influenced by the production system, with lambs reared extensively registering a average body weights of 18.23±0.094 kg at the age of 90 days, while the semi-intensively reared lambs registered an average weight of 20.19±0.082 kg. It was concluded that all three factors taken into study significantly influence growth rates in Turcana lambs and that weight of the lamb(s at the age of 28 days should be included as a selection trait within the Turcana breed genetic improvement plan.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn the impact of some internal and external factors on profitability in banking system. The proposed model of this paper introduces three econometrics methods to study the behavior of internal, external and a combination of both factors on return on assets. The proposed study of this paper uses Vector Auto- Regressive (VAR and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM to provide estimation of the proposed model and we use historical data over the period of 1989-2010. The results of the first model for internal factors, we consider some independent variables including ratio of total revenue on total assets (TR and ratio of total equities on total assets (TE. The second model considers the effects of external variables on ROA such as growth domestic product (GDP and market share (MS and the last model includes a combination of both internal and external factors. The results indicates that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between logarithm of growth domestic product and return on equities, which means as we expect one unit increase in LGDP, there is an increase of 0.012 on ROA. In addition, when the market share increase by one percent, there will be an increase 0.025% increase on ROA and an increase of one percent in the ratio of TR will yield to an increase of one percent in ROA.
Full Text Available Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is decreasing continuously and the main reason behind this is the change in peoples’ attitude and saturation to ethically questionable actions. Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. There are several factors that influence sustainable development. Among them are: government policies; management and organization; financial and economic factors. The main question for institutional sustainability may be formulated as the following: can the strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to the ultimate end-users? Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. Anticorruption strategies are related to the reform of state institutions. One advantage of the fundamental economic reform approach is that by linking anticorruption strategies to the reform of economic policies and institutions, the struggle against corruption can be seen as one of the issues in economic policy. Finally, all development assistance should be implemented with the aim of achieving sustainable benefits.
Leles, C R; Ferreira, N P; Vieira, A H; Campos, A C V; Silva, E T
The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing edentulous patients' preferences for treatment using conventional or implant dentures (ID). A consecutive sample of 112 patients was selected in a university facility. All patients responded to a questionnaire concerning preferences about treatment and factors influencing preferences for conventional complete dentures (CD), implant-retained overdentures (IRO) and fixed implant-supported prostheses (FISP). Subsequently, a set of 21 questions was presented, and patients were requested to rate the importance of various potential reasons influencing their choice of treatment. Preference for CD was more prevalent for maxilla (52·7%) and mandible (41·1%). Fixed implant-supported prostheses and IRO were preferred for the mandible (FISP=37·5%; IRO=21·4%) rather than maxilla (FISP=27·7%; IRO=19·6%). The most preferred treatment option among the subjects when evaluating both arches was the implant-supported fixed or removable prosthesis (FISP/IRO). A preference for combined upper and lower CD was also commonly reported (39·3%). Factor analysis identified six components that accounted for 72·2% of the total variance: (i) psychosocial benefits, (ii) functional performance, (iii) technical and financial concerns, (iv) post-insertion complaints, (v) removability and (vi) longevity. Technical and financial concerns (cost, complexity, surgery risks and duration of treatment) were more relevant for those who preferred ID (P<0·001). With the exception of post-insertion complaints, all mean scores of component factor loadings were positive for ID. Conventional complete dentures are associated with lower expected outcomes by patients, and cost-related issues are the major factors associated with the preferences for implant treatment of edentulous patients. PMID:21039748
Proteoglycan distribution in lesions of atherosclerosis depends on lesion severity, structural characteristics, and the proximity of platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta.
Evanko, S. P.; Raines, E. W.; Ross, R.; Gold, L. I.; Wight, T. N.
The accumulation of proteoglycans (PGs) in atherosclerosis contributes to disease progression and stenosis and may partly depend on local regulation by growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. In this study, the distribution of the major extracellular PGs is compared with that of PDGF and TGF-beta isoforms in developing lesions of atherosclerosis from hypercholesterolemic nonhuman primates. Strong immunostaining for decorin, bigly...
Pedersen, Ida Holst; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas
Here, we have studied vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) expression in mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Immunohistochemistry revealed that in two-thirds of 34 patients, VEGFR-3 was expressed in situ by both tumor and stromal cells irrespective of the disease stage. The natural VEGFR-3 ligand, VEGF-C, partially protected malignant T-cell lines from growth inhibition by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Whereas the malignant T cells did not produce VEGF-C in vitro, its expression was induced during tumor formation in vivo in a xenograft mouse model of MF. In conclusion, malignant and stromal cells express high levels of VEGFR-3 in all stages of MF. Moreover, malignant T cells trigger enhanced VEGF-C expression in fibroblasts, suggesting that cross-talk between tumor and stromal cells plays a role in lymphangiogenesis and possibly disease progression.
Kristensen, Tina BØgelund; Knutsson, Malin L T
Neo-angiogenesis is a critical process for tumor growth and invasion and has become a promising target in cancer therapy. This manuscript reviews three currently relevant anti-angiogenic agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor system: bevacizumab, ramucirumab and sorafenib. The efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs in adjuvant therapy or as neo-adjuvant treatment has been estimated in clinical trials of advanced breast cancer. To date, the overall observed clinical improvements are unconvincing, and further research is required to demonstrate the efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs in breast cancer treatments. The outcomes of anti-angiogenic therapy have been highly variable in terms of tumor response. New methods are needed to identify patients who will benefit from this regimen. The development of biomarkers and molecular profiling are relevant research areas that may strengthen the ability to focus anti-angiogenic therapy towards suitable patients, thereby increase the cost-effectiveness, currently estimated to be inadequate.
Kim, Byoungjae; Huang, Guorui; Ho, Wen-bin; Greenspan, Daniel S.
The bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP1)-like metalloproteinases play key roles in extracellular matrix formation, by converting precursors into mature functional proteins involved in forming the extracellular matrix. The BMP1-like proteinases also play roles in activating growth factors, such as BMP2/4, myostatin, growth differentiation factor 11, and transforming growth factor ?1, by cleaving extracellular antagonists. The extracellular insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) a...
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) markedly inhibited growth of canine tracheal epithelial (CTE) cells. Reduced responsiveness to TGF?-induced growth inhibition accompanied neoplastic progression of these cells from primary to transformed to neoplastic. This was similar to the relationship between neoplastic progression and increased resistance to TGF?-induced growth inhibition seen for rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells. The canine cells were more sensitive than rat cells to TGF?-induced growth inhibition at all stages in the neoplastic process. (author)
Montserrat Melchor Arteaga
Full Text Available Definitions of spinal cord injury agree in the consequences of that injury is the loss in varying degrees of autonomic function; this will cause a change in the lifestyle of patients and their families.In the spinal injury, the priority is the recovery or maintenance of vital organ functions, the physical stabilization for people. Later, the priority here is the rehabilitation and adaptation. This should be integrated at all levels, physical, psychological and social. Confrontation is, by Callista Roy, a important variable for understanding the effect of stress on health and disease, health maintenance or recovery. The way, that the patients have to confront the disease, are the confrontation strategies. They are defined as thoughts and actions that persons put in place to deal with adverse changes. They are grouped into 3 categories: problems, emotions and avoidance.There are others factors that influence in the use of strategies, between them the personality. According to Eysenck this is determined by the functional interaction of four factors: cognitive (intelligence, conative (character, affective (temperament and somatic (construction. With this study we want to know the factors that influence in the confrontation of the spinal cord injury and to analyze the possible relation between them, and to be able to elaborate particular tools, on the most determinant factors, to obtain an effective confrontation about this type of disease.
Muhammad Khalilur Rahman
Full Text Available E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experience on e-shopping. Descriptive statistics was employed to identify the respondents’ demographic information. The data were examined using the associated principal components and exploratory factor analysis as well as computation on correlations to identify the factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers on e-shopping, to determine the underlying dimensionality, convergent validity and discriminant validity. Importantly, this study employs the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM technique to perform a confirmatory factor analysis and test the hypothesized positive correlation between the exogenous and the endogenous constructs. Based on the statistical analyses, the resultant findings revealed that cognitive, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had a positive impact on the e-shopping under the Malaysian context. The main contribution of this study is that it recommends a way to assess the integrity of the online vendors in order to frame further strategies that can conducively attract the Malaysian consumers to interact in the e-shopping activities. This study has proposed a hypothesized model that needs further investigation for future researches.