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Sample records for factors influencing growth

  1. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

  2. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa; Aversano, Mario; Husemoen, Lise-Lotte; Linneberg, Allan; Bourgain, Catherine; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Ciullo, Marina

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have......Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent...... associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  3. Growth Factors Can Influence Cell Growth and Survival through Effects on Glucose Metabolism

    Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Plas, David R.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.; Fox, Casey J.; Harris, Marian H; Thompson, Craig B

    2001-01-01

    Cells from multicellular organisms are dependent upon exogenous signals for survival, growth, and proliferation. The relationship among these three processes was examined using an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line. No fixed dose of IL-3 determined the threshold below which cells underwent apoptosis. Instead, increasing growth factor concentrations resulted in progressive shortening of the G1 phase of the cell cycle and more rapid proliferative expansion. Increased growth factor concent...

  4. The internal factors influencing restaurant owners’ growth decisions : Small and medium restaurants in Xiaogan

    Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Catering industry in China is a traditional and generally upward industry; most restaurants are small entrepreneurial restaurants, and growth is a trend. Consequently, there is a need to research the factors of owners influencing the growth decisions, and this thesis will focus on the internal factors of small entrepreneurial restaurant owners. The research method was interviews, five interviewees were chosen as samples, and the whole process was recorded by camera. D. J. Storey. Factors Infl...

  5. Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality

    Ruth Niva Ongachi; Henry M. Bwisa

    2013-01-01

    This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with s...

  6. Influence of environmental factors on growth and pigment synthesis by purple thiobacteria

    Y. О. Pavlova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different environmental factors on growth and pigment biosynthesis by particular strains of purple thiobacteria was investigated. These strains belong to the genus Chromatium, Thiocystis, Thiocapsa and Lamprocystis and were isolated from Yavoriv sulphur mine. Calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and sodium chloride should be included in the medium for optimal growth of these bacteria. Addition of these elements entails increasing the biomass production and synthesis of carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Initial concentration of inoculum and electron donor has essential influence on growth of purple thiobacteria. Early in the development of culture, sulphide was oxidized, and then the growth impairment and destruction of cells under exposure of light were observed. For the optimization of bacteria growth the electron donor (sulphide must be added many times during the cultivation process in the concentration, which is not exceed an inhibition dose. The additional bringing of the electron donor in the medium promotes the raise of cells’ biomass. The acetate introduction in the medium has positive influence on the pigments’ biosynthesis. The essential factor of growth and pigments’ biosynthesis is the light intensity. Peak gain of the culture growth was observed under 400 lx. The amplification of light exposure is accompanied by the decrease of growth and content of pigments in cells. Oxygen inhibits the synthesis of pigments in all strains

  7. Influence of some physical factors on the growth and sporulation of entomopathogenic fungi

    Jerzy Piątkowski; Aneta Krzyżewska

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine, how some physical factors and inoculation techniques affect the growth and sporulation of three insecticidal fungal strains, Hirsutella tompsonii, Paecilomyces sp., and Pandora sp. Although the methods of inoculation, as well as such physical parameters as temperature, the osmotic value of the habitat and UV radiation, exerted an influence on the above-mentioned features of the fungi, their contribution varied from one strain to another. Some of the ...

  8. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa; Aversano, Mario; Husemoen, Lise-Lotte; Linneberg, Allan; Bourgain, Catherine; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Ciullo, Marina

    2012-01-01

    between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused...... on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614) were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these...

  9. Influence of some physical factors on the growth and sporulation of entomopathogenic fungi

    Jerzy Piątkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine, how some physical factors and inoculation techniques affect the growth and sporulation of three insecticidal fungal strains, Hirsutella tompsonii, Paecilomyces sp., and Pandora sp. Although the methods of inoculation, as well as such physical parameters as temperature, the osmotic value of the habitat and UV radiation, exerted an influence on the above-mentioned features of the fungi, their contribution varied from one strain to another. Some of the effects, however (e.g., the production of filamentous structures by Pandora, or the lethal action of glycerol on Pandora, require a close examination.

  10. Controlling Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Patch Size Influences Growth Factor Expression

    Vargis, Elizabeth A [ORNL; Peterson, Cristen B [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The spatial organization of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown in culture was controlled using micropatterning techniques in order to examine the effect of patch size on cell health and differentiation. Understanding this effect is a critical step in the development of multiplexed high throughput fluidic assays and provides a model for replicating disease states associated with the deterioration of retinal tissue during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Microcontact printing of fibronectin on polystyrene and glass substrates was used to promote cell attachment, forming RPE patches of controlled size and shape. These colonies mimic the effect of atrophy and loss-of-function that occurs in the retina during degenerative diseases such as AMD. After 72 hours of cell growth, levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important biomarker of AMD, were measured. Cells were counted and morphological indicators of cell viability and tight junction formation were assessed via fluorescence microscopy. Up to a twofold increase of VEGF expression per cell was measured as colony size decreased, suggesting that the local microenvironment of, and connections between, RPE cells influences growth factor expression leading to the initiation and progression of diseases such as AMD.

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTH AND POLYSACCHARIDE FORMATION BY STRAINS OF CHROMOBACTERIUM VIOLACEUM

    Corpe, William A.

    1964-01-01

    Corpe, William A. (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.). Factors influencing growth and polysaccharide formation by strains of Chromobacterium violaceum. J. Bacteriol. 88:14331441. 1964.Gelatinous Chromobacterium violaceum strains elaborate a fibrous exopolysaccharide that forms a matrix in which growing cells are embedded. Stable, nongelatinous variants arising from gelatinous cultures were of two types: (i) those that had lost the ability to produce polysaccharide, and (ii) those that had lost the capacity to bind the polymer into a matrix. Gelatinous strains growing in Tryptone did not produce a matrix, but rather elaborated polysaccharide free into the medium. The effect of Tryptone was not one of selection of nongelatinous variants. Growth and polysaccharide synthesis in a defined medium were greatest when amino acids were substituted for ammonia as a nitrogen source. Best growth and polysaccharide yield occurred when the ratio of carbohydrate to nitrogen was in the order of 10:1. Depolymerization of formed polymer occurred in cultures grown with Casamino Acids as the nitrogen source. Calcium ion stimulated polysaccharide formation. Iron, although stimulating growth, inhibited polysaccharide formation. Images PMID:14234803

  12. Factors Influencing Growth of Women owned Micro and Small Enterprises A Survey of Kitale Municipality

    Ruth Niva Ongachi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with structured and unstructured questions. The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing the growth of women entrepreneurship in Kitale and specifically to determine, the women’s level of education, skills and technology they employ, the social/cultural environmental conditions within which they operate and their financial capacity. The 70 respondents represented the target population which was within Kitale Municipality, selected by stratified random sampling procedures. Details in this project include the introduction, problem statement, the purpose, main and specific objectives of the study, research questions and the scope. A discussion of the available literature on women owned micro and small enterprises, included the enterprises’ start- up, undertakings and growth, the missing middle, the social, cultural and environmental conditions , the entrepreneur’s education level, skills technology and financing they access. The interventional efforts and growth models were also discussed. The literature review wound up with a critique, a conclusion and the missing gap. The methodology used in conducting the study was explained in details that included descriptive research design, the population, target population, sample size, sampling technique and procedure, the instruments, data collection procedure, processing and analysis. A questionnaire was administered orally to 70 women in MSE within the municipality in order to gather data. The research findings analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences(SPSS, were discussed using a triangulation style along with tables and figures the major factors affecting growth were found to be lack of training, finance, and multiple roles. The rate of growth was found to be between low and moderate. The whole research process was summarized concisely, concluded and relevant recommendations outlined. This study has made some contribution to research and added to knowledge in the existing literature all of which have been pinpointed in the summary and conclusion. The appendix included the research instrument, some tables, figures, introduction letters, a budget and a work plan. The research findings have helped unravel the problem by answering the research questions outlined and may therefore significantly play the role of assisting the stakeholders in addressing the problem of women in the MSE sector. The stakeholders include the government organs, NGOs, financial institutions, women proponents, the women entrepreneur’s, professionals and the society at large. It is hoped that the recommendation made shall be adopted by the concerned party to improve the growth of women owned MSEs in Kitale municipality and the nation at large.

  13. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  14. Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors.

    Ruijter, de, E.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that potato growers can use to minimise nematode damage.The research concentrated on the interaction between nematodes and soil-related factors. Experiments were carried out, mainly under field conditions, in w...

  15. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Influencing Nutrient Availability and Plant Growth in a Pine Tree Substrate

    Jackson, Brian Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Pine tree substrate (PTS) produced from freshly harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees has potential for replacing or reducing the use of aged pine bark (PB) and peat moss as container substrates for horticulture crop production. The objective of this work was to determine the factors influencing nutrient availability in PTS compared to PB or peat substrates. Chapter two reports data on the response of japanese holly and azalea to fertilizer rate when grown in PTS and PB. This stud...

  16. [Influence of methylprednisolone and transforming growth factor-beta on wound healing].

    Osaka, Y

    1997-03-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on methylprednisolone induced inhibition of wound healing. C57BL/6 mice underwent a standardized dorsal incision. At regular intervals after wounding the mice were sacrificed and their pelts were excised. The fresh breaking strength (FBS) of the pelts was then measured with a constant-speed tension meter. 1) In the first experiment, designed to determine if methylprednisolone did in fact have any inhibiting effect on wound healing, mice received methylprednisolone and a control group received saline. Both methylprednisolone and saline were administered for a four day period. In this experiment the FBS of methylprednisolone treated mice was weaker than that of the control group on the 14th and the 21st day. 2) In the second experiment, designed to determine when the administration of methylprednisolone most noticeably inhibited wound healing, mice were divided into three groups which received methylprednisolone in the following manner: for three days prior to wounding, on the day of wounding, and for three days immediately following wounding. The fourth group received no methylprednisolone at all. The FBS of mice treated with methylprednisolone for three days prior to wounding was weaker than that of the control group on the 14th day after wounding, but showed no significant difference on the 21st day after wounding. The FBS of mice treated on the operative day was weaker on both the 14th and the 21st day after wounding. The FBS of mice treated three days after wounding showed no significant difference on the 14th day after wounding, but was weaker than the control group on the 21st day after wounding. 3) In the third experiment, designed to determine at what time the administration of TGF-beta most accelerated wound healing, mice were divided into three groups which received TGF-beta at different intervals. The first group received TGF-beta on the day of wounding, the second group received TGF-beta on the third day after wounding, and the third group received TGF-beta on the 7th day after wounding. A control group received no treatment. In this experiment the FBS of mice treated with TGF-beta on the third day after wounding was stronger than that of the control group when measured on the 7th and 11th day after wounding, but there was no significant difference on the 14th day. The FBS of mice treated on the day of wounding and mice treated on the 7th day after wounding was not significantly different from that of the control group. 4) In the fourth experiment, designed to determine if TGF-beta can prevent methylprednisolone-induced inhibition of wound healing, mice were divided into three groups. The first group received methylprednisolone for four days prior to wounding. On the third day after wounding they were given saline. The second group also received methylprednisolone for four days prior to wounding, but was treated with TGF-beta on the third day after wounding. The third group received no methylprednisolone, and was given saline three days after wounding. In this experiment the FBS of mice which received only methylprednisolone and saline was weaker than that of the control group on both the 14th and the 21st day after wounding. However, there was no significant difference between the FBS of methylprednisolone treated mice which received TGF-beta and the control group on both the 14th and the 21st day after wounding. From these results the following conclusions were drawn: 1) Methylprednisolone does inhibit wound healing. 2) The influence of methylprednisolone on wound healing is stronger if it is received on operative day. 3) TGF-beta can accelerate wound healing. 4) TGF-beta can prevent methylprednisolone induced inhibition of wound healing. PMID:9145311

  17. Influence of several factors on the growth of selenium nanowires induced by silver nanoparticles

    This paper presents a study on the crystallization and growth mechanism of selenium nanowires induced by silver nanoparticles at ambient conditions with special reference to the effects of factors such as the shapes and size of silver nanoparticles, the induced reaction time, and the molar ratio of Ag0 to SeO32- ions. The synthesis approach is conducted with no need of any stabilizers, and with no sonochemical process and/or templates. It is found that whether silver spherical particles or colloids can lead to the formation of nanowires with average diameter of 25 nm and lengths up to a few micrometers, and silver nanoplates lead to the formation of flat Se nanostructures. In particular, Au, Cu, Pt, and Pd particles cannot induce the growth of selenium nanowires in aqueous solution at room temperature. The results indicate that silver particles play a critical role in determining the growth of selenium nanowires. The lattice match between hexagonal-Se and orthorhombic- or trigonal-Ag2Se particles is the major driving force in the growth of such nanostructures. The findings would be useful for design and construction of heterogeneous nanostructures with similar lattice parameter(s)

  18. Influence of selected factors on growth performance of Suffolk lambs and their crossbreds

    Martin Pt?ek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring was performed in one year period in selected population of Suffolk sheep (SF, n = 257 and their crossbreds with Merinolandschaf (SF ML, n = 87. Total of 627 lambs (SF, n = 463; SF ML, n = 164 were observed in breeding conditions of two semi-extensive flocks. Lambs live weight at 100 days of age (LW100; musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT100 depth and backfat thickness (BT100 at the same age were assessed. Effects of breed, ewes live weight at mating, litter size, sex of lambs and ewes age as linear regression were evaluated using SAS 9.1. Significant differences (P < 0.05 in LW100, MLLT100 and BT100 between SF and SF ML were observed. All the evaluated traits of growth performance were also influenced (P < 0.05 by ewes live weight at mating. The highest lambs growth performance traits were detected in lambs of ewes with highest live weight at mating (group of ? 80.7 kg. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed among singles, twins and triplets lambs as well. Significantly higher LW100 was marked in ram lambs compared to ewe lambs (P < 0.05.

  19. Factors influencing epitaxial growth of three-dimensional Ge quantum dot crystals on pit-patterned Si substrate

    We investigated the molecular beam epitaxy growth of three-dimensional (3D) Ge quantum dot crystals (QDCs) on periodically pit-patterned Si substrates. A series of factors influencing the growth of QDCs were investigated in detail and the optimized growth conditions were found. The growth of the Si buffer layer and the first quantum dot (QD) layer play a key role in the growth of QDCs. The pit facet inclination angle decreased with increasing buffer layer thickness, and its optimized value was found to be around 21, ensuring that all the QDs in the first layer nucleate within the pits. A large Ge deposition amount in the first QD layer favors strain build-up by QDs, size uniformity of QDs and hence periodicity of the strain distribution; a thin Si spacer layer favors strain correlation along the growth direction; both effects contribute to the vertical ordering of the QDCs. Results obtained by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that 3D ordering was achieved in the Ge QDCs with the highest ever areal dot density of 1.2 1010 cm?2, and that the lateral and the vertical interdot spacing were ?10 and ?2.5 nm, respectively. (paper)

  20. INVESTMENTS, AN ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTOR

    CECILIA ELENA VĂDUVA

    2009-01-01

    In the national economy system, investments are an accelerator for multiplying receipts of material and labour resources thus causing a growth of disbursements from the system32. Therefore, in the system of factors influencing the economic development of a country, investments have a strategic role. This is why, investments are the main method for achieving economic growth.

  1. The Influence of Adnectin Binding on the Extracellular Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.

    2014-12-01

    The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.

  2. Factors that influence the oxidation of the manganese in a growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, R J

    The kinetic behavior of the oxidation of the manganese in the growth of mangroves forest, Itacuruca, Sepetiba Bay, R J, have been studied through the incubation with the radiotracer Mn-54. We have observed the great influence of the factors that interferes in the rate oxidation with the mangrove state in the moment of the sampling. We applied statistical multivariate to verify the correlation with the tide height and the physical-chemical parameters. With the program Statistical Analysis System, SAS, the samples were classified by hierarchical conglomerate methods and Factor Analysis. Water samples were collected in the entrance of the tide channel in five campaigns in the months of August, September, November and December of 98, and January of 99, in several tide heights. As a conclusion, by the multivariate statistical analysis where variables correlations are presented in each group or cluster in a population. Therefore the variables that we are measuring as reflecting the influence the oxidation manganese in the mangroves. Although the variable tide height did not influence in the classification groups. We suppose that will need more sampling in different tide height cycle. (author)

  3. The influence of elevated levels of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase on tumourigenicity, tumour growth, and oxygenation

    Purpose: Investigation of the effect of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP) on various aspects of tumour growth in a xenograft model, including growth rate, tumourigenicity and oxygenation levels. Methods and Materials: MDA 231 breast cancer cells overexpressing PD-ECGF/TP protein were made by retroviral transduction. These cells were grown in vitro and in vivo as xenografts. Direct measurement of tumours was used to record growth parameters, while the comet assay with the bioreductive drug RSU 1069 was used to assess tumour cell oxygenation. Results: We report that MDA 231 breast tumour cell lines expressing an increased range of levels of PD-ECGF/TP have increased tumourigenicity positively related to the level of PD-ECGF/TP when implanted in nude mice. As previously reported, tumours grown from these overexpressing cell lines grew faster than the parental line. These tumours expressed higher levels of TP activity and showed increased immunocytochemical staining for PD-ECGF. In addition, the rate of growth was found to be positively related to the level of PD-ECGF/TP expressed by the tumour cells. When the comet assay was used to compare the oxygenation status of cells between the parental and PD-ECGF/TP overexpressing tumours, the latter were found to have a larger proportion of well oxygenated cells. This is consistent with these tumours having an increased and functionally competent vascular supply in response to the expression of PD-ECGF/TP. Conclusion: PD-ECGF/TP appears to be capable of influencing tumourigenicity, angiogenesis and tumour growth in a proportional manner and can directly influence tumour oxygenation levels via its role in formation of functional vasculature

  4. The influence of social status on the rate of growth, eye color pattern and insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Vera Cruz, Emmanuel M; Brown, Christopher L

    2007-05-01

    Many aspects of teleost physiology are subject to regulation by social interactions. To evaluate the relationship of social status with growth, eye color pattern and hepatic Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) mRNA expression, 30 Oreochromis niloticus were isolated for 10 days and were used in a social pair study. Results revealed that growth of both dominant (except 1 day after social interaction) and subordinate individuals was suppressed, but growth suppression was greater in the subordinates. The dominant fish completely inhibited the feeding of the subordinate individuals during and 1 day after they were introduced into the aquaria together. After that, a pattern of highly aggressive attacks by dominant fish only partially inhibited feeding by the subordinates. Differential alterations in growth rate between dominants and subordinates were attributed more to behavioral changes (i.e., feeding) as transduced by physiological regulators (i.e., IGF-I level and possibly serotonin and/or neuropeptide Y) but may also be due to changes in metabolism. The fish's relative position in the social hierarchy consistently influenced the levels of IGF-I mRNA in the liver and the eye color pattern. Lower social status depressed hepatic IGF-I levels while dominant status stimulated hepatic IGF-I production, possibly in response to inhibition of somatostatin release in the hypothalamus, leading to greater secretion of pituitary growth hormone (GH). A significant positive association was detected between the IGF-I mRNA expression of the dominant fish and the level of aggression (number of attacks) during the encounter. Social status also influenced the eye color pattern of the fish. During aggressive interactions, most of the fish (22 out of 24) displayed decreased eye darkening. At the later part of the encounter, all subsequent subordinates displayed eye-darkening patterns which acted as a social signal announcing social submission. After the encounter dominant fish had paler eye color pattern than subordinates. PMID:17462644

  5. Influence of environmental and nutritional factors on growth, toxicity, and toxin profile of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.

    Hwang, D F; Lu, Y H

    2000-11-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum T1 was isolated from southern Taiwan in February 1996, grown under various environmental and nutritional conditions, and then examined for growth, toxicity, and toxin profile. It was found that the optimal environmental conditions for cell growth and toxin production of A. minutum T1 was as follows: temperature 25 degrees C, pH 7.5, light strength 120 microEm(-2) s(-1), and salinity 15 ppt. The optimal level of nutrients supplemented in the 50% natural seawater medium was as follows: phosphate 0.002%, nitrate 0.01%, cupric ion 5.0 ppb, ferric ion 270 ppb and humic acid free. Both cell toxicity and total toxicity reached the maximum level at the post-stationary growth phase and decreased quickly. The toxic components of A. minutum T1 were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, and found to be gonyautoxin (GTX) 1-4 only. Among these four toxin components, toxins GTX 1 and 4 were the predominant components throughout the growth curve when the cells were grown in the optimal environmental and nutritional conditions. But toxins GTX 2 and 3 increased when the cells were cultured in high salinity medium. PMID:10775750

  6. Physical capacity influences the response of insulin-like growth factor and its binding proteins to training

    Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan; Ørskov, Hans Christian; Kjaer, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The influence of initial training status on the response of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and its binding proteins (IGFBP) to prolonged physical training was studied in young men. It was hypothesized that highly standardized training would result in more extensive changes in the...... circulating IGF system in untrained subjects because of lower fitness level. Seven untrained (UT) and 12 well-trained (WT) individuals performed 11 wk of intense physical training (2-4 h daily). Fasting serum samples were analyzed for total and free IGF-I and -II, for IGFBP-1 to -4, as well as for IGFBP-3...... seen in the untrained individuals. Also, prolonged physical training resulted in increased IGFBP-3 proteolysis in previously untrained individuals only, indicating that intense physical training affects trained and untrained individuals differently....

  7. FGF growth factor analogs

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  8. Non-monotonous dependence of surface roughness on factors influencing energy of adatoms during thin island film growth

    Galdikas, Arvaidas

    2006-07-01

    Many experimental results show that surface roughness of thin films can increase, decrease, stay constant or pass through the minimum with the change in substrate temperature, energy of arriving atoms or assisted beam (electrons, photons, ions), depending on material and interval of variation of those parameters. The aim of this paper is to explain and analyze this non-monotonous behavior of surface roughness by proposed kinetic model. The model is based on rate equations and includes processes of surface diffusion of adatoms, nucleation, growth and coalescence of islands in the case of thin films growth in Volmer-Weber mode. It is shown by modeling that non-monotonous dependence of surface roughness on the factors influencing energy of adatoms (e.g. temperature, assisted beam irradiation, accelerating voltage) occurs as a result of interplay between diffusion length of adatoms and size of islands, because both parameters depend on energy of adatoms. Variation of island size and diffusion length results in atomic jumps from islands forming rougher or smoother surface. The functions of surface roughness, island size, island density on diffusion length of adatoms and on other parameters are calculated and analyzed in this work.

  9. Influence of basic fibroblast growth factor on the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT in epidermal cells

    Xiao-yan SUN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT in epidermal cells and the influence on basic fibroblasts growth factor(bFGF.Methods The precursor epithelial stem cells(ESCs were derived by in vitro bFGF-induced dedifferentiation of human keratinocytes(HEK cells.The phenotypic changes of derived ESCs were detected by immunocytochemical staining,and the hTERT expression was detected by flow cytometry,immunofluorescence staining and TRAP-silver staining.HEK without bFGF treatment were used as control,and ESCs simultaneously isolated from human epidermis were used as positive control.Results Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression of β1-integrin,CK19 and CK14 in derived ESCs was significantly up-regulated,while the CK10 expression was significantly down-regulated.Flow cytometry revealed that the percentage of hTERT+ cell subsets in experimental group(derived ESCs,control group and positive control group was 98.41%,0.77% and 99.76%,respectively.TRAP-silver staining analysis indicated that the telomerase activity was significantly up-regulated in experimental group compared with that in control group,while there was no significantly difference between experimental group and positive control group.Furthermore,immunofluorescence assay revealed that there was difference in subcellular localization of hTERT between experimental group(derived ESCs and positive control group(ESCs.Conclusion Basic fibroblast growth factor may induce epidermal cells to dedifferentiate and regain the phenotype of ESCs,which leads to the changes in hTERT expression and activity,and induces its subcellular shift of the locus.

  10. Three-locus and four-locus QTL interactions influence mouse insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Hanlon, Philip; Lorenz, William Andrew; Shao, Zhihong; Harper, James M; Galecki, Andrzej T; Miller, Richard A; Burke, David T

    2006-06-16

    A previous analysis of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in a mouse population (n = 961) derived from a cross of (BALB/cJ x C57BL/6J) F1 females and (C3H/HeJ x DBA/2J) F1 males documented quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 1, 10, and 17. We employed a newly developed, random walk-based method to search for three- and four-way allelic combinations that might influence IGF-I levels through nonadditive (conditional or epistatic) interactions among 185 genotyped biallelic loci and with significance defined by experiment-wide permutation (P genetic interactions. In two cases, the four-allele combinations were associated with animals having high levels of IGF-I, and, in the third case, a four-allele combination was associated with animals having low IGF-I levels. The multiple-locus genome scan algorithm revealed new IGF-I QTL on chromosomes 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 12 that had not been detected in the single-locus genome search and showed that levels of this hormone can be regulated by complex, nonadditive interactions among multiple loci. The analysis method can detect multilocus interactions in a genome scan experiment and may provide new ways to explore the genetic architecture of complex physiological phenotypes. PMID:16782841

  11. RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION

    ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression.<...

  12. Factors Influencing Biotite Weathering

    Reed, Ryan R.

    2000-01-01

    Factors Influencing Biotite Weathering by Ryan Reed Lucian W. Zelazny, Chairman Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences (ABSTRACT) Weathering of biotite supplies nutrients such as K+ and weathers into vermiculite/montmorillonite or kaolinite, which have varying influences on soil properties and characteristics. This study was conducted to determine if the weathering mechanisms of biotite are controlled by temperature, or if other factors, such as vegetation or leaching inten...

  13. Factors Influencing Alumni Donations

    Sarunya Lertputtarak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of this study were to study demographic factors, academic system, and social networks andother communication tools which can influence alumni donations. Using quantitative research involvingquestionnaires, the participants of this study were former and current students of master and doctoral degreeprograms in business from one of the government universities in Thailand. The results showed that academicsystem, social networks and other communication tools have an influence on a willingness to donate. Whereasthe alumni and current students’ gender, age, marital status have no relationship with a willingness to donate.Student satisfactory interactions have no influence on a willingness to donate either.

  14. Influence of Ovarian Endometrioma on Expression of Steroid Receptor RNA Activator, Estrogen Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, and Thrombospondin 1 in the Surrounding Ovarian Tissues

    Lin, Kaiqing; Ma, Junyan; Wu, Ruijin; Zhou, Caiyun; Lin, Jun,

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of ovarian endometrioma on expression of steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), estrogen receptors (ERs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) in the surrounding ovarian tissues. Taken from the women with ovarian endometrioma and mature teratoma during laparoscopy, the biopsies were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Our results indicated that ovarian tissues surrounding endometrioma had low...

  15. Growth of new firms, which factors influence post-entry performance?, an empirical analysis based on Swiss firm data

    Marmet, David

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on the factors which determine the post-entry performance of new firms. It is often argued that new firms are the driving force of structural changes and sometimes they are even characterized as an engine of economic growth. Nevertheless, the empirical evidence is mixed. Taking into account the high exit rate of new firms, a specific founding cohort does not contribute substantially to new jobs. In this paper, we analyse the contribution of new firms c...

  16. The early growth of academic spin-offs : [factors influencing the early growth of Dutch spin-offs in the life sciences, ICT and consulting

    Scholten, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    Academic spin-offs are entrepreneurial ventures typically founded by one or more scientists who have participated in an academic research programme. By 'spinning off' scientific findings and transferring them into commercial opportunities these ventures contribute to a country's prosperity, and that of the knowledge institution. To achieve growth, four factors are identified as being crucial to early success: the team's experience and skills; the spin-offs characteristics; its network; and th...

  17. The influence of meteorological factors on growth and vegetation process of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton in Lithuania.

    Ragazinskiene, Ona; Seinauskiene, Erika; Janulis, Valdimaras; Jankauskaite, Lina; Milasius, Arvydas

    2006-01-01

    The results of a study on the dependence of growth and vegetation process of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton upon meteorological factors are presented in the article. The investigations were conducted at Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University during vegetation periods in 2001-2005. The object of investigations was Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, a medicinal annual herbaceous plant of Lamiaceae Lindl. family, native of Eastern Asia, which passes the whole development cycle under climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The duration of vegetation period of Perilla frutescens on the average is 167 days. The earliest beginning of vegetation and optimal climatic conditions for growth are when hydrothermic coefficient reaches 1.60-1.80 (conditions of excessive humidity). Optimal climatic conditions for massive flowering and seed maturation are observed when hydrothermic coefficient decreases to 1.20 - then massive flowering starts 10 days earlier and lasts 25 days longer. A strong correlation was found between massive flowering and hydrothermic coefficient (r(2)=0.9408). Using mathematical-statistical methods, the consistent patterns of growth and vegetation process of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton were determined, specifying the time for raw material preparation what determines its quality and quantity. PMID:16963834

  18. Growth hormone, growth factors, and acromegaly

    Ludecke, D.K.; Tolis, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Biochemistry and Physiology of GH and Growth Factors, Pathology of Acromegaly, Clinical Endocrinology of Acromegaly, Nonsurgical Therapy of Acromegaly, and Surgical Therapy of Acromegaly.

  19. Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping

    Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta

    2013-01-01

    The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...

  20. Demographic factors of economic growth

    Fabiánová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Development of the economic situation in recent years raises number of issues, including defining what are the factors of this development and whether it is possible to affect them. This thesis deals with the demographic factors of economic growth; those are factors associated with general population and factors which may have an impact on the country's economy. The main aim of this work is to precisely identify the demographic factor and analyze their development in the Czech Republic since ...

  1. Growth factors and plasticity.

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Bednarek, Nathalie; Gressens, Pierre

    2007-08-01

    Neuroprotective strategies can prevent lesions from getting worse but agents that have neurotrophic properties can also affect repair in a developing brain. Although prevention and treatment in the early stages of brain lesions are desirable, delayed cell death or improved post-lesion plasticity are the only realistic targets in many cases. Several trophic factors can limit delayed cell death in animal models of perinatal brain damage. In addition, melatonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor have been shown to promote post-lesion plasticity following neonatal excitotoxic white-matter damage in newborn mice. Despite these promising results, additional preclinical data are required for most of the trophic factors that have been tested, although some candidate drugs, e.g. melatonin or erythropoietin, might reach clinical trials in the near future. PMID:17336172

  2. Growth factors and new periodontology

    Paknejad M

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

  3. Growth of Self-Perceived Clinical Competence in Postgraduate Training for General Practice and Its Relation to Potentially Influencing Factors

    Kramer, A. W. M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J. J. M.; Tan, L. H. C.; Grol, R. P. T. M.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. Design: Cohort, 1995-1998. Setting: Three-year Postgraduate Training for General practice in the

  4. Influence of ovarian endometrioma on expression of steroid receptor RNA activator, estrogen receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor, and thrombospondin 1 in the surrounding ovarian tissues.

    Lin, Kaiqing; Ma, Junyan; Wu, Ruijin; Zhou, Caiyun; Lin, Jun

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of ovarian endometrioma on expression of steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), estrogen receptors (ERs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) in the surrounding ovarian tissues. Taken from the women with ovarian endometrioma and mature teratoma during laparoscopy, the biopsies were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Our results indicated that ovarian tissues surrounding endometrioma had lower SRA and ER-α levels but higher SRA protein (SRAP) and ER-β levels than ovarian endometrioma. With lower VEGF levels and higher TSP-1 levels, the surrounding ovarian tissues showed higher expression levels of SRA, SRAP, ER-α, and ER-β in the ovarian endometrioma group when compared to the controls. These data showed that ovarian endometrioma increases SRA, ERs, and TSP-1 but decreases VEGF levels in the surrounding ovarian tissues, suggesting that abnormal expression of these molecules may affect biological behaviors of ovarian endometrioma. PMID:23749764

  5. Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Cornice'. II. Influence of growth inhibition on the anatomical structure of the stem

    Franciszka Jaumień

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the particular tissues in shoots inhibited in growth by chlormequat occurs differently than in vigorously growing ones. After the end of elongation growth, in the subapical part of shoots sprayed with chlormequat the cortex extends and secondary xylem develops less intensively, this leading to an increased participation of parenchymatous tissue in the stem.

  6. Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro

    Guo You-feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P P = 0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P = 0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

  7. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning; Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Graham, Rona K; Kim, Jeong Eun; Bissada, Nagat; Yang, X William; Paganetti, Paolo; Friedlander, Robert M; Leavitt, Blair R; Hayden, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice) and truncated mutant htt (shortstop mice). We demonstrate that htt influences...... body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing a...... decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128 and...

  8. Factors influencing donor return.

    Schlumpf, KS; Glynn, SA; Schreiber, GB; Wright, DJ; Randolph Steele, W; Tu, Y.; Hermansen, S; Higgins, MJ; Garratty, G; Murphy, EL

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To predict future blood donation behavior and improve donor retention, it is important to understand the determinants of donor return. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed in 2003 by 7905 current donors. With data mining methods, all factors measured by the survey were ranked as possible predictors of actual return within 12 months. Significant factors were analyzed with logistic regression to determine predictors of intention and of actual ret...

  9. Factors Influencing the Growth of Pt Nanowires via Chemical Self-Assembly and their Fuel Cell Performance.

    Meng, Hui; Zhan, Yunfeng; Zeng, Dongrong; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Guoqing; Jaouen, Frdric

    2015-07-15

    This work reports a detailed investigation of the template-free synthesis of Pt nanowires via the chemical reduction of Pt salt precursors with formic-acid. The results indicate that both the oxidation state of Pt in the salt and the pH value of the aqueous solution comprising the platinum salt and formic acid are critical factors for the formation of Pt nanowires. Nanowires are obtained from platinum atoms in a +IV oxidation state, with ligating chloride anions (H2 PtCl6 and K2 PtCl6 ) or nonligating chloride anions (PtCl4 ). Increasing the pH of the aqueous Pt salt and HCOOH solution leads to a drastic reduction of the nanowires' length between pH 3 and 4.5. A mechanism involving formate as a reducing agent and formic acid as a structure directing agent explains these results. The Pt nanowires are stable up to 200 C; therefore, these nanowires are suitable for use as catalysts in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell. The optimized synthesis conditions are then selected for investigating the kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of such nanowires in a fuel cell. The ORR mass activity of the Pt nanowires is 130 A g(-1) Pt at 0.9 V iR-free potential; significantly higher than that of two commercial Pt/C catalysts tested in the same conditions. The higher mass activity is explained based on a higher surface specific activity. Accelerated degradation tests indicate that Pt nanowires supported on carbon are as stable as Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon. PMID:25682734

  10. Influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone on the co-culture of mature adipocytes and endothelial cells for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    Huber, Birgit; Czaja, Alina Maria; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2016-05-01

    The composition of vascularized adipose tissue is still an ongoing challenge as no culture medium is available to supply adipocytes and endothelial cells appropriately. Endothelial cell medium is typically supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) as well as hydrocortisone (HC). The effect of EGF on adipocytes is discussed controversially. Some studies say it inhibits adipocyte differentiation while others reported of improved adipocyte lipogenesis. HC is known to have lipolytic activities, which might result in mature adipocyte dedifferentiation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of EGF and HC on the co-culture of endothelial cells and mature adipocytes regarding their cell morphology and functionality. We showed in mono-culture that high levels of HC promoted dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature adipocytes, whereas EGF seemed to have no negative influence. Endothelial cells kept their typical cobblestone morphology and showed a proliferation rate comparable to the control independent of EGF and HC concentration. In co-culture, HC promoted dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, which was shown by a higher glycerol release. EGF had no negative impact on adipocyte morphology. No negative impact on endothelial cell morphology and functionality could be seen with reduced EGF and HC supplementation in co-culture with mature adipocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that reduced levels of HC are needed for co-culturing mature adipocytes and endothelial cells. In co-culture, EGF had no influence on mature adipocytes. Therefore, for the composition of vascularized adipose tissue constructs, the media with low levels of HC and high or low levels of EGF can be used. PMID:26888598

  11. Growth factors in cystic fibrosis

    Negar Khalighi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases that affects sweat glands and mucosa. CF is a hereditary disease with annual incidence of about 2500 new cases in United Kingdom. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 levels decrease in CF. The aim of this study was to assess the role of growth peptides in patients with CF. Method: We searched PubMed, Google scholar, IranMedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID in September 2012 to April 2014. We included clinical studies with available abstracts and full texts that were in English or Persian languages. Manual searching was conducted within the reference lists of articles. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed quality, and extracted data.Result: The earliest study was published in 1997 and the most recent one was in 2014. Study participants were adults in 3 studies (20% and 12 studies (80% were conducted in children. Patients with CF have lower levels of IGF-1 and there is a significant correlation between IGF-1 levels and growth index in patients with CF.Conclusions: IGF-1 decreases in children with CF and might be the cause of poor growth and low body mass index in these children.

  12. Factors influencing glabridin stability.

    Ao, Mingzhang; Shi, Yue; Cui, Yongming; Guo, Wentao; Wang, Jing; Yu, Longjiang

    2010-12-01

    Glabridin, a polyphenolic isoflavan of Glycyrrhiza glabra, has shown a variety of pharmaceutical properties. We have previously studied the isolation of glabridin using macroporous resin and found that it is partially degraded, giving a dark color. To illustrate the degradation of glabridin, the present work studied the stability of glabridin under various conditions. Licorice extract containing about 20% glabridin, obtained from G. glabra by silica gel column chromatography, was used in the stability study. Seven different factors (temperature, illumination, humidity, pH, solvent, oxygen, and oxidant) were studied and content changes were determined through HPLC analysis. Except for oxygen, all the above factors had an effect on the stability of glabridin, with illumination being the main one. Moreover, the interactions between temperature and pH, temperature and humidity, and illumination and pH can promote the degradation of glabridin. In conclusion, we suggest that a dark, dry and airtight environment provides the optimized condition for the long-term storage of glabridin. PMID:21299118

  13. Adversarial Growth in Telephone Counsellors: Psychological and Environmental Influences

    O'Sullivan, Julian; Whelan, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the level of adversarial growth among telephone counsellors, and to examine the influence of psychological and environmental factors on growth. In particular, the effect of compassion fatigue, empathy, environmental support and calls per shift on posttraumatic growth was assessed. Sixty-four telephone…

  14. The influence of fractionated radiation therapy on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in dogs with spontaneous tumors and its impact on outcome

    Back ground and purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific pro-angiogenic factor is proposed to be involved in cancer progression and resistance to radiation therapy by promoting angiogenesis and by protecting endothelial cells from radiation induced apoptosis. The aim of this study, was first to assess the influence of ionizing radiation on plasma VEGF concentration in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy with curative or palliative intent and second to analyze plasma VEGF concentration as predictor for treatment outcome. Patients and methods: For plasma VEGF analysis a human VEGF enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used. Sixty dogs with various tumor types were included in this study. Dogs were irradiated with either low dose per fx (3-3.5 Gy per fraction, total dose: 42-49 Gy, group A: curative intent) or high dose per fx (6-8 Gy per fraction, total dose: 24-30 Gy, group B: palliative intent). Blood samples were taken before and after dose application at certain time points during therapy. Follow-up evaluation was performed for analysis of time to treatment failure and survival. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed no increase of plasma VEGF in dogs treated with fractionated radiation therapy (group A and B). Dichotomizing baseline plasma VEGF into two groups with high and low plasma VEGF, resulted in shorter time to treatment failure in dogs with high plasma VEGF levels (TTF, group A: P=0.038, group B: P=0.041). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that dogs with a plasma VEGF level higher than 5 pg/ml had a poorer outcome after radiation therapy. It is therefore, suggested, to use plasma VEGF as predictor for treatment outcome in radiation therapy

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 genotypes and haplotypes influence the survival of prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis at initial diagnosis

    TSUCHIYA, NORIHIKO; Narita, Shintaro; Inoue, Takamitsu; Saito, Mitsuru; NUMAKURA, KAZUYUKI; Huang, Mingguo; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Satoh, Shigeru; Saito, Seiichi; Ohyama, Chikara; Arai, Yoichi; Ogawa, Osamu; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    Background The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in growth of prostate cancer (PCa) cells and facilitating the development and progression of PCa. This study aimed to evaluate the association of polymorphisms in three linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks of the IGF-1 on the survival of metastatic PCa patients. Methods A total of 215 patients with bone metastases at initial presentation were included in this study. The cytosine-adenine (CA) repeat polymorphism and rs12...

  16. Physiological and Environmental Processes Influencing Growth Strategies in Amphibian Larvae

    Dahl, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Cost and benefits of high individual growth rates are likely to vary across different environments leading to geographic differentiation in growth strategies. In ectotherms, habitats constrained by short growing seasons favour rapid growth and development leading to adaptive latitudinal clines in these traits. Geographic variation in growth strategies should be influenced by physiological variation as well as environmental factors, however many of these mechanisms remain largely unexplored. I...

  17. Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation and serum deprivation on gene activation patterns of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells

    Tratwal, Josefine; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Juhl, Morten; Brorsen, Sonja Kim; Kastrup, Jens; Ekblond, Annette

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of mesenchymal stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been used in multiple animal studies and clinical trials for regenerative purposes. VEGF stimulation is believed to promote angiogenesis and VEGF...

  18. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  19. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  20. Factors influencing the temporal growth rate of the high order TM0n modes in the Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov oscillator

    When the wavelength of overmoded Cherenkov oscillator goes into Ka-band, power handling capacity becomes an essential issue. Using the TM02 mode or higher order TM0n modes as the operating mode is a potential solution. This paper is aimed to find some proper parameters to make the temporal growth rate of the TM02 mode higher in our previously studied Gigawatt (GW)-class Ka band oscillator. An accurate and fast calculation method of the “hot” dispersion equation is derived for rectangular corrugated SWSs, which are widely used in the high frequency Cherenkov devices. Then, factors that affect the temporal growth rate of the high order TM0n modes are analyzed, including the depth of corrugation, the radius of drift tube, and the diode voltage. Results show that, when parameters are chosen properly, the temporal growth rate of the TM02 mode can be as high as 0.3 ns−1

  1. Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping

    Sri Astuti Pratminingsih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.

  2. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Wu, Sam SX; Jeremiah J Peiffer; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R.

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly o...

  3. Whey protein concentrate enhances intestinal integrity and influences transforming growth factor-β1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in piglets after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Xiao, Kan; Jiao, Lefei; Cao, Shuting; Song, Zehe; Hu, Caihong; Han, Xinyan

    2016-03-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been reported to have protective effects on the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important component in the WPC, but whether TGF-β1 plays a role in these processes is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of WPC on the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as whether TGF-β1 is involved in these protection processes in a piglet model after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In total, eighteen weanling pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three treatment groups: (1) non-challenged control and control diet; (2) LPS-challenged control and control diet; (3) LPS+5 %WPC diet. After 19 d of feeding with control or 5 %WPC diets, pigs were injected with LPS or saline. At 4 h after injection, pigs were killed to harvest jejunal samples. The results showed that WPC improved (P<0·05) intestinal morphology, as indicated by greater villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and intestinal barrier function, which was reflected by increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased mucosal-to-serosal paracellular flux of dextran (4 kDa), compared with the LPS group. Moreover, WPC prevented the LPS-induced decrease (P<0·05) in claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens-1 expressions in the jejunal mucosae. WPC also attenuated intestinal inflammation, indicated by decreased (P<0·05) mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β. Supplementation with WPC also increased (P<0·05) TGF-β1 protein, phosphorylated-Smad2 expression and Smad4 and Smad7 mRNA expressions and decreased (P<0·05) the ratios of the phosphorylated to total c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 (phospho-JNK:JNK and p-p38:p38), whereas it increased (P<0·05) the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (phospho-ERK:ERK). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary inclusion of WPC attenuates the LPS-induced intestinal injury by improving mucosal barrier function, alleviating intestinal inflammation and influencing TGF-β1 canonical Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways. PMID:26810899

  4. The influence of environmental factors on growth and interactions between Embellisia allii and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolated from garlic.

    Lee, Hyang Burm; Magan, Naresh

    2010-04-15

    Embellisia allii results in the formation of a bulb canker and black soot on the surface of different alliums and it has been frequently detected on garlic bulbs together with the spoilage fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae, which causes bulb basal plate rot. In this study, the influence of water activity (a(w)) and temperature on mycelial growth of E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae, conidial size and sporulation of E. allii, interactions between E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae, Index of Dominance (I(D)), and in situ virulence on garlic were examined. Mycelial growth of E. allii was optimal (5.97 mm/day) at 0.995 a(w) and 25 degrees C, slower at 30 degrees C. However, almost no growth occurred at 0.937 a(w)/30 degrees C. F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae grew faster than E. allii, (6.3-7.4mm/day) at 30 degrees C. Interactions between E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae were influenced by a(w) and temperature. Sporulation of E. allii was more abundant on PDA than on MEA, especially at high a(w) (0.995) and low temperature (20 degrees C), but almost no sporulation occurred at 30 degrees C regardless of nutritional medium or a(w) level. The spore length of E. allii was longer on PDA than MEA, and was significantly influenced by water availability. F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was competitive against E. allii and had a higher I(D) value in comparison with E. allii especially at a higher temperature (30 degrees C). In situ virulence tests showed that E. allii was weakly virulent on the garlic bulb cloves while that of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was highly dependent on a(w). PMID:20153538

  5. The influence of environmental factors on growth and interactions between Embellisia allii and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolated from garlic

    Lee, Hyang Burm; Magan, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    Embellisia allii results in the formation of a bulb canker and black soot on the surface of different alliums and it has been frequently detected on garlic bulbs together with the spoilage fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae, which causes bulb basal plate rot. In this study, the influence of water activity (aw) and temperature on mycelial growth of E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae, conidial size and sporulation of E. allii, interactions between E. allii and F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae...

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone, and daily cycling estrogen are associated with mammographic density in premenopausal women

    Frydenberg, Hanne; Flote, Vidar G.; Iversen, Anita; Finstad, Sissi E.; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Torjesen, Peter A.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Schlichting, Ellen; Ellison, Peter T.; Ursin, Giske; Thune, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mammographic density represents epithelial and stromal proliferation, while Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3, growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, may influence cellular proliferation. However, whether these growth factors independently, or in combination with estrogen, influence mammographic density in premenopausal women remains unclear. Material and methods: Growth factors were assessed in 202 ovulating premenopausal women participating in the Ene...

  7. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed

  8. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Nandy, Debashis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata, E-mail: mukhopadhyay.debabrata@mayo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Guggenheim 1321C, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-02-24

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

  9. The genome of Shope fibroma virus, a tumorigenic poxvirus, contains a growth factor gene with sequence similarity to those encoding epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha.

    Chang, W.; Upton, C.; Hu, S L; Purchio, A F; McFadden, G

    1987-01-01

    Degenerate oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a highly conserved region common to epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, and vaccinia growth factor were used to identify a novel growth factor gene in the Shope fibroma virus genome. Sequence analysis indicates that the Shope fibroma growth factor is a distinct new member of this family of growth factors.

  10. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  11. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  12. Factors influencing the temporal growth rate of the high order TM{sub 0n} modes in the Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov oscillator

    Wu, Dapeng, E-mail: vipbenjamin@163.com; Shu, Ting; Ju, Jinchuan [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2015-06-15

    When the wavelength of overmoded Cherenkov oscillator goes into Ka-band, power handling capacity becomes an essential issue. Using the TM{sub 02} mode or higher order TM{sub 0n} modes as the operating mode is a potential solution. This paper is aimed to find some proper parameters to make the temporal growth rate of the TM{sub 02} mode higher in our previously studied Gigawatt (GW)-class Ka band oscillator. An accurate and fast calculation method of the “hot” dispersion equation is derived for rectangular corrugated SWSs, which are widely used in the high frequency Cherenkov devices. Then, factors that affect the temporal growth rate of the high order TM{sub 0n} modes are analyzed, including the depth of corrugation, the radius of drift tube, and the diode voltage. Results show that, when parameters are chosen properly, the temporal growth rate of the TM{sub 02} mode can be as high as 0.3 ns{sup −1}.

  13. Influence of gain-of-function mutation (Ser252Trp in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene on long bone development

    Peng CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the early postnatal long bone development in Fgfr2+/S252W mutant mice and littermate wild-type (WT mice, and explore the effect of continued function enhancement of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 gene on endochondral ossification. Methods A mouse model of Fgfr2+/S252W simulated human Apert syndrome was reproduced by knock-in technique, and then the gain-of-function mutation Fgfr2+/S252W mice and littermate WT mice were obtained after breeding and identification. Three Fgfr2+/S252W and same number of WT mice were sacrificed at 7, 10, 14 and 28 postnatal days respectively, and the morphology of long bone was examined with X-ray and Micro CT, the structure of bone and cartilage was observed by HE staining, and the expression of gene in growth plate was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results Fgfr2+/S252W mouse model exhibited typical craniosynostosis and brachycephalium of Apert syndrome, accompanied by short stature, growth retardation of long bone, delayed appearance of secondary ossification center, decrease of bone density and trabecula number. HE staining showed noticeable shortened zones of proliferation and hypertrophic chondrocytes, irregularity of cell arrangement, and small hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the mutant mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of genes related to chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation was decreased in mutant mice. Conclusions Gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2 may lead to abnormal development of long bone in mice. FGFR2 may have the function of regulating the development both of osteoblast and chondrocyte lineages, and play an important role in the process of skeletal development.

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor in reproductive biology.

    Lebovic, D I; Mueller, M D; Taylor, R N

    1999-06-01

    The critical role of angiogenesis in embryology and tumor biology has been recognized for more than 20 years. However, the fact that neovascularization is essential to processes in mammalian female reproduction has only recently been appreciated widely. In this review we focus on a single angiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor. As scientists have discovered in many aspects of cell biology, multiple and redundant signaling pathways have evolved in nature, presumably to protect essential biological functions from inactivating diseases or mutations. Despite this redundancy, some factors are of hierarchical importance. Vascular endothelial growth factor appears to be such a factor in the regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:10369200

  15. Risk factors for the regional economic growth

    Yevgeniy Sapiro; Tatyana Mirolyubova

    2008-01-01

    The article features principal aspects of economic growth in Permsky Krai as one of the representative regions of present Russia. It determines features of performance of economy sectors in Permsky Krai and specifies structure of the export-oriented sector. The author analyses the factors affecting economic growth in the region given the existing sources of economic growth of Permsky Krai are retained.

  16. Growth factors for treating diabetic foot ulcers

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Gluud, Christian; Nicola, Susana; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Reveiz, Ludovic; Oliva, Patricio; Cedeño-Taborda, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers are a major complication of diabetes mellitus, often leading to amputation. Growth factors derived from blood platelets, endothelium, or macrophages could potentially be an important treatment for these wounds but they may also confer risks. OBJECTIVES: To assess the...... benefits and harms of growth factors for foot ulcers in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: In March 2015 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE...... foot ulcer. Trials were eligible for inclusion if they compared a growth factor plus standard care (e.g., antibiotic therapy, debridement, wound dressings) versus placebo or no growth factor plus standard care, or compared different growth factors against each other. We considered lower limb amputation...

  17. Intergenerational influences on child growth and undernutrition.

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Zongrone, Amanda

    2012-07-01

    Intergenerational effects on linear growth are well documented. Several generations are necessary in animal models to 'wash out' effects of undernutrition, consistent with the unfolding of the secular trend in height in Europe and North America. Birthweight is correlated across generations and short maternal stature, which reflects intrauterine and infant growth failure, is associated with low birthweight, child stunting, delivery complications and increased child mortality, even after adjusting for socio-economic status. A nutrition intervention in Guatemala reduced childhood stunting; it also improved growth of the next generation, but only in the offspring of girls. Possible mechanisms explaining intergenerational effects on linear growth are not mutually exclusive and include, among others, shared genetic characteristics, epigenetic effects, programming of metabolic changes, and the mechanics of a reduced space for the fetus to grow. There are also socio-cultural factors at play that are important such as the intergenerational transmission of poverty and the fear of birthing a large baby, which leads to 'eating down' during pregnancy. It is not clear whether there is an upper limit for impact on intrauterine and infant linear growth that programmes in developing countries could achieve that is set by early childhood malnutrition in the mother. Substantial improvements in linear growth can be achieved through adoption and migration, and in a few selected countries, following rapid economic and social development. It would seem, despite clear documentation of intergenerational effects, that nearly normal lengths can be achieved in children born to mothers who were malnourished in childhood when profound improvements in health, nutrition and the environment take place before conception. To achieve similar levels of impact through public health programmes alone in poor countries is highly unlikely. The reality in poor countries limits the scope, quality and coverage of programmes that can be implemented and modest impact should be expected instead. The Lancet series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition estimated that implementation to scale of proven interventions in high burden countries would reduce stunting by one-third; this is perhaps a realistic upper bound for impact for high quality programmes, unless accompanied by sweeping improvements in social services and marked reductions in poverty. Finally, because so much can be achieved in a single generation, intergenerational influences are unlikely to be an important explanation for lack of programme impact aimed at the window of the first 1000 days. Failure to prevent linear growth failure in developing countries has serious consequences for short- and long-term health as well as for the formation of human capital. The nutrition transition has created a double burden by adding obesity and related chronic diseases to the public health agenda of countries still struggling with the 'old' problems of maternal and child undernutrition. The challenge ahead is to increase efforts to prevent linear growth failure while keeping child overweight at bay. PMID:22742617

  18. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bretlau, P

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF recep...

  19. REST is up-regulated by epidermal growth factor in HeLa cells and inhibits apoptosis by influencing histone H3 acetylation.

    Baiula, Monica; Carbonari, Gioia; Dattoli, Samantha D; Calienni, Maria; Bedini, Andrea; Spampinato, Santi

    2012-08-01

    REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) is a transcription factor that recruits histone deacetylases to silence gene transcription. REST appears to play a paradoxical role in cancer cells: it exhibits tumor suppressor activity or promotes tumorigenesis, depending upon the setting. The extracellular signaling molecules that control REST gene expression in cancer cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that REST expression in HeLa cells is elevated in cells exposed to epidermal growth factor or serum, whereas the rate of cell apoptosis is low. Apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal is significantly increased in HeLa cells treated with an antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (AS ODN) capable of down-regulating REST expression, whereas in HeLa cells transfected with a REST expressing plasmid, REST overexpression reduces the marked apoptosis caused, in absence of serum, by exposure to an anti-Fas receptor antibody imitating the Fas ligand activity plus PD 98059, a blocker of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. REST knockdown also reduces mRNA levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-X(L) whereas in HeLa cells overexpressing REST, the reduction of Bcl-X(L) mRNA caused by the anti-Fas receptor antibody plus PD 98059 is significantly decreased. Finally, we report that acetylation of histone H3 is increased in HeLa cells exposed to AS ODN or anti-Fas receptor antibody, whereas it is reduced in cells transfected with the REST expressing plasmid. Our findings indicate that REST is a novel gene regulated by EGF in HeLa cells that potentially contributes to the modulation of apoptosis via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:22668508

  20. The influence of tropical adaptation on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in purebred and crossbred beef cattle.

    Caldwell, L C; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Spicer, L J; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to determine whether tropical adaptation influences circulating concentrations of the growth-related hormone IGF-I, 3-breed diallel matings were conducted using temperate Bos taurus (Angus), tropical Bos indicus (Brahman), and tropical Bos taurus (Romosinuano). Purebred Angus, Braham, and Romosinuano and crossbred Angus-Braham, Angus-Romosinuano, and Braham-Romosinuano heifers and steers were evaluated in 2 separate calf crops from 2003 and 2004. Blood samples were obtained from 10 heifers of each breed group (n = 90) for each year at weaning and on d 0 and 84 of postweaning trials. Samples were also taken from 10 steers of each breed group (n = 90) at weaning and on d 0 and 60 of individual finishing phase feeding trials for each year. Concentrations of IGF-I were determined by RIA. Analyses included effects of sire breed, dam breed, year of record, the age of the dam of the calf in years, and interactions. Age of calf in days was investigated as a linear and quadratic covariate. Separate analyses were conducted for steers and heifers. The direct effect of Angus was to reduce (P < 0.03) heifer concentrations of IGF-I at d 84 and in the repeated measures analysis. In the repeated measures analysis, the direct effect of Romosinuano was to increase concentrations of IGF-I (P = 0.01). Relative to the temperate Bos taurus breed, plasma concentrations of IGF-I were numerically greater in male and female tropically adapted breed groups. PMID:21724947

  1. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis and an arrest in the G2/M phase. The mechanism of action involved microtubules, mitochondrial damage and caspase activation as well. In SCID mice, 2ME2 was effective in reducing primary tumor weight and the number of liver colonies after intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells, and causing significantly higher rate of apoptotic cells in the colonies. PMID:19318326

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  3. The growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factors

    Radosavljević Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals with endogenous neuroendocrine responses to the genetic programs that determine the body plan. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are integral components of multiple systems controlling both growth and metabolism. The IGF system The IGF system is thought to be more complex than other endocrine systems, as genes for six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs have been identified so far. The IGFs play a critical role in both cell cycle control and apoptosis, two functions involved in regulation of tumorigenesis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I is essential for normal growth. Confirmation of the significance of IGF-I in human physiology was obtained by the discovery of a patient with intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with a mutation in the IGF-1 gene. Stages of evolution of the somatomedin hypothesis The original somatomedin hypothesis postulated that somatic growth was regulated by growth hormone's (GH's stimulation of hepatic IGF-1 production, with IGF-1 acting in an endocrine fashion to promote growth. The dual effectors theory proposed an alternative view, involving direct effects by GH on peripheral tissues not mediated by IGF-1 and GH-stimulated local IGF-1 production for autocrine/paracrine action. It is now clear that G H stimulates the formation of ternary IGF binding complex, which stabilizes IGF-I in the serum.

  4. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)

  5. An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth

    Yanxia Sang

    2010-01-01

    Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature an...

  6. Change in the terpenoid profile and secondary growth in declining stands of Pinus sylvestris L. under mediterranean influence as a response to local factors

    Sanz, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The terpenoid profile could give information about the water status in Scots pine, especially for trees growing in the same geographical area but under contrasting local environmental conditions. Terpenes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in needles, twigs and wood of ten affected and ten unaffected Scots pines in the southern “Sistema Ibérico” range (Teruel, Spain, where forest decline has been recently reported. Soil depth and secondary growth was also studied in both types of trees. Needles and twigs total resin acids were significantly higher in affected trees. The pimarane type resin acids were also higher in the twigs of affected trees. Secondary growth was lower in affected trees and it showed higher climate sensitivity. The use of the terpenoid profile may be used as an additional tool for the estimation of the water status, especially for situations inducing moderate but relatively prolonged stress conditions.El perfil terpénico podría dar información sobre el estado hídrico en el pino albar, especialmente cuando se comparen especímenes de una zona geográfica concreta afectados por factores ambientales locales. Los terpenos de acículas, brotes del año y madera fueron analizados en diez ejemplares afectados y otros tantos no afectados por el decaimiento mediante cromatografía de masas acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La serie de crecimiento secundario en ambos tipos de ejemplares fue también estudiada. La concentración total de ácidos resínicos aumentó de modo significativo en los árboles afectados tanto en brotes del año como en acículas. La cantidad de ácidos de tipo pimarano también aumentó en los brotes de los árboles afectados. La profundidad del suelo y el crecimiento secundario era menor en este tipo de ejemplares, que muestran una mayor sensibilidad en términos dendrocronológicos. El perfíl terpénico podría utilizarse como una herramienta adicional a la estimación del estado hídrico, especialmente cuando el árbol está afectado por condiciones de estrés moderadas pero prolongadas en el tiempo.

  7. Epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I upregulate the expression of the epidermal growth factor system in rat liver

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Vinter-Jensen, L; Flyvbjerg, A; Pedersen, S B; Nexø, E

    2000-01-01

    enzymes, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. CONCLUSION: Our results show that epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I, which belong to two different growth factor systems, both induce a correlated upregulation of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor...... factor showed no correlation. Marked differences were seen upon activation of the two growth factor systems, as epidermal growth factor, but not insulin-like growth factor I treatment, increased the plasma concentration of urea and decreased the concentration of insulin-like growth factor I and the liver...... receptor mRNA in rat liver. Although marked differences were observed after treatment with either epidermal growth factor or insulin-like growth factor I on the liver as reflected in the plasma concentrations of e.g. liver enzymes, a common motif in their action involves an upregulation of the expression...

  8. Nutritional factors influencing infections in preterm infants.

    Lafeber, Harrie N; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A M; van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P F; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2008-09-01

    In contrast with clinical studies in term infants or older children, it is very difficult to investigate possible immunoregulatory effects of a novel infant formula composition in preterm infants. This is mainly because of the multicausal origin of infections in this high-risk population that is usually admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Possible effects of nutrition composition on onset and incidence of nosocomial infections in these very small infants have to be compared with infections that may have originated in utero. The development of the gastrointestinal tract may be inhibited after severe intrauterine growth retardation, leading to functional impairment of the gut shortly after birth. This may be related to the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis of the newborn. However, this disease in very small preterm infants is possibly also related to the initiation of oral feeding and/or the amount of feeding. Specific infection risks of neonatal intensive care as a result of invasive techniques such as artificial ventilation or total parenteral nutrition using indwelling umbilical and/or Silastic lines and so-called "all-in-one" mixtures may influence the incidence of infections. Widespread use of intravenous antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit may create an even larger infection risk. Investigation of possible immunomodulatory effects of factors such as prebiotics and probiotics added to the nutrition of preterm infants should always be considered along with other nutritional factors known to influence the immature immune system. PMID:18716192

  9. Epidermal growth factor in the rat prostate

    Trring, Niels; Jrgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nex, Ebba

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate....

  10. Transforming growth factor-? and smooth muscle differentiation

    GUO, XIA; Chen, Shi-you

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family members are multifunctional cytokines regulating diverse cellular functions such as growth, adhesion, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. TGF-?s elicit their effects via specific type?I?and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. Knockout mouse models for the different components of the TGF-? signaling pathway have revealed their critical roles in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. Genetic ...

  11. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use. Proximity, however, was found to not make a significant difference throughout the analysis, suggesting that exposure to wind turbines in any stage of development does not decrease a person's favorable perception towards wind turbines. Results also showed that those who found wind technology to be reliable, are twice as likely to have an overall positive perception and want to implement them into their communities. Socio-economic implications were also seen within the research suggesting those who believe wind turbines will benefit their local community will be more favorable towards developing them in their community.

  12. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  13. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    Mayfield, R.D; Harris, R.A.; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alc...

  14. Factors that determine the evolution of high-growth businesses

    Oriol Amat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and management practices; in 2013, they were re-analyzed to investigate the factors that contributed to continued growth for certain companies. Contributions: Through diverse statistical techniques, business policies related to quality, innovation, internationalization and finance were shown to influence business growth and sustainability over time. Limitations of the Research: This study focuses on industrial businesses at least ten years old in Catalonia; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations and economic sectors, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical Implications: Because growth is a measure of business success, identifying variables that contribute to high growth and its sustainability is helpful for businesses that seek to adopt effective policies. Social Implications: Generating employment is one of the primary contributions by high-growth businesses. For years with high unemployment, authorities may be interested in corporate policies that strengthen high-growth businesses. Originality/Added Value: High-growth businesses have been studied throughout the world, but this is the first study to investigate the evolution of businesses after a high-growth phase.

  15. Pumpkin Fruit Influence on Calves’ Growth

    A. SHIMKUS; A. SHIMKIENE; G. STANYTE

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkin provides a valuable source of carotenoids and ascorbic acid which have major roles in nutrition as provitamin A and as an antioxidant respectively. Carotenoids are a source of vitamin A, and β-carotene present in pumpkin is converted to vitamin A in the body. Pumpkins’ biomass is distinguished for having antioxidant and phytobiotic characteristics.The aim of our research is to analyse pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita maxima D.) flours’ influence upon calves growth, intestinal microflora, dige...

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R.; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight.

  17. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri; McGue, Matt; Korkeila, Maarit; Christensen, Kaare; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 yea...

  18. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette; Galsgaard, E D; Billestrup, N

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH...... activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and 3. The activation of the insulin gene however also requires the distal part of the receptor and activation of calcium uptake and STAT5. In order to identify putative autocrine growth factors or targets for growth factors we have...

  19. Factors affecting circulating growth hormone binding protein in chickens.

    Tobar-Dupres, E T; Froman, D P; Davis, S L

    1993-12-01

    Growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) may be an important factor in the regulation of growth and might provide an indirect, relatively noninvasive means of predicting the status of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) activity. Several factors have been reported to influence growth hormone (GH), GHR, or GHBP. Therefore, these studies were conducted to test how age, sex, nutritional status, and glucocorticoids (cortisone acetate, CA) influence serum concentrations of chicken GHBP. Serum GHBP activity was highest (mean percentage specific binding (%SB) = 12.43 +/- .80) at hatch and decreased linearly (P .08). Short-term nutrient deprivation (24-h) of 4-wk-old broilers also had a significant effect on serum GHBP activity (P feed) restored %SB to normal values. Feeding broilers a low-protein diet (12% CP) did not significantly affect serum GHBP activity when compared with that of broilers fed a commercial broiler diet (23% CP; P > .30). Administration of cortisone (1, 5, and 10 mg/day), every 24 h for 7 days, had no effect, at any dose, on serum GHBP activity at 48 h and 1 wk after the last injection. These results indicate that serum GHBP activity is influenced by factors such as age and feed deprivation. It remains to be determined whether these changes in GHBP are associated with changes in GHR as reported for mammalian species. PMID:8309883

  20. Physical Factors Influencing Beer Overfoaming

    Novák, Pavel; Vitoušová, K.; Poštulková, Michaela; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Vol. Session 1. - : -, 2013, T2:P26. ISBN N. [Conference of European Colloid and Interface Society /27./. Sofia (BG), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer * gushing * physical factors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.ecis2013.org/

  1. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  2. Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera.

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  3. Multilayered assemblies for growth factor delivery

    Kumorek, Marta Maria; Kubies, Dana; Houska, Milan; Riedel, Tomáš; Filová, E.; Rypáček, František

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2013. L9. ISBN 978-80-85009-76-7. [Workshop "Career in Polymers" /5./. 12.07.2013-13.07.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor * tissue engineering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  4. Fibroblast growth factor 23--et fosfatregulerende hormon

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Kassem, Moustapha; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, ...

  5. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  6. Factors influencing FDI in the Pakistan Telecom sector

    Pannu, Qaiser Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Foreign Direct investment is a massive source of investment in Pakistan telecom sector and is growing gradually due to its potential market. The objectives of my research are: • Investigate and analyze the factors which are considered most important for the inflow of FDI in Pakistan telecom sector. • Find out what kind of relationship exists between FDI and the influencing factors (political instability, Rules and Regulations and fluctuation in economic growth). Quantitative approach has been...

  7. Review of identified factors influencing contraceptive use

    Bjelica Artur; Trninić-Pjević Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Introduction It is necessary to know the factors that influence contraceptive behavior in order to overcome obstacles of contraceptive use by implementing modern family planning programs that have to be based on logistic management and directed to the client. The factor isolated till now are systematized into the two groups: the socio-demographic factors - to a greater extent associated with developing countries and the psychological factors -mainly related to developed countries. Socio-demog...

  8. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  9. Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism

    Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral

  10. Impact of trade factors on economic growth: seemingly unrelated regression model

    Nawaz , Samar; Aziz , Arshad; Khalid ZAMAN

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of trade on the economic growth, using seemingly unrelated regression model for SAARC countries namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Srilanka for the period of 1980-2012. Trade factors include total exports, total imports, terms of trade, trade openness and investment. The results indicate the strong correlation between trade factors and economic growth, however, the magnitude of influencing economic growth varies factors to factors of international trade.

  11. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing growth rate and production of traps by the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans when induced by Cooperia oncophora larvae

    Grønvold, J.; Wolstrup, J.; Nansen, P.; Larsen, M.; Henriksen, S. A.; Bjørn, H.; Kirchheiner, K.; Lassen, K.; Rawat, H.; Kristiansen, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    producing a maximum of trapping nets 1 day after induction. At 10 degrees C, traps were produced slowly starting on day 4 after induction and continued over the following week. Duddingtonia flagrans (CI3) grew at a normal rate at least down to an oxygen concentration of 6 vol.% O-2, but it did not grow...... (Trol A) because of larval immobility. But, as under anaerobic conditions, the fungus could return to a nematode-trapping state when transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere within 1 or 2 weeks if migrating nematodes were present. Under natural conditions in the cow pat it is expected that the fungus...... will be ready to attack parasitic larvae, when the oxygen tension increases as a result of, for example the activity of the coprophilic fauna. Artificial light giving 3000-3400 Lux on the surface of the agar significantly depressed the growth rate and the production of trapping nets in D, flagrans (CI3...

  12. Factors influencing school connectedness: Chinese adolescents' perspectives

    Yuen, M.; Lau, PSY; Lee, QAY; Gysbers, NC; Chan, RMC; Fong, RW; Chung, YB; Shea, PMK

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the concept of school connectedness and the factors that may influence its development with a sample of Chinese adolescents. Six focus groups involving 52 high school students were conducted using a set of predetermined discussion topics. Results indicated that the students fully understood the notion of school connectedness and could identify a number of key influences affecting its development. These factors could be grouped under several domains including teacher care, ...

  13. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...

  14. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  15. Factors Influencing Title VII Bilingual Program Institutionalization.

    Lewis, Gerald R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study of the primary restraining and driving forces that influence Title VII bilingual education programs found the external environment, the local community, to be the main factor influencing institutionalization and self-renewal. The internal environment--the local school, and the local school's organization or central office, school board,

  16. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we have performed experiments to determine whether mechanical stimulation of cultured avian muscle cells alters their response to anabolic steroids or glucocorticoids. In static cultures, testosterone had no effect on muscle cell growth, but 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and the synthetic steroid stanozolol increased cell growth by up to 18% and 30%, respectively, after a three day exposure. We completed development of a new IBM-based mechanical cell stimulator system to provide greater flexibility in operating and monitoring our experiments. Our previous long term studies on myofiber growth were designed around a perfusion system of our own design. We have recently changed to performing these studies using a modified CELLCO cartridge bioreactor system Z since it has been certified as the ground-based model for the Shuttle's Space Tissue Loss (STL) F= Cell Culture Module. The current goals of this aspect of the project are three fold: 1) to design a Z cell culture system for studying avian skeletal myofiber atrophy on the Shuttle and Space Station; 0 2) to expand the use of bioreactors to cells which do not grow in either suspension or attached to the hollow fibers; and 3) to combine the bioreactor system with our computerized mechanical cell stimulator to have a better in vitro model to study tension/gravity/stretch regulation of skeletal muscle size. Preliminary studies also reported on involved : (1) how release of tension can induce rapid atrophy of tissues cultured avian skeletal muscle cells, and (2) a mechanism to transfer and maintain avian skeletal muscle organoids in modified cartridges in the Space Tissue Loss Module.

  17. Research on Factors Influencing National Budget Balance

    Aivaras Senda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses factors influencing balance, explores importanceand significance of national budget. Firstly, to achieve thegoal, the conception of national budget is presented and mainfunctions are excluded. Thereinafter, the article examines nationalbudget revenues, their sources and national budget expensesand their classification. The correlation is accomplished, aimingto establish whether exists dependence of Lithuanian nationalbudget balance on the other factors. The analysis revealed that2 examined factors – level of unemployment and state debt –have hold over national budget balance.

  18. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than ...

  19. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe; Majid Jangi Zehi; Mohammad Nabi Shahiki Tash; Noor Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2014-01-01

    Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The...

  20. Transforming growth factor-? and smooth muscle differentiation

    Xia Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF-? family members are multifunctional cytokines regulating diverse cellular functions such as growth, adhesion, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. TGF-?s elicit their effects via specific type?I?and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. Knockout mouse models for the different components of the TGF-? signaling pathway have revealed their critical roles in smooth muscle cell (SMC differentiation. Genetic studies in humans have linked mutations in these signaling components to specific cardiovascular disorders such as aorta aneurysm and congenital heart diseases due to SMC defects. In this review, the current understanding of TGF-? function in SMC differentiation is highlighted, and the role of TGF-? signaling in SMC-related diseases is discussed.

  1. Serum platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors

    Madsen, Christine Vestergaard; Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Waldstrm, Marianne; Sgaard, Charlotte; Brandslund, Ivan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    New biological markers with predictive or prognostic value are highly warranted in the treatment of ovarian cancer. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system are important components in tumor growth and angiogenesis.......New biological markers with predictive or prognostic value are highly warranted in the treatment of ovarian cancer. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system are important components in tumor growth and angiogenesis....

  2. Ocular Angiogenesis: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Other Factors.

    Rubio, Roman G; Adamis, Anthony P

    2016-01-01

    Systematic study of the mechanisms underlying pathological ocular neovascularization has yielded a wealth of knowledge about pro- and anti-angiogenic factors that modulate diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The evidence implicating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in particular has led to the development of a number of approved anti-VEGF therapies. Additional proangiogenic targets that have emerged as potential mediators of ocular neovascularization include hypoxia-inducible factor-1, angiopoietin-2, platelet-derived growth factor-B and components of the alternative complement pathway. As for VEGF, knowledge of these factors has led to a product pipeline of many more novel agents that are in various stages of clinical development in the setting of ocular neovascularization. These agents are represented by a range of drug classes and, in addition to novel small- and large-molecule VEGF inhibitors, include gene therapies, small interfering RNA agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In addition, combination therapy is beginning to emerge as a strategy to improve the efficacy of individual therapies. Thus, a variety of agents, whether administered alone or as adjunctive therapy with agents targeting VEGF, offer the promise of expanding the range of treatments for ocular neovascular diseases. PMID:26502333

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and dietary factors in renal disease

    da Cunha Baia, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids and mineral metabolism: novel therapy for cardiovascular disease in renal patients? Deregulations in mineral metabolism, particularly related to phosphate and its regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplant recipients. We demonstrated that in patients after kidney transplantation, a higher circulating level of FGF23 predisposes to an increased risk of cardiovascular m...

  4. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER

    DANA-CODRUŢA DUDĂ-DĂIANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

  5. Factors influencing first intercourse for teenage men.

    Ku, L; Sonenstein, F L; Pleck, J H

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of a nationally representative survey of 1,880 15- to 19-year-old men were conducted to examine factors associated with (a) the age when first sexual intercourse occurred and (b) whether a condom or other contraceptive method was used at first intercourse. Discrete time-event history models assessed factors influencing their age until first intercourse. Black males began sexual activity significantly earlier than white or Hispanic males. Males who had been held back in school also be...

  6. Factors Influencing Korean Consumers' Ethical Decision Making

    Jungbok Ha

    2013-01-01

    Ethics studies in business are more popular and their importance is also recognized more than ever. This conceptual study tries to shade light on consumer ethics study especially in cross-cultural context. Based on previous consumer ethics study, factors such as Hofstede's four dimensional cultural typology, Moral Philosophies and Machiavellianism, influencing consumer ethics decision making were identified and several propositions were formulated regarding to these factors.

  7. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...

  8. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  9. Parental factors associated with intrauterine growth restriction

    H??m??anu Monica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Linear growth failure is caused by multiple factors including parental factors. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR on a population of Romanian newborn infants in a tertiary level maternity facility for a period of 2.5 years. Methods. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted in the Emergency County Hospital of Cluj-Napoca, a university hospital in North-Western Romania. The sample was selected from 4,790 infants admitted to the Neonatal Ward at 1st Gynecology Clinic between January 2012 and June 2014. Results. The age of mothers was significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to controls (p=0.041. A significantly higher percentage of mothers had hypertension in the IUGR group compared to those in the control group (p0.13. The age of fathers of infants with IUGR proved significantly lower compared to controls (p=0.0278. The analysis of infants comorbidities revealed no significant difference between groups for respiratory distress, hyperbilirubinemia, hypocalcaemia, and heart failure (p>0.27. Intracranial hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and hypoglycemia were significantly higher in the IUGR group compared to controls. The logistic regression identified hypertension as a significant risk factor for IUGR (OR=2.4, 95% CI [1.3-4.5]. Conclusion. Although the age of the mothers and fathers proved significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to controls, only hypertension in the mothers proved significant risk factors for IUGR.

  10. INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHATE CORROSION CONTROL COMPOUNDS ON BACTERIAL GROWTH

    The influence of two phosphate corrosion compounds on the growth and survival of coliform and other heterotrophic bacteria was investigated in laboratory, field, and model system studies. Growth of Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was not sign...

  11. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  12. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  13. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  14. Autocrine epidermal growth factor signaling stimulates directionally persistent mammary epithelial cell migration

    Maheshwari, Gargi; Wiley, H. Steven; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Cell responses to soluble regulatory factors may be strongly influenced by the mode of presentation of the factor, as in matrix-bound versus diffusible modes. The possibly diverse effect of presenting a growth factor in autocrine as opposed to exogenous (or paracrine) mode is an especially important issue in cell biology. We demonstrate here that migration behavior of human mammary epithelial cells in response to stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is qualitatively different for EGF ...

  15. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  16. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil

    Lander, Rebecca L.; Lander, Alastair G.; Lisa Houghton; Williams, Sheila M; Hugo Costa-Ribeiro; Daniel L. Barreto; Angela P. Mattos; Gibson, Rosalind S.

    2012-01-01

    Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wastin...

  17. Radioreceptor assay for epidermal growth factor

    An established cell line of human lung fibroblasts with a high number of surface receptors for mouse epidermal growth factor (mEGF) was used to deveop a simple and highly sensitive radioreceptor assay for EGF. 125I-Labeled mEGF competed mole for mole with unlabeled mEGF for specific receptors. Optimal range for discriminating EGF concentrations in body fluids and tissue extracts by a competitive binding assay was between 5 and 100 ng/ml. Interassay correlation of variation was 8.47% and the recovery of highly purified mEGF added to serum and urine samples was greater than 95%. Human serum and amniotic fluids contained about 24 and 4 ng/ml, respectively, of mEGF equivalents. Concentrations of mEGF in mouse urine and serum were highly variable and were 2- to 10-fold greater than that previously detected by radioimmune assay. Hypophysectomy nearly abolished submaxillary mEGF content in both male and female mice, but testosterone treatment of hypophysectomized animals restored normal concentrations of mEGF to the glands. mEGF added to culture medium disappeared with time as a function of the number of cellular EGF receptors indicating cellular degradation of the growth factor. The radioreceptor assay for EGF is based on the close biologic relationship between the cell receptor site and the native hormone and should prove to be a useful complementary tool to characterize the physiological role of EGF

  18. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  19. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  20. Compound list: hepatocyte growth factor, human [Open TG-GATEs

    Full Text Available hepatocyte growth ... factor, human hHGF 00183 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATES ... T/Human/in_vitro/hepatocyte_growth _factor%2C_human.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ...

  1. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infeces parasitrias intestinais em pr-escolares matriculados em creches filantrpicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil

    Rebecca L. Lander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD, wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%, notably Trichuris trichiura (12% and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%, and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13% were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.Dficit de crescimento e parasitoses so comuns entre crianas residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pr-escolares (3-6 anos de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para dficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches sobre peso da criana, altura, nvel socioeconmico, estado de sade e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalncia de baixo peso (-1 -2, desnutrio e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nvel socioeconmico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%, notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12% e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5% e protozorio Giardia duodenalis (13% foram os mais comuns; < 1% tinha ancilostomase e Cryptosporidium sp.; 25% apresentaram protozorios cistos no patognicos. Meninos de famlias muito pobres tiveram menor crescimento e maior risco de helmintose. A desparasitao pode ser considerada uma alternativa para a reduo da prevalncia de parasitoses intestinais nesse grupo etrio.

  2. Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma

    Purpose: To identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Patients and methods: We performed a follow-up study on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated from 1984 to 1998. 18/38 patients were resected. Irradiated volume included the primary tumor (or tumor bed) and regional lymph nodes. Thirty-seven patients received in addition chemotherapy consisting of mitoxantrone, 5-fluorouracil and cis-platin, either i.v. (14/38) or i.a. (23/38). The influence of treatment related factors on the overall survival was tested. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model (α/β=25 Gy) and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. Results: Treatment factors influencing overall survival were resection (p=0.02), overall treatment time (p=0.03) and biologically effective dose (p<0.002). Total dose and kind of chemotherapy had no significant influence. Treatment volume had a negative correlation (r=-0.5, p=0.06) with overall survival, without any correlation between tumor size, tumor stage, and treatment volume. In multivariate analysis only biologically effective dose remained significant (p=0.02). Conclusions: Among with surgery, biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatic carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatments splits in radiation therapy. (orig.)

  3. Growth factors modulate gonadotropin receptor induction in granulosa cell cultures.

    Mondschein, J S; Schomberg, D W

    1981-03-13

    Epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor inhibited follicle-stimulating hormone-dependent induction of luteinizing hormone receptor in cultured ovarian granulosa cells of the rat. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor potentiated the induction of luteinizing hormone receptor by follicle-stimulating hormone. These results indicate that growth factors, well known for their effects on mitosis and DNA synthesis in cultured mammalian cells, are also able to modulate hormone-dependent differentiation in an endocrine target cell. PMID:6258228

  4. Epidermal growth factor as a biologic switch in hair growth cycle

    Mak, KKL; Chan, SY

    2003-01-01

    The hair growth cycle consists of three stages known as the anagen (growing), catagen (involution), and telogen (resting) phases. This cyclical growth of hair is regulated by a diversity of growth factors. Although normal expression of both epidermal growth factor and its receptor (EGFR) in the outer root sheath is down-regulated with the completion of follicular growth, here we show that continuous expression of epidermal growth factor in hair follicles of transgenic mice arrested follicular...

  5. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Factors influencing patients' dignity: A qualitative study.

    Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2014-05-01

    Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside. PMID:24077096

  8. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor receptors in meningioma

    Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were localized and characterized in eight samples of human meningioma (four fibrous, two meningothelial, and two angioblastic types), using quantitative autoradiographic techniques. Effects of both growth factors on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in the cultured meningioma cells were examined. High numbers of specific binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF were homogeneously present in tissue sections derived from fibrous and meningothelial types of meningiomas, whereas binding sites for these growth factors were not detectable in adjacent leptomeninges. While relatively large numbers of IGF-I binding sites were located in the wall of the intratumoral vasculature, the number of binding sites in the stromal component was lower in angioblastic-type meningiomas, including a low number of EGF binding sites detected only in the stromal portion. Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF in the meningiomas examined (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.6 to 2.9 nM, and the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) = 16 to 80 fmol/mg for IGF-I; and Kd = 0.6 to 4.0 nM, Bmax = 3 to 39 fmol/mg for EGF). Both growth factors increased the synthesis of DNA, in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The combination of IGF-I and EGF synergistically stimulated the synthesis of DNA, and the effects seen with 10% fetal bovine serum could be reproduced at a concentration of 10(-10) M. These observations can be interpreted to mean that both IGF-I and EGF may be involved in the growth modulation of meningiomas, possibly through paracrine or autocrine mechanisms

  9. Pumpkin Fruit Influence on Calves’ Growth

    A. SHIMKUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin provides a valuable source of carotenoids and ascorbic acid which have major roles in nutrition as provitamin A and as an antioxidant respectively. Carotenoids are a source of vitamin A, and β-carotene present in pumpkin is converted to vitamin A in the body. Pumpkins’ biomass is distinguished for having antioxidant and phytobiotic characteristics.The aim of our research is to analyse pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita maxima D. flours’ influence upon calves growth, intestinal microflora, digestibility of rations’ nutrients and health. In pursuance of this aim two groups of 1-month-old Lithuanian Black and White breeds’ heifers were constituted, 10 animals per group: control and experimental. The heifers were fed by the same feeding plan and grown in equal conditions. Except for experimental groups’ animals, each of them was additionally given 120g of pumpkin fruits’ flour with their days’ ration.The results of this research showed that calves which were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour had grown more rapidly. After six months of the research the weight of experimental groups‘ heifers was 9,2 kg or 5,34 pct. bigger than the weight of control groups‘ heifers. Pumpkin fruits‘ flour distinguished for phytobiotic activity in calves‘ intestine, it stimulated the increase of lacto- and bifidobacteria. After four months of the research there were 63,6 pct. (P<0,001 more lactobacteria and 19,3 pct. (P<0,01 more bifidobacteria in the faeces of heifers that were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour comparing to heifers that were not given it. After 6 months of the research respectively there were 10,7 pct. and 34,0 pct. more of lacto- and bifidobacteria. Besides that, pumpkin fruits‘ flour improved digestibility of rations‘ nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter increased by 1,9 pct., organic matter – 2,3 pct., fat – 1,6 pct., proteins – 3,07 pct. (P>0,05. Morphological blood indexes of both calves groups conformed to physiologic norms and defined good animals‘ health. Moreover, with this research it was determined that heifers which were additionally given pumpkin fruits‘ flour had an increase of haemoglobin in their blood.With reference to the data of this research, we made a conclusion that pumpkin fruits‘ flour in the calves‘ ration stimulates calves‘ growth, improves digestibility of rations‘ nutrients, positively affects intestinal microflora and activates vital processes.

  10. The Roles of Growth Factors in Keratinocyte Migration

    Seeger, Mark A.; Paller, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The re-epithelialization of wounded skin requires the rapid and coordinated migration of keratinocytes (KC) into the wound bed. Almost immediately after wounding, cells present at or attracted to the wound site begin to secrete a complex milieu of growth factors. These growth factors exert mitogenic and motogenic effects on KCs, inducing the rapid proliferation and migration of KCs at the wound edge. Recent Advances: New roles for growth factors in KC biology are currently being discovered and investigated. This review will highlight the growth factors, particularly transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF-7), FGF-10, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which have conclusively been shown to be the most motogenic for KCs. Critical Issues: The cellular and molecular heterogeneity of wounded tissue makes establishing direct relationships between specific growth factors and KC migration difficult in situ. The absence of this complexity in simplified in vitro experimental models of migration makes the clinical relevance of the results obtained from these in vitro studies ambiguous. Future Directions: Deciphering the relationship between growth factors and KC migration is critical for understanding the process of wound healing in normal and disease states. Insights into the basic science of the effects of growth factors on KC migration will hopefully lead to the development of new therapies to treat acute and chronic wounds. PMID:25945284

  11. Growth Factors and Breast Tumors, Comparison of Selected Growth Factors with Traditional Tumor Markers

    Kučera, R.; Černá, M.; Ňaršanská, A.; Svobodová, Š.; Straková, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Fuchsová, R.; Třešková, I.; Kydlíček, T.; Třeška, V.; Pecen, Ladislav; Topolčan, O.; Padziora, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 12 (2011), s. 4653-4656. ISSN 0250-7005 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NS9727; GA MZd(CZ) NS10238; GA MZd(CZ) NS10253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth factor * breast cancer * tumor markers * CA 15-3 * CEA * IGF1 * EGF * HGF Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  12. T lymphocytes that infiltrate tumors and atherosclerotic plaques produce heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor: a potential pathologic role.

    Peoples, G. E.; Blotnick, S; Takahashi, K.; Freeman, M. R.; Klagsbrun, M; Eberlein, T J

    1995-01-01

    Despite significant infiltration into tumors and atherosclerotic plaques, the role of T lymphocytes in these pathological conditions is still unclear. We have demonstrated that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and plaque-infiltrating lymphocytes (PILs) produce heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in vitro under nonspecific conditions and in vivo in tumors by immunohistochemical staining. HB-EGF and bFGF derived from...

  13. Temperature influences on growth of aquatic organisms

    Temperature profoundly affects the growth rates of aquatic organisms, and its control is essential for effective aquaculture. Characteristically, both low and high temperatures produce slow growth rates and inefficient food conversion, while intermediate temperature ranges provide rapid growth and efficient food conversion. Distinct, species-specific optimum temperatures and upper and lower temperatures of zero growth can often be defined. Thermal effects can be greatly modified by amounts and quality of food. These data not only provide the basis for criteria which maintain growth of wild organisms but also for effectively using waste heat to create optimal conditions of temperature and food ration for growing aquatic organisms commercially

  14. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

  15. Radiation stimulation of production of the thymocyte growth factor and its possible role in thymus recovery

    Cells of two lines originating from intrathymus precursors of mouse T-lymphocytes produce an autocrine growth factor. The factor production during a certain period of the development of lines is drastically by radiation. The stimulatory effect of radiation cannot be explained by the release of the factor due to cell death. The administration of cultural supernatants, containing thymocyte growth factor, to the exposed mice favours the recovery of the thymus at early times following irradiation and influences the thymocyte response to the effect of growth factors

  16. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  17. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumers point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  18. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  19. Epidermal growth factor in the rat lung

    Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1991-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) in pharmacological doses is able to induce precoccious lung maturation in rabbits and sheeps. As EGF is probably acting in a para- or autocrine way, we have searched for EGF in the lungs. We report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in the type II pneumocytes of the...... rat from a couple of days prior to birth and throughout life. Further, we report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in cells in the bronchi and the bronchioles from day 20-21 of gestation and throughout life. G-200 gelchromatography of lung extracts indicates that the EGF-reactive material is a high...... molecular weight form of EGF. Since previous studies have shown that EGF in pharmacological doses is able to promote lung maturation, our results may imply a physiological role for EGF in the lungs....

  20. Aldosterone as a renal growth factor.

    Thomas, Warren

    2011-04-05

    Aldosterone regulates blood pressure through its effects on the cardiovascular system and kidney. Aldosterone can also contribute to the development of hypertension that leads to chronic pathologies such as nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Aldosterone directly modulates renal cell proliferation and differentiation as part of normal kidney development. The stimulation of rapidly activated protein kinase cascades is one facet of how aldosterone regulates renal cell growth. These cascades may also contribute to myofibroblastic transformation and cell proliferation observed in pathological conditions of the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that is accelerated by hypertension. EGFR-dependent proliferation of the renal epithelium is a factor in cyst development and trans-activation of EGFR is a key feature in initiating aldosterone-induced signalling cascades. Delineating the components of aldosterone-induced signalling cascades may identify novel therapeutic targets for proliferative diseases of the kidney.

  1. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi; Song, Seung Il

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an ...

  2. Factors influencing customers' choices of online merchants

    Li, Chenghuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: The aim of the research is to define and assess the importance of the factors that influence online shoppers' choices of merchants. The previous literature mainly focuses on loyalty of users to websites and online purchase decision-making process within one website. No literature studies the situation under which the customer has already decided the item to purchase and needs to compare different merchants selling the same item. Since this situation is very common...

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    S Arman; M. Soltani

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...

  4. Factors influencing auditor change: evidence from Malaysia

    Sharifah Nazatul Faiza Syed Mustapha Nazri; Malcolm Smith; Zubaidah Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine two factors which influence auditor change: audit and client firms’ characteristics, for Malaysian listed companies. Given the costs involved, it is important to understand the reasons why companies change their auditor and choose a particular level of audit assurance. Design/methodology/approach – This study evaluates the effects of various independent variables on auditor change behaviour and the sensitivity of results to alternative period ...

  5. Factors influencing corporate governance in Ukrainian companies

    Afanasieva, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    The factors influencing corporate governance in Ukraine have been identified. As a result of the conducted analysis and case studies the essence of each have been revealed. The specificity of Ukrainian corporate governance system have been described. The importance of corporate collaboration within different authority levels have been underlined and the necessity of Ukrainian companies’ adaptation to internationally unified rules, principles and standards of corporate governance have been ...

  6. Environmental Factors Influence on Mobile Learning Business

    Alireza Nasiri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, there has been growing interest in m-learning consequently emerging m-learning technology is promising technological and educational business. Nevertheless, m-learning is a new business and the different actors are still trialing by ways of a diversity of business models to overcome in able to achieve a sustainable and profitable place in this market. Numbers of m-learning products providers do not succeed in supplying m-learning products. In this situation not only a suitable business model is vital but also environmental and external factors have impact on mobile learning business model. Overall objective of this study was to survey the business model framework of m-learning with effect of external and environmental factors. Approach: Methodical approach was based on a classification of m-learning actors and its environmental factors. Based on this, we analyzed case studies description and developed main environmental factors that constitute the m-learning environment. Factors were summarized in morphological boxes and then through out its three steps result came up. Results: The results indicated technology, market and regulation are three major environmental factors which were forcing m-learning business model and business model should react to changes of these three factors to keep sustainable business. The research further argued the external factors of m-learning environment in order to understanding and developing the m-learning business and the ways these factors influence the business model of m-learning as well. Conclusion/Recommendations: M-learning business is based on many factors such as technology, changes in society, educational drivers, demand for flexible learning and the new learning paradigm but only three major drivers(technology, market and regulation had considerable effect on m-learning business model and should be taken into account as a result if they change business model should be changed.

  7. Basic fibroblast growth factor: its role in the control of smooth muscle cell migration.

    Jackson, C. L.; Reidy, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of an intimal lesion in an injured artery is the consequence of the replication and migration of smooth muscle cells. Recent studies have implicated basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as an important mediator of replication in the arterial media, and platelet-derived growth factor as an important mediator of migration. However, the degree of arterial trauma produced during injury has a significant influence on the time of onset of intimal thickening, suggesting that factors r...

  8. Factors that influence Medical Reserve Corps recruitment.

    Qureshi, Kristine; Gershon, Robyn M; Conde, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) is a key strategy used in the United States to assure an adequate surge capacity healthcare workforce for response to disasters. A survey of Hawaiian healthcare providers (n = 1,057) was conducted to identify factors that influence interest, ability, and willingness to join the MRC; 468 (44.3%) healthcare providers responded. Overall, females were more likely to demonstrate an interest in joining the MRC, while physicians and dentists reported lower levels of ability and willingness, in addition to a lower level of interest in joining the MRC than the other professional groups. The most important motivating factor in joining the MRC was altruism and the ability to help one's own community. Respondents reported a number of factors that would influence their decision to join or remain a MRC member. These included: (1) time commitment required; (2) MRC organization and management; (3) provision of MRC-sponsored training or education sessions and continuing education credits; (4) concerns regarding the safety of family members during a disaster; (5) professional liability protection for work performed during MRC operations; and (6) competing personal obligations. Strategies targeting these factors probably will be most effective in recruitment and retention of MRC volunteers as well as members of other public health surge capacity volunteer groups. PMID:18702285

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor expression positively correlates with angiogenesis and peritumoural brain oedema in astrocytoma

    Astrocytoma is the most malignant intracranial neoplasm and is characterized by high neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. Angiogenesis is a complicated process in oncogenesis regulated by the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. The expression of two angiogenic growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were investigated using immunohistochemistry for astrocytoma from 82 patients and 11 normal human tissues. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor positively correlate with the pathological grade of astrocytoma, microvessel density numbers and brain oedema, which may be responsible for the increased tumour neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. The results support the idea that inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor are useful for the treatment of human astrocytoma and to improve patient's clinical outcomes and prognosis. (author)

  10. Factors influencing union formation in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585

  11. Wheat Industry: Which Factors Influence Innovation?

    Vitor Francisco Dalla Corte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A change in the profile of food consumption is occurring because of the new context of demographic growth, the increase of income in developing economies, and urbanization. In Brazil, consumption patterns have trended from fresh to processed food and internal and external growth in demand has led to opportunities that require new and higher levels of technological innovation and associated managerial skill. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of innovation on a key Brazilian food industry: wheat product markets. Results showed that while most firms did not innovate in the past year, new investments in R&D were important for innovation to occur compared to other factors such as the size of the company, the integration in supply chain, and the age of the company. These results demonstrate that innovation is not a random or unpredictable process, but a complex and diverse process that may be specific to each industry.

  12. Fatores determinantes do crescimento infantil Determinant factors of infant growth

    Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation in genetic potential manifestations. Because of the complex nature of infant growth, several studies have been developed aiming at relating biological, socio-economic, maternal, environmental, cultural, demographic and nutritional determinants among others, with the etiology, development and maintenance of growth. This review reinforces the value of permanent investigation on infant growth, especially concerning the long term impact on infant health.

  13. Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jakab, M

    1995-01-01

    , the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight......We have used rats with epidermal growth factor (EGF) autoantibodies to study the role of EGF deficiency during perinatal development. The study was focused on organs known to contain EGF or its receptor. Compared with controls, the offspring of autoimmune rats had a higher perinatal mortality and a...

  14. Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect

    H.Ya. Hlukha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine...

  15. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  16. Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms

    The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

  17. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bretlau, P

    1993-01-01

    Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected with a...... monoclonal mouse antibody and EGF with polyclonal rabbit antiserum. Thirty-five of the tumours were positive for TGF-alpha and 26 of the tumours for EGF. None of the poorly differentiated tumours was positive for EGF, but they all were for TGF-alpha. In sections including normal differentiated oral mucosa......, the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells...

  18. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  19. Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma

    The purpose of the study is to identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. A follow-up study was performed on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated form 1984-1998. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. The conclusion is that biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatis carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatment splits in radiation therapy. (R.P.)

  20. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  1. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. PMID:25433777

  2. Hematopoietic growth factors including keratinocyte growth factor in allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Seggewiss, Ruth; Einsele, Hermann

    2007-07-01

    The aim of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is to cure patients of malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and immunodeficiency disorders by redirecting the immune system: the often described graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) or graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. Unfortunately, fulfillment of this goal is often hampered by relapse of the underlying disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or severe opportunistic infections, which account for the majority of post-transplantation deaths. Moreover, studies of long-term survivors of transplantation indicate an accelerated immune aging due to the transplantation procedure itself, preceding chemo- or radiotherapy, and acute and chronic GVHD. Significant advances have been made towards overcoming these obstacles by enhancing immune reconstitution with hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or erythropoietin (EPO) or through the application of cytokines. In addition, there are approaches to promote the thymic-dependent development of naive T cells, which are prepared for the interaction with a multitude of pathogens. Examples are the application of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), neuroendocrine hormones such as growth hormone or prolactin, sex hormone ablation, or the invention of a three-dimensional artificial thymus based on a cytomatrix. Might these measures result in a higher rate of healthy and fully recovered patients? Here we review progress in each of these areas. PMID:17631184

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE BIRTH RATE

    SAVU MIHAELA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.

  4. Factors influencing choice of countermeasure strategy

    There are number of countermeasures that can be used, singly and in combination, to reduce doses in the short-term following a nuclear accident. Which strategy is adopted will depend on local factors, such as the type of accident, local geography and demography, and the resources available, and on the form of national and international guidance is to facilitate a consistent level of response to accidents, wherever they occur, whilst at the same time providing for flexibility of response to suit local circumstances. This paper discusses the influence of all these factors on the choice of protective strategy. The goal of any off-site emergency response strategy should be the protection of the public, not just against radiation, but in the sense of providing overall benefit. To achieve this goal, differing local and national constraint mean that the precise strategy adopted may vary from site to site. (Authors). 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  6. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

  7. Do the fibrin architecture and leukocyte content influence the growth factor release of platelet concentrates? An evidence-based answer comparing a pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) gel and a leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF).

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Jimbo, Ryo; Barbé, Giovanni; Del Corso, Marco; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2012-06-01

    Platelet concentrates for surgical use are tools of regenerative medicine designed for the local release of platelet growth factors into a surgical or wounded site, in order to stimulate tissue healing or regeneration. Leukocyte content and fibrin architecture are 2 key characteristics of all platelet concentrates and allow to classify these technologies in 4 families, but very little is known about the impact of these 2 parameters on the intrinsic biology of these products. In this demonstration, we highlight some outstanding differences in the growth factor and matrix protein release between 2 families of platelet concentrate: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP, here the Anitua's PRGF - Preparation Rich in Growth Factors - technique) and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF, here the Choukroun's method). These 2 families are the extreme opposites in terms of fibrin architecture and leukocyte content. The slow release of 3 key growth factors (Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor AB (PDGF-AB) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)) and matrix proteins (fibronectin, vitronectin and thrombospondin-1) from the L-PRF and P-PRP gel membranes in culture medium is described and discussed. During 7 days, the L-PRF membranes slowly release significantly larger amounts of all these molecules than the P-PRP gel membranes, and the 2 products display different release patterns. In both platelet concentrates, vitronectin is the sole molecule to be released almost completely after only 4 hours, suggesting that this molecule is not trapped in the fibrin matrix and not produced by the leukocytes. Moreover the P-PRP gel membranes completely dissolve in the culture medium after less than 5 days only, while the L-PRF membranes are still intact after 7 days. This simple demonstration shows that the polymerization and final architecture of the fibrin matrix considerably influence the strength and the growth factor trapping/release potential of the membrane. It also suggests that the leukocyte populations have a strong influence on the release of some growth factors, particularly TGFβ1. Finally, the various platelet concentrates present very different biological characteristics, and an accurate definition and characterization of the different families of product is a key issue for a better understanding and comparison of the reported clinical effects of these surgical adjuvants. PMID:21740377

  8. Prognostic impact of placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A in patients with breast cancer

    Maae, Else; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Brandslund, Ivan; Srensen, Flemming Brandt; Jakobsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    such as ischemic heart disease, arthritis and tumor growth. Angiogenesis is a complex process with several growth factors involved. Because PlGF modulates VEGF-A responses, we investigated their mutual relationship and impact on breast cancer prognosis. Quantitative PlGF and VEGF-A levels were measured......Placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) are angiogenic growth factors interacting competitively with the same receptors. VEGF-A is essential in both normal and pathologic conditions, but the functions of PlGF seem to be restricted to pathologic conditions...

  9. Prognostic impact of placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A in patients with breast cancer

    Maae, Else; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Brandslund, Ivan; Srensen, Flemming Brandt; Jakobsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    conditions such as ischemic heart disease, arthritis and tumor growth. Angiogenesis is a complex process with several growth factors involved. Because PlGF modulates VEGF-A responses we investigated their mutual relationship and impact on prognosis. Materials and methods: Quantitative PlGF and VEGF-A levels......Background: Placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) are angiogenic growth factors interacting competitively with the same receptors. VEGF-A is essential in both normal and pathologic conditions, but the functions of PlGF seem to be restricted to pathologic...

  10. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  11. Influence of substrate morphology on Pb growth

    The crystallographic structure and morphology of Pb layers in their early stage of growth on Si(3 3 5) surface are studied with Reflection High Electron Energy Diffraction (RHEED) and specific resistivity techniques. The vicinal Si(3 3 5), with different surface morphology controlled by the amount of predeposited Au, was used as a substrate. Changes in the substrate morphology, from disordered step distribution through a perfectly ordered Si(3 3 5) to a hill-and-valley structure consisting of wide (1 1 1) terraces and high Miller index facets, cause switching between one- and two-dimensional growth of the Pb structures

  12. Antidepressant drugs modulate growth factors in cultured cells

    Maler Juan M; Bnsch Dominikus; Reichardt Cornelia; Reulbach Udo; Rotter Andrea; Sperling Wolfgang; Henkel Andreas W; Kornhuber Johannes; Wiltfang Jens

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Different classes of antidepressant drugs are used as a treatment for depression by activating the catecholinergic system. In addition, depression has been associated with decrease of growth factors, which causes insufficient axonal sprouting and reduced neuronal damage repair. In this study, antidepressant treatments are analyzed in a cell culture system, to study the modulation of growth factors. Results We quantified the transcription of several growth factors in three ...

  13. Platelet-rich growth factor in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    Pal, Uma Shanker; Mohammad, Shadab; Rakesh K. Singh; Das, Somdipto; Singh, Nimisha; Singh1, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich growth factor is an innovative regenerative therapy used to promote hard and soft tissue healing. It involves the application of autologous platelet-leukocyte-rich plasma containing growth factors and thrombin directly to the site of treatment. It is the intrinsic growth factors released by activated platelets which are concentrated in a topical gel formula. Clinically, it is an affordable treatment with potentially broad spectrum of applications in maxillofacial surgery especia...

  14. Factors influencing successful radioiodine therapy of thyroid

    Popadić Silvija M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13, operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1, the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS, and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05 influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.

  15. Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect

    H.Ya. Hlukha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine exogenous and endogenous factors have been analyzed; - reflexive and elastic economic growth factors have been determined; - economic policy was given the role of reflective element within the system to ensure economic growth. The system of factors should be considered within the system that ensures economic growth. It comprises two important elements which enlist the economic growth factors system, economic growth rates system and two reflexive elements the state economic policy and economic growth models system. While analyzing the economic growth factors, their quality and impact upon the economy should be considered. Economic growth depends on the factors, consideration of which is one of the most important aspects of the economic growth theory. Economic growth reasons are the factors that cause this growth. These are phenomena and processes that can increase the production output, improve efficiency and quality. Factors classification completeness and their diversity do not necessarily mean the dead end of the study. Any classification has the sense only if it fulfills the certain function. If we take into account economic growth modeling, factors diversification and their characteristics classification it implies that models are becoming more complex, the range of their parameters expands, however it does not necessarily lead to more accurate prognosis. All the factors have different impact upon the economic development. Their first type is elastic ones. These factors directly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand. For instance, net export means the increasing foreign demand for our national products; favorable weather conditions lead to the agricultural produce growing supply without any significant change in the economy. These factors rates can be measured and their impact upon economic growth can be easily determined. Another group of factors that indirectly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand are the reflexive factors. They function through structural changes, distribution and motivation system, insignificant restrictions and stimulus. These factors can only be characterized by indirect rates (human development index to measure human capital and their impact upon economic growth, supply and demand is minor in the long run. This group enlists institutional and social factors that become more and more important in post industrial economy. Taking into account economic growth factors impact upon the supply and demand, we can sate that analysis that has been carried out provides good grounds to improve the research methodology in the field of economic growth modeling. We cannot definitely say if there are certain economic growth factors that are entirely independent from the state regulation. Firstly, government itself indirectly impacts the economic growth, by adopting new laws, for instance. Secondly, the main function of the state is to administratively regulate the economic system. This processit can lead to a significant development. Consequently the state plays one of the major roles in the economic factors development. Conclusions and directions of further researches. To ensure Ukraines constant economic development and to establish corresponding strategies to reach that goal it is of utmost importance to classify the economic growth factors and to study carefully their impact on the economic processes as the whole.

  16. Factors Influencing How Teachers Manage Their Classrooms

    Arif SARIOBAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning a foreign language is a social process which requires theinteraction of two important parts of the process, the teacher and the students, in a socialenvironment. As this process takes place in a social context, it is inevitable toexperience some problems while teaching the students having different needs, interestsand levels. These problems may be caused by the students, teachers as well as thephysical environment in which teaching and learning take place. It is clear that languageteaching skill is not enough to handle these problems; teachers also need classroommanagement skills so that they are able to manage their classrooms. It is believed thatsuccessful classroom management is highly related to effective instruction. Asclassroom management is a general term that is affected by many factors, theeffectiveness of classroom environment depends on how teachers cope with thesefactors and provide their students with a positive and friendly classroom atmosphere. Itis clear that a detailed analysis of the factors that affect successful classroommanagement and adequate teacher training on how to cope with them will makeunmanageable classrooms manageable which will immediately result in effectiveteaching and learning process. In this article, factors that influence successful classroommanagement will be analyzed and possible solutions to these problems will bepresented.

  17. Tissue Engineering Using Transfected Growth-Factor Genes

    Madry, Henning; Langer, Robert S.; Freed, Lisa E.; Trippel, Stephen; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2005-01-01

    A method of growing bioengineered tissues includes, as a major component, the use of mammalian cells that have been transfected with genes for secretion of regulator and growth-factor substances. In a typical application, one either seeds the cells onto an artificial matrix made of a synthetic or natural biocompatible material, or else one cultures the cells until they secrete a desired amount of an extracellular matrix. If such a bioengineered tissue construct is to be used for surgical replacement of injured tissue, then the cells should preferably be the patient s own cells or, if not, at least cells matched to the patient s cells according to a human-leucocyteantigen (HLA) test. The bioengineered tissue construct is typically implanted in the patient's injured natural tissue, wherein the growth-factor genes enhance metabolic functions that promote the in vitro development of functional tissue constructs and their integration with native tissues. If the matrix is biodegradable, then one of the results of metabolism could be absorption of the matrix and replacement of the matrix with tissue formed at least partly by the transfected cells. The method was developed for articular chondrocytes but can (at least in principle) be extended to a variety of cell types and biocompatible matrix materials, including ones that have been exploited in prior tissue-engineering methods. Examples of cell types include chondrocytes, hepatocytes, islet cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, other organ cells, bone- and cartilage-forming cells, epithelial and endothelial cells, connective- tissue stem cells, mesodermal stem cells, and cells of the liver and the pancreas. Cells can be obtained from cell-line cultures, biopsies, and tissue banks. Genes, molecules, or nucleic acids that secrete factors that influence the growth of cells, the production of extracellular matrix material, and other cell functions can be inserted in cells by any of a variety of standard transfection techniques.

  18. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

    Peni?ny Viljem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  19. Curvas de crescimento de ovinos Bergamácia criados no Distrito Federal Parameters for three growth curves and factors that influence them for Bergamasca sheep in the Brasilia Region

    Concepta McManus

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A análise de um banco de dados de crescimento em ovinos Bergamácia (pesos até dois anos de idade de 1982 a 1996 foi feita usando-se métodos não-lineares para determinar parâmetros de três curvas (Brody, Richards e Logística de crescimento. Os parâmetros das curvas foram analisados pelo Statistical Analysis System (SAS usando o procedimento GLM e CORR para determinar fatores que influenciaram os parâmetros e as correlações entre os parâmetros e pesos dos animais. O sistema de manejo foi semi-extensivo com os ovinos ao pasto durante o dia e presos à noite para proteger dos predadores. Os fatores fixos incluídos foram ordem do parto, sexo do cordeiro, tipo de nascimento, mês e ano. As médias dos parâmetros das curvas foram: Richards - A = 50,024, B = 0,647, k = 0,003, M = 17,771 e R² = 0,838; Brody - A= 52,763, B=0,885, k =0,003, R²= 0,842; Logístico - A=47,894, B=-3,895, k=0,007 e R²= 0,840. O meio ambiente influenciou o crescimento e a reprodução de ovinos na região de Brasília. A correlação negativa entre k e A indica que animais que amadurecem mais cedo têm menos probabilidade de atingir pesos adultos mais altos que animais que amadurecem tardiamente. A curva Logística estimou o peso adulto dos animais com média inferior às das outras curvas. Os pesos atuais estão, contudo, mais bem correlacionados com os estimados pela Logística. Não houve diferença entre os três tipos de curvas em termos de R². O quadrado médio do resíduo foi maior para a curva de Richards. A curva recomendada para ajustar dados de crescimento de ovinos da raça Bergamácia é Logística.Fifteen years of data from a flock of Bergamasca sheep weighed every two weeks was analyzed using non-linear methods to determine parameters of three growth curves (Brody , Richards and Logistic. The curve parameters were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS procedures GLM and CORR to determine factors which influenced them and correlations between the parameters and weights at determined ages. Fixed effects in the model included lambing number, sex of lamb, type of birth and month and age of lambing. The management system is semi-extensive, with the sheep at pasture during the day and imprisoned at night to protect them against predators. Means of the parameters were: Richards; A = 50.024, B = 0.647, k = 0.003, M = 17.771 and R²= 0.838; Brody; A= 52.763, B=0.885, k=0.003, R²= 0.842; Logistic; A =47.894, B=-3.895, k=0.007 and R²= 0.840. The environment influenced the growth of sheep in the region of Brasilia. The Logistic curve estimated adult weights lower than the other curves but the actual weights were better correlated with those estimated by this curve. There was no difference between the curves in terms of R², and the error mean square was higher for the Richards curve. The negative correlation between A and k indicates that early maturing animals were less likely to reach high mature weights, compared with late maturing ones. The recommended curve for adjusting growth curves in Bergamasca sheep is the Logistic curve.

  20. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree competition studies, in which tree spatial patterning is typically not taken into account. Our findings highlight the importance of forest structure – particularly the spatial arrangement of trees – in regulating inter-tree competition and growth in structurally diverse forests, and they provide insight into the causes and consequences of heterogeneity in this old-growth system.

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factors Stimulate Hair Growth through β-Catenin and Shh Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    Wei-hong Lin; Li-Jun Xiang; Hong-Xue Shi; Jian Zhang; Li-ping Jiang; Ping-tao Cai; Zhen-Lang Lin; Bei-Bei Lin; Yan Huang; Hai-Lin Zhang; Xiao-Bing Fu; Ding-Jiong Guo; Xiao-Kun Li; Xiao-Jie Wang; Jian Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors are involved in the regulation of hair morphogenesis and cycle hair growth. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of three approved growth factor drugs, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and the mechanism of action. We observed that FGFs promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric ana...

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Regulates Aberrant Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 3

    Takaoka,Munenori; Harada, Hideki; Andl, Claudia D.; OYAMA, KENJI; Naomoto, Yoshio; Dempsey, Kelly L.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; GRIMBERG, ADDA; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in esophageal carcinoma and its precursor lesions. To gain insights into how EGFR overexpression affects cellular functions in primary human esophageal cells, we performed gene expression profiling and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 as the most up-regulated gene. IGFBP-3 regulates cell proliferation through both insulin-like growth factor-dependent and independent mechanisms. We found that IGF...

  3. Gene Expression of Growth Factors and Growth Factor Receptors for Potential Targeted Therapy of Canine Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    IIDA, Gentoku; Asano, Kazushi; SEKI, Mamiko; Sakai, Manabu; KUTARA, Kenji; Ishigaki, Kumiko; Kagawa, Yumiko; YOSHIDA, Orie; TESHIMA, Kenji; EDAMURA, Kazuya; Watari, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), transfo...

  4. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  6. Factors influencing the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Although predicting that there will be more nuclear weapons in the future is safe enough, predicting how many more countries over what period of time, which ones under what circumstances, and how much more of what kind of nuclear-weapons capability for each is more difficult. Predicting what effect more will have is a related question that is even more difficult. This chapter identifies some of the factors that will determine the answers: including the supply policies of nuclear-exporting counties, the international nuclear-fuel cycle, superpower security policies, the health of the non-proliferation regime, cataclysmic events and international reaction, and preventive and preemptive strikes. The author concludes that more proliferation will only be better if we accept the greater probability of catastrophic wars in exchange for less frequent conventional conflicts, but he tempers this with the observation that the policies of governments can influence the course of proliferation

  7. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    Sands, Michelle

    2011-01-25

    Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.

  8. Factors influencing the biochemical markers for predicting mammalian oocyte quality.

    Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality. PMID:22976454

  9. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes may need to be considered if groundwater composition is found to change with time. (author, shortened). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  10. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.

  11. Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior Among Adolescents.

    Sen, Urmi; Basu, Arindam

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the impact of tobacco advertisements and other social factors on the smoking habits of adolescents in Calcutta, India. Design: Cross sectional, school based survey of students in the IXth and XIth grades. The responses were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Participants: High School students in Calcutta aged 14 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measure: Smoking Status as defined by ever smokers of tobacco products. Results: 1973 students were interviewed (males-73.79% and females-26.21%). Increased tobacco use was associated with older age-groups, male gender, government-run schools, having parents or peers who were smokers, and if the respondent was also a chewer. The likelihood of a respondent being a smoker was 8.5 times greater (95% CI: 5.05-14.43) if he or she had a smoker friend, and about 4.5 times (95% CI: 2.7-7.4) if he or she had a smoker sibling. In the multivariate model, the parents' smoking status did not have a statistically significant association with respondent's smoking status. Television advertisements of tobacco products had no statistically significant association with respondents' smoking status. Conclusions: The finding of tobacco advertisements not having a significant association with smoking habits among adolescents could be due to the fact that, at the time of this survey, tobacco advertisements were not frequent in the prime channels due to Government regulations. Peer influence had the strongest association with adolescent smoking. It is therefore suggested that the peer influence factor should be considered for anti-tobacco regulatory activities that target adolescent smoking in India. PMID:12716305

  12. Factors influencing change in clinical practice.

    Rajasekhar, Praveen T; Rees, Colin J; Nixon, Catherine; East, James E; Brown, Sally

    2016-02-01

    Purpose - The quality improvement in colonoscopy study was a region wide service improvement study to improve adenoma detection rate at colonoscopy by implementing evidence into routine colonoscopy practice. Implementing evidence into clinical practice can be challenging. The purpose of this paper is to perform a qualitative interview study to evaluate factors that influenced implementation within the study. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff in endoscopy units taking part in the quality improvement in colonoscopy study, after study completion. Units and interviewees were purposefully sampled to ensure a range of experiences was represented. Interviews were conducted with 11 participants. Findings - Key themes influencing uptake of the quality improvement in colonoscopy evidence bundle included time, study promotion, training, engagement, positive outcomes and modifications. Areas within themes were increased awareness of quality in colonoscopy (QIC), emphasis on withdrawal time and empowerment of endoscopy nurses to encourage the use of quality measures were positive outcomes of the study. The simple, visible study posters were reported as useful in aiding study promotion. Feedback sessions improved engagement. Challenges included difficulty arranging set-up meetings and engaging certain speciality groups. Originality/value - This evaluation suggests that methods to implement evidence into clinical practice should include identification and empowerment of team members who can positively influence engagement, simple, visible reminders and feedback. Emphasis on timing of meetings and strategies to engage speciality groups should also be given consideration. Qualitative evaluations can provide important insights into why quality improvement initiatives are successful or not, across different sites. PMID:26771057

  13. Clinical Application of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Wound Healing

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of non-healing wounds (e.g. pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted a nonline search of Medline and Pub Medical and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies and future research possibilities. In this review we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. PMID:24942811

  14. Influence of dust on plant growth

    Ershov, M.F.

    1959-01-01

    Further experiments were made at Kuibyshev with seedlings of Caragana aurantiaca and Prunus maackii. Some the plants were treated with a mixture of fine dust and soot at 2-2.5 g/sq m of leaf surface, and this treatment was repeated as necessary, at intervals during the growing season. Height growth of C. aurantiaca was 26.6%, and that of P. maackii 15.9% less than that of clean controls. Leaf surface area, measured shortly before fall, was 35.3% less than the controls in C. aurantiaca, and 20% less in P. maackii.

  15. Insulin-like growth factor 2

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Hyttel, Poul; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Strøbech, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic defects within the embryos, reflected by elevated cell death and low proliferative ability, are considered the most critical factors associated with bovine infertility. The identification of embryonic factors, which are responsible for successful embryo development, is thus critical in...

  16. Tunisian Financial System: A Growth Factor

    Imne Ben Fredj; Christophe Schalck

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth were the subject of many recent theorical and empirical works [Shepherd, Hasan and Klapper, 2004; Gylfason, 2004; Rioja and Valev, 2003; Driffill, 2004; Haas, 2002; Carlin and Mayer, 2000]. These authors generally focused their analysis of the link finance- growth on the mature financial systems. As the Tunisian economy knew a long period of financial repression before starting the phases of liberalization, it would be more ju...

  17. A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty

    Mahmood Modiri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

  18. Influence of ecological factors on molecular structure formation of roots of yellow melillot

    Present article is devoted to influence of ecological factors on molecular structure formation of roots of yellow melillot. The influence of ecological conditions of the place of growth on physicochemical properties of substances in roots of yellow melillot was studied by means of infrared spectroscopy. The energy values of intermolecular interaction were defined.

  19. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  20. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called brite or beige adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  1. Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues

    Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) is a polypeptide with well-characterized growth promoting properties. The effects are exerted through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF receptor), which is present on many different kinds of cells. The growth factor was initially shown to induce...... cells, or distinctly localized adjacent to the nucleus, usually on the luminal aspect, corresponding to the localization of the Golgi complex. The latter staining pattern was seen predominantly in secretory epithelial cells. The present study thus confirms previous studies and elaborates new...

  2. Growth Factor Technologies in Cartilage Tissue Engineering (Review

    Valery V. Novochadov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a systematic review of literature analyzing the prevalence, base technologies, and perspective directions of growth factor usage in cartilage tissue engineering. The main attention is given to problems of combinations of growth factors in modern scaffolds for cellular settlement and options for mechanical and physical-chemical stimulation of chondrogenesis, including the use of bioreactors.

  3. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor in various blood transfusion components

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Werther, K; Mynster, T; Brünner, N

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion may reduce survival after curative surgery for solid tumors. This may be related to extracellular content of cancer growth factors present in transfusion components. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis in solid tumors. The...

  4. Role of muscle-derived growth factors in bone formation

    Hamrick, Mark W.; McNeil, Paul L.; Patterson, Stella L.

    2010-01-01

    Muscle and bone anabolism and catabolism are tightly coupled during growth, development, and aging, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms linking these two tissues are not well understood. Here we show that FGF-2 and IGF-1, two growth factors known to play a major role in regulating bone formation, are localized to muscle fibers along the muscle-bone interface of the mouse forelimb. Likewise, receptors for these growth factors are also abundant in periosteum adjacent to fleshy muscle atta...

  5. Growth factor-eluting technologies for bone tissue engineering.

    Nyberg, Ethan; Holmes, Christina; Witham, Timothy; Grayson, Warren L

    2016-04-01

    Growth factors are essential orchestrators of the normal bone fracture healing response. For non-union defects, delivery of exogenous growth factors to the injured site significantly improves healing outcomes. However, current clinical methods for scaffold-based growth factor delivery are fairly rudimentary, and there is a need for greater spatial and temporal regulation to increase their in vivo efficacy. Various approaches used to provide spatiotemporal control of growth factor delivery from bone tissue engineering scaffolds include physical entrapment, chemical binding, surface modifications, biomineralization, micro- and nanoparticle encapsulation, and genetically engineered cells. Here, we provide a brief review of these technologies, describing the fundamental mechanisms used to regulate release kinetics. Examples of their use in pre-clinical studies are discussed, and their capacities to provide tunable, growth factor delivery are compared. These advanced scaffold systems have the potential to provide safer, more effective therapies for bone regeneration than the systems currently employed in the clinic. PMID:25967594

  6. Abnormal growth factor and cytokine expression in Dupuytren's contracture.

    Baird, K S; Crossan, J F; Ralston, S H

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To analyse patterns of gene expression for peptide regulatory factors in patients with Dupuytren's contracture. METHODS--Tissue samples (palmer fascia) from 12 patients with Dupuytren's contracture and 12 controls were studied using the reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) technique. RESULTS--Tissue from patients with Dupuytren's contracture expressed a higher percentage of peptide regulatory factors than that of controls: interleukin-1 alpha (83% v 16%; p < 0.01); interleukin-1 beta (66% v 8%; p < 0.01); transforming growth factor beta (75% v 25%; p < 0.02); and basic fibroblast growth factor (66% v 25%; p < 0.05). Platelet derived growth factors alpha and beta were also expressed more commonly (66% v 33% and 25% v 16%, respectively), but these differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS--The increased prevalence of expression for the above mRNAs in Dupuytren's tissue is relevant as interleukin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta stimulate the growth of fibroblasts and transforming growth factor beta also enhances production of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins. Excessive local release of these peptide regulatory factors may have an important role in the pathogenesis of Dupuytren's contracture. Images PMID:8320323

  7. Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, and the Skeleton

    Giustina, Andrea; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Canalis, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    GH and IGF-I are important regulators of bone homeostasis and are central to the achievement of normal longitudinal bone growth and bone mass. Although GH may act directly on skeletal cells, most of its effects are mediated by IGF-I, which is present in the systemic circulation and is synthesized by peripheral tissues. The availability of IGF-I is regulated by IGF binding proteins. IGF-I enhances the differentiated function of the osteoblast and bone formation. Adult GH deficiency causes low ...

  8. The impact of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on cardiac fibroblasts grown under altered gravity conditions

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Leder, Annekatrin; Pietsch, Jessica; Flick, Burkhard; Wehland, Markus; Grimm, Daniela Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Myocardium is very sensitive to gravitational changes. During a spaceflight cardiovascular atrophy paired with rhythm problems and orthostatic intolerance can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor...... (VEGF) on cardiac fibroblasts (CF) grown under altered gravity conditions....

  9. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    TITLE:TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  10. High-growth-factor implosions (HEP4)

    Landen, O.L.; Keane, C.J.; Hammel, B.A. [and others

    1996-06-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the kinetic energy of an ablating, inward-driven, solid spherical shell is used to compressionally heat the low-density fuel inside. For a given drive, the maximum achievable compressed fuel density and temperature - and hence the maximum neutron production rate depend on the degree of shell isentropy and integrity maintained during the compression. Shell integrity will be degraded by hydrodynamic instability growth of areal density imperfections in the capsule. Surface imperfections on the shell grow as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities when the shell is accelerated by the ablating lower-density plasma. Perturbations at the outer capsule surface are transferred hydrodynamically to the inner surface, where deceleration of the shell by the lower-density fuel gives rise to further RT growth at the pusher-fuel interface.

  11. Epidermal growth factor and lung development in the offspring of the diabetic rat

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba; Raaberg, Lasse

    2000-01-01

    Fetuses of diabetic mothers who were exposed to excessive glucose show delayed maturation. Under these conditions, altered growth factor expression or signaling may have important regulatory influences. We examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in lung development and maternal diabetes...... in the rat. In order to evaluate the possible role of glucose for the expression of EGF and the growth of lung tissue, we performed in vitro studies with organotypic cultures of fetal alveolar cells obtained from control rats. Compared to pups of normal rats, the newborn rats of untreated diabetic...

  12. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ

    Dennehy John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  13. Environmental Influences on Growth and Reproduction of Invasive Commelina benghalensis

    Riar, Mandeep K.; Danesha S. Carley; Chenxi Zhang; Michelle S. Schroeder-Moreno; Jordan, David L.; Webster, Theodore M.; Rufty, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Commelina benghalensis (Benghal dayflower) is a noxious weed that is invading agricultural systems in the southeastern United States. We investigated the influences of nutrition, light, and photoperiod on growth and reproductive output of C. benghalensis. In the first experimental series, plants were grown under high or low soil nutrition combined with either full light or simulated shade. Lowered nutrition strongly inhibited vegetative growth and aboveground spathe production. Similar but sm...

  14. Enhanced Phosphoproteomic Profiling Workflow For Growth Factor Signaling Analysis

    Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike; Leclerc, Gregory; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Lockhart, Brian; Hickman, John; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    A549 lung carcinoma cells were used as a model and stimulated with hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor. We employed a quick protein digestion workflow with spin filters without using urea. Phosphopeptides in general were enriched by sequential elution from...... a typical set of measurements (time course of one stimulant) 1500 to 2000 unique phosphopeptides are found. 200 of these contain phosphotyrosine. A large fraction of known network components can be identified. Combining data from collision induced dissociation (normal and higher energy) and electron...

  15. Factors that influencing veterinary drugs metabolisation

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animals bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  16. Basic Fibroblastic Growth Factor as a Potential Meningeal Angiogenic Factor

    Olson, Jeffrey J; Reisner, Andrew; Klemm, Joyce M.; Bakay, Roy A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Vascular supply plays a significant role in the management of skull base tumors. The diagnosis is aided by contrast-enhanced imaging and angiographic techniques, and embolization procedures are used to devascularize certain lesions. The degree of surgical technical difficulty is strongly influenced by the degree of tumor vascularity. Although the importance of this blood supply is clearly understood, the mechanism involved in developing a system of tumor-perfusing vessels is yet to be defined...

  17. Influence of temperature on associative growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Radke-Mitchell, L C; Sandine, W E

    1986-10-01

    Compatibility of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus during associative growth as dependent on optimum growth temperature was determined. Optimum growth temperatures for 9 strains of S. thermophilus and 10 strains of L. bulgaricus ranged from 35 to 42 degrees C for S. thermophilus and 43 to 46 degrees C for L. bulgaricus. Streptococcus thermophilus and L. bulgaricus strains exhibiting similar to divergent optimum growth temperatures were combined (1:1 vol/vol) and incubated in milk at 37, 42, and 45 degrees C until pH 4.2 was reached. Initial and postincubation cell numbers were determined by plate count method. Streptococcus thermophilus strains reached greater cell numbers than L. bulgaricus at 37, 42, and 45 degrees C in 93.3% of the mixed culture trials. Average rod-coccus ratios obtained at 37, 42, and 45 degrees C were 1:2.2, 1:8, and 1:2.4, respectively. Optimum growth temperatures had no influence on growth of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus in mixed culture. Rather, temperature appeared to influence compatibility by determining the concentration or type of stimulatory factor(s) produced by L. bulgaricus. All strains of S. thermophilus exhibited an uncoupling of growth from acid production. Optimum temperature for acid production ranged from 2 to 8 degrees C above optimum growth temperature. These findings warrant consideration in the manufacture of yogurt and other fermented milk product/span>s. PMID:3805441

  18. Influencia de factores morfolgicos y ambientales sobre el crecimiento en dimetro de Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm en un bosque tropical caducifolio, en Mxico / Influence of morphological and environmental factors on diameter growth of Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm in a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico

    Vctor M., Interin-Ku; Humberto, Vaquera-Huerta; Juan I., Valdez-Hernndez; Edmundo, Garca-Moya; Anglica, Romero-Manzanares; Amparo, Borja-De la Rosa.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm es una especie de gran importancia econmica en la selva baja caducifolia del sureste de Mxico. La madera de esta especie es utilizada como poste en las construcciones rurales. Este estudio tiene por objeto conocer la influencia de los factores morfolgicos y ambientales [...] en el crecimiento diamtrico anual, as como el turno para el aprovechamiento de la madera. Se evalu el crecimiento diamtrico de 32 rboles ubicados en cuatro categoras diamtricas y clasificados de acuerdo con la calidad y la incidencia de luz solar en su copa. El estudio dur 22 meses; el dimetro a la altura del pecho se registr bimensualmente y las variables climticas (temperatura ambiental, humedad relativa y precipitacin total), diariamente. Los resultados sugieren que la tasa de crecimiento anual (TCA) incrementa de las categoras diamtricas menores a las mayores, de las calidades de copa daadas a las simtricas y de las incidencias intermedias de luz solar a las de incidencia total. La mayor TCA se observ en las categoras diamtricas de 12.50 a 22.49 cm, en rboles con copas simtricas e incidencia de luz solar plena sobre la copa. La TCA acumulada se correlacion positivamente (r = 0.94) y fue altamente significativa (P Abstract in english Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm is an important timber species in the tropical deciduous forest in southeast Mexico. The trunks of this species are used as posts in rural construction. In this study we investigated which morphological and environmental factors influence annual diameter growth, in order t [...] o establish the best turnover period. Diameter growth in 32 trees located in four diameter categories were evaluated and classified according to quality and sunlight incidence on the crowns of the trees. The study lasted 22 months and the diameter at breast height was measured and recorded bi-monthly. The results indicate that Average Growth Rate (AGR) increased from the smallest to the largest diameter categories, from the damaged to the healthy crown qualities and from intermediate to total incidences of sunlight. Highest AGR was observed in diameter categories of 12.50 to 22.49 cm in trees with symmetrical crown quality and the crown under full sunlight. The cumulative AGR was highly significant (P

  19. Influence of diffuse glass on the growth and production of tomato

    Dueck, T.A.; Janse, J.; T. Li; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest for diffuse glass in Dutch horticulture ever since higher light transmission values and the diffusing characteristics of diffuse glass have increased production for some crops. Thus an experiment was designed to examine the effects of a variation in haze factors and light transmissions for diffuse glass or a diffuse coating on the growth and production of tomato. The influence of diffuse glass with a haze factor of 45, 62 and 71% and light transmission equal ...

  20. Transforming growth factor beta as endogenous growth inhibitor of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells

    1994-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells are hyporesponsive or refractory to mitogens and growth factors in vitro. This study examined whether transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a potent inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation may play a role in the growth regulation of CLL B cells. CLL B cells from all donors treated expressed detectable TGF-beta 1 mRNA. In vitro release of TGF-beta by unstimulated cultures, or cultures stimulated by antibody to cell surface immunoglobulin (anti- mu...

  1. Progress in Relevant Growth Factors Promoting the Growth of Hair Follicle

    Wang, J. M.; J. T. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Hair is a protective appendage on the body that is considered accessory structure of the integument. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. The morphological changes of the hair cycle have been very clear that hair morphogenesis and epidermal development are orchestrated by an array of growth factors. In this review, we summarize the major growth factors involved in promoting growth of hair follicles

  2. Organizational Creativity: A Substantial Factor to Growth

    Malikeh Beheshtifar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea sources, and evidence of the creative planning process; and organizational creativity is as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The creative climate encourages people to generate new ideas and helps the organization to grow and increase its efficiency and at the same time it enables members to generate and implement creative ideas more effectively.

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight. Presented with an imbalanced dietary phosphorus to calcium ratio, increased secretion of FGF23 will inhibit renal phosphorus reabsorption, resulting in increased excretion and reduced circulating phosphorus. Increased intake and excretion of phosphorus is associated with increased kidney stone risk in both the terrestrial and microgravity environments. Highly processed foods and carbonated beverages are associated with higher phosphorus content. Ideally, the dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio should be at minimum 1:1. Nutritional requirements for spaceflight suggest that this ratio not be less than 0.67 (3), while the International Space Station (ISS) menu provides 1020 mg Ca and 1856 mg P, for a ratio of 0.55 (3). Subjects in NASA's bed rest studies, by design, have consumed intake ratios much closer to 1.0 (4). FGF23 also has an inhibitory influence on PTH secretion and 1(alpha)-hydroxylase, both of which are required for activating vitamin D with the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will result in decreased intestinal phosphorus absorption, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion (via decreased renal reabsorption). Should a decrease in 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D be necessary to reduce intestinal phosphorus absorption, calcium absorption will also proportionally be reduced, potentially leading to skeletal demineralization. Demineralization of bone can increase kidney stone risk, a medical issue that could prove detrimental to mission success. Given the interrelationships described above, we sought to determine circulating FGF23 concentrations in spaceflight and ground analog studies to better understand the potential effects of dietary phosphorus on bone and calcium metabolism. We analyzed serum from ISS astronauts participating in studies of bone biochemistry, including the Nutrition SMO and Pro K experiments, and we also evaluated FGF23 during extended-duration bed rest. Serum intact FGF23 levels were determined using an ELISA kit from Kainos laboratories in Japan. While initial evaluation of the data showed no changes over time during flight or bed rest, evaluation continues of FGF23 data in light of dietary factors, PTH, vitamin D status, and other biochemical and endocrine factors.

  4. Explaining Growth and Inequality in Factor Income: The Philippines Case

    Son, Hyun H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between growth and inequality of factor income in the Philippines, focusing on the role played by the labor market. It proposes a decomposition methodology that explores linkages between growth in income and labor market performance in terms of labor force participation, employment, working hours, and productivity. This paper introduces a methodology that provides a direct linkage between growth, inequality, and labor market characteristics. It provides em...

  5. Influence of different ALL therapies on height and growth rate

    Adult height in 20 patients, successfully treated for childhood leukemia, led to reduced height 2L2. In contrast, less intensive maintenance therapy (6-MP and MTX) of protocol BFM 81 showed a transient growth spurt. Final height equals projected target height. Neither 18 Gy nor 198Au intrathecally influenced final height. (author)

  6. Visualization of growth factor receptor sites in rat forebrain

    It is now known that various growth factors may also act in the central nervous system. Among them, it has recently been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) may possess trophic effects in the mammalian brain. We report here on the respective autoradiographic distribution of [125I]EGF and [125I]IGF-I receptor binding sites in the rat brain, both during ontogeny and in adulthood. It appears that [125I]EGF sites are mostly found in the rat forebrain during brain development. On the other hand, [125I]IGF-I sites are more widely distributed both during ontogeny and in adulthood. These results reveal the plasticity of the expression of EGF and IGF-I receptor sites in the mammalian brain. This could be relevant for the respective role of these two growth factors in the development and maintenance of neuronal function

  7. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I gene in osmoregulatory organs during seawater adaptation of the salmonid fish: possible mode of osmoregulatory action of growth hormone.

    Sakamoto, T.; Hirano, T.

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone has been shown to contribute to seawater adaptation of salmonid fishes. The growth influence of growth hormone is mediated largely by hepatic production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). To study the growth hormone-IGF-I axis in osmoregulation, we measured IGF-I mRNA in the liver, gill, and body kidney from rainbow trout by Northern analysis. The levels of IGF-I mRNA in all tissues increased significantly after injection of growth hormone. Transfer of trout from fresh wa...

  8. An immunologic approach to induction of epidermal growth factor deficiency

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in pharmacologic doses is able to induce growth and development in the fetus and the newborn. To investigate the opposite situation, the effects of insufficient amounts of EGF during development, we wanted to establish an in vivo model with a state of EGF deficiency....

  9. Regulation of Growth by Drosophila FoxO Transcription Factor

    Mattila, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    Forkhead box class O (FoxO) transcription factors are members of the forkhead box transcription factor superfamily, with orthologues in various species such as human, worm and fly. FoxO proteins are key regulators of growth, metabolism, stress resistance and, consequently, life span. FoxOs integrate signals from different pathways, e.g. the growth controlling Insulin-TOR signaling pathway and the stress induced JNK and Hippo signaling pathways. FoxO proteins have evolved to guide the cellular...

  10. Local Delivery of Growth Factors Using Coated Suture Material

    T. F. Fuchs; C. Surke; Stange, R. (Richard); S. Quandte; Wildemann, B; Raschke, M. J.; Schmidmaier, G.

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of healing processes in a wide range of tissues represents a central point for surgical research. One approach is to stimulate healing processes with growth factors. These substances have a short half-life and therefore it seems useful to administer these substances locally rather than systemically. One possible method of local delivery is to incorporate growth factors into a bioabsorbable poly (D, L-lactide) suspension (PDLLA) and coat suture material. The aim of the present...

  11. Neonatal Fibroblast Growth Factor Treatment Enhances Cocaine Sensitization

    Clinton, Sarah M; Turner, Cortney A; Flagel, Shelly B.; Simpson, Danielle N.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2012-01-01

    Growth factors are critical in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, and recent studies point to their involvement in addiction. We previously reported increased levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) in high novelty/drug-seeking rats (bred High Responders, bHR) compared to low novelty/drug-seeking rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs). The present study asked whether an early life manipulation of the FGF system (a single FGF2 injection on postnatal day 2) can impact cocaine sensitization...

  12. Decreased level of epidermal growth factor in milk from diabetic rats

    Thulesen, J; Nexø, Ebba; Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1994-01-01

    Experimental diabetes was induced in rats with streptozocin before mating, and the influence of diabetes on epidermal growth factor (EGF) in milk and on other milk components was studied. Throughout the lactation period, a significant decrease was found both in the production of milk and in the c...

  13. Typical Bamboo Habitat Ecological Factors Influence Evaluation

    He Lu; Zhenran Gao; Guangzhi Di; Hongzhou Qian

    2016-01-01

    Ecological factors is generally refers to only important factor in a variety of biological impact of environmental factors and it is to determine the distribution of habitats. To analyze the Yunnan Bambusoideae affecting habitat distribution ecological factors principal component, first analyze the basic theory and geometric meaning of the Principal Component. Based on this analysis to determine the steps, we selected hollow bamboo genera hollow bamboo as a typical case of bamboo species for ...

  14. Growth factors: first part Factores de crecimiento I

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Los factores de crecimiento tienen como función activar o inhibir la transcripción génica; es así como la cascada enzimática que se inicia con la activación de los receptores de la membrana citoplasmática, ya sean de tipo segundo mensajero o catalíticos, tiene como efecto final la fosforilación de proteínas, las cuales pueden ser: 1 enzimas que intervienen en las vías metabólicas; 2 proteínas promotoras de la transcripción de genes o, por el contrario, represoras de los mismos (31,32; en algunos casos el efecto final consiste en la transcripción de protooncogenes (33 cuyos productos pueden ser otro factor de crecimiento o receptores para éstos (16; 3 algunos factores de crecimiento ejercen sus efectos sobre los eventos postranscripcionales y postraslacionales (23.

    Los Factores de Crecimiento, incluyendo las citoquinas, representan un número muy grande de polipéptidos, glucoproteínas y otras moléculas relacionadas. Todos ellos promueven la proliferación, la diferenciación y las funciones especializadas de casi cualquier tipo de célula. Juegan un papel importante mediando los modos paracrino, autocrino y endocrino de comunicación. En esta primera parte de una serie se definen y clasifican los factores de crecimiento; para la clasificación se proponen diversos sistemas basados en el período de desarrollo del individuo en que actúan, en el punto crítico del ciclo celular sobre el que ejercen su acción y en los efectos fisiológicos que producen; se discuten, además, someramente, la composición química, los mecanismos de acción y las funciones de estas sustancias.

  15. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  16. INTERCULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION

    Dai Xiaoqian

    2005-01-01

    Translation is a complex process, involving linguistic, cultural and personal factors. This article seeks to show how intercultural factors constitute one of the main sources of translation difficultties. The author suggests that a systematic discussion of these factors would be useful in establishing effective strategies for avoiding pitfalls in translation between English and Chinese.

  17. A full factorial analysis of nine factors influencing in vitro antagonistic screens for potential biocontrol agents.

    Dickie, G A; Bell, C R

    1995-03-01

    The effect of nine factors on the outcome of classic in vitro screens testing the antagonistic action of endophytic bacterial isolates from grape vines against virulent Agrobacterium vitis has been examined. These factors were (i) the strain of A. vitis, (ii) the strain of endophyte, (iii) the growth medium of the pathogen, (iv) the growth medium of the endophyte, (v) the temperature of growth of the pathogen, (vi) the temperature of growth of the endophyte, (vii) the pH of growth of the pathogen, (viii) the pH of growth of the endophyte, and (ix) the medium of the assay plate. Analyses of variance of the full factorial design incorporating main effects and two- and three-way interactions accounted for 66% of the variance. All nine factors had a significant effect on the diameter of inhibition zones (p antagonism (especially the composition of the growth medium and the temperature of growth), had a profound effect on the outcome of the test. Generally the more chemically defined media produced less inhibition whereas the lower growth temperature of 15 degrees C produced more inhibition. These findings could be relevant to in situ inhibitory activity. The method used to conduct the inhibitory screen (order of strain application and the medium of the assay plate) had a profound influence on the results. These influences add to the caution necessary in the use of in vitro antagonistic screens for finding successful biocontrol agents. PMID:7736357

  18. Local and regional factors influence the structure of treehole metacommunities

    Kegan Benjamin; Hawkins Katherine D; Harshaw Lauren; Goldberg Justin; Burkhart John Q; Blue Jarrod D; Paradise Christopher J; Krentz Tyler; Smith Leslie; Villalpando Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Abiotic and biotic factors in a local habitat may strongly impact the community residing within, but spatially structured metacommunities are also influenced by regional factors such as immigration and colonization. We used three years of monthly treehole census data to evaluate the relative influence of local and regional factors on our study system. Results Every species responded to at least one of three local environmental factors measured: water volume, leaf litter ma...

  19. Exogenous Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior on the Insurance Market

    Petrescu Marian; Ioncic? Diana Eugenia,; Petrescu Eva-Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The insurance services’ consumer behavior is influenced by a series of factors, which can be divided, function of their nature, in endogenous and exogenous factors. The potential insurance client’s behavior is influenced by the following main categories of exogenous factors: situational factors – related to the moment before the sale of the insurance policy (connected, for instance, to the process of communication between the insured and the insurer), the moment of purchase of the insurance p...

  20. Insulin-like growth factors act synergistically with basic fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor to promote chromaffin cell proliferation

    Frdin, M; Gammeltoft, S

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) on DNA synthesis in cultured chromaffin cells from fetal, neonatal, and adult rats by using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) pulse labeling for 24 or 48 h and...... immunocytochemical staining of cell nuclei. After 6 days in culture in the absence of growth factors, nuclear BrdUrd incorporation was detected in 30% of fetal chromaffin cells, 1.5% of neonatal cells, and 0.1% of adult cells. Addition of 10 nM IGF-I or IGF-II increased the fraction of BrdUrd-labeled nuclei to 50......% of fetal, 20% of neonatal, and 2% of adult chromaffin cells. The ED50 value of IGF-I- and IGF-II-stimulated BrdUrd labeling in neonatal chromaffin cells was 0.3 nM and 0.8 nM, respectively. In neonatal and adult chromaffin cells, addition of 1 nM bFGF or 2 nM NGF stimulated nuclear Brd...

  1. Epidermal growth factor reactivity in rat milk

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Tollund, L; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1990-01-01

    whey elutes as a broad peak corresponding to a Stokes radius of 4.0 nm (an approximate molecular weight of 80 kDa). Almost no 6 kDa EGF is present. Judged by gel filtration of whey pre-incubated with 125I-EGF (6 kDa), no binding protein for EGF is present in rat whey. When rat milk is incubated......The concentration of EGF immunoreactivity in rat whey increases from 0.3 pmol/ml at lactation day 1 to 2.0 pmol/ml at lactation day 19. The concentration of EGF is not influenced when the rats undergo sialoadenectomy prior to mating. On S-200 gel chromatography, almost all EGF-reactivity in rat...... in rat whey behaves as a peptide with a Stokes radius of 2.7 nm, corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa at gel filtration. Comparative binding studies between EGF purified from the submandibular glands and the EGF purified from rat whey confirm differences in the binding to...

  2. Product Recommendations over Facebook: The Roles of Influencing Factors to Induce Online Shopping

    Senthil Kumar S; Ramachandran T.; Panboli S.

    2014-01-01

    Facebook being the most popular social media platform in India, its prevalence among consumers, brand companies, and their growth through e-commerce needs to be studied to prove if word-of-mouth interactions among friends on Facebook induce one to shop online. A sample of 395 Facebook users who also buy online was studied to understand the interactions among technology acceptance factors, knowledge sharing factors and social influence factors upon the attitude towards Facebook as a source for...

  3. Product platforms: influencing factors and effects

    Uddin, Abul Hasnat Md Zakir

    2014-01-01

    The product platform strategy is well known for its several positive effects. However, these effects differ under different market situations. Several product platform projects related decisions can influence these effects. This research work will show how these effects are influenced by decisions under different market situations, findings will help academics in enriching product platform theories and, it will help managers to take proper decisions to enhance the possibility of product platf...

  4. Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation

    I. Hruzina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth hormone in chronic liver disease

    Møller, Søren; Becker, Povl Ulrik

    1992-01-01

    Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are peptides synthesized in the liver. IGFs have different anabolic and metabolic actions and are important in normal growth and development. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is low in patients with chronic liver disease...... mainly due to the decreased liver function. Low levels of somatomedins are also seen in patients with growth hormone (GH) insufficiency, renal impairment, and malnutrition. GH stimulates the production of IGF-1, and both are part of a negative feedback system acting on hepatic, pituitary, and...

  6. Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila dpp protein, a member of the transforming growth factor beta family of growth factors.

    Panganiban, G E; Rashka, K E; Neitzel, M D; Hoffmann, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    The decapentaplegic (dpp) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is required for pattern formation in the embryo and for viability of the epithelial cells in the imaginal disks. The dpp protein product predicted from the DNA sequence is similar to members of a family of growth factors that includes transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). We have produced polyclonal antibodies to a recombinant dpp protein made in bacteria and used a metallothionein promoter to express a dpp cDNA in Drosophila S2 ...

  7. Typical Bamboo Habitat Ecological Factors Influence Evaluation

    He Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors is generally refers to only important factor in a variety of biological impact of environmental factors and it is to determine the distribution of habitats. To analyze the Yunnan Bambusoideae affecting habitat distribution ecological factors principal component, first analyze the basic theory and geometric meaning of the Principal Component. Based on this analysis to determine the steps, we selected hollow bamboo genera hollow bamboo as a typical case of bamboo species for this analysis. The second to standardize ecological factors data, building Habitat distribution Factor correlation matrix to determine y1, y2, y3 as three main components. Evaluate the habitat distribution of hollow bamboo by principal component analysis.

  8. Instability restricts signaling of multiple fibroblast growth factors

    Buchtová, Marcela; Chaloupková, R.; Zakrzewska, M.; Veselá, I.; Celá, Petra; Barathová, J.; Gudernová, I.; Zajíčková, R.; Trantírek, L.; Martin, J.; Kostas, M.; Otlewski, J.; Damborský, J.; Kozubík, Alois; Wiedlocha, A.; Krejčí, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 12 (2015), s. 2445-2459. ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31540S; GA ČR GBP302/12/G157 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor * FGF * unstable Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.808, year: 2014

  9. Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia

    Riva Uda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

  10. Chapter 6. Radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value. Chapter consistsof next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of plants; (2) Radioactive contamination of plants; (3) Factors influencing radioactivity of biological chain soil - plant; (4) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of agricultural and food products

  11. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Elias G. Elias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-?, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-?, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.

  12. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Elias, Elias G., E-mail: george.elias@medstar.net; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Sharma, Bhuvnesh K. [Maryland Melanoma Center, Weinberg Cancer Institute, Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.

  13. Factors Influencing Hispanic Parental Involvement in Education

    Shaw, Suzanne B.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on a suburban elementary school experiencing significant growth in its Hispanic population over the last decade. Hispanic student achievement in mathematics as measured by state tests lagged behind that of European American students in the school. The literature revealed a positive relationship between parent involvement in

  14. Factors Influencing Students' Choice of Medical Schools

    Roath, S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    New entrants to four medical schools in Britain were questioned with regard to factors that made them choose one medical school over another. Factors revealed in approximately 400 replies included: application acceptance; buildings and facilities; emphasis on community medicine; and availability of living accommodations. (Author/LBH)

  15. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    Dumitru Mnerie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.

  16. Instability restricts signaling of multiple fibroblast growth factors.

    Buchtova, Marcela; Chaloupkova, Radka; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Vesela, Iva; Cela, Petra; Barathova, Jana; Gudernova, Iva; Zajickova, Renata; Trantirek, Lukas; Martin, Jorge; Kostas, Michal; Otlewski, Jacek; Damborsky, Jiri; Kozubik, Alois; Wiedlocha, Antoni; Krejci, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) deliver extracellular signals that govern many developmental and regenerative processes, but the mechanisms regulating FGF signaling remain incompletely understood. Here, we explored the relationship between intrinsic stability of FGF proteins and their biological activity for all 18 members of the FGF family. We report that FGF1, FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF16, FGF17, FGF18, FGF20, and FGF22 exist as unstable proteins, which are rapidly degraded in cell cultivation media. Biological activity of FGF1, FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF8, FGF10, FGF16, FGF17, and FGF20 is limited by their instability, manifesting as failure to activate FGF receptor signal transduction over long periods of time, and influence specific cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. Stabilization via exogenous heparin binding, introduction of stabilizing mutations or lowering the cell cultivation temperature rescues signaling of unstable FGFs. Thus, the intrinsic ligand instability is an important elementary level of regulation in the FGF signaling system. PMID:25854632

  17. Gallium Arsenide Czokhralski Crystal Growth with High Oscillatory Influences

    V.G.Kosushkin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ultrasound introduced into the melt during the growth of single crystals of gallium arsenide. Ultrasonic vibrations had a frequency of 820kHz and amplitude of 0.1-0.2 micrometer. Found an increase in the homogeneity of impurity distribution of the bands growth without change of the dislocation structure of single crystals. In the simulation result of the ultrasonic wave interaction with the melt in the crucible on the basis of the theory of formation of phases is established that nucleation rate associated with the frequency and amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration acting on the melt.

  18. Environmental influence on mussel (Mytilus edulis) growth - A quantile regression approach

    Bergström, Per; Lindegarth, Mats

    2016-03-01

    The need for methods for sustainable management and use of coastal ecosystems has increased in the last century. A key aspect for obtaining ecologically and economically sustainable aquaculture in threatened coastal areas is the requirement of geographic information of growth and potential production capacity. Growth varies over time and space and depends on a complex pattern of interactions between the bivalve and a diverse range of environmental factors (e.g. temperature, salinity, food availability). Understanding these processes and modelling the environmental control of bivalve growth has been central in aquaculture. In contrast to the most conventional modelling techniques, quantile regression can handle cases where not all factors are measured and provide the possibility to estimate the effect at different levels of the response distribution and give therefore a more complete picture of the relationship between environmental factors and biological response. Observation of the relationships between environmental factors and growth of the bivalve Mytilus edulis revealed relationships that varied both among level of growth rate and within the range of environmental variables along the Swedish west coast. The strongest patterns were found for water oxygen concentration level which had a negative effect on growth for all oxygen levels and growth levels. However, these patterns coincided with differences in growth among periods and very little of the remaining variability within periods could be explained indicating that interactive processes masked the importance of the individual variables. By using quantile regression and local regression (LOESS) this study was able to provide valuable information on environmental factors influencing the growth of M. edulis and important insight for the development of ecosystem based management tools of aquaculture activities, its use in mitigation efforts and successful management of human use of coastal areas.

  19. Neutrophil biology and the next generation of myeloid growth factors

    Dale, David C

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are the body's critical phagocytic cells for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. The bone marrow must produce approximately 10 × 109 neutrophils/kg/d to maintain normal blood neutrophil counts. Production of neutrophils depends on myeloid grow factors, particularly granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). After the original phase of development, researchers modified these growth factors to increase their size and delay their renal clearance, increase their biolo...

  20. Progressive glomerulosclerosis develops in transgenic mice chronically expressing growth hormone and growth hormone releasing factor but not in those expressing insulinlike growth factor-1.

    Doi, T.(Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan); Striker, L J; Quaife, C.; Conti, F. G.; Palmiter, R.; Behringer, R; Brinster, R.; Striker, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    An increase in glomerular size occurs in normal maturation after subtotal renal ablation and disease states such as diabetes mellitus. The role that growth hormone (GH), growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), and insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play in these processes has been investigated using transgenic mice chronically expressing these hormones. The glomeruli were enlarged in all 3 strains of mice. Mesangial proliferation followed by progressive glomerulosclerosis was observed in the...

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of Insulin-like growth factor-1, Transforming growth factor-beta1, and Vascular endothelial growth factor in parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia

    Hamide Sayar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are commonly studied growth factors, but little data are available on the immunohistochemical expression of these factors in parathyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: Tissue specimens from 36 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPT (26 adenomas and 10 primary hyperplasias were examined. Normal parathyroid tissue adjacent to the adenoma or area of hyperplasia was used as control tissue. Preoperative laboratory testing [serum Ca and P, creatinine and parathormone levels (PTH] which led to the diagnosis of P-HPT had been performed, the size and weight of the parathyroid glands measured, and postoperative serum PTH levels determined. Paraffin-embedded parathyroid tissue specimens were stained with antibodies to IGF-1, VEGF, and TGF-?1 using standard immunohistochemical procedures. Results: IGF-1 immunoreactivity was seen in 50% of hyperplasia and in 46% of adenoma samples, but in 87% of normal parathyroid tissue in the vicinity of the adenomas (P = 0.005. TGF-?1 immunoreactivity was observed in 90% of hyperplasia, in 92% of adenoma samples, and in 95% of normal tissues around adenomas. VEGF immunoreactivity was observed in 70% of hyperplastic and 65% of adenomatous tissues, as well as in 54% of normal tissues in the vicinity of the adenoma. No significant differences in the expression of IGF-1, TGF-?1, and VEGF were observed between primary adenomas compared to hyperplasia samples (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Parathyroid tissue is clearly a site for production of IGF-1, TGF-?1, and VEGF. IGF-1 receptor activity was higher in normal parathyroid tissue compared to hyperplastic and adenomatous tissue.

  2. The research of the influence of logistical factors on transport flows distribution

    Jaržemskis, Andrius

    2004-01-01

    Relevance of the dissertation is determined by the object of research – the influence of logistical factors on transport flows distribution. The growth of world economics, business globalization, progress in technology skills extends the distances between geographical points of raw materials resources, manufacturers and consumers. Due to the membership in the European Union (EU) Lithuania has got new opportunities for international trade growth, and all the Eastern Baltic countries have becom...

  3. Factors influencing patient dose in diagnostic radiography

    Diagnostic radiography is leading cause of manmade radiation exposure to the populace. The various types of examinations vary considerably with respect to patient dose. Surveys have shown that further to the variation due to technical advancements over time, the applied doses depend rather significantly on the standard of radiological practice in a specific setting and on the individual radiographer. Factors which affect patient in a standard radiological practice can be grouped into three; technical factors, patient characteristics and frequency of examination. The technical factors are as determined by the individual radiographer. If optimal performance is to be achieved, it is necessary to understand how these factors affect radiation dose and option available for reducing it.

  4. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  5. Research on Influence Factors of Crowdfunding

    Yao, Huili; Zhang, Yaodong

    2014-01-01

    Crowdfunding - as a booming innovative internet-based financial model is one of the solution to SMEs and entrepreneurs to develop new products in a difficult financing situation. Factors were extracted by studying the process of crowdfunding, combined with relevant literature. Applying the method of optimal scaling regression, this paper researched into the influential factors affecting crowdfunding project financing, based on a survey about 314 projects funded in crowdfunding website in 2013...

  6. Examining the Factors Influencing Environmental Innovations

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Zoboli, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Technological innovation is a key factor for achieving a better environmental performance of firms and the economy as a whole, to the extent that it helps to increase the material/energy efficiency of production processes and to reduce emission/effluents associated to outputs. Environmental innovation may spur from exogenous driving forces, like policy intervention, and/or from endogenous factors associated to firm market and management strategies. Despite the crucial importance of research i...

  7. Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma

    Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-α) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and tumor control.

  8. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...

  9. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    Gupta, N.; Fischer , A. R. H.; Lans, van der, I.A.C.M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  10. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    GUPTA, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  11. Parents' Perspectives About Factors Influencing Adherence to Pharmacotherapy for ADHD.

    Ahmed, Rana; Borst, Jacqueline; Wei, Yong C; Aslani, Parisa

    2013-08-30

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore factors influencing parents' decisions to adhere and persist with ADHD pharmacotherapy in children. Method: Focus groups (n = 3) were conducted with 16 parents recruited from metropolitan Sydney. Group discussions explored factors impacting on treatment initiation, continuation, and cessation. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically content analyzed. Results: Parents commenced and continued pharmacotherapy due to its positive impact on their child's behavior. Improvements in the child's academic performance and social interactions encouraged persistence with therapy. Parents elected to cease therapy after their children experienced side effects including appetite suppression, weight loss, and sleep disturbances. Concerns about long-term effects of ADHD medication use including potential for addiction and growth stunting, in addition to the stigma surrounding ADHD also contributed to parents ceasing treatment. Conclusion: The findings highlight a need for the provision of accurate information about ADHD and its treatments to parents to empower their treatment decisions and promote adherence. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:23995052

  12. Organizational, financial, and environmental factors influencing deans' tenure.

    Levin, R; Bhak, K; Moy, E; Valente, E; Griner, P F

    1998-06-01

    At a time when continuity of leadership in medical schools is most crucial, the tenures of deans continue to decrease. In the present study of factors influencing the tenures of 382 U.S. medical school deans from 1985 to 1994, the authors focused on issues that were likely to have had a greater impact on deans' tenures in recent years. They assumed that longer tenures are associated with less complex organizational factors and more stable environmental factors. Conversely, they assumed that deans and their tenures are adversely affected by an institution's declining financial health, a complex organizational structure, and a changing clinical marketplace where there is rapid growth of managed care. The authors compared the relationships between these factors and the length of deans' tenures during the ten-year period studied. Among the most important findings were the fact that schools that were less healthy financially, that had the same owner as the primary teaching hospital, and that had smaller numbers of faculty tended to have shorter dean's tenures and higher turnovers of deans. While the reason for shorter tenures of deans at schools that are less financially healthy is understandable, the effect of common ownership of the school and teaching hospital is less obvious, but perhaps the greater preoccupation of deans with the clinical enterprise in that circumstance is a significant constraint. The authors hope that the insights from their findings will be useful to future candidates for deanships in their negotiations with university officials and will help all parties reach more explicit agreements on such issues as expectations for financial performance of the medical school and the roles and relationships of the dean and the teaching hospital director. PMID:9653400

  13. p8 inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells and its expression is induced through pathways involved in growth inhibition and repressed by factors promoting cell growth

    Vasseur Sophie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p8 is a stress-induced protein with multiple functions and biochemically related to the architectural factor HMG-I/Y. We analyzed the expression and function of p8 in pancreatic cancer-derived cells. Methods Expression of p8 was silenced in the human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 and BxPc-3 by infection with a retrovirus expressing p8 RNA in the antisense orientation. Cell growth was measured in control and p8-silenced cells. Influence on p8 expression of the induction of intracellular pathways promoting cellular growth or growth arrest was monitored. Results p8-silenced cells grew more rapidly than control cells transfected with the empty retrovirus. Activation of the Ras?Raf?MEK?ERK and JNK intracellular pathways down-regulated p8 expression. In addition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 up-regulates expression of p8. Conversely, p38 or TGF?-1 induced p8 expression whereas the specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 down-regulated p8 expression. Finally, TGF?-1 induction was in part mediated through p38. Conclusions p8 inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. p8 expression is induced through pathways involved in growth inhibition and repressed by factors that promote cell growth. These results suggest that p8 belongs to a pathway regulating the growth of pancreatic cancer cells.

  14. Growth factors regulate immunoreactive insulin-like growth factor-I production by cultured porcine granulosa cells.

    Mondschein, J S; Hammond, J M

    1988-07-01

    The effects of various growth factors on the production of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factor I (iIGF-I) in short term (3-day) cultures of porcine granulosa cells was investigated. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was shown to be a potent dose-dependent stimulator of iIGF-I production, achieving a 3.6-fold stimulation at a dose of 10 ng/ml. Transforming growth factor-alpha (10 ng EGF equivalents/ml) was also stimulatory. Platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/ml) had no effect of its own, but enhanced EGF-stimulated iIGF-I production. The acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (100 ng/ml) had no effect alone or in combination with EGF. Transforming growth factor-beta (10 ng/ml) had no effect of its own, but inhibited EGF-stimulated iIGF-I production. The interactive effects of EGF and FSH (200 ng/ml) on iIGF-I production were investigated in short term and longer term (7-day) cultures. In short term cultures under conditions optimized for EGF-dependent iIGF-I production, FSH had no effect of its own and inhibited EGF action. Conversely, in longer term cultures optimized for FSH-dependent iIGF-I production, EGF had no effect of its own and inhibited FSH action. Thus IGF production by cultured porcine granulosa cells is regulated in a complex manner and is highly dependent on the culture conditions. Our results suggest that IGF production in the ovary may also be regulated in a complex manner which is dependent on the developmental state of the follicle. PMID:3133199

  15. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATION IN SMES IN ROMANIA

    ONCIOIU FLORIN RAZVAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to organize resources and competence in novel patterns. Enterprises extend their ability to develop new business concepts, their dynamic capability, by accessing external resources. This study proposes to investigate how the use of external resources varies in the course of SMEs innovation processes, and how deployment of external resources is influenced by the nature of the innovation as well as by the context of the innovation process.

  17. Neonatal thyroid function: influence of perinatal factors.

    Franklin, R C; Carpenter, L. M.; O'Grady, C M

    1985-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 229 healthy term neonates at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Results were analysed to assess whether maternal diabetes mellitus, toxaemia of pregnancy, intrapartum fetal distress, duration of labour, method of delivery, asphyxia at birth, race, sex, birthweight, birth length, head circumference, or method of feeding influenced any index. Thyroxine, the free thyroxine index, and free thyroxine concentrations at birth correlated with birthwei...

  18. Major factors influencing local dust radiative forcing

    Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Bauer, Stefan; Otto, Sebastian; Trautmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In conclusion, it is shown in this paper that surface albedo variations over desert regions can have a significant influence on the solar and net radiative forcing of desert dust. It is furthermore concluded that desert dust has mostly a cooling effect over oceans, and a warming effect over highly reflecting desert regions. The widespread non-sphericity of the dust particles causes a challenge; it yields an additional contribution to the cooling effect. It is also concluded here that it might...

  19. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Mehmet Ferit Can; Aytekin Günlü; Hayriye Yeşim Can

    2015-01-01

    Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i) to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii) to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii) to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different soc...

  20. Role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Breast Cancer

    Masuda, Hiroko; Zhang, Dongwei; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research in molecular oncology have brought about promising new therapies that are designed to target specific molecules that promote tumor growth and survival. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the first identified important targets of these novel antitumor agents. Approximately half of cases of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) overexpress EGFR. Thus, EGFR inhibitors for treatment of breast cancer have been evaluated in ...

  1. Secondary factors influencing cascade damage formation

    Primary cascade damage production in iron has been extensively investigated by molecular dynamics, and the average defect production as a function of cascade energy and temperature is well characterized. However, preliminary results indicate several factors alter 'normal' cascade evolution, leading to quite different defect production behavior. Further investigation of three such factors has been carried out: (1) primary knock-on atom (PKA) direction, (2) nearby free surfaces, and (3) pre-existing effects. Results of the investigation confirm these factors significantly impact damage production. Effects include: enhanced defect survival for PKA directions lying in close-packed {1 1 0} planes, increased point defect clustering and larger defect clusters in cascades initiated near a surface, and reduced defect survival in material containing defects. The origin and implications of these effects are discussed relative to the interpretation of certain experimental observations and parameters used in other modeling studies

  2. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech

    WANG, XIN; Larry E. Humes

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, male65, female65 and male85, that differed in talker (male?female) and presentation level (65?85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 ...

  3. Influencing Factors of Science Olympiad Students Success

    M. Kr?ad zlen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and students self efficacy.

  4. Growth factors with heparin binding affinity in human synovial fluid

    Synovial effusions were obtained from the knees of 15 subjects with joint trauma, menisceal or ligamentous injury, or osteoarthritis. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of these synovial fluids revealed, in general, three major peaks of mitogenic activity as measured by incorporation of 3H-thymidine into 3T3 cells. Gradient elution patterns showed activities at 0.5M NaCl, which is characteristic of platelet derived growth factor, and at 1.1 M NaCl and 1.6M NaCl, indicative of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, respectively. The identities of these mitogenic fractions were confirmed by specific immunologic and receptor-binding assays. The presence of platelet derived, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in the synovial fluid may contribute to wound healing in the arthritic joint

  5. Cultured human foreskin fibroblasts produce a factor that stimulates their growth with properties similar to basic fibroblast growth factor

    To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue

  6. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  7. Factors influencing parameters of laser ion sources

    Láska, Leoš; Badziak, J.; Boody, F. P.; Gammino, S.; Jungwirth, Karel; Krása, Josef; Krouský, Eduard; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Ryč, L.; Skála, Jiří; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Wolowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2007), s. 199-205. ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : highly charged ions * laser-produced plasma * self-focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.696, year: 2007

  8. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Djurhuus, J C; Nexø, E

    2001-01-01

    composition. RESULTS: Treatment with EGF increased the weight of the ventral prostate, relative to body weight, by 50% compared with placebo (p < 0.005). Neither the dorsolateral prostate, seminal vesicles nor coagulating glands were affected by EGF. Prostate tissue showed a significant increase in the volume...... endogenous activity of the EGF system in the rat prostate gland.......OBJECTIVE: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is expressed in the rat prostate, and growth factors from this system induce proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cell cultures. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible growth-promoting effects of the system during the...

  9. Oligonucleotide-Based Mimetics of Hepatocyte Growth Factor.

    Ueki, Ryosuke; Ueki, Ayaka; Kanda, Naoto; Sando, Shinsuke

    2016-01-11

    Oligonucleotide-based hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mimetics are described. A DNA aptamer to Met, a cognate receptor for HGF, was shown to induce Met activation when used in dimer form. The most potent aptamer dimer, ss-0, which was composed solely of 100-mer single-stranded DNA, exhibited nanomolar potency. Aptamer ss-0 reproduced HGF-induced cellular behaviors, including migration and proliferation. The present work sheds light on oligonucleotides as a novel chemical entity for the design of growth factor mimetics. PMID:26592704

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF UTERINE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR EXPRESSION DURING THE ESTROUS CYCLE AND EARLY PREGNANCY IN PIGS

    Uterine capacity is a component contributing to litter size in swine. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene is located near a uterine capacity quantitative trait locus on chromosome 8. EGF has been reported to stimulate epithelial cell growth, and therefore may influence endometrial function. We ha...

  11. The Effect of Insulin-Like Growth Factor System on Embryo Growth and Development

    H.B. Ciftci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Insulin like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II are expressed in embryos and reproductive tracts of several species including cow, sheep and swine. They are mitogenic and have endocrine, paracrine and autocrine function infusing cell division, blastocyst formation, implantation and embryo growth. Increase in embryo growth will probably result with a higher implantation rates leading to consequent increases in the number of live offspring. In this review, insulin, IGFs, their receptors and their physiology and function in embryonic growth development were concerned.

  12. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  13. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with...

  14. Factors Influencing Childhood Immunization in Uganda

    Bbaale, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and gener...

  15. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Proto, V.; F. Gioffré; M.T. Maresca di Serracapriola; F. Masucci; A. Di Francia

    2011-01-01

    Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU) content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995). In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  16. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. PMID:25521518

  17. Cheiradone: a vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor antagonist

    Ahmed Nessar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is associated with physiological (for example wound healing and pathological conditions (tumour development. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF are the major angiogenic regulators. We have identified a natural product (cheiradone isolated from a Euphorbia species which inhibited in vivo and in vitro VEGF- stimulated angiogenesis but had no effect on FGF-2 or EGF activity. Two primary cultures, bovine aortic and human dermal endothelial cells were used in in vitro (proliferation, wound healing, invasion in Matrigel and tube formation and in vivo (the chick chorioallantoic membrane models of angiogenesis in the presence of growth factors and cheiradone. In all cases, the concentration of cheiradone which caused 50% inhibition (IC50 was determined. The effect of cheiradone on the binding of growth factors to their receptors was also investigated. Results Cheiradone inhibited all stages of VEGF-induced angiogenesis with IC50 values in the range 5.20–7.50 μM but did not inhibit FGF-2 or EGF-induced angiogenesis. It also inhibited VEGF binding to VEGF receptor-1 and 2 with IC50 values of 2.9 and 0.61 μM respectively. Conclusion Cheiradone inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis by binding to VEGF receptors -1 and -2 and may be a useful investigative tool to study the specific contribution of VEGF to angiogenesis and may have therapeutic potential.

  18. Platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer), transforming growth factor-beta 1, and basic fibroblast growth factor in dermal wound healing. Neovessel and matrix formation and cessation of repair.

    PIERCE, G F; Tarpley, J. E.; Yanagihara, D.; Mustoe, T. A.; Fox, G. M.; Thomason, A.

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer, rPDGF-BB), transforming growth factor beta 1 (rTGF-beta 1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF) can accelerate healing of soft tissues. However, little information is available characterizing the components of wound matrix induced by these growth factors and the molecular mechanisms underlying accelerated repair and wound maturation. In this study, the composition, quantity, and rate of extracellular matrix deposition within gro...

  19. Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 in diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short-stature children

    Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) is conventionally diagnosed and confirmed by diminished peak Growth Hormone (GH) levels to provocative testing. Serum Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are under the influence of GH and reflect the spontaneous endogenous GH secretion. Owing to the absence of a circadian rhythm, it is possible to take individual measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 at any time of the day for evaluation of GH status instead of subjecting the individual to cumbersome provocative tests. Objectives of this study were to compare IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 assays with Exercise and L-Dopa stimulation tests in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short stature children using ITT as gold standard. Methods: This validation study was conducted at Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP, Rawalpindi, from November 2005 to October 2006. Fifty-two short stature children were included in the study. Basal samples for GH levels and simultaneous IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 measurements were obtained and afterwards all children were subjected to sequential exercise and LDopa stimulation tests. Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) was performed one week later with all the necessary precautionary measures. On the basis of ITT results, children were divided into two groups, i.e., 31 growth hormone deficient and 21 Normal Variant Short Stature (NVSS). Results: The diagnostic value of exercise stimulation test remained highest with sensitivity 90.3%, specificity 76.0%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 84.84%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 84.2% and accuracy 84.6%. The conventional L-Dopa stimulation had sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 38.0%, PPV 69.7%, NPV 88.8 % and accuracy 73.0%. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were positively correlated with post ITT peak GH levels (r= 0.527, r=0.464 respectively, both p<0.001). The diagnostic value of IGF-1 had sensitivity 83.87%, specificity 76.2%, PPV 83.87%, NPV 76.2% and accuracy 80.76%. The diagnostic value of IGFBP-3 had sensitivity 54.83%, specificity 90.47%, PPV 89.47%, NPV 57.57% and accuracy 69.23%. With combined use of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 diagnostic value had sensitivity 69.35%, specificity 83.33% PPV 86%, NPV 64.81% and accuracy 75%. Conclusion Growth Hormones provocative tests still remain the most useful investigations for the diagnosis of GHD. Measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 have shown comparable diagnostic performance with growth hormone stimulation tests and are valuable for patients convenience and ease of performance and can be useful in the initial workup of short stature. (author)

  20. Influence of abiotic factors infestation in Mahanarva fimbriolata (stl, 1854) (hemiptera: cercopidae) in sugar cane

    Rogrio Hidalgo Barbosa; Samir Oliveira Kassab; Bruno Agostini Colman; Fabricio Fagundes Pereira; Alan de Souza Silva

    2014-01-01

    Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stl, 1854) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is a pest of sugar cane in the centersouth of Brazil. Several factors can affect the occurrence and population growth of insect in the ecosystems. In order to verify the influence of abiotic factors on the infestation of M. fimbriolata, we evaluated a field cultivated with sugar cane in the municipality of Anglica, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Temperature ( C), accumulated precipitation (mm) and relative humidity (%) were corre...

  1. Alterations of the genes involved in the PI3K and estrogen-receptor pathways influence outcome in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy with trastuzumab is widely used for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer, but a significant number of patients with the tumor fail to respond, or relapse. The mechanisms of recurrence and biomarkers that indicate the response to the chemotherapy and outcome are not fully investigated. Genomic alterations were analyzed using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in 46 HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) 3+ or 2+/fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)+ breast cancers that were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel, cyclophosphamid, epirubicin, fluorouracil, and trastuzumab. Patients were classified into two groups based on presence or absence of alterations of 65 cancer-associated genes, and the two groups were further classified into four groups based on genomic HER2 copy numbers or hormone receptor status (HR+/−). Pathological complete response (pCR) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were compared between any two of the groups. The pCR rate was 54% in 37 patients, and the RFS rate at 3 years was 72% (95% CI, 0.55-0.89) in 42 patients. The analysis disclosed 8 tumors with nonamplified HER2 and 38 tumors with HER2 amplification, indicating the presence of discordance in tumors diagnosed using current HER2 testing. The 8 patients showed more difficulty in achieving pCR (P=0.019), more frequent relapse (P=0.018), and more frequent alterations of genes in the PI3K pathway (P=0.009) than the patients with HER2 amplification. The alterations of the PI3K and estrogen receptor (ER) pathway genes generally indicated worse RFS rates. The prognostic significance of the alterations was shown in patients with a HR+ tumor, but not in patients with a HR- tumor when divided. Alterations of the PI3K and ER pathway genes found in patients with a HR+ tumor with poor outcome suggested that crosstalk between the two pathways may be involved in resistance to the current chemotherapy with trastuzumab. We recommend FISH analysis as a primary HER2 testing because patients with IHC 2+/3+ and nonamplified HER2 had poor outcome. We also support concurrent use of trastuzumab, lapatinib, and cytotoxic and anti-hormonal agents for patients having HR+ tumors with alterations of the PI3K and ER pathway genes

  2. Growth/differentiation factor-15: prostate cancer suppressor or promoter?

    Vaňhara, P.; Hampl, A.; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2012), s. 320-328. ISSN 1365-7852 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9600; GA MZd NS9956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : MACROPHAGE-INHIBITORY CYTOKINE-1 * GROWTH-DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-15 * TGF-BETA SUPERFAMILY Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2012

  3. Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-1a-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-Inhibitory Growth Factor (ING)-4- axis in sarcoidosis patients

    Tzouvelekis Argyris; Ntolios Paschalis; Karameris Andreas; Koutsopoulos Anastasios; Boglou Panagiotis; Koulelidis Andreas; Archontogeorgis Kostas; Zacharis George; Drakopanagiotakis Fotis; Steiropoulos Paschalis; Anevlavis Stavros; Polychronopoulos Vlassis; Mikroulis Dimitrios; Bouros Demosthenes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. The term of immunoangiostasis has been addressed by various studies as potentially involved in the disease pathogenesis. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of the master regulator of angiogenesis hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a – vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- inhibitor of growth factor 4-(ING4) - axis within sarcoid granuloma. Methods A total of 37 patients with sarcoidosis stag...

  4. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    Pronk Jack T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which mRNA expression changes are significantly associated. Among key metabolic pathways, this analysis revealed de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides and ATP producing and consuming reactions at fast cellular growth. By scoring the significance of overlap between growth rate dependent genes and known transcription factor target sets, transcription factors that coordinate balanced growth were also identified. Our analysis shows that Fhl1, Rap1, and Sfp1, regulating protein biosynthesis, have significantly enriched target sets for genes up-regulated with increasing growth rate. Cell cycle regulators, such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more conservative estimate of growth rate dependent genes than previously reported. We also provide a global view of how a small set of transcription factors, 13 in total, contribute to control of cellular growth rate. We anticipate that multi-factorial designs will play an increasing role in elucidating cellular regulation.

  5. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  6. Factors Influencing Individual Investor Behaviour in Karachi

    Sania Usmani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have examined motivation from economic perspectives or studied relationships between economic, behavioral, demographic & lifestyle variables but examination of various utility maximization and behavioral variables taken together provides a complete understanding of the investment decision process. This study incorporated this concept by taking 30 variables from diverse decision criteria including contemporary concerns. Results revealed seven homogenous groups among these 30 variables which were grouped into seven factors that address major investor considerations. The findings suggest that individual’s base their stock purchase decisions on wealth-maximization criteria combined with past and present stock performance along with other diverse variables; they do not rely on a single approach.

  7. INFLUENCING FACTORS OF PRICE AND ASSOCIATED STRATEGIES

    Liviu NEAMTU; Neamtu, Adina Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The price is an important element in product position; it is a means of sending signals to consumers about the nature and quality of the product. When, for a certain business environment, the demand curve is known in relation to market (competition) costs and prices, the firm can choose a pricing policy simultaneously with business strategy. This study synthesizes the key-factors occurring in choosing a business strategy and the game of price and cost on the market As an approach to pricing p...

  8. Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa

    Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina

    2011-01-01

    Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in th...

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION TO ADOPT NET BANKING

    SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking while Primary and Secondary Influence was rated the least impacting factor. Both Utilitarian Outcomes and Availability of Internet were rated as second most impacting factor followed by Availability, Cost, Ease of Use, Security, Trust and Self Confidence.

  10. Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.

    Bbaale, Edward

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  11. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)

  12. Insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in mammary gland function

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-mediated proliferation and survival are essential for normal development in the mammary gland during puberty and pregnancy. IGFs interact with IGF-binding proteins and regulate their function. The present review focuses on the role of IGFs and IGF-binding proteins in the mammary gland and describes how modulation of their actions occurs by association with hormones, other growth factors and the extracellular matrix. The review will also highlight the involvement of the IGF axis in breast cancer

  13. Blood flow influences vascular growth during tumour angiogenesis

    Nasu, R; H. Kimura; Akagi, K; Murata, T; Tanaka, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Many factors play a role in tumour angiogenesis. We observed growing tumour vessels in vivo to study the relationship between blood flow and vascular enlargement. Mammary adenocarcinoma was implanted into Fisher-344 rat with dorsal skin-fold transparent chambers. Vascular growth was observed and recorded on videotape through a microscope for 6 h. Vascular networks were photographed and traced every 30 min to identify changes over time. Tumour sections were stained with Masson's trichrome and ...

  14. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-01-01

    Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to rank 17 important facto...

  15. Factors that Influence Customers Buying Intention on Shopping Online

    Yulihasri Eri; Md. Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud

    2011-01-01

    On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing students buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence students buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public institution of higher l...

  16. Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees

    K. R. Sowmya; N.Panchanatham

    2011-01-01

    Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the...

  17. Multiple Factors Influence Glomerular Albumin Permeability in Rats

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wagner, Mark C.; Patel, Monica; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Rhodes, George J.; Wang, Exing; Wean, Sarah E.; Clendenon, Sherry S.; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2012-01-01

    Different laboratories recently reported incongruous results describing the quantification of albumin filtration using two-photon microscopy. We investigated the factors that influence the glomerular sieving coefficient for albumin (GSCA) in an effort to explain these discordant reports and to develop standard operating procedures for determining GSCA. Multiple factors influenced GSCA, including the kidney depth of image acquisition (1020 ?m was appropriate), the selection of fluorophore (pr...

  18. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE E-LOYALTY OF INTERNET BANKING USERS

    Ameen M Al-Agaga; Khalil Md. Nor

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfacti...

  19. Factors influencing Consumer Behaviour on the Czech Market

    Hasan, Maher Mohamad

    2009-01-01

    The important problems for marketing companies in the Czech Republic are how to exposure determinants that lead consumer to decision of buying certain products and which factors influence the consumer purchasing, Through this, Czech marketing companies can understand deeply their consumer behaviour and issue suitable strategies so they can develop their companies and whole industry more. The objective of the study is: To exploit the factors that influence buying decision when buying certain p...

  20. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-I and the liver

    Bonefeld, Karen; Møller, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play an essential role in growth and development, as well as in the overall cellular regulation and metabolism in the human body. In chronic liver disease, IGF levels are decreased, and the circulating levels correlate to the extent of hepatocellular dysfunction...... consequences in cirrhosis are only partly understood. Disruption of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis seems to be closely associated with the development of liver disease, and treatment with recombinant human IGF (rhIGF)-I has been shown to halt, and even reverse, the fibrotic degeneration. IGF-I in itself...... has a strong antifibrotic effect that acts directly through the GH/IGF system and indirectly by the regulation of hepatoprotective and profibrogenic factors. It is most likely that IGF-I deficiency contributes to the diverse metabolic complications of cirrhosis. At present, liver transplantation...

  2. *609436 FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 21; FGF21 [OMIM

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 609436 FIELD TI 609436 FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 21; FGF21 FIELD TX CLONING Nishimura et ... f hypoglycemic effects. FGF21-transgenic mice were lean , had lower fasted glucose levels, were resistant t ... and 29 obese Chinese individuals compared with 105 lean ... controls. In 29 healthy premenopausal Chinese wome ...

  3. Insulin infusion reduces hepatocyte growth factor in lean humans

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Dougherty, Sonia; Forbes, Josephine M; Potts, Jenna R; Considine, Robert V

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is significantly elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular disease, metabolic syndrome or cancer in obese individuals. The current studies were done to determine if hyperinsulinemia increases plasma HGF. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two parti...

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,

  5. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, M...

  6. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy; Andersen, Jens S

    2007-01-01

    mass spectrometry-based proteomics has allowed exciting views on the very early events in signal transduction. Activation profiles of regulated phosphorylation sites on epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream signal transducers showed different kinetics within the first ten seconds of...

  7. Role of fibroblast growth factors in organ regeneration and repair.

    El Agha, Elie; Kosanovic, Djuro; Schermuly, Ralph T; Bellusci, Saverio

    2016-05-01

    In its broad sense, regeneration refers to the renewal of lost cells, tissues or organs as part of the normal life cycle (skin, hair, endometrium etc.) or as part of an adaptive mechanism that organisms have developed throughout evolution. For example, worms, starfish and amphibians have developed remarkable regenerative capabilities allowing them to voluntarily shed body parts, in a process called autotomy, only to replace the lost parts afterwards. The bizarre myth of the fireproof homicidal salamander that can survive fire and poison apple trees has persisted until the 20th century. Salamanders possess one of the most robust regenerative machineries in vertebrates and attempting to draw lessons from limb regeneration in these animals and extrapolate the knowledge to mammals is a never-ending endeavor. Fibroblast growth factors are potent morphogens and mitogens that are highly conserved among the animal kingdom. These growth factors play key roles in organogenesis during embryonic development as well as homeostatic balance during postnatal life. In this review, we provide a summary about the current knowledge regarding the involvement of fibroblast growth factor signaling in organ regeneration and repair. We also shed light on the use of these growth factors in previous and current clinical trials in a wide array of human diseases. PMID:26459973

  8. Nerve Growth Factor in Cancer Cell Death and Survival

    One of the major challenges for cancer therapeutics is the resistance of many tumor cells to induction of cell death due to pro-survival signaling in the cancer cells. Here we review the growing literature which shows that neurotrophins contribute to pro-survival signaling in many different types of cancer. In particular, nerve growth factor, the archetypal neurotrophin, has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis over the past decade. Nerve growth factor mediates its effects through its two cognate receptors, TrkA, a receptor tyrosine kinase and p75NTR, a member of the death receptor superfamily. Depending on the tumor origin, pro-survival signaling can be mediated by TrkA receptors or by p75NTR. For example, in breast cancer the aberrant expression of nerve growth factor stimulates proliferative signaling through TrkA and pro-survival signaling through p75NTR. This latter signaling through p75NTR promotes increased resistance to the induction of cell death by chemotherapeutic treatments. In contrast, in prostate cells the p75NTR mediates cell death and prevents metastasis. In prostate cancer, expression of this receptor is lost, which contributes to tumor progression by allowing cells to survive, proliferate and metastasize. This review focuses on our current knowledge of neurotrophin signaling in cancer, with a particular emphasis on nerve growth factor regulation of cell death and survival in cancer

  9. Steady Impact Factor Growth for MDPI Open Access Journals

    Alexander Thiesen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past three years MDPI has announced the newly released impact factors for its Open Access journals by the means of an annual editorial [13]. In 2012 we areonce againpleased to report that the growth of the impact factors of MDPIs Open Access journals continues. This years edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR, which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes 10 journals published by MDPI, including three that have received their first official Impact FactorsInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH, Materials and Nutrients. Table 1 reports the latest Impact Factors for 2011. Figure 1 graphically depicts the evolution of the Impact Factors for four MDPI open access journals that have received Impact Factors in the past. Table 2 reports the ranking of the MDPI journals within the subject categories of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE.

  10. Cow placenta extract promotes murine hair growth through enhancing the insulin - like growth factor-1

    Dongliang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.

  11. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  12. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer

    Ivković-Kapicl Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Testing for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in breast cancer at the time of primary diagnosis is now the standard of care. Positivity for epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in breast cancer is a prognostic factor regarding tumor aggressiveness and a predictive factor for response to Herceptin. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure that all patients who may benefit from Herceptin are correctly identified. Assay method. The principal testing methods used for determination of epider­mal growth factor receptor-2 status are immunohistochemistry for protein over expression and in situ hybridization using either fluorescence or a chromogen. Immunohistochemical testing method allows identification of epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive patients (3+ who may benefit from Herceptin therapy, whereas negative patients (0/1+ can be excluded. A proportion of specimens defined as equivocal by immunohistochemistry (2+ must be retested by in situ hybridization to determine their status. Chromogen in situ hybridization is a method for determination of gene amplification using a peroxidase-based chromogenic reaction, which can be viewed using a conventional bright field microscope and it determines the actual degree of gene amplification. Various factors can affect the results achieved with these assays, including the assay antibody/probe, the methodology and the experience of personnel. Many countries implemented national testing guidelines in an attempt to standardize testing procedures and make results more accurate. Conclusion. The key point underlined by this review is that whatever method is used to test HER2 status, the technology must be validated first, and there must be regular internal and external quality assurance procedures.

  13. Influence of various factors on functional dyspepsia.

    Ebling, Barbara; Jurcic, Dragan; Barac, Karolina Majstorovic; Bilic, Ante; Bajic, Iva; Martinac, Miran; Pribic, Sandra; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the research is to establish the prevalence of dyspepsia in Osječko-baranjska County, to establish its specific characteristics and to determine the effect of demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic factors. It is a cross-sectional and case control study conducted in 2010 on systematic sample of 900 subjects between 20 and 69 years of age. Every subject was sent an invitation letter and a Rome III diagnostic questionnaire for one of the disorders. A scoring algorithm was used to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD). The chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression were used for analysis.Prevalence of dyspepsia was recorded in 16, 56 %, of subjects. There is no statistically significant difference in prevalence of dyspepsia male and female. The prevalence of dyspepsia increases with age. Correlation with the place of birth was proven. There is no correlation between the current place of residence (rural area and town) and dyspepsia. There is a correlation with marital status. Correlation between stool forms was proven. There were a greater number of subjects that had at least one alarm symptom or some of the psychosocial factors and they often suffered from a chronic disease. The risk for dyspepsia increases with age, body mass index (BMI), and poorer health. Logistic regression showed the following as statistically significant for dyspepsia: place of birth and self-assessment of one's health. FD presents a significant health problem. Rome III survey questionnaire proved to be an acceptable method for diagnosing this functional disorder in clinical-consilliary and primary health care for persons showing signs of alarm and needing further diagnostic treatment. PMID:25869757

  14. Aberrations of growth factors as biomarkers of cancer progression

    Ivanovi? Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation and growth are regulated by a complex network of growth factor and growth inhibitorinitiated signal transduction pathways. The disruption of these signaling pathways through genetic, epigenetic, or somatic alterations is a major area of cancer research. Increasing evidence indicates that oncogenic activation of growth factors and their receptor proteins occur through mutations (oncoproteins that lead to constitutive activation of the signaling pathways, thus providing the grounds for putative prognostic marker(s and potential target(s for treatment of various cancers. Over the past few years, the study of genomics has revealed the gene expression signatures for many malignancies. Present communication outlines literature survey on genomic molecular markers of breast, lung, and prostate cancers. Reassuringly, the dominant genomic markers of these malignancies include oncoproteins and provide a support for their clinical validity as cancer targets. More specifically, this article reviews recent advances in clinical targeting of these malignancies by two types of growth factor/receptors, namely transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?, and EGFR subfamily of tyrosine kinase receptors including ErbB2. Overexpression of these proteins has been demonstrated in patients with cancer progression and correlated with poor prognosis, increased frequency of metastasis and death. In addition, EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitors have been used in targeted therapy of lung and breast cancer, respectively. Recent investigations of lung cancer have uncovered that EGFR inhibitors have their greatest effect in patients with EGFR somatic mutations thus raising a possibility that EGFR mutations may be a molecular predictors of sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors.

  15. Key variables influencing patterns of lava dome growth and collapse

    Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Lava domes are conical structures that grow by the infusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Dome growth can be characterized by repeated cycles of growth punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for its composite strength. Within these cycles, deformation ranges from slow long term deformation to sudden deep-seated collapses. Collapses may range from small raveling failures to voluminous and fast-moving pyroclastic flows with rapid and long-downslope-reach from the edifice. Infusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the spatial distribution of strength in the structure. Solidification, driven by degassing-induced crystallization of magma leads to the formation of a continuously evolving frictional talus as a hard outer shell. This shell encapsulates the cohesion-dominated soft ductile core. Here we explore the mechanics of lava dome growth and failure using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. This meshless model follows the natural evolution of a brittle carapace formed by loss of volatiles and rheological stiffening and avoids difficulties of hour-glassing and mesh-entangelment typical in meshed models. We test the fidelity of the model against existing experimental and observational models of lava dome growth. The particle-dynamics model follows the natural development of dome growth and collapse which is infeasible using simple analytical models. The model provides insight into the triggers that lead to the transition in collapse mechasnism from shallow flank collapse to deep seated sector collapse. Increase in material stiffness due to decrease in infusion rate results in the transition of growth pattern from endogenous to exogenous. The material stiffness and strength are strongly controlled by the magma infusion rate. Increase in infusion rate decreases the time available for degassing induced crystallization leading to a transition in the growth pattern, while a decrease in infusion rate results in larger crystals causing the material to stiffen leading to formation of spines. Material stiffness controls the growth direction of the viscous plug in the lava dome interior. Material strength and stiffness controled by rate of infusion influence lava dome growth more significantly than coefficient of frictional of the talus.

  16. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  17. Influence of initial conditions on large scale dynamo growth rate

    Park, Kiwan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of energy and helicity on the growth of large scale magnetic field, helical kinetic forcing was applied to the magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) system that had a specific distribution of energy and helicity as an initial condition. Simulation results show the saturation of a system is not influenced by the initial conditions, but the growth rate of large scale magnetic field is proportionally dependent on the initial large scale magnetic energy and helicity. Comparison of the profiles of evolving magnetic and kinetic energy implies that the large scale kinetic energy plays a preceding role in the MHD dynamo in the early time regime. Kinetic energy was observed to migrate backward when the external energy flew into the three dimensional MHD system. The data were analyzed and interpreted using the equations from quasi normal approximation and two scale mean field method.

  18. Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana.

    Lado, C

    1997-01-01

    This study examined water use patterns in Botswana, and socioeconomic and political factors that influence sustainable water supply, and discusses water conservation and high sustainable levels of supply and demand; the market structure and its prices, costs, and subsidies; and sustainable water supplies. Data were obtained from unpublished workshop papers on integrated water resource management from seminars conducted in 1994, at the University of Botswana's Department of Environmental Science. Rainfall varied by location. Evaporation is about 4 times the average annual precipitation, which leads to continual water deficiency. Water supplies are based on ground and surface water in the ratio of 2:1. Groundwater is only partly renewable. Surface water is renewable only under the circumstance of sufficient rain and maintained storage capacity. Conservation of water is affected by the high rates of evaporation, few suitable dam sites, high temporal variability of runoff and large surface water storage capacity, the constraints of semi-arid environments, the normally critical water balance, rapid population growth and concentrations in urban areas, economic conditions, and the general increase in living conditions. The governments need to strengthen control over non-market water use and to provide sufficient incentives for efficient water use. Water prices should increase in order to reflect the total economic value, regardless of the political consequences. There are needs to protect water catchment areas and to clarify ownership of water resources. Control of demand should include prioritizing water consumption. PMID:12348506

  19. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth hormone in chronic liver disease

    Møller, Søren; Becker, Povl Ulrik

    1992-01-01

    Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are peptides synthesized in the liver. IGFs have different anabolic and metabolic actions and are important in normal growth and development. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is low in patients with chronic liver disease...... hypothalamic levels. The basal and stimulated GH concentration is pathologically elevated in patients with chronic liver disease and may be due to a disturbed regulation. Alterations in liver IGF receptors in patients with chronic liver disease still require investigation as they may be important for the liver...... mainly due to the decreased liver function. Low levels of somatomedins are also seen in patients with growth hormone (GH) insufficiency, renal impairment, and malnutrition. GH stimulates the production of IGF-1, and both are part of a negative feedback system acting on hepatic, pituitary, and...

  20. Distribution and number of epidermal growth factor receptors in skin is related to epithelial cell growth

    Green, M R; Basketter, D A; Couchman, J R; Rees, D A

    1983-01-01

    EGF. EGF receptors are detected on the epithelial cells overlying the basement membranes of the epidermis, sebaceous gland, and regions of the hair follicle all of which have proliferative capacity. In marked contrast, tissues which have started to differentiate and lost their growth potential, carry......Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a low-molecular-weight polypeptide (G. Carpenter and S. Cohen, 1979, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 48, 193-216), stimulates the proliferation and keratinisation of cultured embryonic epidermis (S. Cohen, 1965, Dev. Biol. 12, 394-407) and promotes epidermal growth, thickening......, and keratinisation when injected into neonatal mice (S. Cohen and G.A. Elliott, 1963, J. Invest. Dermatol, 40, 1-5). We have determined the distribution of the available receptors for epidermal growth factor in rat skin using autoradiography following incubation of explants with 125I-labelled mouse...

  1. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  2. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Inhibits Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling, Growth, and Survival in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Meyer, Gary E.; Chesler, Louis; Liu, Dandan; Gable, Karissa; Maddux, Betty A.; David D. Goldenberg; Youngren, Jack F.; Ira D. Goldfine; Weiss, William A.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Stephen M. Rosenthal

    2007-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common pediatric malignancy that metastasizes to the liver, bone, and other organs. Children with metastatic disease have a less than 50% chance of survival with current treatments. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate neuroblastoma growth, survival, and motility, and are expressed by neuroblastoma cells and the tissues they invade. Thus, therapies that disrupt the effects of IGFs on neuroblastoma tumorigenesis may slow disease progression. We show that NVP-AEW541, ...

  3. COW PLACENTA EXTRACT PROMOTES MURINE HAIR GROWTH THROUGH ENHANCING THE INSULIN - LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1

    Dongliang Zhang; Lijuan Gu; Jingjie Li; Zheng Li; Chunyan Wang; Zhen Wang; Lei Liu; Mira Li; Changkeun Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE), water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice fo...

  4. Fibroblast growth factor receptor is required for in vivo cardiac myocyte proliferation at early embryonic stages of heart development.

    Mima, T.; Ueno, H; Fischman, D. A.; Williams, L. T.; Mikawa, T

    1995-01-01

    In birds and mammals, cardiac myocytes terminate mitotic activity in the neonatal period and regeneration of cardiac muscle does not occur after myocardial injury in adult hearts. Even embryonic myocytes, which actively proliferate in vivo, quickly lose mitotic activity when placed in cell culture. Several growth factors, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF), have been documented in embryonic hearts and some have been shown to influence myocyte terminal differentiation in culture. However...

  5. A new method for the purification of bioactive insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3

    Matscheski, Andrea; Laich, Andreas; Moser, Barbara; Sarg, Bettina; Viertler, Hans-Peter; Pircher, Haymo; Lindner, Herbert; Micutkova, Lucia; Hermann, Martin; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Zwerschke, Werner

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel efficient procedure for high level purification of human IGFBP-3. Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are key regulators of insulin-like growth factor mediated signal transduction and thereby can profoundly influence cellular phenotypes. Certain IGFBPs, including IGFBP-3, have also been described to possess additional IGF-independent activities, which rely, at least in part, on their nuclear localization. However, the mechanisms of IGF-independent biologica...

  6. Factors Influencing Students' Achievement in Form 5 Islamic Studies Subject

    bin Che Noh, Mohd Aderi; Omar, Noraini binti; bin Kasan, Hasnan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the factors influencing the achievements of students in the subject of Islamic Studies for Form 5 SPM (KBSM) in schools in the area of Samarahan, Sarawak. The factors analysed is attitude and interest. This is a survey based study and data was compiled from the survey forms which had the topic "Factors…

  7. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).

  8. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  9. Factors influencing ring closure through olefin metathesis - A perspective

    Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar

    2006-05-01

    Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.

  10. Stimulation of glucose uptake by transforming growth factor β: evidence for the requirement of epidermal growth factor-receptor activation

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), derived from human platelets, stimulates the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by cultured cell monolayers 2- to 4-fold. Stimulation can be detected as early as 30 min with as little as 0.1 ng of TGF-β per ml and maximal effects can be obtained at 2 hr with 1 ng of the growth factor per ml. TGF-β-induced stimulation of sugar uptake is enhanced by the co-addition of platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/ml) or epidermal growth factor (EGF, 1 ng/ml). The NR-6 variant of mouse 3T3 cells, which lack EGF receptors, is not stimulated by TGF-β. Antisera to EGF receptors that block 125I-labeled EGF binding also inhibit TGF-β stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake, although 125I-labeled TGF-β binding remains unimpaired. In contrast, antisera to the EGF receptor, which do not block EGF binding, have no measurable effect on the TGF-β-stimulated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose. The authors confirm that the receptor for TGF-β is distinct from the receptor for EGF and the authors conclude that TGF-β stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake requires the co-activation of the EGF receptor kinase system

  11. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 regulates tumor invasion by coupling fibroblast growth factor signaling to extracellular matrix degradation

    Sugiyama, Nami; Varjosalo, Markku; Meller, Pipsa; Lohi, Jouko; Hyytiäinen, Marko; Kilpinen, Sami; Kallioniemi, Olli; Ingvarsen, Signe; Engelholm, Lars H; Taipale, Jussi; Alitalo, Kari; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Lehti, Kaisa

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant expression and polymorphism of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) has been linked to tumor progression and anticancer drug resistance. We describe here a novel mechanism of tumor progression by matrix degradation involving epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to memb...

  12. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo (Research Institute for Growth Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical College (Japan)); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  13. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-α in human milk

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-α and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-α was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-α was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-α and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-α was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-α. Although the physiological role of TGF-α in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants

  14. HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS

    OANA SIMONA HUDEA

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries s...

  15. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  16. Engineering insulin-like growth factor-1 for local delivery

    Tokunou, Tomotake; Miller, Rachel; Patwari, Parth; Davis, Michael E.; Segers, Vincent F. M.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Lee, Richard T.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a small protein that promotes cell survival and growth, often acting over long distances. Although for decades IGF-1 has been considered to have therapeutic potential, systemic side effects of IGF-1 are significant, and local delivery of IGF-1 for tissue repair has been a long-standing challenge. In this study, we designed and purified a novel protein, heparin-binding IGF-1 (Xp-HB-IGF-1), which is a fusion protein of native IGF-1 with the heparin-bindin...

  17. NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE

    Michael Wall

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

  18. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  19. Factors Influencing Trade Area Activity in the Great Basin Area

    George Ebai; Harris, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    Proper assessment of rural retail sector activity would yield effective and targeted retail extension/outreach programs. Pull factors assess a local retail sector's ability to meet local retail demands and to capture outside trade. If the local retail sector's pull factor vaiue is above the threshold value of one, the local retail sector is capturing local and non-local retail demands. Tobit estimation procedures were used for eight retail sectors to determine factors which influence the capt...

  20. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Brand, Judith S; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. Methods We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using comp...

  1. MANAGERIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING SUCCESS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    SIMA SEDIGHADELI; REZA KACHOUIE

    2013-01-01

    New product development is considered as one of the survival strategies for organisations with high risk which is related to extreme failure rate that should not be neglected. Among internal and contextual factors which affect winning or losing in new product development (NPD), the role of top management team as key decision makers is critical. The objective of our research is to explore managerial factors influencing success in new product development. To find out these factors, relevant lit...

  2. Influence of inflation processes on the rate of economic growth

    Ryabykh Vladimir Nickolaevich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is noted that there is no constant-prototypical relationship between inflation and economic growth inherent in all countries as the attempts of its establishment are based on the analysis of «special cases», that are spontaneously and not systematically chosen, and do not fully take into account other reasons, in particular psychological character of phenomena, as well as the historical background and the geopolitical situation. Suppression of inflation at any cost does not justify itself as in this case the main objective of economic policy – sustained economic growth – is not taken into account. Inflation target is the establishment of a science-based, rational calibrated and optimally acceptable level, flexibly correlating with overall government policy, and is not prejudicial (or which has the minimum cost to economic growth and social reproduction and allows to improve the quality of life in the country. It is assumed that for Russia the allowable level of inflation rate in terms of preserving the living standards is 5–6 %. It is emphasized that the right chosen course of anti-inflationary policy, as well as innovative investment are generally the most important resource factors of the economic growth.

  3. Interactive effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on growth and physiology of southern red spruce

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Andersen, C.P.; Hanson, P.J.; Norby, R.J.; Edwards, N.T.; Tardiff, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies are underway to characterize physiologial changes associated with the decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) at high elevations in the Great Smocky Mountains National Park. Two research plots have been established on Clingman's Dome at 1720 m and 1935 m elevations to document the magnitude of growth changes at sites experiencing varying degrees of growth decline and to explore the physiological basis of observed differences. The objective is to evaluate likely mechanisms of action and identify natural and anthropogenic factors influencing the observed growth patterns. Field measurements include historical and current radial growth of mature trees and saplings, and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, carbon allocation, and water relations of saplings. Laboratory experiments include dose response exposures with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, toxicity screening studies with Al, Mn, and Ca, and characterization of the foliar uptake and metabolism of nitrogen oxides. 9 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Influence of Experimental Parameters on Fatigue Crack Growth and Heat Build-Up in Rubber

    Franziska Stadlbauer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Loading parameters (frequency, amplitude ratio and waveform are varied to determine their influence on fatigue crack growth in rubber. Up to three different rubber blends are investigated: one actual engineering material and two model materials. Fatigue crack growth curves and strain distributions of pure shear and faint waist pure shear samples are compared for a model material. Fatigue behavior is studied for three different frequencies (1 Hz, 3 Hz and 5 Hz. Amplitude ratio appears to be another important influence factor concerning fatigue crack growth in rubber. The beneficial effect of positive amplitude ratios (tensional loading conditions is shown for different materials. However, fatigue crack growth is considerably increased for negative amplitude ratios (tensional-compressional loading conditions. Furthermore, the influence of the waveform is determined for three different waveform shapes. One is sinusoidal, and two have a square shape, including dwell periods and sinusoidal slopes. Special focus lies on heat build-up, which is substantial, especially for large loads, high frequencies and/or highly filled rubber blends. Plateau temperatures are determined for various loading conditions and rubber blends. A very simple linear relationship with dissipated energy per time and unit area is obtained. Results gathered with dynamic mechanical analyses show, likewise, a linear trend, but the heat build-up is very small, due to different sample geometries.

  5. Progressive glomerulosclerosis develops in transgenic mice chronically expressing growth hormone and growth hormone releasing factor but not in those expressing insulinlike growth factor-1.

    Doi, T; Striker, L J; Quaife, C; Conti, F G; Palmiter, R; Behringer, R; Brinster, R; Striker, G E

    1988-06-01

    An increase in glomerular size occurs in normal maturation after subtotal renal ablation and disease states such as diabetes mellitus. The role that growth hormone (GH), growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), and insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play in these processes has been investigated using transgenic mice chronically expressing these hormones. The glomeruli were enlarged in all 3 strains of mice. Mesangial proliferation followed by progressive glomerulosclerosis was observed in the GH and GHRF animals only. In the IGF-1 mice the large glomeruli remained morphologically normal except for the enlargement. These data suggest that the glomerulosclerosis was due, in part, to disordered mesangial cell growth in response to circulating GH. The mesangial lesions in mice with chronically high plasma GH levels mimicked those in human diabetes mellitus. These models provide a means to study the hormonal regulation of glomerular growth and the role that specific hormones might play in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. PMID:3132856

  6. Multiple timescale analysis and factor analysis of energy ecological footprint growth in China 1953-2006

    Scientific analysis of energy consumption and its influencing factors is of great importance for energy strategy and policy planning. The energy consumption in China 1953-2006 is estimated by applying the energy ecological footprint (EEF) method, and the fluctuation periods of annual China's per capita EEF (EEFcpc) growth rate are analyzed with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method in this paper. EEF intensity is analyzed to depict energy efficiency in China. The main timescales of the 37 factors that affect the annual growth rate of EEFcpc are also discussed based on EMD and factor analysis methods. Results show three obvious undulation cycles of the annual growth rate of EEFcpc, i.e., 4.6, 14.4 and 34.2 years over the last 53 years. The analysis findings from the common synthesized factors of IMF1, IMF2 and IMF3 timescales of the 37 factors suggest that China's energy policy-makers should attach more importance to stabilizing economic growth, optimizing industrial structure, regulating domestic petroleum exploitation and improving transportation efficiency

  7. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake, correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term ′IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc′ was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report.

  8. Synergism between vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor contributes to angiogenesis and plasma extravasation in pathological conditions.

    Carmeliet, P; Moons, L; Luttun, A; Vincenti, V; Compernolle, V; De Mol, M; Wu, Y; Bono, F; Devy, L; Beck, H; Scholz, D; Acker, T; DiPalma, T; Dewerchin, M; Noel, A; Stalmans, I; Barra, A; Blacher, S; VandenDriessche, T; Ponten, A; Eriksson, U; Plate, K H; Foidart, J M; Schaper, W; Charnock-Jones, D S; Hicklin, D J; Herbert, J M; Collen, D; Persico, M G

    2001-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). The role of its homolog, placental growth factor (PlGF), remains unknown. Both VEGF and PlGF bind to VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), but it is unknown whether VEGFR-1, which exists as a soluble or a membrane-bound type, is an inert decoy or a signaling receptor for PlGF during angiogenesis. Here, we report that embryonic angiogenesis in mice was not affected by deficiency of PlGF (Pgf-/-). VEGF-B, another ligand of VEGFR-1, did not rescue development in Pgf-/- mice. However, loss of PlGF impaired angiogenesis, plasma extravasation and collateral growth during ischemia, inflammation, wound healing and cancer. Transplantation of wild-type bone marrow rescued the impaired angiogenesis and collateral growth in Pgf-/- mice, indicating that PlGF might have contributed to vessel growth in the adult by mobilizing bone-marrow-derived cells. The synergism between PlGF and VEGF was specific, as PlGF deficiency impaired the response to VEGF, but not to bFGF or histamine. VEGFR-1 was activated by PlGF, given that anti-VEGFR-1 antibodies and a Src-kinase inhibitor blocked the endothelial response to PlGF or VEGF/PlGF. By upregulating PlGF and the signaling subtype of VEGFR-1, endothelial cells amplify their responsiveness to VEGF during the 'angiogenic switch' in many pathological disorders. PMID:11329059

  9. Identification of factors influencing the restoration of cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts.

    Bu, Chongfeng; Wu, Shufang; Yang, Yongsheng; Zheng, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover >35% of the Earth's land area and contribute to important ecological functions in arid and semiarid ecosystems, including erosion reduction, hydrological cycling, and nutrient cycling. Artificial rapid cultivation of BSCs can provide a novel alternative to traditional biological methods for controlling soil and water loss such as the planting of trees, shrubs, and grasses. At present, little is known regarding the cultivation of BSCs in the field due to lack of knowledge regarding the influencing factors that control BSCs growth. Thus, we determined the effects of various environmental factors (shade; watering; N, P, K, and Ca concentrations) on the growth of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs from the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States. The soil surface changes and chlorophyll a concentrations were used as proxies of BSC growth and development. After 4 months, five factors were found to impact BSC growth with the following order of importance: NH4NO3 ? watering frequency>shading>CaCO3 ? KH2PO4. The soil water content was the primary positive factor affecting BSC growth, and BSCs that were watered every 5 days harbored greater biomass than those watered every 10 days. Groups that received NH4NO3 consistently exhibited poor growth, suggesting that fixed N amendment may suppress BSC growth. The effect of shading on the BSC biomass was inconsistent and depended on many factors including the soil water content and availability of nutrients. KH2PO4 and CaCO3 had nonsignificant effects on BSC growth. Collectively, our results indicate that the rapid restoration of BSCs can be controlled and realized by artificial "broadcasting" cultivation through the optimization of environmental factors. PMID:24625498

  10. Growth, yield and seed production of okra as influenced by different growth regulators

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) affect various aspects of plant physiology, mainly vegetative and reproductive traits including yield and seed production. Therefore, different concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of gibberellic acid (GA3) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), alone or in different combinations were sprayed on okra plants at 2-true leaf stage, to ascertain their impact on plant growth, pod production, seed yield and seed quality. All variables regarding vegetative and reproductive growth were significantly influenced by different concentrations of the growth regulators except number of days taken to flowering. Growth regulators were less effective when applied individually as compared to their combined use; however, performance of plants treated with individual PGR was better than the untreated plants. The number of leaves plant/sup -1/ and plant height was higher in plants when sprayed with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+100 ppm as well as with GA/sub 3/ and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. The number of pods plant/sup -1/, pod length, pod fresh and dry weight, seed yield and seed quality (in terms of germination percentage and 1000-seed weight) was maximum in plants receiving foliar spray of both GA3 and NAA at the rate 200+200 ppm. These results signify the role of GA/sub 3/ and NAA in okra pod production for fresh consumption as well as for seed yield. (author)

  11. The relationship between human resource development factors, career growth and turnover intention: The mediating role of organizational commitment

    Muhammad Shahid Nawaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Retaining the best employees is of high concern for most organizations and this issue has become a significant focus of attention for many researchers. For this reason, this paper discusses different factors which influence the employee turnover intention-behavior in the organization, specifically to examine the effect of salary, performance appraisal, training & development and career growth on turnover intention. In addition, based on the social exchange theory this paper explains the mediating role of organizational commitment in the relationship between human resource development factors, career growth and turnover intention. A cross sectional, survey data study is undertaken to investigate the relationships in a sample of 270 full time faculty members employed in different private universities of Pakistan. Partial Least Square two step path modeling is used to test the direct and the indirect hypothesis of the study. The results of PLS (SEM path modeling reveal that human resource development factors specially salary and performance appraisal were negatively associated with turnover intention. In addition, the results also indicate that career growth had significant relationships with turnover intention. Moreover, out of four dimensions of career growth, only two dimensions, namely promotion speed and remuneration growth, have strong influence on turnover intention. Finally, in terms of organizational commitment as mediating variable between the relationships of salary, performance appraisal, career growth and turnover intention, four out of six variables indicate partial mediation including career growth (career goal progress, career growth (promotion speed, career growth (remuneration growth and performance appraisal.

  12. Growth factors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: relative roles

    Allen Jeremy T

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients has evolved very slowly; the fundamental approach of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents has had little impact on long-term survival. The continued use of corticosteroids is justified because of the lack of a more effective alternative. Current research indicates that the mechanisms driving idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis reflect abnormal, dysregulated wound healing within the lung, involving increased activity and possibly exaggerated responses by a spectrum of profibrogenic growth factors. An understanding of the roles of these growth factors, and the way in which they modulate events at cellular level, could lead to more targeted therapeutic strategies, improving patients' quality of life and survival.

  13. Isoflavone effects on insulin like growth factors and breast cancer.

    Campbell-McNulty, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    An increased concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is recognized to be an independent risk factor for pre-menopausal breast cancer. Tamoxifen is thought to initially reduce IGF-1 concentrations and increase levels of the IGF binding proteins 1 and 3. Isoflavones are oestrogen-like plant compounds, which may, because of their structural similarities to tamoxifen, also alter IGF status. This thesis first compares IGF-1, IGF binding protein 1(BP-1) and IGF binding protein 3 (BP-3...

  14. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  15. Signal Transduction by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors

    Koch, Sina; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are master regulators of vascular development and of blood and lymphatic vessel function during health and disease in the adult. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism of action of this family of five mammalian ligands, which act through three receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In addition, coreceptors like neuropilins (NRPs) and integrins associate with the ligand/receptor signaling complex and modulate the output. Therapeutics to blo...

  16. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor

    Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a method for purification of human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from outdated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) using commonly available laboratory reagents and yielding a mitogen purified 800,000-fold over the starting material. (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA of cultured cells responsive to PDGF represents the most readily available method to follow its purification and define the biological activity of a purified preparation. Other assays to quantitate PDGF include radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay.

  17. Topical administration of adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics and nerve growth factor

    Jena J. Steinle

    2010-01-01

    Jena J SteinleDepartments of Ophthalmology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USAAbstract: Topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics are currently in use for corneal ulcers and glaucoma. A recent interest in the neuroprotective abilities of NGF has led to a renewed interest in NGF as a therapeutic for retinal and choroidal diseases. NGF can promote cell proliferati...

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma

    HANAZONO, Kiwamu; Fukumoto, Shinya; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; ENDO, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; IWANO, Hidetomo; UCHIDE, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a urinary bladder tumor with high mortality, is encountered commonly in dogs. Whereas overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development of human urinary bladder cancer, information on EGFR expression in canine TCC is lacking. In this study, EGFR protein and mRNA expression in canine normal bladder (n=5), polypoid cystitis (n=5) and TCC (n=25) were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction....

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR biology and human oral cancer

    Todd, R.; Wong, D.T.W

    1999-01-01

    Dysregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most frequently studied molecular events leading to oral carcinogenesis. Overexpression of EGFR is a common event in many human solid tumors. Elevated levels of EGFR mRNA in human cancer occur with and without gene rearrangement. Structural alterations in the receptor can also result in the dysregulation of the EGFR pathway. EGFR overexpression without gene re-arrangement is frequently ...

  20. Anti-insulin growth factor receptor therapy in Ewing sarcoma

    Isakoff, Michael S; Marina, Neyssa

    2009-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signal transduction pathway appears to play a key role in the development and proliferation of the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. Integration of anti-IGF-1 receptor therapy into the standard treatment for these patients is a novel approach that will likely be incorporated into future treatment to determine whether such agents will improve the outcome for patients with this malignancy.

  1. Transforming Growth Factor-β Induces Airway Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy

    Goldsmith, Adam M; Bentley, J. Kelley; Zhou, Limei; Jia, Yue; Bitar, Khalil N.; Fingar, Diane C; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2005-01-01

    Although smooth muscle hypertrophy is present in asthmatic airways, little is known about the biochemical pathways regulating airway smooth muscle protein synthesis, cell size, or accumulation of contractile apparatus proteins. We sought to develop a model of airway smooth muscle hypertrophy in primary cells using a physiologically relevant stimulus. We hypothesized that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induces hypertrophy in primary bronchial smooth muscle cells. Primary human bronchial sm...

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in the Developing Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus

    Tsai, Pei-San; Brooks, Leah R; Rochester, Johanna R.; Kavanaugh, Scott I.; Chung, Wilson C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is pivotal to the formation of numerous central regions. Increasing evidence suggests FGF signaling also directs the development of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus, a collection of neuroendocrine neurons originating primarily within the nose and the ventricular zone of the diencephalon. This review outlines evidence for a role of FGF signaling in the prenatal and postnatal development of several hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems. The emphasis is plac...

  3. UPDATE ON FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 23 IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Wolf, Myles

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health epidemic that affects millions of people worldwide. Presence of CKD predisposes individuals to high risks of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Disordered phosphate homeostasis with elevated circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an early and pervasive complication of CKD. CKD is likely the most common cause of chronically elevated FGF23 levels, and the clinical condition in which levels ar...

  4. Equilibrium denaturation studies of mouse beta-nerve growth factor.

    Timm, D. E.; Neet, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Equilibrium denaturation of dimeric mouse beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) has been studied by monitoring changes in the protein's spectroscopic characteristics. Denaturation of beta-NGF in guanidine hydrochloride and urea resulted in an altered intrinsic fluorescence emission spectrum, fluorescence depolarization, and diminished negative circular dichroism. Native-like spectroscopic properties and specific biological activity are restored when denaturant is diluted from unfolded samples, ...

  5. The Fibroblast Growth Factor System is Downregulated Following Social Defeat

    Turner, Cortney A; Calvo, Nelson; Frost, Douglas O.; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.

    2007-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system has previously been found to be altered in post-mortem brains of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study tested whether the FGF system is altered following acute social defeat. Rats were exposed to four consecutive days of either a social defeat paradigm or novel cages. Animals were sacrificed after the last social defeat session and gene expression was assessed in the hippocampus by mRNA in situ hybridization. Molecular co...

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor biology: clinical implications for ocular treatments

    Bhisitkul, R B

    2006-01-01

    Decades of research on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have reached fruition with the recent development of intravitreal anti?VEGF treatments for exudative age?related macular degeneration. VEGF is a critical regulator of angiogenesis and vascular permeability with diverse roles, both pathological and physiological, during development and adulthood. The aim of this article is to review aspects of VEGF biology that may be relevant to the clinical use of anti?VEGF agents in ophthalmol...

  7. Teamwork and technology: Success factors for creating growth

    The petroleum industry faces many challenges moving toward the next century. How effectively these challenges are addressed and managed will determine whether or not the exploration and production business grows and prospers in the future. This presentation relates to success factors for growth creation. Themes discussed here are succeeding in a global energy market, evolution of relationships between oil and gas companies and service companies, the power of technology, and effectively combining teamwork and technology

  8. Milk minor constituents, enzymes, hormones, growth factors, and organic acids

    Rodrigues, L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Milk and derived products contain essential nutrients, such as proteins, lactose, minerals, vitamins, and enzymes. Additionally, despite of their low concentrations in milk, many other minor constituents present important physiological and/or technological roles (e.g. hormones, growth factors). Dairy industries face many challenges regarding milk processing. Also, the full knowledge on these constituents’ physiological roles and effects on health is still lacking. Technological...

  9. Posttraumatic Growth and Related Factors of Child Protective Service Workers

    Rhee, Young Sun; Ko, Young Bin; Han, In Young

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study is to measure the level of vicarious trauma, posttraumatic growth (PTG), and other factors affecting PTG among child protective service workers. Methods We include posttraumatic stress, social support, stress coping, and demographic data as independent variables. Data was collected from 255 full-time social workers from 43 child protective agencies as acomplete enumeration and 204 included in the final analysis. Results The major findings of the study were as f...

  10. Maternal serum placental growth hormone, but not human placental lactogen or insulin growth factor-1, is positively associated with fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy

    Pedersen, N G; Juul, A; Christiansen, M; Wøjdemann, K R; Tabor, A

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy.......To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy....

  11. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  12. Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk

    Breast milk has been shown to enhance neonatal intestinal growth. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in the milk of various mammalian species, the hypothesis was tested that EGF in rodent milk mediates, in part, the breast milk-enhanced intestinal growth in neonatal rat. Fifty-eight rat pups fed artificial formal that contained 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 μg/ml EGF for 39 h had greater incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and DNA content of intestine than 29 pups fed unsupplemented formula. Pups fed EGF for 5 days had significantly greater body weight, intestinal weight, length, and DNA content than control pups. Conversely, pups fed pooled rat milk containing rabbit-derived antibody to EGF for 39 h had intestines of lower weight that contained less DNA than animals fed rat milk containing normal rabbit serum. EGF appears to mediate, in part, breast milk-enhanced neonatal intestinal growth

  13. Influence of various growth parameters on fungal growth and volatile metabolite production by indoor molds.

    Polizzi, Viviana; Adams, An; De Saeger, Sarah; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Moretti, Antonio; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    A Penicillium polonicum, an Aspergillus ustus and a Periconia britannica strain were isolated from water-damaged environments and the production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was investigated by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. The most important MVOCs produced were 2-methylisoborneol, geosmin and daucane-type sesquiterpenes for P. polonicum, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, germacrene D, δ-cadinene and other sesquiterpenes for A. ustus and the volatile mycotoxin precursor aristolochene together with valencene, α-selinene and β-selinene for P. britannica. Different growth conditions (substrate, temperature, relative humidity) were selected, resembling indoor parameters, to investigate their influence on fungal metabolism in relation with the sick building syndrome and the results were compared with two other fungal strains previously analyzed under the same conditions. In general, the range of MVOCs and the emitted quantities were larger on malt extract agar than on wallpaper and plasterboard, but, overall, the main MVOC profile was conserved also on the two building materials tested. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on growth and metabolism is different for different fungal species, and two main patterns of behavior could be distinguished. Results show that, even at suboptimal conditions for growth, production of fungal volatiles can be significant. PMID:22169393

  14. Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees

    Schuppli, C A; D. Fraser

    2007-01-01

    Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal‐based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a m...

  15. ELUSIVE FACTORS INFLUENCING SHARE VALUES: AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT

    OYEDOKUN, Akintunde, Jonathan; AWOREMI, Joshua, Remi.; ODEYEMI, Joshua, Taiwo.

    2011-01-01

    The paper examined the elusive factors influencing share value in the Nigeria oil and gas industry with the aim of determining their effect and the extent to which they influenced share value. A simple random technique was used to select three of the six listed oil and gas companies on the Nigeria stock exchange. A stratified random technique was then used to select respondent in the functional department across the selected oil and gas industry. Both secondary and primary data were involved ...

  16. Influence Of Dilution Factor For Activity Measurement Of 60CO

    Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)

  17. Choosing to Practise Obstetrics: What factors influence family practice residents?

    Reid, Anthony J.; Carroll, June C

    1991-01-01

    To document their plans for practising obstetrics and factors influencing these decisions, a questionnaire was sent to all 79 residents graduating from the University of Toronto's Department of Family and Community Medicine. Fifty-one percent of the 53 residents who responded (67%) planned to practise obstetrics on graduation; 21% planned antenatal care only; 11% planned no obstetrics; and 17% were undecided. The family practice program appeared to influence the residents positively.

  18. AN INTERACTION MODEL BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND BLACK RICE GROWTH IN IRRIGATED ORGANIC PADDY FIELD

    Budiman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Black rice production in organic farming system does not meet the demand of local customers because of its low productivity. This research aimed to set an interaction model using multivariate analysis via smartPLS to identify environmental factors which simultaneously affects the growth of black rice. The growth of black rice in two irrigated organic paddy field in Malang, Indonesia was observed during planting period from November 2011 to March 2012. In each rice field, the growth was periodically recorded during planting periods: 19-29 days after planting (dap, 41-45 dap, 62-66 dap, 77-81 dap, 90-94 dap and 104-106 dap. Environmental factors such as water quantities, soil conditions, weed communities and cultivation system around the black rice population were also measured. Black rice growth was influenced simultaneously by water quantities, soil, weed communities and cultivating systems with predictive-relevance value reaching 92.83%. Based on the model, water quantities in paddy field is a key factor which directly and indirectly determined the growth and productivity of black rice.

  19. Primary factors influencing online shopping behavior in Vietnam

    Le, Ngoc Thao Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in Vietnam, e-commerce is growing significantly, and the growth rate of Vietnam online shopping is among the highest in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose of this thesis was to examine and get a deep understanding of factors affecting online shopping behavior in Vietnam. Price, Trust, Convenience, and Products were identified as important factors. Another purpose of this thesis is to, based on the results, give suggestions for an electronics manufacturer and retailer in Vietnam – ...

  20. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Oana Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  1. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in Japan

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2009-10-15

    This article computes the energy productivity changes of regions in Japan using total-factor frameworks based on data envelopment analysis (DEA). Since the traditional DEA-Malmquist index cannot analyze changes in single-factor productivity changes under the total-factor framework, we apply a new index proposed by Hu and Chang [2009. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in China. Energy Policy, submitted for publication]: a total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPI) that integrates the concept of the total-factor energy efficiency index into the Malmquist productivity index (MPI). Moreover, we separate TFEPI into change in relative energy efficiency, or the 'catching up effect,' and shift in the technology of energy use, or the 'innovation effect.' The data from 47 prefectures during the period of 1993-2003 are used to compute the TFEPI and its components for 4 kinds of energy. The TFEPI of electric power for commercial and industrial use changes -0.6% annually, which can be separated into a total-factor energy efficiency change of 0.2% and a technical change of -0.8%. The TFEPI for coal deteriorates by 1.0%/year, which is mostly caused by a decrease in relative energy efficiency change. We define and identify 'innovators' who cause the frontier to shift. Most regions identified as frontier shifters are located outside of Japan's four major industrial areas. (author)

  2. On the factors influencing the dispersion of radioiodines

    Radioactivities dispersed from 0.1N sodium hydroxide solutions of 123I, 125I, or 131I were measured, and the factors influencing dispersion of radioiodines were analyzed. The radioiodines dispersed were trapped by glass fiber filters, charcoal filters, and separable paint. The factors influencing the dispersion of radioiodines are discussed in terms of the dispersal rate, which difined as the ratio of total activity of three kinds of traps in a unit time to whole activity. In order to clarify the factors influencing the dispersal rate, we carried out the experiments; on the effect of reducing agent, that of radioactive concentration of radioiodine, that of mixing the 125I solution with 131I, and that of scavenging hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals. It could be concluded from experimental results that the principal factors influencing dispersion of radioiodines are the number of atoms of radioiodine per volume and the energy absorbed in solution from radioiodines. In regard to the absorbed energy, we thought that the dispersion of radioiodines is influenced mainly by hydrated electron, not markedly by hydroxyl radical. (author)

  3. Influence of external action and structural factors on radiation blistering

    A survey of experimental results is presented, pertaining to radiation blistering of a considerable number of materials (stainless steels, alloys with high nickel content, alloys of refractory metals) under helium ion irradiation with energies of 20-100 keV under conditions corresponding to the plasma-wall interaction: bombardment at various angles of incidence and cyclic irradiation in a wide spectrum of ion incidence angles; influence of external action, including thermocyclic; influence of preceding neutron and proton irradiation. It has been shown that external factors have a complex influence on blister parameters and erosion coefficients of materials. A study has been carried out on the influence of aluminium coatings, alloying additions, phase state of material and microstructure on the nature and degree of surface erosion. Complex influence of element and phase composition, as well as microstructural changes during heat treatment and welding on radiation erosion have been established. (orig.)

  4. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  5. Influence of growth retardant on growth and development of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch

    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of single foliar flurprimidol treatment on morphology and transpiration of ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias. The growth retardant flurprimidol (Topflor 015 SL was applied once as a foliar spray at concentrations of 5, 10 or 15 mg × dm-3 when lateral shoots were about 5 cm in length. Single foliar flurprimidol treatment was sufficient to inhibit stem elongation of both poinsettia cultivars. The degree of growth inhibition depended on cultivar and growth retardant concentration. As compared to the control, the shoots of flurprimidol treated ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ plants were up to 44% and 37% shorter, respectively. The desirable plant heights for ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias were obtained with flurprimidol at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg × dm-3, respectively. The shoots of flurprimidol sprayed poinsettia were also more rigid and aligned relative to each other and thus the bracts on the plant were placed on the same level. The diameters of growth retardant treated poinsettias were up to 13% narrower. The leaf areas, petiole lengths, fresh and dry weights of ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias treated with flurprimidol were substantially smaller as compared to the control. The bract diameters of both poinsettia cultivars were only slightly affected by growth retardant application. Plants exposed to flurprimidol had also intensified green leaf pigmentation. There was almost no abscission of the oldest leaves in the low portions of growth retardant treated plants, compared to those of the control ones. Flurprimidol had no effect on transpiration rate per unit leaf area and stomatal conductance in both poinsettia cultivars. No phytotoxicity was observed in flurprimidol treated plants. Chemical name used: α-(1-methylethyl-α-[4-(trifluromethoxyphenyl]-5-pyrimidinemethanol (flurprimidol.

  6. Insulin-like growth factor system and inflammatory bowel disease

    Katsanos K.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Few reports concerning the levels and the importance of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs in the serum of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have been published. Insulin-like growth factor(IGF system has properties that are potentially relevant to IBD. The IGF system is a system complex composed of IGF-I and IGF-II as well as at least six different IGF binding proteins (IGFBP.IGF-I expression has been shown in lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts. IGF-I is a potent mitogen for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and induces collagen synthesis in vitro, appearing to be important in tissue remodeling and repair. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL- 1 may play a role in IGF-I production linking the IGF system with the inflammatory process in IBD patients. It has been suggested that IBD patients may have low IGF-I and IGFBP levels. In recent years the effect of regulatory peptides such as growth hormone (GH and IGF-I in intestinal growth and repair has been emphasized. Trials of growth hormone in combination with a high-protein diet in short bowel syndrome patients as well as Crohn’s disease (CD patients have been encouraging. It has been suggested that the IGF and IGFBP system may be abnormal in IBD patients during this chronic inflammatory process, yet there is no data is on the exact impact of inflammation on this down-regulation and the interaction between the interleukins and the IGF and IGFBP system, in IBD patients. Key words: IGF system, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP3, IGFBP, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, Crohn’s disease (CD, ulcerative colitis (UC.

  7. Mutagenesis of the crystal contact of acidic fibroblast growth factor

    Several mutations at Glu81 located on the crystal contact of human acidic fibroblast growth factor were studied in an effort to improve crystal growth. Mutation to Ser and Thr resulted in crystallization of a rather bulky form of the wild type, whereas mutation to Val prohibited crystallization. These results suggest that crystal growth may be controlled by designing a new interface by protein engineering. An attempt has been made to improve a crystal contact of human acidic fibroblast growth factor (haFGF; 140 amino acids) to control the crystal growth, because haFGF crystallizes only as a thin-plate form, yielding crystals suitable for X-ray but not neutron diffraction. X-ray crystal analysis of haFGF showed that the Glu81 side chain, located at a crystal contact between haFGF molecules, is in close proximity with an identical residue related by crystallographic symmetry, suggesting that charge repulsion may disrupt suitable crystal-packing interactions. To investigate whether the Glu residue affects the crystal-packing interactions, haFGF mutants in which Glu81 was replaced by Ala, Val, Leu, Ser and Thr were constructed. Although crystals of the Ala and Leu mutants were grown as a thin-plate form by the same precipitant (formate) as the wild type, crystals of the Ser and Thr mutants were grown with increased thickness, yielding a larger overall crystal volume. X-ray structural analysis of the Ser mutant determined at 1.35 Å resolution revealed that the hydroxy groups of Ser are linked by hydrogen bonds mediated by the formate used as a precipitant. This approach to engineering crystal contacts may contribute to the development of large protein crystals for neutron crystallography

  8. Influence of climate on radial growth of Pinus cembra within the alpine timberline ecotone.

    Oberhuber, Walter

    2004-03-01

    Radial growth variability and response to interannual climate variation of Cembran pine (Pinus cembra L.) were studied in the timberline ecotone on Mt. Patscherkofel (2246 m a.s.l.). The study area, which is in the inner alpine dry region of the Central Austrian Alps, is characterized by a continental climate with minimum precipitation in winter (about 150 mm during December-February) and frequent occurrence of warm dry winds (Fhn) in early spring. The hypothesis that spatial and temporal variability of radial growth is caused by site-related differences in sensitivity to winter stress (i.e., desiccation) was examined by applying dendroclimatological techniques. Ordination methods applied to tree ring time series revealed that spatial variability in radial growth is influenced by the local site factors elevation and slope aspect. Growth-climate relationships were explored using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. Radial growth at the timberline was positively correlated with temperature in July and was also strongly correlated with mild temperatures in the previous autumn and high precipitation in winter (January-March). At the tree line, temperatures in the previous autumn and precipitation in late winter (March) also controlled radial growth, whereas July temperature was not significantly correlated with ring width. Because previous autumn temperature and winter precipitation were the main growth-determining factors at the timberline and the tree line, and both of these climate variables are known to influence susceptibility of trees to winter stress, the results support the working hypothesis. Analysis of climatic conditions in extreme growth years confirmed the high sensitivity of tree ring growth to precipitation in late winter (March) at the tree line plots. Furthermore, extent of growth reduction and release varied spatially and temporarily, with south- and west-facing stands showing a higher sensitivity to climate variation in the most recent decade (1990s) than the north-facing stand. This aspect-related change in sensitivity to climate may be associated with effects of climate warming on cambial activity. PMID:14704138

  9. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I stimulates normal somatic growth in growth hormone-deficient transgenic mice.

    Behringer, R R; Lewin, T M; Quaife, C J; Palmiter, R D; Brinster, R L; D'Ercole, A J

    1990-09-01

    A line of transgenic mice expressing insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) under the control of the mouse metallothionien-1 promoter was crossed to a line of dwarf transgenic mice lacking GH expressing cells that were genetically ablated by diphtheria toxin expression. Mice generated from this cross that carry both transgenes express IGF-I in the absence of GH. These mice grew larger than their GH-deficient transgenic littermates and exhibited weight and linear growth indistinguishable from that of their nontransgenic siblings. These results confirm the suspected role of IGF-I in mediating GH's stimulation of somatic growth, including that of long bones, and illustrates the essential role of GH and IGF-I in the modulation of postnatal growth. Analysis of differences in organ growth among these mice, however, suggests that GH and IGF-I also have growth promoting actions that are independent of one another; GH appears to be necessary for the attainment of normal liver size, while IGF-I can stimulate brain growth. PMID:2387246

  10. A study on effective factors influencing on equity risk in banking industry

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the effects of various factors influencing on risk of return in banking system plays essential role on making managerial decisions. This paper investigates the effects of seven factors including equities, leverage, dividend, size, growth domestic products, bank concentration and market return on risk of return in selected banks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects the necessary data through financial statements announced on exchange as well as macro-economic figures reported by central bank of Iran to examine the hypotheses of the survey. Using some regression technique, the study has determined that only bank size and growth domestic product influence significantly on risk of return on Tehran Stock Exchange.

  11. The Influence of the Genotype on Economic Efficiency of Broiler Chickens Growth

    Adela Marcu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper was studied the genetics effect on economic efficiency of broiler chickens growth, reared in intensive system on period of 42 days. The genetic material was represented of broiler chickens that belonged the hybrids Ross-308 and Cobb-500 with two groups (Ross-308, LC-control group and Cobb 500, L1-experimental group. In the growth periods (starter, growth and finishing chickens have received compound feed ad libitum with nutritional characteristics conforming to recommendations of the Aviagen Company. Broiler chickens and compound feed were weighed on each pen at: 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, and was calculated: body weight gain (BWG, average daily gain (ADG feed conversion ratio (FCR. Mortality was recorded daily. Thus, at the end of each growth period (14, 35 and 42 days, were calculated values for European Broiler Index (EBI and European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF. The highest values for EBI and EPEF were obtained at L1, and at LC situation was reversed. The economic efficiency of broiler chickens growth was positively influenced by the growth performance (BW, ADG and FCR and the recorded viability. Although the genotypes studied were reared under identical condition, the hybrid Cobb-500 had registered slightly higher values for two indices (P?0.05, compared to the hybrid Ross-308.

  12. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on growth and differentiation of the continuous rat thyroid follicular cell line, FRTL-5

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many widely varied cell types in vitro, including some that are endocrinologically active. We have investigated the previously unknown effects of this unique growth factor in the differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL-5. The cells demonstrated specific, high affinity binding of TGF beta, and as with other epithelial cells, the growth of these thyroid follicular cells was potently inhibited by addition of TGF beta to the culture medium. TGF beta caused a significant reduction in TSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in the cells. The addition of (Bu)2cAMP along with the growth factor to cultures partially reversed the characteristic morphological changes seen with TGF beta, but did not reverse the growth inhibition. To further investigate the possible mechanisms of the effects of TGF beta on the cells, we measured the influence of the growth factor on [125I]TSH binding. TGF beta did not compete for specific TSH-binding sites; however, exposure of the cells to TGF beta for 12 or more h resulted in a dose-dependent down-regulation of TSH receptors that was fully reversible. While cellular proliferation was potently inhibited by TGF beta, differentiated function, as manifest by iodine-trapping ability, was stimulated by the growth factor. This stimulation of iodine uptake was independent of, and additive to, the stimulatory effects of TSH. Finally, FRTL-5 cells in serum-free medium and in response to TSH were shown to secrete TGF beta-like activity that competed for [125I]TGF beta in a RRA. These studies suggest that TGF beta may represent an autocrine mechanism of controlling the growth response to TSH in thyroid follicular cells, while allowing the continuance of differentiated function

  13. Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type ? and epidermal growth factor

    Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2012-04-06

    The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type ? (TGF?) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGF? regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGF? also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGF? pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGF? are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

  14. Platelet Derived Growth Factor-B and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Polymorphisms in Gall Bladder Cancer.

    Mishra, Kumudesh; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Khan, M Salman; Prakash, Swayam; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) is a gastro-intestinal cancer with high prevalence among north Indian women. Platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGFB) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) may play roles in the etiology of GBC through the inflammation-hyperplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma pathway. To study the association of PDGFB and HER2 polymorphisms with risk of GBC, 200 cases and 300 controls were considered. PDGFB +286A>G and +1135A>C polymorphisms were investigated with an amplification refractory mutation system and the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Significant risk associations for PDGFB +286 GG (OR=5.25) and PDGFB +1135 CC (OR=3.19) genotypes were observed for GBC. Gender wise stratification revealed susceptibility for recessive models of PDGFB +1135A>C (OR=3.00) and HER2 Ile655Val (OR=2.52) polymorphisms among female GBC cases. GBC cases with gall stones were predisposed to homozygous +286 GG and +1135 CC genotypes. Significant risk associations were found for ACIle (OR=1.48), GAVal (OR=1.70), GAIle (OR=2.00) haplotypes with GBC cases and GCIle haplotype with female GBC cases (OR=10.37, P=G, PDGFB +1135A>C and HER2 Ile165Val SNPs with GBC. Protein-protein interaction showed significant association of PDGFB and HER2 with the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. PMID:26320430

  15. Influence of Rhizobacterial Inoculation on Growth of the Sweetpotato Cultivar

    Y. Farzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. is the most important of local tuber crops in Malaysia. It is usually planted on marginal soils such as peat and sandy soils. Malaysian’s are consumed a lot of sweetpotatoes and its production requires high fertilizer input, which can lead to increased production cost and environment problems. The use of biofertilizer and bioenhancer such as N2 (nitrogen fixing bacteria and beneficial microorganism can reduce chemical fertilizer applications and consequently lower production cost. The pot experiment was conducted to determine the influence of rhizobacterial isolates on the response of sweetpotato plant growth. A total of five rhizobacterial isolates capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA were used. Four of the isolates were collected from sweetpotato rhizosphere and one isolate was imported. Cuttings of sweetpotato cultivars melaka and oren were planted in plastic pots containing alluvium soil. Cultures of the rhizobacterial isolates were inoculated at planting time, two and four weeks after planting. Plants were harvested 60 days after planting. The results showed that, three of isolates significantly increased the plant growth and the N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake of sweetpotato cultivar.

  16. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed...... complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to....... However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity...

  17. Gastroschisis: factors influencing 3-year survival and digestive outcome

    Lília Valente; Susana Pissarra; Tiago Henriques-Coelho; Filipa Flor-de-Lima; Hercília Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis patients’ morbidity is still high, underlining the importance of identifying factors associated with adverse outcomes.Objective: To determine factors influencing gastroschisis patients’ morbimortality during the first 3 years of life in “Centro Hospitalar São João” (CHSJ).Methodology: Records of infants born with gastroschisis between January 2002 and December 2011 admitted to CHSJ were reviewed. The relation between demographic and clinical data and morbimortality d...

  18. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi

    2013-01-01

    Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our s...

  19. Factors influencing talent development of elite athletes in Hong Kong

    Chan, Oi-lan.; 陳凱蘭.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how intrapersonal and environmental factors shape the beliefs and experiences of talented athletes in Hong Kong, using a case study approach. The four participants involved in the study were elite athletes recognised for their outstanding sporting achievements. A literature review of previous studies suggested that genetic and environmental factors influence talent development in the sporting domain, with four key themes worthy of further inves...

  20. An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change

    Abbas Saleh Ardestani; Kaveh Teymournezhad; Sajad Ahmadvand

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran...

  1. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new...

  2. Exploring Factors That Influence Knowledge Sharing Behavior via Computer

    Majid Zamiri; Shadiya Mohamed S; Baqutayan

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS) University Technology Malaysia (UTM) to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the ...

  3. Exploring Factors That Influence Knowledge Sharing Behavior via Computer

    Majid Zamiri; Dr. Shadiya Mohamed S. Baqutayan

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS) University Technology Malaysia (UTM) to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the rel...

  4. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli; Hamid Bagheri; Sina Nobahari; Naser Azad; Mohammad Rikhtegar

    2013-01-01

    These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distr...

  5. An investigation on important factors influencing customer repurchase: A case study of Airline agencies

    Mohammadreza Rahimi Shamsabadi; Naser Azad

    2012-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increase trend on purchasing via internet, which indicates a steady growth on this internet service. There are different advantages on e-purchase services such as availability of usage, fast and reliable services, etc. The purpose of this survey is to investigate on different influencing factors on customer's fidelity on purchasing air ticket from different agencies located in Tehran, Iran. The Cronbach Alpha validates our results. The proposed con...

  6. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in rubber industry

    Mehrnaz Moshkelati; Elham Eghbali; Hamed Asgari; Hamid Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Building a distinguished brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. It also helps us sell products with higher price; attract reliable customers for long term relationships. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing rubber industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 20 questions, distributes it among 300 people and collects 265 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.756...

  7. Factors Influencing the Chlorine Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum

    Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility of representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (the MAIS group) to chlorine was studied to identify factors related to culture conditions and growth phase that influenced susceptibility. M. avium and M. intracellulare strains were more resistant to chlorine than were strains of M. scrofulaceum. Transparent and unpigmented colony variants were more resistant to chlorine than were their isogenic opaque and pigmen...

  8. Estrogens and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Modulate Neoplastic Cell Growth in Human Cholangiocarcinoma

    Alvaro, Domenico; Barbaro, Barbara; Franchitto, Antonio; Onori, Paolo; Glaser, Shannon S.; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Marucci, Luca; Sterpetti, Paola; Ginanni-Corradini, Stefano; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Dostal, David E.; De Santis, Adriano; Attili, Adolfo F.; Benedetti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and IGF-1R (receptor) in human cholangiocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (HuH-28, TFK-1, Mz-ChA-1), evaluating the role of estrogens and IGF-1 in the modulation of neoplastic cell growth. ER-α, ER-β, IGF-1, and IGF-1R were expressed (immunohistochemistry) in all biopsies (18 of 18) of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. ER-α was expressed (Western blot) only by the HuH-28 cell line (intra...

  9. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor stimulates growth of the urinary tract in the rat

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Jørgensen, P E; Juhl, C O; Orntoft, T; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four male Wistar rats, 8 weeks old, were allocated into three groups and treated with human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) administered subcutaneously in doses of 0, 30, and 150 micrograms/kg per day for 4 weeks. Blood sampling was done every 2nd week and urine sampling was done...... for 2 consecutive days every week. The most striking finding was that the ureters were dose dependently enlarged, due to growth of all layers of the ureteric wall. The urothelium of the bladder showed considerable hyperplasticity with a widening of the basal proliferative compartment and a normal...... urinary excretion of electrolytes, proteins, and endogenous EGF....

  10. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 effects on proliferation and telomerase activity in sheep growth plate chondrocytes

    Smith Logan B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 inhibits growth-plate chondrocyte proliferation and limits bone elongation. Gain-of-function FGFR3 mutations cause dwarfism, reduced telomerase activity and shorter telomeres in growth plate chondroyctes suggesting that FGFR3 reduces proliferative capacity, inhibits telomerase, and enhances senescence. Thyroid hormone (T3 plays a role in cellular maturation of growth plate chondrocytes and a known target of T3 is FGFR3. The present study addressed whether reduced FGFR3 expression enhanced telomerase activity, mRNA expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and RNA component of telomerase (TR, and chondrocyte proliferation, and whether the stimulation of FGFR3 by T3 evoked the opposite response. Results Sheep growth-plate proliferative zone chondrocytes were cultured and transfected with siRNA to reduce FGFR3 expression; FGFR3 siRNA reduced chondrocyte FGFR3 mRNA and protein resulting in greater proliferation and increased TERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity (p 3 significantly enhanced FGFR3 mRNA and protein expression and reduced telomerase activity (p 3 at the growth plate may be partially mediated through the FGFR3 pathway. Conclusions The results suggest that FGFR3 inhibits chondrocyte proliferation by down-regulating TERT expression and reducing telomerase activity indicating an important role for telomerase in sustaining chondrocyte proliferative capacity during bone elongation.

  11. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  12. Inhibition of placenta growth factor with TB-403

    Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Sengeløv, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    targeting angiogenesis. AREAS COVERED: The data are obtained by searching in the PubMed database. The search terms used included antiangiogenic therapy, TB-403 (RO5323441), placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFR-1 (Flt-1). We review preclinical data concerning the function and inhibition of PlGF and...... summarize data on expression of PlGF in cancer patients. Data from early-phase clinical trials of TB-403 (RO5323441), a monoclonal antibody inhibiting PlGF, are discussed. Future development strategies, therapeutic potentials and limitations of TB-403 are further evaluated. EXPERT OPINION: There are some...... conflicting data on the function of PlGF and the importance of its role in primary tumor growth. Data from some preclinical models of PlGF inhibition and early-phase clinical trials with TB-403 are, however, promising, although the true potential of the drug is yet to be determined. Further clinical...

  13. The emerging role of hepatocyte growth factor in renal diseases.

    Mao, Song; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a kringle-containing polypeptide, acts on various epithelial cells to regulate cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis. HGF also accelerates tissue regeneration of injured organs and is regarded as a key molecule in organ regeneration. Besides the regeneration of the liver, HGF also plays a role in the renal regeneration. In addition, an adaptive alteration of HGF status in various renal diseases occurs. However, the precise role of HGF in various renal diseases remains elusive. The signaling pathways of HGF may be associated with renal diseases. In this review, we will try to provide an in-depth understanding of the underlying role of HGF and its possible interactions with other molecules in renal diseases. PMID:26460681

  14. Role of anti vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ophthalmology

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, is a naturally occurring signal protein which is proinflammatory, stimulates angiogenesis and potent inducer of vascular permeability. Its role in normal physiology includes in embryonic development, wound healing and bone repair, neovascularization following MI and demonstrated in brain, kidney and GI mucosa. VEGF is responsible for many retinal diseases by causing new vessel growth and by increasing leakage and causing retinal swelling. Their use in ophthalmology includes in both anterior and posterior segment pathologies. This article explains the role of VEGFs, their mechanism of action, anti VEGFs, classification, their use, various studies and other aspects. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 683-688

  15. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  16. Chapter 3. Radioactivity of atmosphere and factors influencing its value

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of atmosphere and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of atmosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of atmosphere (Radioactive fallout and global radioactive fallout)

  17. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  18. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  19. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  20. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  1. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.

  2. Factors Influencing the Matriculation Choices of High Ability Students.

    Weiler, william C.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the matriculation behavior of high-ability students choosing among a small set of higher education institutions that are close competitors. Results suggest that students' choices are influenced by net attendance costs and that attendance cost effects decline as parental income increases. Nonmonetary and nonacademic factors, such as…

  3. Components and Influencing Factors of Transport Costs in Logistics

    Alexandru Burda

    2015-01-01

    Transport systems face the need to increase the capacity of moving materials and goods, while reducing the costs generated in this process. Also transport is an essential function for the operation of any business. However it can be very costly one, if not optimized. To reduce transport costs, knowledge of and action on the factors influencing the transport costs, is needed.

  4. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101

  5. Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.

    Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are

  6. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,

  7. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  8. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  9. The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.

  10. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  12. Factors Influencing Medical School Faculty Disposition Toward Collective Bargaining

    Fox, Thomas G.; Blackburn, Robert T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports that faculties perceive the protection or enhancement of collegiality as the single most important factor influencing their attitudes toward unionization. Faculties see collective bargaining as a means of strengthening their position in the decisionmaking process of the medical school. (Editor/PG)

  13. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  14. The factors that influence CAD/CAM/CAE

    CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)

  15. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.

  16. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of...

  17. Factors Influencing the College Choice Decisions of Graduate Students.

    Kallio, Ruth E.

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated the relative importance of 31 institutional characteristics in 1,068 graduate students' decisions to enroll or not enroll in the institution. Factors having the greatest influence included residency status, quality and other academic environment characteristics, work-related concerns, spouse considerations, financial aid, and…

  18. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly

  19. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include

  20. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  1. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    J. Tang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa, addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH. The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30–90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  2. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    Tang, J.; Wang, R.; Niu, X.; Wang, M.; Zhou, Q.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa), addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA) and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30-90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  3. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  4. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  5. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species. PMID:26658009

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  7. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Rat Pups

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    Body weights of rat pups reared during exposure to hypergravity (hg) are significantly reduced relative to 1 g controls. In the present study, we examined in hg-reared rat pups two major contributors to growth and development, namely growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)l0, plasma GH and IGF-1 were analyzed using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Both hormones were significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g control pups. Together, these findings suggest that GH and IGF-1 are not primary determinants of reduced body weights observed in hg-reared pups. The significant elevations in pup GH and IGF-1 may be related to increased physical stimulation in hypergravity.

  8. Influence of growth imperfections on optical properties of nitride pillar VCSEL microcavities

    Florian, M.; Jahnke, F. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen (Germany); Pretorius, A.; Rosenauer, A.; Dartsch, H.; Kruse, C.; Hommel, D. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    For vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser pillar microcavities with three-dimensional optical mode confinement, we theoretically study the influence of growth imperfections on the cavity quality factor. Mode calculations based on a vectorial transfer-matrix approach are used to simulate layer thickness fluctuations as well as a gradual variation of the layer thickness across the micropillar for an AlGaN/GaN material system. Experimental estimates for the layer thickness profile are obtained with transmission electron microscopy Z-contrast images. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Growth Factor Dependent Regulation of Centrosome Function and Genomic Instability by HuR

    Natalia Filippova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mRNA binding protein HuR is over expressed in cancer cells and contributes to disease progression through post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA. The regulation of HuR and how this relates to glioma is the focus of this report. SRC and c-Abl kinases regulate HuR sub-cellular trafficking and influence accumulation in the pericentriolar matrix (PCM via a growth factor dependent signaling mechanism. Growth factor stimulation of glioma cell lines results in the associate of HuR with the PCM and amplification of centrosome number. This process is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of HuR and is abolished by mutating tyrosine residues. HuR is overexpressed in tumor samples from patients with glioblastoma and associated with a reduced survival. These findings suggest HuR plays a significant role in centrosome amplification and genomic instability, which contributes to a worse disease outcome.

  10. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  11. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  12. Hematological and hepatic effects of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) used to stimulate hair growth in an animal model

    Gnann, Laís Angelo; Castro, Rafael Ferreira; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Feder, David; Perazzo, Fabio Ferreira; Pereira, Edimar Cristiano; Rosa, Paulo César Pires; Junqueira, Virginia Berlanga Campos; Rocha, Katya Cristina; Machado, Carlos D’ Aparecida; Paschoal, Francisco Camargo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2013-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata is the hair loss usually reversible, in sharply defined areas. The treatment of alopecia using growth factors shows interesting activity in promoting hair growth. In this concept, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a marker of angiogenesis, stimulating hair growth by facilitating the supply of nutrients to the hair follicle, increasing follicular diameter. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a topical gel enriched with VEGF liposomes on the hair gr...

  13. Epigenetic effects on radiosensitivity: the extracellular matrix and growth factors

    This brief article discusses a previous study which shows that when radiation survival of bovine aortic endothelial cells is assayed in dishes precoated with autologous natural basement membrane-like extracellular matrix (ECM), a survival advantage is observed when compared with cells plated on plastic or cells treated with biologically unrelated HR9-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)/ECM. Two points of interest are raised. The first is in the context of normal tissue tolerance to radiation. The second is in the context of prediction of tumour radiocurability. (UK)

  14. Stochastic contribution to the growth factor in the LCDM model

    Ribeiro, A. L.B.; Andrade, A. P.A.; Letelier, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of noise on the evolution of the growth factor of density perturbations in the context of the LCDM model. Stochasticity is introduced as a Wiener process amplified by an intensity parameter alpha. By comparing the evolution of deterministic and stochastic cases for different values of alpha we estimate the intensity level necessary to make noise relevant for cosmological tests based on large-scale structure data. Our results indicate that the presence of random forces underlying the fluid description can lead to significant deviations from the nonstochastic solution at late times for alpha>0.001.

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma.

    Hanazono, Kiwamu; Fukumoto, Shinya; Kawamura, Yoshio; Endo, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a urinary bladder tumor with high mortality, is encountered commonly in dogs. Whereas overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development of human urinary bladder cancer, information on EGFR expression in canine TCC is lacking. In this study, EGFR protein and mRNA expression in canine normal bladder (n=5), polypoid cystitis (n=5) and TCC (n=25) were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. EGFR protein expression was significantly higher in TCC than that in normal healthy bladder (Pmarker to help canine TCC diagnosis. PMID:25223345

  16. Transforming growth factor-? and endoglin signalling orchestrates wound healing

    NicolaJaneBrown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Various complex signalling networks, biomechanical forces and biochemical signalling pathways in both hypoxic and non-hypoxic conditions orchestrate wound healing. Endoglin is a functional marker, a type III coreceptor for transforming growth factor (TGF-? and an important regulator of tissue repair. Endoglin is expressed in stem cells and proliferating endothelial cells with elevated expression during hypoxia, regulating cellular functions such as proliferation and cell adhesion via Smad signalling. This review focuses on how the TGF- ? family and more specifically Endoglin, regulate stem cell availability and modulate cellular behaviour within the wound microenvironment.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in rat and man

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide which stimulates cell mitotic activity and differentiation, has a cytoprotective effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa, and inhibits gastric acid secretion. The immunohistochemical localization of EGF in the Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands is...... well documented. The localization of EGF in other tissues is still unclarified. In the present study, the immunohistochemical localization of EGF in tissues from rat, man and a 20 week human fetus were investigated. In man and rat, immunoreaction was found in the submandibular glands, the serous glands...

  18. Astrocyte Mitogen Inhibitor Related to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel

    1988-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a well-characterized polypeptide hormone with diverse biological activities, including stimulation of astrocyte division. A soluble astrocyte mitogen inhibitor, immunologically related to the EGF receptor, is present in rat brain. Injury to the brain causes a time-dependent reduction in the levels of this inhibitor and the concomitant appearance of EGF receptor on the astrocyte surface. Intracerebral injection of antibody capable of binding the inhibitor caused the appearance of numerous reactive astrocytes. EGF receptor-related inhibitors may play a key role in the control of glial cell division in both normal and injured brain.

  19. Treatment of Skin Avulsion Injuries with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Hajime Matsumine, MD, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This report describes favorable outcomes in 9 patients with skin avulsion injuries of the extremities who underwent full-thickness skin grafting and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) application. Following removal of contaminated subcutaneous fat tissue on the inside of skin, the avulsed skin was processed into a full-thickness skin graft, with as much of the skin used as possible irrespective of damage. Several drainage holes (5–10 mm in diameter) were made on the graft for drai...

  20. Assessment of the factors with significant influence on safety culture

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of the factors with significant impact on safety culture were performed. These techniques were established and applied in accordance with IAEA standards. In order to show the applicability and opportunity of the methodology a specific case study was prepared: safety culture evaluation for INR Pitesti. The qualitative evaluation was performed using specific developed questionnaires. Through analysis of the completed questionnaires was established the development stage of safety culture at INR. The quantitative evaluation was performed using a guide to rate the influence factors. For each factor was identified the influence (negative or positive) and ranking score was estimated using scoring criteria. The results have emphasized safety culture stages. The paper demonstrates the fact that using both quantitative and qualitative assessment techniques, a practical value of the safety culture concept is given. (authors)