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Factors influencing graphene growth on metal surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphene forms from a relatively dense, tightly bound C-adatom gas when elemental C is deposited on or segregates to the Ru(0001) surface. Nonlinearity of the graphene growth rate with C-adatom density suggests that growth proceeds by addition of C atom clusters to the graphene edge. The generality of this picture has now been studied by use of low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to observe graphene formation when Ru(0001) and Ir(111) surfaces are exposed to ethylene. The finding that graphene growth velocities and nucleation rates on Ru have precisely the same dependence on adatom concentration as for elemental C deposition implies that hydrocarbon decomposition only affects graphene growth through the rate of adatom formation. For ethylene, that rate decreases with increasing adatom concentration and graphene coverage. Initially, graphene growth on Ir(111) is like that on Ru: the growth velocity is the same nonlinear function of adatom concentration (albeit with much smaller equilibrium adatom concentrations, as we explain with DFT calculations of adatom formation energies). In the later stages of growth, graphene crystals that are rotated relative to the initial nuclei nucleate and grow. The rotated nuclei grow much faster. This difference suggests firstly, that the edge-orientation of the graphene sheets relative to the substrate plays an important role in the growth mechanism, and secondly, that attachment of the clusters to the graphene is the slowest step in cluster addition, rather than formation of clusters on the terraces.

2009-01-01

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An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials). We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995), US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167), banking industry growth rate (-0.278826) and moving average (-0.940418). In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676).

Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee; Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

2013-01-01

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Differentiated thyroid cancer: Growth factors, oncogenes and environmental influences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present data of growth factors, oncogenes, tumor-suppressor-genes and environmental factors can be summarized in thus: thyrotropin, growth factors and other hormones do increase thyrocyte growth and specific mutations of growth factor receptors (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], alpha subunit of hetero-trimeric transducer protein [GSP]) cause autonomously functioning thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In the thyroid, as in other organs, genes that are found to be differentially expressed between normal thyroid tissue and thyroid carcinomas can be used as targets for molecular-based diagnosis and therapy. Deregulation of tumor suppressor gene p53, however, parallels dedifferentiation of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer but has been found in few cases only. Iodide inhibiting thyrocyte growth will have to be investigated more intensively after sodium-iodide-symporter (NIS) has been cloned, and studies may now be available that could lead to form of conservative treatment in especially dedifferentiated thyroid cancer.

Paunovi? Ivan R.

2003-01-01

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Growth factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Humoral regulation of somatic and hematopoietic cell growth has been intensely investigated during the past decade. Growth hormone is unique because it regulates the size of the person within the constraints of the genetic program. The somatomedins and insulin growth factors are low molecular weight polypeptides believed to mediate some functions of growth hormone. Epithelial growth factor and nerve growth factor are well-characterized polypeptides that influence the growth and differentiation of epithelial and neural tissues and interact with specific cell surface receptors. The hematopoietins are a family of polypeptide hormones that specifically regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells giving rise to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. Platelet-derived growth factor modulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro and may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis and myelofibrosis. New knowledge on the biochemistry and physiology of growth factors will probably have a substantial impact on our understanding of human diseases involving abnormal cell growth.

Golde, D.W.; Herschman, H.R.; Lusis, A.J.; Groopman, J.E.

1980-05-01

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Influence of environmental factors on the growth of Aeolosoma hemprichi  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of ammonia nitrogen, pH, salinity and temperature in environment on the growth of Aeolosoma hemprichi was discussed. The acute LC50 (lethal concentration 50%) of ammonia nitrogen for Aeolosoma hemprichi was 264mg/L when pH value was 7. The maximum tolerable concentration of ammonia nitrogen at long-term contact with the ammonia nitrogen was 20-50mg/L for Aeolosoma hemprichi. Ammonia nitrogen was more toxic to Aeolosoma hemprichi with the pH value rising. The death of Aeolosoma hemprichi was not affected by the salinity of concentration lower tahn 1000mg/L. At the temperature of 15--30?, the observed growth rateof Aeolosoma hemprichi increased with elevated temperature following the Arrhenius model, but decreased when the temperate was 35?.

Liang Peng; Huang Xia; Qian Yi; Ding Guoji

2004-01-01

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A Multiple Regression Analysis on Influencing Factors of Urban Services Growth in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The indicator of urban success is the success of its urban services. Although much research on services have been made, there is major gap with regard to the regional services, especially on urban services within a country. As for urban ser-vices, there are few research on factors influencing urban services and its effect on regional growth. In reaction to this, the government intend to accelerate the development of urban services and regional economy in the present Twelfth Five-Year Plan 2011-2015.Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence urban servic-es growth from demand , supply, institutional environment and spatial agglomeration side. By using cross-section mul-tiple regression analysis, the study examine the factors influencing urban services growth in China .The model indicated that except for urbanization, division of labor , other independent variables have contributed positively towards urban services growth in China.

Yuan Gao; ABDUL Razak bin Chik

2013-01-01

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Influence of organic wastes and seasonal environmental factors on growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epigeic earthworms (E. fetida) were cultured on variety of organic wastes amended with cattle manure to determine the influence of diets and the seasonal environmental factors on growth and reproduction. The results showed that growth and reproductive strategies of E. fetida varied with different diets and seasons. Growth and reproduction of worms in all wastes were significantly more in winter and monsoon than in summer season. Hence winter and monsoon seasons could be considered congenial for vermiculture. During all seasons, worm activities were more in cattle manure followed by amended Bengal gram grain husk and Mixed Organic waste by E. fetida. Parthenin containing diet had deleterious effects on cocoon production. PMID:12974416

Biradar, Pulikeshi M; Amoji, Sharabanna D

2003-01-01

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Influence of organic wastes and seasonal environmental factors on growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epigeic earthworms (E. fetida) were cultured on variety of organic wastes amended with cattle manure to determine the influence of diets and the seasonal environmental factors on growth and reproduction. The results showed that growth and reproductive strategies of E. fetida varied with different diets and seasons. Growth and reproduction of worms in all wastes were significantly more in winter and monsoon than in summer season. Hence winter and monsoon seasons could be considered congenial for vermiculture. During all seasons, worm activities were more in cattle manure followed by amended Bengal gram grain husk and Mixed Organic waste by E. fetida. Parthenin containing diet had deleterious effects on cocoon production.

Biradar PM; Amoji SD

2003-01-01

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Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 influences pancreatic cancer cell growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the functional significance of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) overexpression in pancreatic cancer (PaC).METHODS: The effects of IGFBP-5 on cell growth were assessed by stable transfection of BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cell lines and measuring cell number and DNA synthesis. Alterations in the cell cycle were assessed by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. Changes in cell survival and signal transduction were evaluated after mitogen activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor treatment.RESULTS: After serum deprivation, IGFBP-5 expression increased both cell number and DNA synthesis in BxPC-3 cells, but reduced cell number in PANC-1 cells. Consistent with this observation, cell cycle analysis of IGFBP-5-expressing cells revealed accelerated cell cycle progression in BxPC-3 and G2/M arrest of PANC-1 cells. Signal transduction analysis revealed that Akt activation was increased in BxPC-3, but reduced in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) activation in BxPC-3, but enhanced ERK1/2 activation in PANC-1 cells that express IGFBP-5. When MEK1/2 was blocked, Akt activation remained elevated in IGFBP-5 expressing PaC cells; however, inhibition of PI3K or MEK1/2 abrogated IGFBP-5-mediated cell survival.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that IGFBP-5 expression affects the cell cycle and survival signal pathways and thus it may be an important mediator of PaC cell growth.

Sarah K Johnson, Randy S Haun

2009-01-01

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DOES SINGLE INTRAMUSCULAR APPLICATION OF AUTOLOGOUS CONDITIONED PLASMA INFLUENCE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATING GROWTH FACTORS?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been employed to treat sports injuries to possibly accelerate healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential, especially for athletes. Growth factors are generally prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency with exception to PRP which may induce adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate any systemic increase of growth factors such as Insulin Like Growth Factor-1, Endothelial Growth Factors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factors, Fibroblast Growth Factors, Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor and Transforming Growth Factors after local intramuscular administration of PRP in young, healthy male subjects keeping in mind adverse treatment effects. Enriched plasma from centrifuged blood samples was injected into the gluteus muscle. Venous blood was collected and serum prepared before as well as 0.5, 3 and 24 hours after PRP administration. Growth factors were analyzed using ELISA test kits. No significant systemic increase of growth factor levels was found after PRP injection except TGF-ß2. For that reason the PRP method may be applied for muscle injury treatment in elite athletes although further studies are necessary to clarify the response to the unspecific increased TGF-ß2 blood levels, which could increase the risk for local fibrosis

Gert Schippinger; Florian Fankhauser; Karl Oettl; Stefan Spirk; Peter Hofmann

2012-01-01

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Identification of growth phases and influencing factors in cultivations with AGE1.HN cells using set-based methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Production of bio-pharmaceuticals in cell culture, such as mammalian cells, is challenging. Mathematical models can provide support to the analysis, optimization, and the operation of production processes. In particular, unstructured models are suited for these purposes, since they can be tailored to particular process conditions. To this end, growth phases and the most relevant factors influencing cell growth and product formation have to be identified. Due to noisy and erroneous experimental data, unknown kinetic parameters, and the large number of combinations of influencing factors, currently there are only limited structured approaches to tackle these issues. We outline a structured set-based approach to identify different growth phases and the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. To this end, measurement uncertainties are taken explicitly into account to bound the time-dependent specific growth rate based on the observed increase of the cell concentration. Based on the bounds on the specific growth rate, we can identify qualitatively different growth phases and (in-)validate hypotheses on the factors influencing cell growth and metabolism. We apply the approach to a mammalian suspension cell line (AGE1.HN). We show that growth in batch culture can be divided into two main growth phases. The initial phase is characterized by exponential growth dynamics, which can be described consistently by a relatively simple unstructured and segregated model. The subsequent phase is characterized by a decrease in the specific growth rate, which, as shown, results from substrate limitation and the pH of the medium. An extended model is provided which describes the observed dynamics of cell growth and main metabolites, and the corresponding kinetic parameters as well as their confidence intervals are estimated. The study is complemented by an uncertainty and outlier analysis. Overall, we demonstrate utility of set-based methods for analyzing cell growth and metabolism under conditions of uncertainty.

Borchers S; Freund S; Rath A; Streif S; Reichl U; Findeisen R

2013-01-01

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A review of the influence of growth factors and cytokines in in vitro human keratinocyte migration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Keratinocyte migration from the wound edge is a crucial step in the reepithelization of cutaneous wounds. Growth factors and cytokines, released from cells that invade the wound matrix, play an important role, and several in vitro assays have been performed to elucidate this. The purposes of this study were to review in vitro human studies on keratinocyte migration to identify those growth factors or cytokines that stimulate keratinocyte migration and whether these assays might serve as a screening procedure prior to testing combinations of growth factors or cytokines to promote wound closure in vivo. METHODS: Research papers investigating effect of growth factors and cytokines on human keratinocyte migration in vitro were retrieved from library sources, PubMed databases, reference lists of papers, and searches of relevant journals. RESULTS: Fourteen different growth factors and cytokines enhanced migration in scratch wound assay and HGF together with TGF-?, and IGF-1 with EGF, were more stimulatory than either growth factor alone. HGF with TGF-?1 had a greater chemokinetic effect than either growth factor alone in transmigration assay. TGF-?1, FGF-7, FGF-2 and AGF were chemotactic to keratinocytes. EGF, TGF-?, IL-1?, IGF and MGSA enhanced cell migration on ECM proteins. CONCLUSION: Many growth factors and cytokines enhanced migration of keratinocytes in vitro, and certain combinations of growth factors were more stimulatory than either alone. These and other combinations that stimulate keratinocyte migration in vitro should be tested for effect on wound closure and repair in vivo. The scratch wound assay provides a useful, inexpensive and easy-to-perform screening method for testing individual or combinations of growth factors or cytokines, or growth factors combined with other modalities such as laser irradiation, prior to performing wound healing studies with laboratory animals.

Peplow PV; Chatterjee MP

2013-04-01

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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent proangiogenic factor. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene with influence on VEGF expression have been described. In multiple myeloma VEGF stimulates angiogenesis which is correlated with disease progression and prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the association between genetic variations in the VEGF gene in patients with multiple myeloma and time to treatment failure after high-dose melphalan and stem cell support (HDT), overall survival and efficacy of the anti-angiogenic drug thalidomide. Retrospectively, the SNPs -2578C>A (rs699947), -460C>T (rs833061), +405G>C (rs2010963) and +936C>T (rs3025039) in the VEGF gene were examined in 348 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma initially treated with HDT, where 176 patients were treated with thalidomide at relapse. None of the examined geno- or haplotypes was associated with differences in time to treatment failure after initial therapy or overall survival. A possible relation between the haplotype -2578A/-460C/+405G (ACG) and effect of thalidomide was seen. Patients with no copies of the haplotype ACG had a longer time to next treatment than patients with one or two copies of the haplotype ACG, median 13.7 months vs. 9.2 months, p=0.007. In conclusion the haplotype ACG in the VEGF gene may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma. Further analyses are needed to confirm these findings and get insight into the functional effect of these polymorphisms so in the future we may be able to select multiple myeloma patients who especially will benefit from treatment with thalidomide. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Andersen, Niels F; Vogel, Ulla

2012-01-01

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Canine splenic haemangiosarcoma: influence of metastases, chemotherapy and growth pattern on post-splenectomy survival and expression of angiogenic factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Splenic haemangiosarcomas (HSAs) from 122 dogs were characterized and classified according to their patterns of growth, survival time post splenectomy, metastases and chemotherapy. The most common pattern of growth was a mixture of cavernous, capillary and solid tumour tissue. Survival time post splenectomy was independent of the growth pattern; however, it was influenced by chemotherapy and metastases. Immunohistochemical assessment of the expression of angiogenic factors (fetal liver kinase-1, angiopoietin-2, angiopoietin receptor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A) and conventional endothelial markers (CD31, factor VIII-related antigen) revealed variable expression, particularly in undifferentiated HSAs. Therefore, a combination of endothelial markers should be used to confirm the endothelial origin of splenic tumours.

Göritz M; Müller K; Krastel D; Staudacher G; Schmidt P; Kühn M; Nickel R; Schoon HA

2013-07-01

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Parent of origin influences the cardiac expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is a major regulator of both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Associations between polymorphisms in VEGFA and complex disease have been inconsistent. The parent from whom the allele was inherited may account for these inconsistencies. This study examined the parent of origin effect on the expression of murine Vegfa. METHODS: Two homozygous, inbred mouse strains A/J (AJ) and 129x1/SvJ (129) were crossed to produce reciprocal AJ129 and 129AJ offspring, respectively. RNA was extracted from cardiac tissue of 6 week old male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) parental, and male and female F1 offspring mice (AJ129 n = 8 and 129AJ n = 8). Vegfa and Hif1a expression levels were measured by qPCR and compared between the F1 offspring from the reciprocal crosses. RESULTS: We found significant differences in the expression of Vegfa in F1 offspring (AJ129 and 129AJ mice) of the reciprocal crosses between AJ and 129 mice. Offspring of male AJ mice had significantly higher expression of Vegfa than offspring of male 129 mice (p = 0.006). This difference in expression was not the result of preferential allele expression (allelic imbalance). Expression of Hif1a, a transcriptional regulator of Vegfa expression, was also higher in F1 offspring of an AJ father (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Differences in Vegfa and Hif1a gene expression are likely the result of an upstream angiogenic regulator gene that is influenced by the parent of origin. These results highlight the importance of including inheritance information, such as parent of origin, when undertaking allelic association studies.

Chiu CL; Morgan CT; Lupton SJ; Lind JM

2013-01-01

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INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE GROWTH OF BUILDING DETERIORATING FUNGI: ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The performance of whole building depends on many factors: structure, coating, environment, climate, type of use, service etc. Fungi are essential for the survival of our global ecology but they may pose a significant threat to the health of occupants when they grow in our buildings. The most important factor that affect microbial growth on buildings materials are temperature, moisture and nutrients. The moisture conditions connected with temperature and exposure time are the most important factor for the development of biological problems and damage in buildings. In vitro studies were conducted on the effect of temperature, pH levels and moisture on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum. Maximum growth was observed on pH level 6 and 7 against A. flavus and P. chrysogenum respectively after 12 days. The most suitable temperature for the growth of A. flavus and P. chrysogenum was observed on 25°C and 30°C respectively. The fungus showed maximum growth at 90% relative humidity.

Padma Singh* and Mamta Chauhan

2013-01-01

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Roles of growth factors in mediating mesenchymal influence on the cytodifferentiation of the dunning prostatic adenocarcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earlier studies have shown that seminal vesicle mesenchyme (SVM) has the ability to induce Dunning tumor (Dr) to undergo morphogenetic changes and cytodifferentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of growth factors and their receptors in tumor-mesenchymal interactions. S...

Lu, XF; Tam, NC; Wong, YC

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Phototherapy with low-level laser influences the proliferation of endothelial cells and vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The healing process and the angiogenesis associated with it, is a very important but currently poorly understood area. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to modulate the process of tissue repair by stimulation of cellular reaction such as migration, proliferation, apoptosis and cellular differentiation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of laser radiation in the range of visible and infrared light on the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro and the secretion of angiogenic factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?. Vascular human endothelial cells (Ecs) were exposed to radiation with laser beam of the wavelengths: 635 nm (1.875 mW/cm(2)) and 830 nm (3.75 mW/cm(2)). Depending on the radiation energy density, the experiment was conducted in four groups : I) the control group (no radiation, 0 J/cm(2)); II) 635 nm - the energy density was 2 J/cm(2); III) 635 nm - 4 J/cm(2); IV635 nm - 8 J/cm(2), II) 830 nm - the energy density was 2 J/cm(2); III) 830 nm - 4 J/cm(2); IV) 830 nm - 8 J/cm(2). The proliferation and concentration of VEGF-A and TGF-? were examined. LLLT with wavelength 635 nm increases endothelial cell proliferation. Significant increase in endothelial cell proliferation and corresponding decrease in VEGF concentration may suggest the role for VEGF in this process. The wavelength of 830 nm was associated with a decrease in TGF-? secretion. PMID:23959736

Szymanska, J; Goralczyk, K; Klawe, J J; Lukowicz, M; Michalska, M; Goralczyk, B; Zalewski, P; Newton, J L; Gryko, L; Zajac, A; Rosc, D

2013-06-01

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Growth history and intrinsic factors influence risk assessment at a critical life transition for a fish  

Science.gov (United States)

Making the appropriate decision in the face of predation risk dictates the fate of prey, and predation risk is highest at life history boundaries such as settlement. At the end of the larval phase, most coral reef fishes enter patches of reef containing novel predators. Since vision is often obscured in the complex surroundings, chemical information released from damaged conspecific is used to forewarn prey of an active predator. However, larvae enter the reef environment with their own feeding and growth histories, which will influence their motivation to feed and take risks. The present study explored the link between recent growth, feeding history, current performance and behavioural risk taking in newly settling stages of a coral reef damselfish ( Pomacentrus amboinensis). Older and larger juveniles in good body condition had a stronger response to chemical alarm cues of injured conspecifics; these fish spent a longer time in shelter and displayed a more dramatic decrease in foraging behaviour than fish in lower body condition. Feeding experiments supported these findings and emphasized the importance of body condition in affecting risk assessment. Evidently, larval growth history and body condition influences the likelihood of taking risks under the threat of predation immediately after settlement, thereby affecting the probability of survival in P. amboinensis.

Lönnstedt, O. M.; McCormick, M. I.

2011-09-01

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Differential effects of dexamethasone on the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells: Influence of microenvironment, tissue origin and growth factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available nchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which reside within various tissues, are utilized in the engineering of cartilage tissue. Dexamethasone (DEX) – a synthetic glucocorticoid – is almost invariably applied to potentiate the growth-factor-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro, albeit that this effect has been experimentally demonstrated only for transforming-growth-factor-beta (TGF-?)-stimulated bone-marrow-derived MSCs. Clinically, systemic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with untoward side effects (e.g., bone loss and increased susceptibility to infection). Hence, the use of these agents should be avoided or limited. We hypothesize that the influence of DEX on the chondrogenesis of MSCs depends upon their tissue origin and microenvironment [absence or presence of an extracellular matrix (ECM)], as well as upon the nature of the growth factor. We investigated its effects upon the TGF-?1- and bone-morphogenetic-protein 2 (BMP-2)-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs as a function of tissue source (bone marrow vs. synovium) and microenvironment [cell aggregates (no ECM) vs. explants (presence of a natural ECM)]. In aggregates of bone-marrow-derived MSCs, DEX enhanced TGF-?1-induced chondrogenesis by an up-regulation of cartilaginous genes, but had little influence on the BMP-2-induced response. In aggregates of synovial MSCs, DEX exerted no remarkable effect on either TGF-?1- or BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis. In synovial explants, DEX inhibited BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis almost completely, but had little impact on the TGF-?1-induced response. Our data reveal that steroids are not indispensable for the chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro. Their influence is context dependent (tissue source of the MSCs, their microenvironment and the nature of the growth-factor). This finding has important implications for MSC based approaches to cartilage repair.

N Shintani; EB Hunziker

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Influence of farnesyl transferase inhibitor treatment on epidermal growth factor receptor status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiolabelled growth factor [{sup 123/125}I] I-hEGF is evaluated in vitro and in vivo to monitor the acute effects on the EGFR of R115777, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI). Upregulation of the EGFR after incubation with R115777 correlated linearly with FTI induced acute growth inhibition. Receptor mediated [{sup 125}I] I-hEGF internalization decreased following R115777 treatment. Preliminary data suggest that the net in vivo effect is a decrease of [{sup 123}I] I-hEGF uptake in the tumour. These findings suggest the possible use of radioiodinated hEGF as a radiodiagnosticum to investigate EGFR status changes as a predictor for eventual FTI chemotherapy outcome in vivo.

Cornelissen, Bart E-mail: bart.cornelissen@ugent.be; Thonissen, Thomas; Kersemans, Veerle; Wiele, Christophe van de; Lahorte, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi A; Slegers, Guido

2004-08-01

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INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE STRESS AND CORTISOL ON PLASMA INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I IN SUNSHINE BASS  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormonal regulation of growth in fish includes the pituitary-hepatic-somatic axis. Growth hormone from the pituitary stimulates the liver to produce insulin-like growth factors-I and -II. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is presently thought to be the primary factor which stimulates somatic gr...

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Non-genetic and genetic factors influencing growth performance in Murrah Buffalos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Live weight data from 590 Murrah buffalo calves (140 male and 450 female calves) maintained at the Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India, born in the period between 1990 and 2004 were used for this study. Data were analysed using least-squares procedures. The adjusted birth weights of male and female calves were 33.0 ± 0.49 and 31.9 ± 0.27 kg, respectively, with an overall value of 32.4 ± 0.30 kg. The mean body weight at three, six, nine and 12 mont (more) hs of age pooled over periods, season and sex were 62.0 ± 0.65, 87.9 ± 0.95, 112.4 ± 1.23 and 134.16 ± 1.41 kg, respectively. Period of calving influenced the weight significantly at birth, three and six months of ages only. The effect of dam parity on body weight at different ages was highly significant. The calves born during the dam's second parity were generally heavier than those born in other parities. Generally, males had a higher body weight than females at all age groups. All the growth traits showed medium heritability (direct) estimates, which ranged between 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.22 ± 0.16. The genetic correlations were all medium to high and positive. The genetic parameter estimates indicated that the six months weight can be used as a selection tool for genetic improvement of growth traits considering its high heritability and positive genetic correlations with succeeding growth traits.

Thiruvenkadan, A.K.; Panneerselvam, S.; Rajendran, R.

2009-01-01

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Influence of Feixian Formula on serum transforming growth factor-?1 and platelet-derived growth factor in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of Feixian Formula, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treating pulmonary fibrosis, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and its influence on serum transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF).Methods: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were infused with bleomycin (1 mg/kg) through tracheal intubation to induce pulmonary fibrosis, and they were randomly divided into untreated group (n=24), prednisone-treated group (n=24) and Feixian Formula-treated group (n=24). Fifteen male Wistar rats of the sham-operated group were infused with equivalent normal saline. Twenty-four hours after operation, prednisone (5 mg/kg) and Feixian Formula (1.25 g/kg) were given to the prednisone-treated group and Feixian Formula-treated group respectively by intragastric administration once a day. Equivalent saline was administered to rats of the untreated group and sham-operated group. On the 14th, 28th and 45th day, 5 rats in the sham-operated group and 8 rats in each of the other three groups were dissected to observe pathologic changes of the lung tissues, and the levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: At the 45th day, the degree of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was lesser in rats of the Feixian Formula-treated group as compared with those of the untreated group and prednisone-treated group. The levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were increased, and were significantly higher than those of the sham-operated group, especially on the 45th day (P0.05), and there was no significant difference between the prednisone-treated group and the Feixian Formula-treated group (P>0.05). PDGF in the Feixian Formula-treated group reached the highest level on the 14th day, significantly higher than those of the other three groups (P<0.01). Then it decreased, and was close to that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P=0.792). The levels of PDGF in untreated group and prednisone-treated group were increased depending on time, and were obviously higher than that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P<0.01). Conclusion: Feixian Formula can relieve bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and the mechanism of its action may be related to down-regulating serum PDGF.

Wei ZHANG; Liang-duo JIANG

2008-01-01

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Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5) and later (E15.5-17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in the formation of the mural cell layer and weakening of vessel integrity. These results demonstrate that overexpression of progranulin in endothelial cells influences normal angiogenesis in vivo.

Toh H; Cao M; Daniels E; Bateman A

2013-01-01

26

Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5) and later (E15.5-17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in the formation of the mural cell layer and weakening of vessel integrity. These results demonstrate that overexpression of progranulin in endothelial cells influences normal angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:23741441

Toh, Huishi; Cao, Mingju; Daniels, Eugene; Bateman, Andrew

2013-05-31

27

Expression of the Growth Factor Progranulin in Endothelial Cells Influences Growth and Development of Blood Vessels: A Novel Mouse Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2–promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5–14.5) and later (E15.5–17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in the formation of the mural cell layer and weakening of vessel integrity. These results demonstrate that overexpression of progranulin in endothelial cells influences normal angiogenesis in vivo.

Toh, Huishi; Cao, Mingju; Daniels, Eugene; Bateman, Andrew

2013-01-01

28

INVESTMENTS, AN ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the national economy system, investments are an accelerator formultiplying receipts of material and labour resources thus causing a growth of disbursementsfrom the system32. Therefore, in the system of factors influencing the economic development of acountry, investments have a strategic role. This is why, investments are the main method forachieving economic growth.

CECILIA ELENA V?DUVA

2009-01-01

29

Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions as factors influencing male accessory sex organ growth in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mesenchyme (UGM) and epithelium (UGE) isolated from the urogenital sinuses (UGS) of 17-day male and female rat embryos were separated by using a trypsinization procedure, grown on soft agar, transplanted into syngeneic pubertal male hosts as subcapsular renal grafts, and then collected after 29-30 days. Neither UGM nor UGE underwent prostatic morphogenesis when grown under these conditions. However, tissue recombinants composed of UGM + UGE grew and produced prostatic glands with acinar secretory material. Further, UGM + UGE recombinants were made by varying the proportions of mesenchymal and epithelial tissues. The size of the implants was a function of the absolute amount of mesenchyme; increasing the absolute amount of UGM produced larger specimens whereas varying the UGE had no effect. The UGM was also found to be essential for supporting the growth of small glandular elements derived from the ventral prostate of pubescent rats. Segments isolated from the terminal vesicles (TIPs) and from prostatic tissue adjacent to the urethra (PDCT) regressed when implanted alone under the kidney capsule. However, combination of the prostatic segments with UGM produced prostatic glands with relative wet weight and DNA content responses of the following order: UGM + TIP greater than UGM + PDCT = UGM + UGE. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein patterns from UGM + PDCT and UGM + TIP specimens had differential expression of three protein regions unique to the ventral prostate Quantitative and qualitative responses of the TIP and PDCT segments to UGM inductive influences indicate that differences exist between the epithelia of the TIP and PDCT regions of the ventral lobes of the rat prostate.

Neubauer BL; Best KL; Hoover DM; Slisz ML; Van Frank RM; Goode RL

1986-10-01

30

Factors influencing ice formation and growth in simulations of a mixed-phase wave cloud  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, numerical simulations of an orographically induced wave cloud sampled in-situ during the ICE-L (Ice in Clouds Experiment - Layer clouds) field campaign are performed and compared directly against the available observations along various straight and level flight paths. The simulations are based on a detailed mixed-phase bin microphysics model embedded within a 1-D column framework with the latest parameterizations for heterogeneous ice nucleation and an adaptive treatment of ice crystal growth based on the evolution of crystal habit. The study focuses on the second of two clouds sampled on 16th November 2007, the in-situ data from which exhibits some interesting and more complex microphysics than other flights from the campaign. The model is used to demonstrate the importance of both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation in explaining the in-situ observations of ice crystal concentration and habit, and how the ability to isolate the influence of both nucleation mechanisms helps when quantifying active IN concentrations. The aspect ratio and density of the simulated ice crystals is shown to evolve in a manner consistent with the in-situ observations along the flight track, particularly during the transition from the mixed-phase region of the cloud to the ice tail dominated by homogeneous nucleation. Some additional model runs are also performed to explore how changes in IN concentration and the value of the deposition coefficient for ice affect the competition between heterogeneous and homogeneous ice formation in the wave cloud, where the Factorial Method is used to isolate and quantify the effect of such non-linear interactions. The findings from this analysis show that the effect on homogeneous freezing rates is small, suggesting that any competition between the microphysical variables is largely overshadowed by the strong dynamical forcing of the cloud in the early stages of ice formation.

C. Dearden; T. Choularton; P. R. Field; A. J. Heymsfield

2012-01-01

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Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor single nucleotide polymorphisms on non-small cell lung cancer tumor angiogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis. Several studies have reported that genomic VEGF polymorphisms may influence VEGF synthesis. To evaluate the role of VEGF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we examined the expression of several angiogenesis-related proteins [VEGF, hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)] and the spread of microvessels in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Blood and tumor tissue from 83 patients with NSCLC were examined for VEGF -460T/C (rs833061) and VEGF +405G/C (rs2010963) SNPs using the SNaPshot method. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to measure protein expression and microvessel density (MVD). VEGF -460T/C and +405G/C SNPs showed no association with VEGF or HIF-1? expression and MVD. Patients with VEGF -460TT and the TC genotype had significantly higher MVD compared to those with the CC genotypes. Furthermore, patients with the VEGF -460TT genotype had significantly higher Dll4 expression compared to those with the TC or CC genotypes, while the VEGF +405G/C SNP displayed no association with Dll4 expression and MVD. These findings indicate that the VEGF -460T/C SNP may have a functional influence on tumor angiogenesis in NSCLC. We hypothesize that VEGF SNPs may influence angiogenesis through Dll4.

Maeda A; Nakata M; Yasuda K; Yukawa T; Saisho S; Okita R; Hirami Y; Shimizu K

2013-01-01

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Influence of Environmental Factors and Medium Composition on Vibrio gazogenes Growth and Prodigiosin Production  

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Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 29988 growth and prodigiosin synthesis were studied in batch culture on complex and defined media and in chemostat cultures on defined medium. In batch culture on complex medium, a maximum growth rate of 0.75 h?1 and a maximum prodigiosin concentration of 80 ng of prodigiosin ·...

Allen, Garry R.; Reichelt, John L.; Gray, Peter P.

33

The influence of elevated levels of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase on tumourigenicity, tumour growth, and oxygenation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Investigation of the effect of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP) on various aspects of tumour growth in a xenograft model, including growth rate, tumourigenicity and oxygenation levels. Methods and Materials: MDA 231 breast cancer cells overexpressing PD-ECGF/TP protein were made by retroviral transduction. These cells were grown in vitro and in vivo as xenografts. Direct measurement of tumours was used to record growth parameters, while the comet assay with the bioreductive drug RSU 1069 was used to assess tumour cell oxygenation. Results: We report that MDA 231 breast tumour cell lines expressing an increased range of levels of PD-ECGF/TP have increased tumourigenicity positively related to the level of PD-ECGF/TP when implanted in nude mice. As previously reported, tumours grown from these overexpressing cell lines grew faster than the parental line. These tumours expressed higher levels of TP activity and showed increased immunocytochemical staining for PD-ECGF. In addition, the rate of growth was found to be positively related to the level of PD-ECGF/TP expressed by the tumour cells. When the comet assay was used to compare the oxygenation status of cells between the parental and PD-ECGF/TP overexpressing tumours, the latter were found to have a larger proportion of well oxygenated cells. This is consistent with these tumours having an increased and functionally competent vascular supply in response to the expression of PD-ECGF/TP. Conclusion: PD-ECGF/TP appears to be capable of influencing tumourigenicity, angiogenesis and tumour growth in a proportional manner and can directly influence tumour oxygenation levels via its role in formation of functional vasculature.

1998-11-01

34

Influence of insulin-like growth factor I and nutrition during phases of postnatal growth in very preterm infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pronounced growth restriction (GR) occurs after very preterm birth. The interaction between IGF-I, nutritional intake, and growth was evaluated prospectively in 64 infants with a mean (SD) GA of 25.7 (1.9) wk. Blood sampling of IGF-I and measurements of weight, length, and head circumference were performed weekly until discharge. Daily calculation of nutritional intake was performed. Standard deviation scores (SDSs) for growth parameters defined two growth phases: GR phase (birth until lowest SDS) and catch-up (CU) phase (lowest SDS until 35 gestational weeks). IGF-I concentrations during the first postnatal weeks were low and increased at 30 wk GA, irrespective of GA at birth, coinciding with initiation of CU growth. Concentrations of IGF-I were positively associated with change in weight SDS during the GR phase, p = 0.001 and CU phase, p = 0.004-0.027. Protein and energy intake were not associated with change in SDS weight during the GR phase as opposed to the CU phase (p < 0.001, respectively). Nutritional intake did not correlate to concentrations of IGF-I before 30 wk GA. IGF-I is associated with growth at an earlier postnatal age than nutrient intake and the effect of nutrition on levels of IGF-I may be restricted to the period of established CU growth. PMID:21263374

Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Polberger, Staffan; Niklasson, Aimon; Fellman, Vineta; Hellström, Ann; Ley, David

2011-05-01

35

Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and pycnidial production of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens, the causal agent of Sphaeropsis rot of pears and apples, is a recently described species. In this study the effects of culture media, temperature, water potential, pH and light on mycelial growth and pycnidial production of S. pyriputrescens were evaluated. Apple juice agar and pear juice agar were most suitable for mycelial growth of all six isolates tested. Cornmeal agar was not suitable for either mycelial growth or pycnidial production. The fungus grew from -3 to 25 C, with optimum growth at 20 C and no growth at 30 C. The fungus grew at water potential as low as -5.6 MPa on potassium chloride-amended potato-dextrose agar (PDA). Hyphal extension was not observed at -7.3 MPa after 10 d incubation, but growth resumed when the inoculum plugs were placed on PDA. The fungus grew at pH 3.3-6.3 and optimum growth was at pH 3.3-4.2. No mycelial growth was observed at pH above 7.2 after 10 d incubation, but growth resumed when the inoculum plugs were transferred onto PDA. Regardless of medium tested, few pycnidia formed at 20 C in the dark. Pycnidial production was enhanced significantly by fluorescent light, but continuous light appeared to reduce pycnidial production, depending on the medium. Oatmeal agar (OMA) was most suitable for production of pycnidia and conidia. Pycnidia that formed on 3 wk old OMA cultures at 20 C under 12 h light/12 h dark produced abundant conidia, and the technique is recommended for inoculum production. PMID:16389953

Kim, Y K; Xiao, C L; Rogers, J D

36

Ecological factors influencing growth of the endangered Hawaiian fern Marsilea villosa (Marsileaceae) and implications for conservation management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Conserving endangered plants is a complex task, and practitioners must often use a "triage" approach, addressing only immediate needs. Ecologists can improve this process by conducting sound science upon which to base management. Marsilea villosa is an endangered, endemic Hawaiian fern with seven remaining populations in ephemerally flooding drylands. Among its uncommon traits are long-lived sporocarps, requiring flood and drought to complete its sexual life cycle, and extensive vegetative growth. METHODS: We conducted a 3-yr ecological field study, measuring percent cover of M. villosa and associated species, flooding depth, and canopy cover, to identify ecological factors with the greatest impact on M. villosa growth. KEY RESULTS: Maximum flooding depth and canopy cover had strong positive relationships with M. villosa growth, and all plots with >50% threshold of either variable reached 100% cover of M. villosa by the end of the study. Interaction effects explained nuances of these relationships, including synergy between the two variables. Percent cover of nonnative functional groups (graminoids and nongraminoids) each had negative relationships with M. villosa growth, but interactions showed that nongraminoid cover was driven by particular species, and that time since flooding had greater influence on M. villosa growth than graminoid cover. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend planting reintroduced populations in flood-prone areas with moderate shade, experimental outplanting of native plants with M. villosa, and management of graminoids as a functional group, while nongraminoid management should be species-specific. These practices will promote self-sustaining populations and reduce the need for labor-intensive management.

Chau MM; Reyes WR; Ranker TA

2013-08-01

37

Ecological factors influencing growth of the endangered Hawaiian fern Marsilea villosa (Marsileaceae) and implications for conservation management.  

Science.gov (United States)

• Premise of the Study: Conserving endangered plants is a complex task, and practitioners must often use a "triage" approach, addressing only immediate needs. Ecologists can improve this process by conducting sound science upon which to base management. Marsilea villosa is an endangered, endemic Hawaiian fern with seven remaining populations in ephemerally flooding drylands. Among its uncommon traits are long-lived sporocarps, requiring flood and drought to complete its sexual life cycle, and extensive vegetative growth. • Methods: We conducted a 3-yr ecological field study, measuring percent cover of M. villosa and associated species, flooding depth, and canopy cover, to identify ecological factors with the greatest impact on M. villosa growth. • Key Results: Maximum flooding depth and canopy cover had strong positive relationships with M. villosa growth, and all plots with >50% threshold of either variable reached 100% cover of M. villosa by the end of the study. Interaction effects explained nuances of these relationships, including synergy between the two variables. Percent cover of nonnative functional groups (graminoids and nongraminoids) each had negative relationships with M. villosa growth, but interactions showed that nongraminoid cover was driven by particular species, and that time since flooding had greater influence on M. villosa growth than graminoid cover. • Conclusions: We recommend planting reintroduced populations in flood-prone areas with moderate shade, experimental outplanting of native plants with M. villosa, and management of graminoids as a functional group, while nongraminoid management should be species-specific. These practices will promote self-sustaining populations and reduce the need for labor-intensive management. PMID:23857737

Chau, Marian M; Reyes, Whitney R; Ranker, Tom A

2013-07-15

38

Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group. PMID:23147959

Lander, Rebecca L; Lander, Alastair G; Houghton, Lisa; Williams, Sheila M; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Barreto, Daniel L; Mattos, Angela P; Gibson, Rosalind S

2012-11-01

39

Vascular endothelial growth factor is associated with neovascularization and influences progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the development of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological processes, e.g., developmental and reproductive angiogenesis, proliferative retinopathies, and cancers. Several solid tumors produce ample amounts of VEGF, which stimulates proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, thereby inducing neovascularization by a paracrine mechanism. Recently, VEGF expression has been shown to significantly affect the prognosis of different kinds of human cancer. Because neoangiogenesis represents an important prognostic indicator of poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we investigated the influence of VEGF during progression of this type of cancer and its relationship to tumoral neovascularization. VEGF expression was significantly associated with new vessel formation (r = 0.44; P < 0.0001). Moreover, in univariate analysis, VEGF expression significantly affected overall and disease-free survival (P = 0.00003 and P = 0. 0004, respectively). Backward stepwise regression analysis indicated that VEGF expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC. These findings support the hypothesis that VEGF is an important angiogenic factor in primary NSCLC and may help in predicting the outcome of this group of cancers.

Fontanini G; Vignati S; Boldrini L; Chinè S; Silvestri V; Lucchi M; Mussi A; Angeletti CA; Bevilacqua G

1997-06-01

40

Influence of basic fibroblast growth factor on the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in epidermal cells  

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Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT) in epidermal cells and the influence on basic fibroblasts growth factor(bFGF).Methods The precursor epithelial stem cells(ESCs) were derived by in vitro bFGF-induced dedifferentiation of human keratinocytes(HEK) cells.The phenotypic changes of derived ESCs were detected by immunocytochemical staining,and the hTERT expression was detected by flow cytometry,immunofluorescence staining and TRAP-silver staining.HEK without bFGF treatment were used as control,and ESCs simultaneously isolated from human epidermis were used as positive control.Results Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression of ?1-integrin,CK19 and CK14 in derived ESCs was significantly up-regulated,while the CK10 expression was significantly down-regulated.Flow cytometry revealed that the percentage of hTERT+ cell subsets in experimental group(derived ESCs),control group and positive control group was 98.41%,0.77% and 99.76%,respectively.TRAP-silver staining analysis indicated that the telomerase activity was significantly up-regulated in experimental group compared with that in control group,while there was no significantly difference between experimental group and positive control group.Furthermore,immunofluorescence assay revealed that there was difference in subcellular localization of hTERT between experimental group(derived ESCs) and positive control group(ESCs).Conclusion Basic fibroblast growth factor may induce epidermal cells to dedifferentiate and regain the phenotype of ESCs,which leads to the changes in hTERT expression and activity,and induces its subcellular shift of the locus.

Xiao-yan SUN; Hui-ling LIU; Xiao-bing FU

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Growth differentiation factor-11  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) is disclosed along with its polynucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence. The invention provides a method for identifying a compound that affects GDF-11 activity or gene expression.

LEE SE-JIN; MCPHERRON ALEXANDRA C

42

GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-11  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) is disclosed along with its polynucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence. Also disclosed are diagnostic and therapeutic methods of using the GDF-11 polypeptide and polynucleotide sequences.

LEE SE-JIN; MCPHERRON ALEXANDRA C

43

Growth differentiation factor-11  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth Differentiation Factor-11 (GDF-11) is disclosed along with its polynucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence. Also disclosed are diagnostic and therapeutic methods of using the GDF-11 polypeptide and polynucleotide sequences.< IMAGE>

Lee Se-Jin; McPerron Alexandra C.

44

Vascular endothelial growth factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in angiogenesis in development, in cancer and in other important diseases. VEGF regulates multiple endothelial cell functions including mitogenesis, permeability, vascular tone, and the production of vasoactive molecules. VEGF is related...

Zachary, I

45

RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION  

Science.gov (United States)

ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression. ...

46

FACTORS DETERMINING ECONOMIC GROWTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different regions of the world have to face distinct processes of economic growth. The measure of growth is divergent; countries carry distinct evolutionary ways into execution. The state of development as the result of the above processes is different, too. What is the reason? It is the question I would like to answer. My further questions are: What is the reason for economic growth? What kind of factors determines the level of development and cause regional differences? I deal with concentration of economical activities, centre-periphery ratio, relationship between economic growth and sustainable development. This article reviews what I realized in the course of my research.

MATILD SZABÓ

2009-01-01

47

Influence of growth factors on Alternaria toxin(s) production and screening of ber germplasm against fruit rot resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influence of synthetic, semi-synthetic and host extract media at different temperatures on growth of A. alternata (Fr.) Keissler and production of toxin(s) was investigated. Maximum radial growth (86mm) of the test pathogen was observed in PDA, incubated at 25o C followed by semi-selective medium (83mm) and ber fruit extract medium (75 mm). Profuse growth of mycelia (1193 mg/100ml) and crude toxin(s) production (40.1 mg/100 ml) were influenced by liquid state of semi-selective medium. Host extract (ber fruit juice) medium also favoured moderate growth (676.7 mg/100 ml) and toxin(s) production (35.93 mg/100 ml). The growth and quantity of crude toxin(s) were proportionately reduced with increase in temperatures. Inoculation of toxin(s) produced at 20 to 30o C in Czapek’s Dox, Richard’s, ber fruit juice and semi selective medium expressed yellowing and necrotic lesions, while toxins synthesized in other media showed only mild yellowing on highly susceptible host (cv. Gola). Toxin(s) produced in semi-selective medium at 25o C showed maximum infection index (56.02) followed by Richard’s (49.93) and ber fruit juice medium (36.40). Cumulative analysis of data with regard to the symptoms intensity explicated a high correlation (r = 0.90) between pathogen and toxin(s) on ber germplasm.

P. NALLATHAMBI*, B.B.L. THAKORE and C. UMAMAHESWARI

2011-01-01

48

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) and its influence on angiogenesis versus arteriogenesis in different vascular beds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To use local gene delivery to determine any district-specific influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) on angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in arteries of distinct developmental origin. METHODS: Coronary and peripheral arteries were chronically occluded in 30 Pietrain pigs using a percutaneous approach and blinded stent-graft. DNA was delivered to the adventitia in dosages corresponding to 10% of the body weight-adapted amount used in clinical trials. The coronary arteries in 12 animals and the peripheral arteries in 12 animals were treated or used as controls (no occlusion or occlusion with transfection of the beta-galactosidase gene). Six additional animals were sacrificed at 1 or 3 weeks for expression analyses, while the other 24 animals were sacrificed at 5 months for expression analysis and histology. Angiography, polymerase chain reaction analyses, and immunohistochemistry were performed. RESULTS: Expression of the VEGF gene was observed at 1 and 3 weeks following application, while transfected DNA was detected up to 5 months. New collaterals formed around occluded coronary arteries (2.63 +/- 0.69 fold, p<0.05 versus 1.24 +/- 0.40 fold for peripheral arteries), and angiographic arterial area increase was more pronounced in coronary (2.49 +/- 0.59 fold, p<0.05) than peripheral arteries (1.49 +/- 0.05 fold). There was no collateralization surrounding occluded peripheral arteries, but new arterial branches were seen (2.0 +/- 0.28, p<0.05 versus 1.07 +/- 0.31 for coronary). CONCLUSIONS: The response to VEGF, whether it is predominantly angiogenesis or arteriogenesis, is dependent on the target vessel. These observed differences in the behavior of arteries may be related to their differing developmental origins, which may have important implications for future therapeutic strategies using VEGF in different vessels.

Nikol S; Pelisek J; Engelmann MG; Shimizu M; Fuchs A; Golda A; Armeanu S; Mekkaoui C; Rolland PH

2002-12-01

49

Age-structured cell population model to study the influence of growth factors on cell cycle dynamics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cell proliferation is controlled by many complex regulatory networks. Our purpose is to analyse, through mathematical modeling, the effects of growth factors on the dynamics of the division cycle in cell populations. Our work is based on an age-structured PDE model of the cell division cycle within a population of cells in a common tissue. Cell proliferation is at its first stages exponential and is thus characterised by its growth exponent, the first eigenvalue of the linear system we consider here, a growth exponent that we will explicitly evaluate from biological data. Moreover, this study relies on recent and innovative imaging data (fluorescence microscopy) that make us able to experimentally determine the parameters of the model and to validate numerical results. This model has allowed us to study the degree of simultaneity of phase transitions within a proliferating cell population and to analyse the role of an increased growth factor concentration in this process. This study thus aims at helping biologists to elicit the impact of growth factor concentration on cell cycle regulation, at making more precise the dynamics of key mechanisms controlling the division cycle in proliferating cell populations, and eventually at establishing theoretical bases for optimised combined anticancer treatments.

Billy F; Clairambault J; Delaunay F; Feillet C; Robert N

2013-02-01

50

Genetic influences on the outcome of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine the association of genetic variants in known age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk-associated genes with outcome of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in neovascular AMD. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 224 consecutive patients with neovascular AMD at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Australia. METHODS: Patients were treated with 3 initial monthly ranibizumab or bevacizumab injections followed by 9 months of "as required" injections based on clinician's decision at each follow-up visit according to retreatment criteria. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in known AMD risk-associated genes including CFH (rs800292, rs3766404, rs1061170, rs2274700 and rs393955), HTRA1 (rs11200638), CFHR1-5 (rs10922153, rs16840639, rs6667243, and rs1853883), LOC387715/ARMS2 (rs3793917 and rs10490924), C3 (rs2230199 and rs1047286), C2 (rs547154), CFB (rs641153) and F13B (rs6003) were examined. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the role of each SNP in treatment outcome. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The influence of selected SNPs on mean change in visual acuity (VA) at 12 months. RESULTS: Mean baseline VA was 51 ± 16.8 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters. Overall, the mean change in VA from baseline was +3.2 ± 14.9 letters at 12 months. The AA (homozygote risk) genotype at rs11200638 - HTRA1 promoter SNP (P = 0.001) and GG (homozygote risk) genotype at rs10490924 (A69S) in LOC387715/ARMS2 (P = 0.002) were each significantly associated with poorer VA outcome at 12 months after multiple correction. Mean ± standard deviation change in VA from baseline in patients with AA genotype at rs11200638 was -2.9 ± 15.2 letters after 12 months compared with +5.1 ± 14.1 letters in patients with AG or GG genotypes at this SNP. Patients with either of these genotypes were also significantly more likely to lose >15 letters after 12 months. SNPs rs11200638 and rs10490924 were in high linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.92). None of the other examined SNPs was associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The HTRA1 promoter SNP (rs11200638) and A69S at LOC387715/ARMS2 were associated with a poorer visual outcome for ranibizumab or bevacizumab treatment in neovascular AMD, suggesting strong pharmacogenetic associations with anti-VEGF treatment. This finding could aid in applying more individualized treatment regimens based on patients' genotype to achieve optimal treatment response in AMD. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

Abedi F; Wickremasinghe S; Richardson AJ; Islam AF; Guymer RH; Baird PN

2013-08-01

51

GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-11  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A transgenic non-human animal of the species selected from the group consisting of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine having a transgene which results in disrupting the production of and/or activity of growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) chromosomally integrated into the germ cells of the animal is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for making such animals, and methods of treating animals with antibodies or antisense directed to GDF-11. The animals so treated are characterized by increased muscle tissue.

LEE SE-JIN; MCPHERRON ALEXANDRA C

52

GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-11  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A transgenic non-human animal of the species selected from the group consisting of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine having a transgene which results in disrupting the production of and/or activity of growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) chromosomally integrated into the germ cells of the animal is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for making such animals, and methods of treating animals, including humans, with antibodies or antisense directed to GDF-11. The animals so treated are characterized by increased muscle tissue and bone tissue.

LEE Se-Jin; MCPHERRON Alexandra C.

53

Growth differentiation factor-11  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A transgenic non-human animal of the species selected from the group consisting of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine having a transgene which results in disrupting the production of and/or activity of growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) chromosomally integrated into the germ cells of the animal is provided. Also provided are methods for making such animals, and methods of treating animals, including humans, with antibodies or antisense directed to GDF-11. The animals so treated are characterized by increased muscle tissue and bone tissue.

LEE SE-JIN; MCPHERRON ALEXANDRA C

54

Growth Differentiation Factor-11  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A transgenic non-human animal of the species selected from the group consisting of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine having a transgene which results in disrupting the production of and/or activity of growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) chromosomally integrated into the germ cells of the animal is provided. Also provided are methods for making such animals, and methods of treating animals, including humans, with antibodies or antisense directed to GDF-11. The animals so treated are characterized by increased muscle tissue and bone tissue.

LEE SE-JIN; MCPHERRON ALEXANDRA C

55

GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-11  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A transgenic non-human animal of the species selected from the group consisting of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine having a transgene which results in disrupting the production of and/or activity of growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) chromosomally integrated into the germ cells of the animal is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for making such animals, and methods of treating animals, including humans, with antibodies or antisense directed to GDF-11. The animals so treated are characterized by increased muscle tissue.

LEE SE-JIN; MCPHERRON ALEXANDRA C

56

[Influence of epidermal growth factor receptor monoclony antibody MAb225 on DNA repair of tongue carcinoma cell after radiation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody MAb225 on repair of DNA double strand break (DNA-DSB) after radiation in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell. METHODS: The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to estimate the repair of DNA-DSB induced by radiation in human tongue carcinoma cells Tca8113 treated with or without MAb225. Expression of Ku70 and Ku80 were detected by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western bolt. RESULTS: Comet tail moment of MAb225 treated cell was significantly higher than untreated cell (P < 0.05). The expression of Ku70 and Ku80 were inhibited by MAb225. CONCLUSION: MAb225 can inhibit repair of DNA-DSB induced by down-regulated expression of Ku70 and Ku80.

Wang M; Wang Z

2011-12-01

57

Circulating plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus: the influence of ACE inhibition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To determine whether circulating plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is elevated in the presence of diabetic microvascular complications, and whether the impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on these complications can be accounted for by changes in circulating VEGF. METHODS: Samples (299/354 of those with retinal photographs) from the EUCLID placebo-controlled clinical trial of the ACE inhibitor lisinopril in mainly normoalbuminuric non-hypertensive Type 1 diabetic patients were used. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was measured 6 monthly. Geometric mean VEGF levels by baseline retinopathy status, change in retinopathy over 2 years, and by treatment with lisinopril were calculated. RESULTS: No significant correlation was observed between VEGF at baseline and age, diabetes duration, glycaemic control, blood pressure, smoking, fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor. Mean VEGF concentration at baseline was 11.5 (95% confidence interval 6.0--27.9) pg/ml in those without retinopathy, 12.9 (6.0--38.9) pg/ml in those with non-proliferative retinopathy, and 16.1 (8.1--33.5) pg/ml in those with proliferative retinopathy (P = 0.06 for trend). Baseline VEGF was 15.2 pg/ml in those who progressed by at least one level of retinopathy by 2 years compared to 11.8 pg/ml in those who did not (P = 0.3). VEGF levels were not altered by lisinopril treatment. Results were similar for AER. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating plasma VEGF concentration is not strongly correlated with risk factor status or microvascular disease in Type 1 diabetes, nor is it affected by ACE inhibition. Changes in circulating VEGF cannot account for the beneficial effect of ACE inhibition on retinopathy.

Chaturvedi N; Fuller JH; Pokras F; Rottiers R; Papazoglou N; Aiello LP

2001-04-01

58

Growth hormone, growth factors, and acromegaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Biochemistry and Physiology of GH and Growth Factors, Pathology of Acromegaly, Clinical Endocrinology of Acromegaly, Nonsurgical Therapy of Acromegaly, and Surgical Therapy of Acromegaly.

Ludecke, D.K.; Tolis, G.T.

1987-01-01

59

Influence of equine growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and its interaction with gonadotropins on in vitro maturation and cytoskeleton morphology in equine oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In horses, successful in vitro fertilization procedures are limited by our inability to consistently mature equine oocytes by in vitro methods. Growth hormone (GH) is an important regulator of female reproduction in mammals, playing an important role in ovarian function, follicular growth and steroidogenesis. The objectives of this research were to investigate: the effects of equine growth hormone (eGH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of equine oocytes, and the effects of eGH in addition to estradiol (E2), gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and fetal calf serum (FCS) on IVM. We also evaluated the cytoskeleton organization of equine oocytes after IVM with eGH. Equine oocytes were aspirated from follicles Phalloidin) and chromatin (TO-PRO3-iodide) and assessed via confocal microscopy. No difference was observed when eGH and IGF-I was added into our IVM system. However, following incubation with eGH alone (40%) and eGH, E2, gonadotropins and FCS (36.6%) oocytes were classified as mature v. 17.6% of oocytes in the control group (P < 0.05). Matured equine oocytes showed that a thin network of filaments concentrated within the oocyte cortex and microtubules at the metaphase spindle showed a symmetrical barrel-shaped structure, with chromosomes aligned along its midline. We conclude that the use of E2, gonadotropins and FCS in the presence of eGH increases the number of oocytes reaching oocyte competence. PMID:23790355

Pereira, G R; Lorenzo, P L; Carneiro, G F; Ball, B A; Pegoraro, L M C; Pimentel, C A; Liu, I K M

2013-06-21

60

Influence of estradiol on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in bone: a study in Gottingen miniature pigs and human osteoblasts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ovariectomy (OVX) in animal models is an accepted method to simulate postmenopausal osteoprosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been recently shown to play an important role during endochondral bone formation, hypertrophic cartilage remodeling, ossification, and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that reduced VEGF expression in bone contributes to OVX-induced bone loss and tested it in a miniature pig model and in vitro using human osteoblasts. Seventeen primiparous sows (Göttingen miniature pigs) were allocated to two experimental groups when they were 30 months old: a control group (n = 9) and an OVX group (n = 8). After 15 months, VEGF levels in lumbar vertebrae were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and verified by Western blot analysis. VEGF and its receptor (VEGFR) were localized by immunohistochemistry. Expression of VEGF mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Differently sulfated glycosaminoglycans were localized in subchondral bone histochemically. Osteoblasts were immunopositive for VEGF. VEGF concentration in the vertebra was 27% lower in OVX miniature pigs. VEGFR-2 could be immunostained on osteoblasts. VEGF mRNA and protein were detectable in the lumbar vertebrae of all animals. In subchondral trabecular bone of OVX animals, significantly more islands of mineralized cartilage containing chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate or keratan sulfate occurred compared to the control group. The occurrence of remnants of mineralized cartilage in subchondral bone of the OVX group may be caused by a delayed bone turnover due to low VEGF levels. In vitro experiments revealed an increase of VEGF in the supernatant of osteoblasts after incubation with estradiol. In conclusion, estrogen seems to be a key factor for regulation of VEGF expression in bone. Loss of VEGF due to menopause may be a reason for reduction of bone density.

Pufe T; Claassen H; Scholz-Ahrens KE; Varoga D; Drescher W; Franke AT; Wruck C; Petersen W; Cellarius C; Schrezenmeir J; Glüer CC

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Influence of different growth factors on chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells in polyurethane-fibrin composites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) has proven to be feasible. To compensate for laryngeal palsy or cartilage defects after surgery or trauma using tissue engineering, a formable and stable scaffold material is mandatory. METHODS: ASCs were seeded in fibrin-polyurethane scaffolds and cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium adding the growth factors TGF-b1, TGF-b3, and BMP-2 for up to 35 days. RESULTS: Histological examination showed acid glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix in all groups. Immunofluorescence presented positive staining for collagen II, aggrecan, and SOX-9 in the TGF-b1-, TGF-b3-, and BMP-2-group. With Real-time PCR analyses, chondrogenic differentiation became apparent by the expression of the specific genes COL2A1 (collagen II), AGC 1 (aggrecan), and SOX-9, whereas collagen II expression was low in all groups compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) due to reduced chondrogenic ability. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the general ability of ASCs to differentiate into matrix-producing chondrocytes in fibrin-polyurethane scaffolds. However, further experiments are necessary to enhance this chondrogenic potential of ASCs seeded in fibrin-polyurethane scaffolds in order to produce a suitable regeneration method for treating cartilage defects or an implantable medialization material for vocal cord palsy.

Froelich K; Setiawan LE; Technau A; Tirado MR; Hackenberg S; Hagen R; Staudenmaier R; Kleinsasser NH

2012-12-01

62

Influence of equine growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and its interaction with gonadotropins on in vitro maturation and cytoskeleton morphology in equine oocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In horses, successful in vitro fertilization procedures are limited by our inability to consistently mature equine oocytes by in vitro methods. Growth hormone (GH) is an important regulator of female reproduction in mammals, playing an important role in ovarian function, follicular growth and steroidogenesis. The objectives of this research were to investigate: the effects of equine growth hormone (eGH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of equine oocytes, and the effects of eGH in addition to estradiol (E2), gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and fetal calf serum (FCS) on IVM. We also evaluated the cytoskeleton organization of equine oocytes after IVM with eGH. Equine oocytes were aspirated from follicles <30 mm in diameter and matured for 30 h at 38.5°C in air with 5% CO2. In experiment 1, selected cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were randomly allocated as follows: (a) control (no additives); (b) 400 ng/ml eGH; (c) 200 ng/ml IGF-I; (d) eGH + IGF-I; and (e) eGH + IGF-I + 200 ng/ml anti-IGF-I. In addition to these treatment groups, we also added 1 ?g/ml E2, 5 IU/ml FSH, 10 IU/ml LH and 10% FCS in vitro (experiment 2). Oocytes were stained with markers for microtubules (anti-?-tubulin antibody), microfilaments (AlexaFluor 488 Phalloidin) and chromatin (TO-PRO3-iodide) and assessed via confocal microscopy. No difference was observed when eGH and IGF-I was added into our IVM system. However, following incubation with eGH alone (40%) and eGH, E2, gonadotropins and FCS (36.6%) oocytes were classified as mature v. 17.6% of oocytes in the control group (P < 0.05). Matured equine oocytes showed that a thin network of filaments concentrated within the oocyte cortex and microtubules at the metaphase spindle showed a symmetrical barrel-shaped structure, with chromosomes aligned along its midline. We conclude that the use of E2, gonadotropins and FCS in the presence of eGH increases the number of oocytes reaching oocyte competence.

Pereira GR; Lorenzo PL; Carneiro GF; Ball BA; Pegoraro LM; Pimentel CA; Liu IK

2013-09-01

63

Release of growth factors from a reinforced collagen GAG matrix supplemented with platelet rich plasma: Influence on cultured human meniscal cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Damage to meniscal cartilage has been strongly linked to accelerated articular wear and consequently to osteoarthritis. Damage might be ameliorated by delivery of growth factors from platelet rich plasma (PRP) via a fiber reinforced collagen matrix designed for meniscal repair. PRP composition, release of growth factors, and influence on meniscal cell growth and gene expression were investigated. PRP was prepared using Harvest Smartprep (HS-PRP), Cascade Fibrinet (CF-PRP), and a simple centrifuge protocol (DC-PRP) from four donors each. CF-PRP had the highest ratio of platelets, with very few other blood cell types. HS-PRP had the highest total number of platelets but also contained high levels of red and white blood cells. Absorbed to collagen matrices HS-PRP released the highest levels of TGF-?1 and PDGF-AB with DC-PRP the most IGF-1. Cumulative release from collagen matrix was 48?ng/cm(3) IGF-1, 96?ng/cm(3) TGF-?1, and 9.6?ng/cm(3) PDGF-AB. Collagen matrix with PRP was able to increase meniscal cell number above peripheral whole blood and up-regulated gene expression of Aggrecan, Collagen type I (?1), and Elastin (3.3?±?0.8-fold, 2.9?±?0.6-fold, 4.0?±?1.4-fold, respectively). Demonstrating that PRP combined with fiber reinforced collagen matrix could influence meniscal cells and might be of use for treating meniscal defects. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

Howard D; Shepherd JH; Kew SJ; Hernandez P; Ghose S; Wardale JA; Rushton N

2013-10-01

64

Oncogenes, genes, and growth factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene; Structure and Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Gene; The Erythropoietin Gene; The Interleukin-2 Gene; The Transferrin Gene; and The Transferrin Receptor Gene.

Guroff, G.

1989-01-01

65

The protective effects of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and influence on production of transforming growth factor beta1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and the expression of transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in plasma. Totally, 120 patients with locally advanced lung cancer in radiotherapy were randomized into treatment and control groups. Patients in the treatment group took ambroxol orally at a dosage of 90 mg, three times per day for 3 months from the beginning of radiotherapy. The expression of TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha in plasma was analyzed. The clinical symptoms and lung diffusing capacity were monitored using high resolving power computed tomography. The level of TGF-beta(1) in the control group was increased (11.8 +/- 5.5 ng/ml), whereas in ambroxol-treated patients, the increase was not significant (5.6 +/- 2.6 ng/ml, P ambroxol (5.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.8 ng/ml, P Ambroxol decreased the expression of TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha, and minimized the diminishment of lung diffusion capacity after radiotherapy. PMID:19636975

Xia, De-Hong; Xi, Lei; Xv, Chen; Mao, Wei-Dong; Shen, Wei-Sheng; Shu, Zhong-Qin; Yang, Hong-Zhi; Dai, Min

2009-07-28

66

The protective effects of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and influence on production of transforming growth factor beta1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and the expression of transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in plasma. Totally, 120 patients with locally advanced lung cancer in radiotherapy were randomized into treatment and control groups. Patients in the treatment group took ambroxol orally at a dosage of 90 mg, three times per day for 3 months from the beginning of radiotherapy. The expression of TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha in plasma was analyzed. The clinical symptoms and lung diffusing capacity were monitored using high resolving power computed tomography. The level of TGF-beta(1) in the control group was increased (11.8 +/- 5.5 ng/ml), whereas in ambroxol-treated patients, the increase was not significant (5.6 +/- 2.6 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Radiotherapy-induced elevation of TNF-alpha levels, seen in control patients, was also abolished after treatment with ambroxol (5.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001). In the treatment group, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity was not significantly decreased at 6, 12, and 18 months post-radiotherapy, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Ambroxol decreased the expression of TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha, and minimized the diminishment of lung diffusion capacity after radiotherapy.

Xia DH; Xi L; Xv C; Mao WD; Shen WS; Shu ZQ; Yang HZ; Dai M

2010-09-01

67

Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI) and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si)-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76) and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P?P?=?0.004) and high-expression of HGF (P?=?0.008) emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

Guo You-feng; Wang Xiao-bing; Tian Xiao-ying; Li Yang; Li Bin; Huang Quan; Zhang Meng; Li Zhi

2012-01-01

68

Elevated macrophage migration inhibitory factor and decreased transforming growth factor-beta levels in major depression--no influence of celecoxib treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The involvement of an immune process in the pathophysiology of major depression disorder (MDD) was substantiated by studies demonstrating elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors lead to a reduced production of PGE(2) and have been shown to improve depressive symptoms. We investigated the three immune parameters macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib as add-on therapy in patients with MDD treated with reboxetine. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with depression and 20 healthy controls participated in the study. The patients were treated with reboxetine and celecoxib or placebo. Immune parameters were measured from serum at baseline, after three and five weeks using ELISA. RESULTS: Celecoxib as add-on strategy resulted in a significant reduction of Hamilton Depression Scale scores compared to placebo. Depressed patients showed significantly elevated MIF (p < 0.001) and reduced TGF-? (p = 0.006) concentrations at baseline. There was no difference in sCD14-concentrations. There was no difference between the placebo and the celecoxib group and no change over time. LIMITATIONS: Limitations of the study are the relatively small sample size and lack of functional assessment of HPA axis in parallel. CONCLUSIONS: MIF is a promising new candidate in the neuro-immune interplay that may link depressive symptoms, altered immune state and HPA-axis dysregulation. Reduced levels of TGF-? replicate previous findings and support the importance of this regulatory cytokine in major depressive disorder.

Musil R; Schwarz MJ; Riedel M; Dehning S; Cerovecki A; Spellmann I; Arolt V; Müller N

2011-11-01

69

Endorsement of Growth Factors in Experiential Training Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify student growth factors during a semester long Master's level group counseling class. Results indicated that 12 growth factors accounted for 86% of the total number of critical incidents that participants reported as influencing their personal growth and awareness during the group experience. Two other…

Kiweewa, John; Gilbride, Dennis; Luke, Melissa; Seward, Derek

2013-01-01

70

Ceramic materials and growth factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, many types of growth factors have been purified and used for promoting cell differentiation cascade. The activity of growth factors can be detected in vitro such as culture condition. However, the activity is difficult to detect when these factors are locally administered in vivo, because these dissipate soon after the administration. In order to retain growth factors in local milieu, these can be incorporated with biocompatible porous ceramic materials. Such ceramic/factors composites when implanted in vivo, can trigger certain types of cell differentiation cascade resulted in new tissue formation and tissue regeneration. The paper describes the ceramic / growth factors composites especially hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA) / bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) composite to induce osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The HA/BMP composite supported the osteoblastic differentiation on the HA surface and finally resulted in bone bonding to the HA. When the marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were impregnated in pore areas of HA ceramics, the composites showed more and rapid bone formation than the HA/BMP and HA/MSCs composite, indicating the synergistic effect of BMP and MSCs. These findings indicate the importance of ceramic surface to evoke osteoblastic differentiation as well as to capture the molecules of growth factors for the cell differentiation. (orig.)

Ohgushi, H.; Yoshikawa, T.; Okumura, M.; Nakajima, H.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Orhtopaedic Surgery; Dohi, Y. [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health; Noshi, T.; Ikeuchi, M. [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

2001-07-01

71

Growth factors in orthopedic surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as w...

Zaharia, C; Niculescu, M; Despa, N; Simionescu, M; Jinga, V; Fleseriu, I

72

Factors Influencing the One- and Two-Year Growth Response in Children Treated with Growth Hormone: Analysis from an Observational Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess gender-, pubertal-, age-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation score (), data from 5,797 growth hormone (GH) naïve pediatric patients ( at year 1 was significantly greater for males versus females (), but no other gender differences were observed. For patients with GHD, was greater in prepubertal than in pubertal patients. Younger patients for both genders ( ( for GHD, MPHD, and ISS). Overall, positive were observed in all patients, with greater growth responses in younger prepubertal children, emphasizing the importance of starting GH treatment early.

Ross Judith; Lee PeterA; Gut Robert; Germak John

2010-01-01

73

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor expression in KATO-III cells after Helicobacter pylori stimulation under the influence of strychnos Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown the stimulating effect of Helicobacter pylori on the gene expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) using the gastric epithelial cell line KATO-III. Strychnos Nux vomica (Nux vomica) and Calendula officinalis are used in highly diluted form in homeopathic medicine to treat patients suffering from gastritis and gastric ulcers. AIM AND METHOD: To investigate the influence of Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis on HB-EGF-like growth factor gene expression in KATO-III cells under the stimulation of H. pylori strain N6 using real-time PCR with and without addition of Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis as a 10c or 12c potency. RESULTS: Baseline expression and stimulation were similar to previous experiments, addition of Nux vomica 10c and Calendula officinalis 10c in a 43% ethanolic solution led to a significant reduction of H. pylori induced increase in gene expression of HB-EGF (reduced to 53.12+/-0.95% and 75.32+/-1.16% vs. control; p<0.05), respectively. Nux vomica 12c reduced HB-EGF gene expression even in dilutions beyond Avogadro's number (55.77+/-1.09%; p<0.05). Nux vomica 12c in a 21.5% ethanol showed a smaller effect (71.80+/-3.91%, p<0.05). This effect was only be observed when the drugs were primarily prepared in ethanol, not in aqueous solutions. The data suggest that both drugs prepared in ethanolic solution are potent inhibitors of H. pylori induced gene expression.

Hofbauer R; Pasching E; Moser D; Frass M

2010-07-01

74

Factors influencing glabridin stability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glabridin, a polyphenolic isoflavan of Glycyrrhiza glabra, has shown a variety of pharmaceutical properties. We have previously studied the isolation of glabridin using macroporous resin and found that it is partially degraded, giving a dark color. To illustrate the degradation of glabridin, the present work studied the stability of glabridin under various conditions. Licorice extract containing about 20% glabridin, obtained from G. glabra by silica gel column chromatography, was used in the stability study. Seven different factors (temperature, illumination, humidity, pH, solvent, oxygen, and oxidant) were studied and content changes were determined through HPLC analysis. Except for oxygen, all the above factors had an effect on the stability of glabridin, with illumination being the main one. Moreover, the interactions between temperature and pH, temperature and humidity, and illumination and pH can promote the degradation of glabridin. In conclusion, we suggest that a dark, dry and airtight environment provides the optimized condition for the long-term storage of glabridin.

Ao M; Shi Y; Cui Y; Guo W; Wang J; Yu L

2010-12-01

75

Factors influencing thyroidectomy complications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The postoperative outcome of thyroidectomies is related to factors concerning the patient, the thyroid disease, and the surgeon. OBJECTIVES: To analyze a clinic's experience with thyroidectomy complications. Study design: historical cross-sectional cohort study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts from 228 patients submitted to thyroidectomy, between 1991 and 2004. Transient, permanent and total complications as well as persistence and recurrence of the basal disease were studied in relation to clinical and laboratory factors. RESULTS: Total complications occurred in 34.65%, transient complications in 18.86% (9.21% had hypocalcemia, 0.44% had vocal cord paralysis), associated with the first postoperative years and pressure complaints, and permanent complications in 17.98% (8.77%: hypoparathyroidism; 1.75%: vocal cord paralysis), associated with malignancy and more radical surgeries. The thyroid disease persisted in 17.98% of the cases, associated with age and recurrence in 10.96%, associated with the first operative years, benign diseases and less radical surgeries. CONCLUSION: The complications were associated with pressure complaints, shorter complaining period, malignancy and more radical surgeries. The recurrence was associated with the first operative years, non-neoplastic thyroid diseases and less radical surgeries. The persistence of disease was associated with older age.

Ernandes-Neto M; Tagliarini JV; López BE; Padovani CR; Marques Mde A; Castilho EC; Mazeto GM

2012-06-01

76

The influence of mesenchyme of neonatal seminal vesicle and embryonic urogenital sinus on the morphologic and functional cytodifferentiation of dunning prostatic adenocarcinoma: Roles of growth factors and proto-oncogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have demonstrated that male genital tract mesenchymes can induce morphogenetic changes in the rat prostatic Dunning tumor (DT). However, the mechanism of these cellular interactions remains unknown. The aims of this paper are: (I) to examine the influence of neonatal seminal vesicle mesenchyme (SVM) and embryonic urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM) on the growth, and morphologic and functional cytodifferentiation of DT; (2) to investigate the possible role of growth factors and receptors including epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta, and two proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-jun, in these tumor-mesenchymal interactions. Combination of mesenchymes (SVM or UGM) with DT enhanced the growth and induced an apparently more normal morphologic cytodifferentiation in vivo with formation of large tubules lined by highly differentiated columnar epithelial cells and reappearance of fibromuscular stroma. The SDS-PAGE analysis has shown that the DT + UGM enlarged and small tubules secreted proteins different from those of parental DT, demonstrating that mesenchymes can also modulate the functional expression of DT. Interestingly, our immunohistochemical data demonstrate that all the selected growth factors, receptors, and proto-oncogenes are upregulated in the mesenchyme-induced DT epithelial cells, suggesting that these cellular regulators may be closely associated with the mesenchymal induction on the DT phenotypic changes in vivo. This finding implicates the potential role of these growth factors, receptors, and proto-oncogenes in the epigenetic pathway of prostate carcinogenesis via tumor-stromal interactions. PMID:21227091

Tam, N N; Phil, M; Wang, Y Z; Wong, Y C

77

The influence of mesenchyme of neonatal seminal vesicle and embryonic urogenital sinus on the morphologic and functional cytodifferentiation of dunning prostatic adenocarcinoma: Roles of growth factors and proto-oncogenes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have demonstrated that male genital tract mesenchymes can induce morphogenetic changes in the rat prostatic Dunning tumor (DT). However, the mechanism of these cellular interactions remains unknown. The aims of this paper are: (I) to examine the influence of neonatal seminal vesicle mesenchyme (SVM) and embryonic urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM) on the growth, and morphologic and functional cytodifferentiation of DT; (2) to investigate the possible role of growth factors and receptors including epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta, and two proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-jun, in these tumor-mesenchymal interactions. Combination of mesenchymes (SVM or UGM) with DT enhanced the growth and induced an apparently more normal morphologic cytodifferentiation in vivo with formation of large tubules lined by highly differentiated columnar epithelial cells and reappearance of fibromuscular stroma. The SDS-PAGE analysis has shown that the DT + UGM enlarged and small tubules secreted proteins different from those of parental DT, demonstrating that mesenchymes can also modulate the functional expression of DT. Interestingly, our immunohistochemical data demonstrate that all the selected growth factors, receptors, and proto-oncogenes are upregulated in the mesenchyme-induced DT epithelial cells, suggesting that these cellular regulators may be closely associated with the mesenchymal induction on the DT phenotypic changes in vivo. This finding implicates the potential role of these growth factors, receptors, and proto-oncogenes in the epigenetic pathway of prostate carcinogenesis via tumor-stromal interactions.

Tam NN; Phil M; Wang YZ; Wong YC

1997-05-01

78

[The influence of space flight factors on the growth and development of super dwarf wheat cultivated in greenhouse Svet].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1996-1997 an experiment with super dwarf wheat (Greenhouse-2) was made aboard the orbital complex MIR as a part of the MIR-NASA space science program. The article deals with the main production and morphometric characteristics of plants that completed their vegetation cycle in the space flight. Lengths of the whole cycle of vegetation and its individual stages were essentially same as in ground control experiments. Dry mass of one plants equal, the number of headed shoots was in 2.7 times less in the flight harvest as compared with the control. The height of shoots was reduced by one half. No seeds were found in the heads formed in space. The architecture of heads was substantially different from what had been observed in the preceeding ground control experiments: mass of the heads was halved and lengths of inflorescence and palea awn shortened. The number of spikelets in a head reduced up to 8-10 vs. 13-14 in the controls, whereas the number of florets per a spikelet averaged 5 vs. 3 in the controls. The experiments showed that mainly the most profound changes in the productive and morphometric parameters of the super dwarf wheat plants were largely caused by the phytotoxic effects of ethylene rather than spaceflight specific factors as its concentrations in the MIR air amount to 0.3-1.8 mg/m3.

Levinskikh MA; Sychev VN; Derendiaeva TA; Signalova OB; Salisbury FB; Campbell WF; Babenheim D

1999-01-01

79

Enhanced Epidermal Growth Factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulate angiogenesis and cell growth in the developing brain. EGF, HGF, and VEGF modulate the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade, a pathway regulating cell growth t...

Parker, Whitney E.; Orlova, Ksenia A.; Heuer, Gregory G.; Baybis, Marianna; Aronica, Eleonora; Frost, Michael; Wong, Michael

80

PRODUCTION OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Process for producing E. coli derived recombinant fibroblast growth factor possessing part or all of the primary structural conformation and one or more of the biological properties of a mammalian (e.g., human) basic fibroblast growth factor which process is characterized as the host expression of an exogenous DNA sequence. Sequences coding for part or all of the sequence of amino acid residues of bFGF may be incorporated in autonomously replicating plasmid or viral vectors having a regulated promoter sequence and a temperature inducible copy number control gene employed to transform suitable procaryotic host cells such as E. coli in culture.

BANKS Allen R.; FOX Gary M.

 
 
 
 
81

Production of fibroblast growth factor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a process for producing E. coli derived recombinant fibroblast growth factor possessing part or all of the primary structural conformation and one or more of the biological properties of a mammalian (e.g., human) basic fibroblast growth factor which process is characterized as the host expression of an exogenous DNA sequence. Sequences coding for part or all of the sequence of amino acid residues of bFGF may be incorporated in autonomously replicating plasmid or viral vectors having a regulated promoter sequence and a temperature inducible copy number control gene employed to transform suitable procaryotic host cells such as E. coli in culture.

Banks Allen Rush; Fox Gary Michael

82

Cultural Factors Influencing Children's Pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political and legal, economic, educational factors) was used as framework for the analysis.Results: Religious and philosophical factors, kinship and social factors, cultural values and lifeways, political and legalfactors, and economical and educational factors were found to be related to children's pain. The relation was focused onboth acute, recurrent and chronic pain.Discussion and conclusions: In a global view, there are several cultural factors that are related to children's pain indifferent settings. Many of these factors are culturally valued and could be difficult to modify. More research is neededto understand specific cultural influences that maintain traditions and practices leading to children's suffering from pain.Implications for practice: Nurses should be aware of cultural factors that may have influence on children's pain. Byproviding information to children and their parents some of these traditions and cultural factors might be modified.

Päivi Kankkunen; Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen; Anna-Maija Pietilä; Merja Nikkonen

2009-01-01

83

The influence of fractionated radiation therapy on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in dogs with spontaneous tumors and its impact on outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACK GROUND AND PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific pro-angiogenic factor is proposed to be involved in cancer progression and resistance to radiation therapy by promoting angiogenesis and by protecting endothelial cells from radiation induced apoptosis. The aim of this st...

Wergin, Melanie C; Roos, Malgorzata; Inteeworn, Nathalie; Laluhovà, Dagmar; Allemann, Katrin; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

84

Seminal plasma did not influence the presence of transforming growth factor-beta1, interleukine-10 and interleukin-6 in porcine follicles shortly after insemination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The effects of seminal plasma on the presence of the cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 in ovarian follicles and follicular fluid were studied shortly after insemination in gilts.Ovaries from gilts were sampled 5--6 h after insemination with either seminal plasma (SP), fresh semen in extender (Beltsville thawing solution, BTS), spermatozoa in extender (Spz), or only BTS (control). RESULTS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling of TGF-beta1, IL-10 and IL-6 was evident in the ovarian oocytes and granulosa cells independent of stage of follicular development (antral follicles). Theca interna cells were labeled to a high degree in mature follicles. No consistent differences between treatment groups could be observed for any of the cytokines.In follicular fluid, high concentrations of TGF-beta1 were found while the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were low. There were no differences between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a presence of the cytokines TGF-beta1, IL-6 and IL-10 in oocytes, granulosa and theca cells, as well as in the fluid of mature follicles suggesting a role of these cytokines in intra-ovarian cell communication. However, treatment (SP, fresh semen in BTS, spermatozoa in BTS or BTS) did not influence the IHC-labeling pattern or the levels of these cytokines in follicular fluid shortly after insemination.

Jatesada J; Elisabeth P; Anne-Marie D

2013-09-01

85

The influence of surface coatings of dicalcium phosphate (DCPD) and growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) on the stability of titanium implants in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanical stability of implants is usually tested by pull out or push out tests which destroy the interface between the implant and bone. Pull out tests do not ideally reflect the clinical situation. In contrast, applying submaximal load leads to more physiologic micro-displacement between implant and bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new non-destructive mechanical testing device on different modifications of titanium implants. In 18 rabbits we investigated the influence of a dicalcium phosphate (DCPD) coating, or of a growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) coating, or a combination of both on the stability of titanium implants. The stability of implant was assessed by a non-destructive micro-measurement. In the same specimens the interface was investigated by micro-CT and histological evaluation. Surface modifications had a positive effect on the implant stability regarding displacement (p=0.001). Mechanical stability correlated with the quality of peri-implant tissue. Micro-displacement correlated negatively with the bone formation around the implants in histomorphometric evaluation (p=0.02). Amount of peri-prosthetic soft tissue showed a positive correlation with micro-displacement (p=0.01). Our findings indicate the positive effect of DCPD and GDF-5 coatings on stability of titanium implants. Results demonstrate the non-destructive testing to be an effective method to evaluate mechanical stability of implants. PMID:16595152

Simank, Hans-Georg; Stuber, Marco; Frahm, Ronny; Helbig, Lars; van Lenthe, Harry; Müller, Ralph

2006-04-03

86

The placental growth factor (PGF)--a positional and functional candidate gene influencing calving ease and stillbirth in German dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The bovine placental growth factor-encoding gene (PGF) was analysed as a positional and functional candidate gene for the maternal effect on stillbirth and calving ease in first parity. Prominent levels of PGF expression have been reported for the whole human placenta and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Modulation of angiogenesis, vessel remodelling and vascular permeability during implantation and placentation suggest an influence on trophoblast function during pregnancy. Changes of expression or protein function may therefore be crucial to pregnancy and parturition. By comparative sequencing of bulls with extreme approximate daughter yield deviations for calving traits, we identified 37 SNPs and two insertions/deletions within the PGF gene. Seventeen of the identified polymorphisms were genotyped in 368 selected bulls and tested for association with approximate daughter yield deviations for calving traits. In a single marker analysis, all SNPs were significantly associated with maternal stillbirth and calving ease first parity. The allele substitutions of the significant SNPs explain 8% to 14% and 8% to 15% of the additive genetic variance for maternal stillbirth and maternal calving ease first parity, respectively. There is no evidence that any of the polymorphisms identified within this study could be the causal mutation underlying the QTL, which is likely to be a regulatory mutation. In summary, we report polymorphisms in the bovine PGF gene significantly associated with the maternal effect on stillbirth and calving ease in animals under selection. These results should be confirmed and extended in further studies to identify the causal mutation underlying the QTL analysed.

Seidenspinner T; Tetens J; Habier D; Bennewitz J; Thaller G

2011-02-01

87

The influence of genotype on vascular endothelial growth factor and regulation of myocardial collateral blood flow in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that mutations in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene are associated with plasma concentration of VEGF and subsequently the ability to influence coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Blood samples from patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (n=53) and acute coronary syndrome (n=61) were analysed. Coronary collaterals were scored from diagnostic biplane coronary angiograms. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of VEGF was increased in patients with acute compared to chronic CHD (p=0.01). The genotype frequencies differed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in three of 15 examined loci. Four new mutations in addition to the already described were identified. The VEGF haplotype did not seem to predict plasma VEGF concentration (p=0.5). There was an association between the genotype in locus VEGF-1154 and coronary collateral size (p=0.03) and a significant association between the VEGF plasma concentration and the collateral size (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: VEGF plasma concentration seems related to coronary collateral function in patients with CHD. The results did not support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the untranslated region of the VEGF gene were associated with the concentration of circulating VEGF. Increased understanding of VEGF in the regulation of myocardial collateral flow may lead to new therapies in CHD Udgivelsesdato: 2009

Ripa, R.S.; Jorgensen, E.

2009-01-01

88

The influence of fractionated radiation therapy on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in dogs with spontaneous tumors and its impact on outcome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Back ground and purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific pro-angiogenic factor is proposed to be involved in cancer progression and resistance to radiation therapy by promoting angiogenesis and by protecting endothelial cells from radiation induced apoptosis. The aim of this study, was first to assess the influence of ionizing radiation on plasma VEGF concentration in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy with curative or palliative intent and second to analyze plasma VEGF concentration as predictor for treatment outcome. Patients and methods: For plasma VEGF analysis a human VEGF enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used. Sixty dogs with various tumor types were included in this study. Dogs were irradiated with either low dose per fx (3-3.5 Gy per fraction, total dose: 42-49 Gy, group A: curative intent) or high dose per fx (6-8 Gy per fraction, total dose: 24-30 Gy, group B: palliative intent). Blood samples were taken before and after dose application at certain time points during therapy. Follow-up evaluation was performed for analysis of time to treatment failure and survival. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed no increase of plasma VEGF in dogs treated with fractionated radiation therapy (group A and B). Dichotomizing baseline plasma VEGF into two groups with high and low plasma VEGF, resulted in shorter time to treatment failure in dogs with high plasma VEGF levels (TTF, group A: P=0.038, group B: P=0.041). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that dogs with a plasma VEGF level higher than 5 pg/ml had a poorer outcome after radiation therapy. It is therefore, suggested, to use plasma VEGF as predictor for treatment outcome in radiation therapy

2006-01-01

89

Factors influencing bone scan quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables.

Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

1983-10-07

90

Panretinal-Photocoagulation before Pars Plana Vitrectomy Influences Vitreous Level of Interleukin-6 but not of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For eyes with diabetic retinopathy which require vitreous surgery and pan-retinal photocoagulation (PrP), pre-treatment of PrP before vitreous surgery reduce the activity of diabetic retinopathy, however sometimes cause macular edema leading to visual disturbance. some cytokines in the vitreous increase in eyes with diabetic macular edema, thus the relationship between PrP and vitreous cytokines is to be inves¬tigated. In this study, 72 eligible eyes of 65 patients were recruited, and 36 eyes had pre-treatment of PrP before vitreous surgery. the other 36 eyes were served as control which had PrP not before but under sur¬gery. There was no statistical significant difference of systemic conditions between two groups. All eyes had pars plana vitrectomy, and 1 ml of vitreous sample was obtained under the surgery. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the vitreous sample were measured in each case. After the completion of pre-treatment of PRP, macular edema defined as increase of foveal thickness was prominently worsened, and the vitreous level of IL-6 in PrP pre-treated group showed statistically higher than that in control. In contrast, there was no significant difference of VEGF level between two groups. While, vitreous level of VEGF in control group was strongly correlated with grade of retinopathy and duration of diabetes. In conclusion, PRP influenced vitreous level of IL-6 but not VEGF, leading to macular edema, which sug¬gests that IL-6 plays critical roles of PrP induced macular edema.

Masahiko Shimura; Kanako Yasuda; Toru Nakazawa; Takashi Shiono; Kohji Nishida

2007-01-01

91

Growth factors in orthopedic surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions.

Zaharia C; Niculescu M; Despa N; Simionescu M; Jinga V; Fleseriu I

2010-01-01

92

Growth factors in orthopedic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions. PMID:20302195

Zaharia, Comeliu; Niculescu, Marius; Despa, Nicoleta; Simionescu, Maya; Jinga, Victor; Fleseriu, Irina

93

Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro  

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Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a va...

Guo You-feng; Wang Xiao-bing; Tian Xiao-ying; Li Yang; Li Bin; Huang Quan; Zhang Meng; Li Zhi

94

Secreted or nonsecreted forms of acidic fibroblast growth factor produced by transfected epithelial cells influence cell morphology, motility, and invasive potential.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Addition of exogenous acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) to NBT-II epithelial carcinoma cells results in fibroblastic transformation and cell motility. We have generated aFGF-producing NBT-II cells by transfection with recombinant expression vectors containing human aFGF cDNA, or the human aFGF ...

Jouanneau, J; Gavrilovic, J; Caruelle, D; Jaye, M; Moens, G; Caruelle, J P; Thiery, J P

95

Factors that influence Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in parenteral nutrition with and without lipid emulsion: a study framework to inform maximum duration of infusion policy decisions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recommendations limit infusion of parenteral nutrition (PN) from bags with lipid to 24 h (48 h if lipid free) because lipid putatively encourages contaminant growth. This study aimed to examine these recommendations and identify factors affecting Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in PN. METHODS: S. epidermidis growth was assessed in quadruplicate in 12 PN regimens, with and without lipid and varying glucose concentrations. RESULTS: Baseline colony forming units (cfu)/mL (32.6) less than doubled at 48 h in all infusates. In PN infusates (pH 6.2 + 0.02 (SEM)) growth was independently increased by the presence of 5% w/v lipid (14.2 cfu/mL; P = 0.028), and glucose concentration (25.6 cfu/mL per 10% increase in w/v glucose; P = 0.003). In a separate analysis growth was stimulated by energy density (27.7 cfu/1000 kcal non-nitrogen energy in 2 L; P = 0.002), without a significant effect of % non-protein energy from lipid (-2.6 cfu/ml per 10%). CONCLUSIONS: Using a framework developed to examine growth of potential contaminants in PN, no evidence was found to support the specific recommendation to restrict the maximum infusion duration of lipid containing PN to a greater extent than lipid free PN. S. epidermidis growth was not only affected by the presence of lipid, but also glucose concentration and energy density.

Austin PD; Hand KS; Elia M

2012-12-01

96

Vascular growth factors in neuropsychiatry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular basis of psychiatric illnesses have shed light on the important role played by trophic factors in modulating functional parameters associated with disease causality and drug action. Disease mechanisms are now thought to involve multiple cell types, including neurons and endothelial cells. These functionally distinct but interactively coupled cell types engage in cellular cross talk via shared and common signaling molecules. Dysregulation in their cellular signaling pathways influences brain function and alters behavioral performance. Multifunctional trophic factors such as VEGF and EPO that possess both neurotrophic and angiogenic actions are of particular interest due to their ability to rescue structural and plasticity deficits in neurons and vasculature. Obtaining insight into the behavioral, cellular and molecular actions of multi-functional trophic factors has the potential to open new and transformative therapeutic approaches.

Newton SS; Fournier NM; Duman RS

2013-05-01

97

Growth factor regulation of growth factor production by multiple gene transfer to chondrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of the many classes of molecules regulated by growth factors, growth factors themselves are not well investigated. We tested the hypothesis that combinations of endogenous growth factors interactively regulate the production of other growth factors. Growth factors have therapeutic potential for articular cartilage repair, and gene transfer is a promising approach to growth factor delivery. We tested the hypothesis using adult bovine articular chondrocytes treated with combinations of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor I, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and protein-7, transforming growth factor ?1, and fibroblast growth factor 2. We found that these growth factor transgenes regulated each other's growth factor production. This regulation ranged from stimulation to inhibition. Regulation by multiple transgenes was not predictable from the regulatory actions of the individual transgenes. Such interactions may be important for the selection of growth factor genes for cell-based therapies, including articular cartilage repair.

Shi S; Mercer S; Eckert GJ; Trippel SB

2013-02-01

98

Biomechanical factors as triggers of vascular growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Haemodynamic factors influence all forms of vascular growth (vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis). Because of its prominent role in atherosclerosis, shear stress has gained particular attention, but other factors such as circumferential stretch are equally important to maintain the integrity and to (re)model the vascular network. While these haemodynamic forces are crucial determinants of the appearance and the structure of the vasculature, they are in turn subjected to structural changes in the blood vessels, such as an increased arterial stiffness in chronic arterial hypertension and ageing. This results in an interplay between the various forces (biomechanical forces) and the involved vascular elements. Although many molecular mediators of biomechanical forces still need to be identified, there is plenty of evidence for the causal role of these forces in vascular growth processes, which will be summarized in this review. In addition, we will discuss the effects of concomitant diseases and disorders on these processes by altering either the biomechanics or their transduction into biological signals. Particularly endothelial dysfunction, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, and age affect mechanosensing and -transduction of flow signals, thereby underpinning their influence on cardiovascular health. Finally, current approaches to modify biomechanical forces to therapeutically modulate vascular growth in humans will be described.

Hoefer IE; den Adel B; Daemen MJ

2013-07-01

99

Factors influencing Candida albicans growth in parenteral nutrition with and without lipid emulsion: Using an established framework to inform maximum duration of infusion policy decisions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Because lipid putatively encourages contaminant growth it has been proposed that infusion of lipid-containing parenteral nutrition (PN) bags should be restricted to 24 h (48 h or longer if lipid free). This study aimed to examine this proposal by identifying factors affecting Candida albicans growth in PN. METHODS: C. albicans growth was assessed in quadruplicate in 12 PN infusates, with and without lipid and varying glucose concentrations. RESULTS: The results are presented as mean ± SEM. Baseline log10 colony forming units (cfu)/mL (1.806 ± 0.015) increased substantially by 48 h in the PN infusates (to 3.731 ± 0.059). In PN infusates (pH 6.14 ± 0.01) growth was unaffected by the presence of 5% w/v lipid (0.246 ± 0.156 log10 cfu/mL decrease; P = 0.127), and independently suppressed by increasing glucose concentration (0.438 ± 0.174 log10 cfu/mL decrease per 10% increase in w/v glucose; P = 0.018). In a separate analysis growth was suppressed by increasing energy density (0.520 ± 0.179 log10 cfu/mL decrease per 1000 kcal non-nitrogen energy in 2 L; P = 0.007), without a significant effect of % non-nitrogen energy from lipid (0.056 ± 0.036 log10 cfu/ml increase per 10%; P = 0.082). CONCLUSIONS: Using a framework developed to examine growth of potential contaminants in PN, the inclusion of lipid emulsion in PN produced no specific effect on the growth of C. albicans, other than by increasing energy density. Growth was independently suppressed by increasing either glucose concentration or non-nitrogen energy density.

Austin PD; Hand KS; Elia M

2013-07-01

100

Immediately preoperative use of biological therapy does not influence liver regeneration after large resection--porcine experimental model with monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to study the influence of isolated biological therapy administered immediately before extended liver resection on liver function and regenerative capacity of future liver remnant (FLR) in a large-animal experiment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen piglets were included in this study (10 in the control group and 9 in the experimental group). A port-a-cath was introduced into the superior caval vein. On days 11 and 4 before liver resection, cetuximab was administered via this port at 400 mg/m2 of piglet body surface. Physiological solution was applied to the control group. Resection of the left lateral, left medial and right medial hepatic lobes was followingly performed (reduction of 50-60% of liver parenchyma). Blood samples were collected at different times before the operation and after liver resection. Serum levels of bilirubin, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, cholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, C-reactive protein and transforming growth factor-?1 were assessed. The ultrasonographic examinations at different time points were performed pre-operatively and after liver resection in order to assess the liver volume. The biopsies from the liver parenchyma were examined for proliferative activity, binocluated hepatocytes, size of hepatocytes, and the length of the lobuli. The comparison of distribution of the studied parameters between the groups was carried out using the Wilcoxon test. The Spearman rank correlation co-efficient was used because of the non-Gaussian distribution of the parameter values. The whole development of the studied parameters over time was compared between the groups using ANOVA. RESULTS: There were no important complications of administration of biologic therapy during the operation or throughout the peri-operative period. There was no statistically significant difference in the regeneration of FLR nor were any differences in biochemical, immunoanalytical and histological parameters detected. CONCLUSION: The achieved results of comparable liver regeneration in both the experimental and control groups confirms the use of biological treatment with cetuximab in the pre-operative period for minimizing the recovery period.

Liska V; Treska V; Mirka H; Benes J; Vycital O; Bruha J; Pitule P; Skalicky T; Sutnar A; Chlumska A; Racek J; Trefil L; Finek J; Holubec L

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

The prognostic significance of growth factors and growth factor receptors in gastric adenocarcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated growth factors/receptors expression in gastric adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-D, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, VEGFR-3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, TGF-?1, and TGF-?-RII in tissue microarrays of adenocarcinoma, dysplasia, metaplasia, and gastritis. In adenocarcinoma, the expression rates of EGFR, VEGF, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, TGF-?, TGF-?1, and TGF-?-RII were 2.0%, 0%, 10.7%, 4.4%, 11.2%, 26.3%, 9.4%, and 19.5%, respectively. VEGF-D, TGF-?, TGF-?1, and TGF-?-RII expression rate were higher in adenocarcinoma than in other groups. TGF-?-RII expression was correlated with VEGFR-3, VEGF-D, and TGF-? expression in adenocarcinomas. Tumor location, histologic type, stage, lymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, angioinvasion, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-2 expressions were associated with patient survival in a log rank test and advanced stage and positive expression of VEGF-D were poor prognostic factors using Cox analysis. VEGF-D expression may be of prognostic value in gastric adenocarcinoma, whereas EGFR and TGF family expression may only have a minor influence.

Kim JY; Jeon TJ; Bae BN; Kwon JE; Kim HJ; Park K; Shin E

2013-02-01

102

Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound healing is an evolutionarily conserved, complex, multicellular process that, in skin, aims at barrier restoration. This process involves the coordinated efforts of several cell types including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages, and platelets. The migration, infiltration, proliferation, and differentiation of these cells will culminate in an inflammatory response, the formation of new tissue and ultimately wound closure. This complex process is executed and regulated by an equally complex signaling network involving numerous growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Of particular importance is the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), interleukin (IL) family, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha family. Currently, patients are treated by three growth factors: PDGF-BB, bFGF, and GM-CSF. Only PDGF-BB has successfully completed randomized clinical trials in the Unites States. With gene therapy now in clinical trial and the discovery of biodegradable polymers, fibrin mesh, and human collagen serving as potential delivery systems other growth factors may soon be available to patients. This review will focus on the specific roles of these growth factors and cytokines during the wound healing process. PMID:19128254

Barrientos, Stephan; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Golinko, Michael S; Brem, Harold; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

103

EDUCATION - AN ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education is a strategic area of development. As part of the education system, higher education is themechanism that can give to a society the resources necessary for its correlation with social and economic developmentsat global level.The truth that education is a factor of economic growth is not a new thing. During time, it was proved thatinvestment in education, research and development, and health insurance is undoubtedly more profitable than the otherinputs.The future of every nation depends fundamentally on the extent to which its system is able to provide to theircitizens a performant level of training, which make them competitive worldwide. In higher education must meet thehighest standards, with reference to a multitude of functions and characteristic activities - training, research, teachers,students, programs, resources, initiation, management etc. - all competing to achieve the major objectives whichconverge towards sustainable development of the country.Thus, the present paper emphasize within an international study, the importance of education in developmentand growth

Carmen N?STASE; Carmen N?STASE

2010-01-01

104

Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

Debashis Nandy; Debabrata Mukhopadhyay

2011-01-01

105

Growth factor interactions in bone regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone regeneration is a complex process regulated by a large number of bioactive molecules. Many growth factors and cytokines involved in the natural process of bone healing have been identified and tested as potential therapeutic candidates to enhance the regeneration process. Although many of these studies show an enhancement of the bone regeneration process by a single drug therapy, in vivo bone regeneration is the result of a complex interplay between the applied growth factor and various endogenous produced growth factors. To investigate these growth factor interactions, various studies have investigated the effect of growth factor combinations on bone regeneration. This review provides an overview of the growth factor and cytokine combinations tested in translational bone regeneration studies and shows that their interaction may result in an enhancement or inhibition of bone formation. PMID:21039299

Kempen, Diederik H R; Creemers, Laura B; Alblas, Jacqueline; Lu, Lichun; Verbout, Abraham J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Dhert, Wouter J A

2010-11-01

106

Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)

2009-01-01

107

Genistein-mediated inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which corrects storage in cells of patients suffering from mucopolysaccharidoses, acts by influencing an epidermal growth factor-dependent pathway  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inherited metabolic disorders caused by mutations leading to dysfunction of one of enzymes involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Due to their impaired degradation, GAGs accumulate in cells of patients, which results in dysfunction of tissues and organs. Substrate reduction therapy is one of potential treatment of these diseases. It was demonstrated previously that genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone) inhibits synthesis and reduces levels of GAGs in cultures of fibroblasts of MPS patients. Recent pilot clinical study indicated that such a therapy may be effective in MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome). Methods To learn on details of the molecular mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis, efficiency of this process was studied by measuring of incorporation of labeled sulfate, storage of GAGs in lysosomes was estimated by using electron microscopic techniques, and efficiency of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was determined by using an ELISA-based assay with fluorogenic substrates. Results Effects of genistein on inhibition of GAG synthesis and accumulation in fibroblasts from patients suffering from various MPS types were abolished in the presence of an excess of EGF, and were partially reversed by an increased concentration of genistein. No such effects were observed when an excess of 17?-estradiol was used instead of EGF. Moreover, EGF-mediated stimulation of phsophorylation of the EGF receptor was impaired in the presence of genistein in both wild-type and MPS fibroblasts. Conclusion The results presented in this report indicate that the mechanism of genistein-mediated inhibition of GAG synthesis operates through epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent pathway.

Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka Joanna; Piotrowska Ewa; Narajczyk Magdalena; Bara?ska Sylwia; W?grzyn Grzegorz

2009-01-01

108

Fetal growth factors and fetal nutrition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Optimal fetal growth is important for a healthy pregnancy outcome and also for lifelong health. Fetal growth is largely regulated by fetal nutrition, and mediated via the maternal and fetal glucose/insulin/insulin-like growth factor axes. Fetal nutrition may reflect maternal nutrition, but abnormalities of placental function can also affect fetal growth, as the placenta plays a key intermediary role in nutritional signalling between mother and fetus. Fetal nutrition also impacts on the development of key fetal endocrine systems such as the glucose-insulin and insulin-like growth factor axes. This is likely to contribute to the link between both fetal growth restriction and fetal overgrowth, and increased risks of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in later life. This review focuses on the associations between maternal and fetal nutrition, fetal growth and later disease risk, with particular emphasis on the role of insulin-like growth factors and the importance of the periconceptional period.

Bloomfield H; Spiroski AM; Harding JE

2013-04-01

109

Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer  

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Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

Ioan Pastor

2011-01-01

110

Influence of acidic fibroblast growth factor on bone regeneration in experimental cranial defects using spongostan and bio-oss as protein carriers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to valuate 2 substances as potential carriers of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) in a rat craniectomy model: gelatin sponge (Spongostan; Ferrosan A/S, Søborg, Denmark) and natural bone mineral (Bio-Oss; Geistlich Biomaterials, Wolhusen, Switzerland).Forty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. A 5-mm-diameter circular craniectomy was performed in the left parietal bone. Animals were divided into 6 experimental groups of 8 rats, each group receiving a different treatment: control (no substance added), Spongostan, Bio-Oss, FGF, FGF + Spongostan, and FGF + Bio-Oss. Animals were killed 12 weeks after surgery.Descriptive histology and stereology were used, the latter to measure the volumes of regenerated bone and Bio-Oss remaining in the defect. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in bone regeneration between groups, and Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the volume of remaining Bio-Oss particles.Histologically, the control defects behaved like critical size defects, showing incomplete bone regeneration. Only the FGF + Spongostan group achieved nearly complete bone regeneration. Bio-Oss particles seemed to reduce centripetal bone regeneration. Spongostan by itself did not interfere with spontaneous bone healing.Stereologic measurements of the volume of new bone growth, measured in cubic millimeter, were as follows: control group, 3.86 ± 1.03; Bio-Oss, 2.26 ± 1.06; Spongostan, 3.00 ± 0.81; FGF, 3.99 ± 1.85; FGF + Bio-Oss, 3.02 ± 1.88; and FGF + Spongostan, 8.93 ± 1.28. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference between the FGF + Spongostan group and the other groups (P < 0.001). Comparison among the other groups did not show significant differences.Fibroblast growth factor 1 with a Spongostan carrier has shown great efficacy for bone regeneration in cranial critical size defects in rats. Bio-Oss did not produce a regenerative effect, either alone or with FGF-1.

Arias-Gallo J; Chamorro-Pons M; Avendaño C; Giménez-Gallego G

2013-09-01

111

Nutritional factors influencing infections in preterm infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast with clinical studies in term infants or older children, it is very difficult to investigate possible immunoregulatory effects of a novel infant formula composition in preterm infants. This is mainly because of the multicausal origin of infections in this high-risk population that is usually admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Possible effects of nutrition composition on onset and incidence of nosocomial infections in these very small infants have to be compared with infections that may have originated in utero. The development of the gastrointestinal tract may be inhibited after severe intrauterine growth retardation, leading to functional impairment of the gut shortly after birth. This may be related to the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis of the newborn. However, this disease in very small preterm infants is possibly also related to the initiation of oral feeding and/or the amount of feeding. Specific infection risks of neonatal intensive care as a result of invasive techniques such as artificial ventilation or total parenteral nutrition using indwelling umbilical and/or Silastic lines and so-called "all-in-one" mixtures may influence the incidence of infections. Widespread use of intravenous antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit may create an even larger infection risk. Investigation of possible immunomodulatory effects of factors such as prebiotics and probiotics added to the nutrition of preterm infants should always be considered along with other nutritional factors known to influence the immature immune system. PMID:18716192

Lafeber, Harrie N; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A M; van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P F; van Elburg, Ruurd M

2008-09-01

112

Endogenous versus exogenous growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-?1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-?1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-?1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-?1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. Published 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res.

Shi S; Chan AG; Mercer S; Eckert GJ; Trippel SB

2013-09-01

113

Transforming growth factor-? and Smads.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major diabetic complication. Transforming growth factor-?(TGF-?) is a key mediator in the development of diabetic complications. It is well known that TGF-? exerts its biological effects by activating downstream mediators, called Smad2and Smad3, which is negatively regulated by an inhibitory Smad7. Recent studies also demonstrated that under disease conditions Smads act as signal integrators and interact with other signaling pathways such as the MAPK and NF-?B pathways. In addition, Smad2and Smad3 can reciprocally regulate target genes of TGF-? signaling. Novel research into microRNA has revealed the complexity of TGF-? signaling during DN. It has been found that TGF-? and elevated glucose concentration can positively regulate miR-192 and miR-377, but negatively regulate miR-29a in a diabetic milieu. These microRNAs are found to contribute to DN. Although targeting TGF-? may exert adverse effects on immune system, therapeutic approach against TGF-? signaling during DN still draws much attention. Blocking TGF-? signaling by neutralizing antibody, anti-sense oligonucleotides, and soluble receptors have been tested, but effects are limited. Gene transfer of Smad7 into diseased kidneys demonstrates a prominent inhibition on renal fibrosis and amelioration of renal impairment. Alteration of TGF-?-regulated microRNA expression in diseased kidneys may provide an alternative therapeutic approach against DN. In conclusion, TGF-?/Smad signaling plays a critical role in DN. A better understanding of the role of TGF-?/Smad signaling in the development of DN should provide an effective therapeutic strategy to combat DN.

Lan HY; Chung AC

2011-01-01

114

Growth factor transgenes interactively regulate articular chondrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. Multiple growth factor genes regulate these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte activities. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate an approach to articular chondrocyte regulation that may be tailored to stimulate specific cell functions, and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair.

Shi S; Mercer S; Eckert GJ; Trippel SB

2013-04-01

115

Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers  

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Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2012-01-01

116

Distinct Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tumors express more than a single angiogenic growth factor. To investigate the relative impact of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on tumor growth and neovascularization, we generated tumor cell transfectants differing for VEGF and/or FGF-2 expression....

Giavazzi, Raffaella; Sennino, Barbara; Coltrini, Daniela; Garofalo, Angela; Dossi, Romina; Ronca, Roberto; Tosatti, Maria Pia Molinari

117

Influence of some socio-economic factors on growth and development of the boys in the Tuzla region (Bosnia and Herzegovina).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of certain exogenous factor (socio-economic, ecological) has been investigated with special attention paid to the parents' living standard, and number of family members on some anthropometric parameters like: body height, body mass, chest circumference, upper leg circumference, upper arm circumference, sitting height, arm length, leg length, pelvis width, shoulders width, lenght of head and with of head on the sample of 698 boys aged 11 to 16 (17) years in the Tuzla region (the northeastern Bosnia, Western Balkan peninsula). Anthropometric measurements have been carried out using methodology proposed by the International Biological program (IBP). The results of these investigations have shown that there is a certain impact of the socio-economic conditions on the growth and development of boys. Children from families that have better living standard are, as a rule, taller, which is indicated by the statistical significant differences (P > 0.01). This trend indicates also value of Body Mass Index (BMI), which is in younger children from the families with lower living standard 16, while in the same category in the children from the families with better living standard it has value 18.5. The real impact of living conditions on the dynamics of development could be the best seen in the period of puberty. The number of children in the family has negative relationship with anthropometric features. Statistically significant differences (P > 0.001) have been detected in numerous analysed features in families with one or two children in comparison with families with three, four, or five children. Therefore, BMI has been significantly lower (16) in children from families with several children, while in the families with one child in the same growth class (11 years) it was significantly higher (17.4). Similar value of BMI (17.9) have children from the families with five children and which are 17 years old. Besides socio-economic conditions, high level of environmental pollution which is typical for Tuzla region for a long time, has also significant impact on the growth and development of children.

Redzi? A; Hadzihalilovi? J

2007-06-01

118

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS IN CANADA  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the factors that influence the working capital requirements (wcr) in canada. a sample of 166 canadian firms listed on toronto stock exchange for a period of 3 years from 2008-2010 was selected. this study applied co-relational and non-experimental research design. overall results indicate that operating cycle (oc), return on assets (roa), internationalization of firm, firm’s growth, and firm size influence the wcr in canada. the study also found that oc, roa, leverage, internationalization of the firm, tobin's q, and firm size influence the working capital requirements in the canadian manufacturing industry. in addition, findings show that oc, roa, sales growth, and firm size affect the wcr in the canadian service industry. this study contributes to the literature on the factors that influence working capital requirements. the findings may be useful for the financial managers, investors, and financial management consultants.

Amarjit Gill

2011-01-01

119

Growth factors from genes to clinical application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The last decade has witnessed an explosion in the identification of growth factors and their receptors. This has been greatly facilitated by recombinant DNA technology, which has provided the tools not only to identify these proteins at the gene level but also to produce recombinant proteins for evaluating their biological activities. With the help of such techniques, we are moving toward an understanding of the biosynthesis of growth factors and their receptors, structure-function relationships, as well as mechanisms for intracellular signal transmission. The possibility of modifying these factors has opened new fields of clinical application. In this paper, four major areas of growth factor research are presented: the characterization of growth factor genes and their protein products, growth factor receptors and signal transduction by the receptors to mediate biological action, the biological actions of the various growth factors, and the role of growth factors in health and disease and their possible clinical application. Some of the topics covered include: structure of the IGFs and their variants; isoforms of PDGF receptor types; tyrosine kinase activation; structure of G-proteins in biological membranes; possible therapeutic application of NGF in the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases; PDGF's possible role in the development of several fibroproliferative diseases and its therapeutic application in wound healing; and the possible use of angiogenic inhibitors in tumor treatment.

Sara, V.R. (Dept. of Pathology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (SE)); Hall, K.; Low, H. (Dept. of Endocrinology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (SE))

1990-01-01

120

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

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Full Text Available Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature and society make up the outer environment for Huck’s growth. They have great effect on the development of his growth. On the other hand, his own instinct and his sound heart finally decide the direction of his growth.

Yanxia Sang

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Influences of incorporating detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) diet on the expression of growth hormone- and insulin-like growth factor-1-encoding genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub or small tree widespread all over the tropics and subtropics. The use of J. curcas (L) kernel meal in fish feed is limited owing to the presence of toxic and antinutritional constituents. In this study, it was detoxified using heat treatment and organic solvent extraction method. The detoxification process was carried out for 60?min to obtain the detoxified meal. Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings (n?=?180; avg. wt. 3.2?±?0.07?g) were randomly distributed in five treatment groups with four replicates and fed isonitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%) for 8?weeks. The inclusion levels of the detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM) and soybean meal (SBM) were as follows: control diet was prepared with fish meal (FM) and wheat meal, without any DJKM and SBM; diets S(50) and J(50) : 50% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively; diets S(75) and J(75) : 75% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively. Highest body mass gain and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression in brain, liver and muscle were observed for the control group, which were statistically similar to those for J(50) group and significantly (p?growth hormone gene expression in brain, liver and muscle exhibited opposite trend. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration in plasma did not differ significantly among the five groups. Conclusively, growth performance was in parallel with IGF-1 gene expression and exhibited negative trend with GH gene expression. PMID:22077318

Kumar, V; Khalil, W K B; Weiler, U; Becker, K

2011-11-14

122

Influences of incorporating detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) diet on the expression of growth hormone- and insulin-like growth factor-1-encoding genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub or small tree widespread all over the tropics and subtropics. The use of J. curcas (L) kernel meal in fish feed is limited owing to the presence of toxic and antinutritional constituents. In this study, it was detoxified using heat treatment and organic solvent extraction method. The detoxification process was carried out for 60?min to obtain the detoxified meal. Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings (n?=?180; avg. wt. 3.2?±?0.07?g) were randomly distributed in five treatment groups with four replicates and fed isonitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%) for 8?weeks. The inclusion levels of the detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM) and soybean meal (SBM) were as follows: control diet was prepared with fish meal (FM) and wheat meal, without any DJKM and SBM; diets S(50) and J(50) : 50% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively; diets S(75) and J(75) : 75% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively. Highest body mass gain and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression in brain, liver and muscle were observed for the control group, which were statistically similar to those for J(50) group and significantly (p?growth hormone gene expression in brain, liver and muscle exhibited opposite trend. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration in plasma did not differ significantly among the five groups. Conclusively, growth performance was in parallel with IGF-1 gene expression and exhibited negative trend with GH gene expression.

Kumar V; Khalil WK; Weiler U; Becker K

2013-02-01

123

The growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals with endogenous neuroendocrine responses to the genetic programs that determine the body plan. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are integral components of multiple systems controlling both growth and metabolism. The IGF system The IGF system is thought to be more complex than other endocrine systems, as genes for six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been identified so far. The IGFs play a critical role in both cell cycle control and apoptosis, two functions involved in regulation of tumorigenesis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is essential for normal growth. Confirmation of the significance of IGF-I in human physiology was obtained by the discovery of a patient with intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with a mutation in the IGF-1 gene. Stages of evolution of the somatomedin hypothesis The original somatomedin hypothesis postulated that somatic growth was regulated by growth hormone's (GH's) stimulation of hepatic IGF-1 production, with IGF-1 acting in an endocrine fashion to promote growth. The dual effectors theory proposed an alternative view, involving direct effects by GH on peripheral tissues not mediated by IGF-1 and GH-stimulated local IGF-1 production for autocrine/paracrine action. It is now clear that G H stimulates the formation of ternary IGF binding complex, which stabilizes IGF-I in the serum.

Radosavljevi? Tatjana; Todorovi? Vera N.; Vu?evi? Danijela; Šiki? Branka

2005-01-01

124

Design and Synthesis of Binding Growth Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth factors play important roles in tissue regeneration. However, because of their instability and diffusible nature, improvements in their performance would be desirable for therapeutic applications. Conferring binding affinities would be one way to improve their applicability. Here we review techniques for conjugating growth factors to polypeptides with particular affinities. Conjugation has been designed at the level of gene fusion and of polypeptide ligation. We summarize and discuss the designs and applications of binding growth factors prepared by such conjugation approaches.

Seiichi Tada; Takashi Kitajima; Yoshihiro Ito

2012-01-01

125

The influence of fluid composition on barite growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Depending on the fluid composition, the mechanism of interaction of a fluid with a mineral surface will involve transport of ions either to or from a mineral surface. The principal control on the growth of barite, BaSO4, has been shown to be the dehydration of the Ba2+ ion at the mineral-fluid interface (Piana et al., 2006). This is also likely to be the case for other ions that could be incorporated into a growing surface. It follows that any chemical influence on the dehydration kinetics will determine the redistribution of ions between solid and fluid phases. Earlier work has shown that the influence of background electrolytes, apart from the constituent ions in the barite structure, have a significant effect on barite growth, and it was hypothesized that this was due to changing the dynamics of the water structure (Kowacz and Putnis, 2008). Here using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we show that barite growth is influenced by the pH of the solution. Previous research does not indicate any pH dependence on the growth of barite, as speciation predictions do not vary significantly with pH. However atomic-scale observations show that at low and high pH, growth rates change compared to pH values 4 - 9. In order to test the influence of pH on barite growth, influencing factors need to be held constant apart from the factor (pH) being tested. AFM observations of barite growth under conditions of constant supersaturation, temperature, Ba/SO4 ratio and ionic strength but changing growth solution pH have been studied. In natural systems, the presence of other ions, apart from Ba2+ and SO42- growth building units, must be considered. We also investigate the influence of ionic strength on the growth process. Direct observations of barite growth at the nano-scale afford the possibility of directly seeing the growth process. Barite scale formation is one of the main problems in many industrial processes (such as, paper-making, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, off-shore oil extraction, geothermal energy production). It is especially problematic (and costly) in oilfields due to its low solubility and hardness resulting in solid layers of barite that can block pipes completely, reducing the production of an oil-well. Barite scale in oilfields is caused by mixing of the injected seawater (high in SO4) to increase the oil extraction maintaining the inner pressure in the reservoir, with formation water (high in Ba2+) in the reservoir. The partitioning of trace amounts of radium (Ra2+) into the barite also leads to the problem that the scale becomes radioactive. The reactions that lead to BaSO4 scale formation and the methods that could reduce or prevent it are poorly quantified. To be able to control crystal growth, we first need to understand how barite grows, the conditions for optimal growth, as well as any factors that inhibit or reduce this growth to a minimum. Refs.: Piana S., Jones F., Gale JD. Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 128, 13568 (2006) Kowacz M and Putnis A. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 4476 (2008) Acknowledgement: C.R-A. acknowledges a Marie Curie Fellowship: EU ITN MINSC (Mineral Scale Formation, PITN-GA-2011-290040)

Ruiz Agudo, Cristina; Putnis, Christine V.; Putnis Putnis, Andrew

2013-04-01

126

Targeting Mutated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project is aimed at developing specific and effective vaccines for immunotherapy of breast cancer. Mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (mEGF-R) is expressed on a high proportion of breast carcinoma lesions derived from various patients, but not ...

D. M. Herlyn

1997-01-01

127

Growth differentiation factor-11 transgenic mice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A transgenic mouse whose genome comprises a disruption of the endogenous growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) gene is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for making such mice. The mice exhibit a phenotype of increased muscle tissue.

LEE SE-JIN; MCPHERRON ALEXANDRA C

128

Expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling substances in gastric mucosal cells influenced by serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints  

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Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints on the expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling substances phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1), protein kinase C (PKC) and c-myc in gastric mucosal cells.Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into normal group, stomach meridian group, gallbladder meridian group, stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group. Water-immersion and restrained stress methods were adopted for inducing gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Gastric mucosal cells were separated by using pronase digestion method, and incubated by PD153035, a EGFR inhibitor, and 100 ml/L serum. The expression of PLC?-1 in the gastric mucosal cells was tested by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the expression of PKC by isotope incorporate assay and the expression of c-myc by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR).Results: In gastric mucosal cells, weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the normal group, and relatively strong expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group, among which, the expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc in the stomach meridian group were the strongest, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group (P?0.01). Relative weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and the gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group (P?0.01).Conclusions: The serum derived from the rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints can activate the EGFR singling pathway, and this provides an evidence for the theory of "relative particularity between meridians and viscera" in traditional Chinese medicine.

Jie YAN

2007-01-01

129

Cancer cells. 3: Growth factors and transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains over 50 papers. Some of the titles are: Structure of Human Epidermal Growth Factor and Expression of Normal and Variant mRNAs in Epdermoid Carcinoma Cells; Tyrosine Kinase Activity Associated with the v-erb-B Gene Product; Cloning and Characterization of Human Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptor Gene Sequences in A431 Carcinoma Cells; Anti-oncogenes and the Suppression of Tumor Formation; and Normal Human sis/PDGF-2 Gene Expression Induces Cellular Transformation.

Feramisco, J.; Ozanne, B.; Stiles, C.

1985-01-01

130

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and stroke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) have been shown to participate in atherosclerosis, arteriogenesis, cerebral edema, neuroprotection, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, postischemic brain and vessel repair, and the effects of transplanted stem cells in experimental stroke. Most of these actions involve VEGF-A and the VEGFR-2 receptor, but VEGF-B, placental growth factor, and VEGFR-1 have been implicated in some cases as well. VEGF signaling pathways represent important potential targets for the acute and chronic treatment of stroke.

Greenberg DA; Jin K

2013-05-01

131

Factors that determine the evolution of high-growth businesses  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish) was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and management practices; in 2013, they were re-analyzed to investigate the factors that contributed to continued growth for certain companies. Contributions: Through diverse statistical techniques, business policies related to quality, innovation, internationalization and finance were shown to influence business growth and sustainability over time. Limitations of the Research: This study focuses on industrial businesses at least ten years old in Catalonia; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations and economic sectors, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical Implications: Because growth is a measure of business success, identifying variables that contribute to high growth and its sustainability is helpful for businesses that seek to adopt effective policies. Social Implications: Generating employment is one of the primary contributions by high-growth businesses. For years with high unemployment, authorities may be interested in corporate policies that strengthen high-growth businesses. Originality/Added Value: High-growth businesses have been studied throughout the world, but this is the first study to investigate the evolution of businesses after a high-growth phase.

Oriol Amat; Marcos Antón Renart; María José García

2013-01-01

132

Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophtha...

Torres-Gimeno Ana; Martínez-Costa Lucía; Ayala Guillermo

133

Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue), graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis), and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain). The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women) presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

Torres-Gimeno Ana; Martínez-Costa Lucía; Ayala Guillermo

2012-01-01

134

Growth factor parametrization in curved space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth rate of matter perturbation and the expansion rate of the Universe can be used to distinguish modified gravity and dark energy models in explaining cosmic acceleration. We explore here the inclusion of spatial curvature into the growth factor. We expand previous results using the approximation ?m? and then suggest a new form, fa=?m?+(?-4/7)?k, as an approximation for the growth factor when the curvature ?k is not negligible, and where the growth index ? is usually model dependent. The expression recovers the standard results for the curved and flat ?CDM and Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Using the best fit values of ?m0 and ?k0 to the expansion/distance measurements from Type Ia SNe, baryon acoustic oscillation, WMAP5, and H(z) data, we fit the growth index parameter to current growth factor data and obtain ??(?k?0)=0.65-0.15+0.17 and ?DGP(?k?0)=0.53-0.12+0.14. For the ?CDM model, the 1-? observational bounds are found consistent with theoretical value, unlike the case for the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. We also find that the current data we used is not enough to put significant constraints when the 3 parameters in fa are fit simultaneously. Importantly, we find that, in the presence of curvature, the analytical expression proposed for fa provides a better fit to the growth factor than other forms and should be useful for future high precision missions and studies.

2009-07-15

135

The genome of Shope fibroma virus, a tumorigenic poxvirus, contains a growth factor gene with sequence similarity to those encoding epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Degenerate oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a highly conserved region common to epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, and vaccinia growth factor were used to identify a novel growth factor gene in the Shope fibroma virus genome. Sequence analysis indicates that the Shope ...

Chang, W; Upton, C; Hu, S L; Purchio, A F; McFadden, G

136

Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks.

Jutla A; Whitcombe E; Hasan N; Haley B; Akanda A; Huq A; Alam M; Sack RB; Colwell R

2013-07-01

137

Organic growth factor requirements of some yeasts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some sporogenous yeasts (Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hansenula ciferrii, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia polymorpha, Saccharomycopsis guttulata, and Saccharomyces chevalieri), isolated from various fruits have been examined for their organic growth factor requisites. H. ciferrii was completely deficient in thiamine, biotin, inositol, riboflavin, niacin, and partially deficient in pantothenic acid. It required an external supply of 0.1-1.0 ppm thiamine, 0.01-0.1 ppm biotin, 10.0 ppm inositol, 0.10 ppm niacin and riboflavin for its optimum growth. H. polymorpha showed partial deficiency only in xanthine. P. polymorpha gave indications of partial deficiencies in thiamine and biotin. S. guttulata was completely deficient in biotin, and partially deficient in adenine sulphate. It required 0.01 ppm biotin for optimum growth. S chevalieri was completely deficient in pyridoxine and partially deficient in thiamine. It required 0.1 ppm pyridoxine for maximum growth. D. hansenii and B bruxellensis were auxoautotrophic for the various growth factors studied.

Madan M; Gulati N

1980-01-01

138

Assessment of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor levels in amniotic fluid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To measure amniotic fluid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 and to characterize their levels with respect to advancing gestational age and pregnancy-related complications. STUDY DESIGN: Amniotic fluid was collected from a total of 37 patients, 2 of whom had twin pregnancies. Twenty-seven specimens were collected in the second trimester and 10 specimens were collected in the third trimester. VEGF, bFGF and TGF-beta2 were isolated from centrifuged amniotic fluid and quantified using commercially available ELISA kits. Concentrations of growth factors were expressed in pg/mL. RESULTS: The growth factors under investigation were present in most but not all amniotic fluid specimens throughout pregnancy. The levels of VEGF, bFGF and TGF-beta2 were inconsistent and did not show a statistically significant association with gestational age, number of fetuses, or the presence of hypertension and/or diabetes. One significant finding emerged from the data: smokers had significantly higher amniotic fluid levels of VEGF compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: VEGF, bFGF and TGF-beta2 are detectable in second and third trimester amniotic fluid. Smoking appears to correlate with increased amniotic fluid VEGF during pregnancy. VEGF may represent a molecular marker of hypoxia and is an interesting focus for future investigation.

Bedaiwy MA; Burlingame JM; Hussein M; Flyckt R; Assad R; Falcone T

2012-09-01

139

Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits dendritic cell maturation  

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Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGN)and mature(CD83) dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb). Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.

Luciana Cavalheiro Marti; Patricia Renovato Tobo; Ana Carolina Souza Ramos de Carvalho; Alipio Oliveira do Carmo; Oswaldo Keith Okamoto; Carlos Alberto Moreira-Filho

2005-01-01

140

Factors influencing human tumor radioresistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The first part of this paper reviews factors which modulate intrinsic radioresistance including free radical scavengers, chemical and enzymatic repair of DNA, chromatin conformation, cell cycle checkpoints and signal transduction processes. In the second part a sub-set of radioresistant cells which have been identified from among cell lines cross-resistant to alkylating agents are described. Radioresistance is associated with a reduction in the value of ? in the linear-quadratic model and these cell lines are radiosensitized under aerated conditions by GSH depletion with sensitization involving an increase in ?. (authors). 43 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Factors influencing peripheral nerve suture results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Besides the surgical treatment, other factors do greatly influence the results following peripheral nerve suture. On the basis of our own findings in more than 80 patients, we analyze those factors, the exclusion of which prevents a satisfactory comparison between the different results in peripheral nerve suturing, as well as a valid discussion of their implications.

Müller H; Grubel G

1983-01-01

142

Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

|The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…

Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur

2011-01-01

143

Oncogenes and growth factors in thyroid carcinogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues express a variety of oncogenes, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. The increased expression of a mutated form or forms of c-myc and c-ras appears to be associated with some epithelial and medullary thyroid carcinomas. In some cases the presence of these oncogenes correlates with less favorable histologic appearance. The possibility of cooperation between oncogene products (myc and ras) in neoplastic development is raised by studies on transformed thyroid cells in culture. Moreover, a tissue-specific oncogene associated with papillary carcinoma recently has been described. The role of excessive growth factor or growth factor receptor expression in thyroid carcinoma also has been discussed and may, as with other tumor types, be linked to specific oncogene products (e.g., c-erb-B encoding for the EGF receptor). However, the regulation of oncogenes in various stages of differentiation of thyroid tissues is not well understood. In addition to describing these associations with thyroid carcinoma and putative unchecked growth factor action in the development of neoplasia, more direct demonstrations of a causal relationship are necessary. Thus, one needs to overexpress oncogenes/growth factors in normal cell lines (as has been described in this review) and observe whether cellular transformation or dedifferentiation or both occur. The ability to specifically block oncogene or growth factor expression in neoplastic cell lines at the RNA or protein level (with antisense oligonucleotides or monoclonal antibodies, respectively) should provide important information about the pathogenetic importance of these factors. It may be anticipated that reversing the overexpression of certain oncogenes can lead to normal cellular proliferation, morphology, and differentiation. The knowledge obtained from investigating the associations of oncogenes and growth factors with thyroid cancer should provide insight into the mechanisms involved in cell growth and differentiation and in the biochemical steps involved in neoplastic transformation. New insights into these processes may lead to specific therapeutic measures designed to block aberrant expression of the cellular products involved in neoplasia. A more complete understanding of the role of oncogenes in thyroid cancer also may lead to the development of specific tumor markers that may be useful in the early diagnosis of thyroid cancer and the follow-up of therapeutic maneuvers. If specific markers can be identified, analysis of fine-needle aspiration specimens of the thyroid or imaging techniques (using for example, oncogene-specific monoclonal antibodies) could be added to the diagnostic armamentarium for thyroid disease. PMID:2175702

Frauman, A G; Moses, A C

1990-09-01

144

Oncogenes and growth factors in thyroid carcinogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues express a variety of oncogenes, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. The increased expression of a mutated form or forms of c-myc and c-ras appears to be associated with some epithelial and medullary thyroid carcinomas. In some cases the presence of these oncogenes correlates with less favorable histologic appearance. The possibility of cooperation between oncogene products (myc and ras) in neoplastic development is raised by studies on transformed thyroid cells in culture. Moreover, a tissue-specific oncogene associated with papillary carcinoma recently has been described. The role of excessive growth factor or growth factor receptor expression in thyroid carcinoma also has been discussed and may, as with other tumor types, be linked to specific oncogene products (e.g., c-erb-B encoding for the EGF receptor). However, the regulation of oncogenes in various stages of differentiation of thyroid tissues is not well understood. In addition to describing these associations with thyroid carcinoma and putative unchecked growth factor action in the development of neoplasia, more direct demonstrations of a causal relationship are necessary. Thus, one needs to overexpress oncogenes/growth factors in normal cell lines (as has been described in this review) and observe whether cellular transformation or dedifferentiation or both occur. The ability to specifically block oncogene or growth factor expression in neoplastic cell lines at the RNA or protein level (with antisense oligonucleotides or monoclonal antibodies, respectively) should provide important information about the pathogenetic importance of these factors. It may be anticipated that reversing the overexpression of certain oncogenes can lead to normal cellular proliferation, morphology, and differentiation. The knowledge obtained from investigating the associations of oncogenes and growth factors with thyroid cancer should provide insight into the mechanisms involved in cell growth and differentiation and in the biochemical steps involved in neoplastic transformation. New insights into these processes may lead to specific therapeutic measures designed to block aberrant expression of the cellular products involved in neoplasia. A more complete understanding of the role of oncogenes in thyroid cancer also may lead to the development of specific tumor markers that may be useful in the early diagnosis of thyroid cancer and the follow-up of therapeutic maneuvers. If specific markers can be identified, analysis of fine-needle aspiration specimens of the thyroid or imaging techniques (using for example, oncogene-specific monoclonal antibodies) could be added to the diagnostic armamentarium for thyroid disease.

Frauman AG; Moses AC

1990-09-01

145

Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity. PMID:21523903

Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

2011-04-26

146

Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

Tam SK; Dusseault J; Bilodeau S; Langlois G; Hallé JP; Yahia L

2011-07-01

147

The Influence of the Economic Growth Process on Romanian Employment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the economic growth process on the Romanian employment, in the 1990-2010 period. The results of this study highlight, on the one hand, the existence of a negative employment intensity in Romania (expressed by the employment elasticity of economic growth). This fact invalidates the economic theory, which states that there is a direct relationship between employment and economic growth, but of different intensity from one period to another and from one country to another. On the other hand, these results also underline the profound changes that have happened in terms of employment intensity over the last two decades, as well as the factors that have determined these changes.

Emilia HERMAN

2012-01-01

148

Which factors influence psychiatrists' selection of antidepressants?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: There is little empirical evidence to guide clinicians in choosing among the diverse array of antidepressants available. In the absence of replicated empirical research guiding the selection of antidepressants, it is of interest to examine what factors psychiatrists consider when prescribing antidepressants. METHOD: For 1,137 depressed patients who received a new antidepressant prescription, the treating psychiatrist completed a 43-item questionnaire listing factors that might have influenced the choice of antidepressant medication. The questionnaire was filled out immediately after an antidepressant was prescribed to treat a depressive disorder. RESULTS: The most common factors influencing antidepressant selection were the avoidance of specific side effects, the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the presence of specific clinical symptoms. Prior treatment history, including prior positive or failed response to a drug, was the next most frequently endorsed factor influencing medication choice. Some factors that have been commonly discussed in the literature, such as concern about discontinuation syndrome and drug-drug interactions, rarely influenced antidepressant selection. CONCLUSIONS: Because relatively little research has examined clinical features associated with differential response to the newer generation of antidepressants, a study of psychiatrists' prescribing practices highlights priorities for future controlled research. Our results suggest that two priority areas are the treatment of depression with coexisting anxiety symptoms/anxiety disorders and the influence of particular symptoms on response to different medications.

Zimmerman M; Posternak M; Friedman M; Attiullah N; Baymiller S; Boland R; Berlowitz S; Rahman S; Uy K; Singer S

2004-07-01

149

Soil factors affecting tree growth on former opencast coal land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth of three tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula spp. and Quercus spp.) was related to soil factors on two restored opencast coal sites in South Wales, UK. The main factors favouring tree growth were greater soil depth and organic content. Factors limiting growth included poor site drainage and high magnesium levels. Whilst all species were related to most of the above factors, soil depth was of particular importance for Alnus glutinosa and Betula spp., whilst site drainage had the greatest influence for Betula spp. Soil-tree associations tended to be closer on the older of the two sites. Combinations of soil depth, percentage clay and percentage organic content in a multiple regression predicted around 40% of the growth variation in Alnus glutinosa, between 6.9 and 32% of that for Betula spp. and between 14.5 and 32.6% of that for Quercus spp. Growth prediction for Betula spp. improved to 40.9 and 34.8% when a site drainage factor was included in the regression. The development of such predictive relationships might contribute to the planning of site reinstatement for tree planting after opencast mining, and to a better `matching` of tree species to site characteristics.

Scullion, J.; Malinovszky, K.M. [University of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom). Inst. of Biological Sciences, Soil Science Unit

1995-12-01

150

The integrin-growth factor receptor duet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell adhesion receptors, referred to as integrins, are recognized as key regulators of cellular processes including growth and differentiation. Integrins communicate with growth factor receptors (GFRs) to control specific cellular responses to stimuli originating in the extracellular environment. In this article, we review the role of integrins as molecular switches that modulate GFR activation and specificity. We also examine the reciprocal modulation of integrin functions by GFRs and the mechanisms through which those actions are fine-tuned. PMID:17886260

Alam, Naved; Goel, Hira Lal; Zarif, Matthew J; Butterfield, Julie E; Perkins, Hillary M; Sansoucy, Brian G; Sawyer, Thomas K; Languino, Lucia R

2007-12-01

151

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

DANA-CODRU?A DUD?-D?IANU; DANIELA HARANGU?

2012-01-01

152

ECONOMIC GROWTH IN RUSSIA REGIONS: KEY FACTORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research objective is revealing and the analysis of key factors of Siberia economy development in a context oftheir historical formation. It allows to estimate prospects and possibilities of the Siberian regions from the point of viewof the balanced and long-term economic growth. As empirical base data of Omsk area were used. Researchconstruction was based on use of methods of theoretical research, and also historical and economic -statistical methods.There are conclusions that regulated factors were key sources of economic growth of Siberia always (system measuresof the state in sphere of the migratory policy, supported with real financial possibilities), showing the high productivityagainst a number of casual factors (favorable resursno-climatic conditions, a successful geopolitical site, a safe worldconjuncture). In research practical recommendations are offered for giving region economic system of additionalpossibilities of economic growth .

Vitaly ALESCHENKO; Alexandru NEDELEA; Oana NEDELEA

2009-01-01

153

Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in adult polycystic kidney disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) is a common genetic disease with a frequency of 1:1000. Evidence suggests that transforming growth factor alpha (TGF?) signaling may contribute to the hyperproliferation of the cystic epithelia in APKD. TGF? and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are well known mito...

Lee, DCW; Chan, KW; Chan, SY

154

Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

C Hill M; L Cox C

2013-08-01

155

Vascular endothelial growth factor induces growth of uterine cervix and immune cell recruitment in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Knowledge of uterine cervical epithelial biology and factors that influence its events may be critical in understanding the process of cervical remodeling (CR). Here, we examine the impact of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on uterine cervical epithelial growth in mice (nonpregnant and pregnant) treated with VEGF agents (recombinant and inhibitor) using a variety of morphological and molecular techniques. Exogenous VEGF altered various uterine cervical epithelial cellular events, including marked induction of growth, edema, increase in inter-epithelial paracellular space, and recruitment of immune cells to the outer surface of epithelial cells (cervical lumen). We conclude that VEGF induces multiple alterations in the uterine cervical epithelial tissues that may play a role in local immune surveillance and uterine cervical growth during CR.

Donnelly SM; Nguyen BT; Rhyne S; Estes J; Jesmin S; Mowa CN

2013-04-01

156

Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil/ Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos) de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches sobre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 (more) a estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%), notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12%) e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) e protozoário Giardia duodenalis (13%) foram os mais comuns; Abstract in english Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ((more) -1SD > -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.

Lander, Rebecca L.; Lander, Alastair G.; Houghton, Lisa; Williams, Sheila M.; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Barreto, Daniel L.; Mattos, Angela P.; Gibson, Rosalind S

2012-11-01

157

Keratinocyte growth factor and coeliac disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND—Coeliac disease is characterised by increased epithelial renewal associated with a mucosal T cell response to gliadin. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is produced by cytokine activated gut stromal cells and may be a link between mucosal T cell activation in untreated coeliac disease and ...

Salvati, V; Bajaj-Elliott, M; Poulsom, R; Mazzarella, G; Lundin, K; Nilsen, E; Troncone, R; MacDonald, T

158

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, whic...

Melissa Oliveira-Cunha; William G. Newman; Ajith K. Siriwardena

159

Growth Factor Antagonism in Breast Cancer Chemotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary focus of this work is the identification of molecules that block the interaction of growth factors with their receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). We plan to design, synthesize and evaluate a novel series of synthetic agents that bind to the surf...

A. D. Hamilton

2001-01-01

160

Novel vascular endothelial growth factor expression inhibitors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides anti-aging agents, angiogenesis inhibitors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression inhibitors containing one or more galenicals selected from the group consisting of mukurossi peel extract, hazelnut extract, linden extract, coix extract, chlorella extract and tormentilla extract.

HASEGAWA KIYOTAKA; INOMATA SHINJI; UMISHIO KENICHI

 
 
 
 
161

Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy.

Koletzko B; Beyer J; Brands B; Demmelmair H; Grote V; Haile G; Gruszfeld D; Rzehak P; Socha P; Weber M

2013-01-01

162

IGF-1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor -1) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... helpful? Also known as: Somatomedin C Formal name: Insulin-like Growth Factor - 1 Related tests: Growth Hormone ( ... The Test Sample What is being tested? The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) test is ...

163

Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

Micha? Dudek

2010-01-01

164

INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHATE CORROSION CONTROL COMPOUNDS ON BACTERIAL GROWTH  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of two phosphate corrosion compounds on the growth and survival of coliform and other heterotrophic bacteria was investigated in laboratory, field, and model system studies. Growth of Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was not sign...

165

A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

Naser Azad; Somayeh Hozouri; Seyed Foad Zarifi; Yaser Khodashenas

166

Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa; Marco Antonio Moreira

1997-01-01

167

Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science  

Science.gov (United States)

Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

Atria, Catherine Graczyk

168

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to di...

?ilda Pe?ari?; Miroslav Tu?man

169

Cholangiocarcinoma: risk factors, environmental influences and oncogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most frequent malignant epithelial liver tumors after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its incidence seems to be increasing worldwide, although risk factors are heterogeneous and differ globally. Although diagnostic and therapeutic medicine have advanced in several countries, tackling this tumor remains a challenge. The causes of CCA's increasing incidence are likely a differential increment of some factors according to the geographical area, which will be considered in this review. Environment-linked risk factors may play a critical role in the carcinogenesis. Liver flukes may play a major role in East Asia, while exposure to chemical compounds, such as naphthenic acids, has been postulated as a source of the rate increase in Western countries. Carcinogenesis is variable and confounding factors also need to be taken into account. Carcinogenesis depends on a sequential process and most probably involves both cholestasis and chronic inflammation as promoting steps after induction. The release and interaction of interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are at the basis of the proliferation of biliary epithelial cells or cholangiocytes. Additional steps for the final development of CCA may also involve an increase of the mutation rate of tumor suppressor genes, such as TP53, and the evasion of apoptosis.

Al-Bahrani R; Abuetabh Y; Zeitouni N; Sergi C

2013-01-01

170

Mutant epidermal growth factor receptor enhances induction of vascular endothelial growth factor by hypoxia and insulin-like growth factor-1 via a PI3 kinase dependent pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over-expression of truncated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occurs in a variety of malignancies including glioblastoma multiforme, breast and lung cancer. The truncation deletes an extracellular domain and results in constitutive activation of the receptor. NIH3T3 cells were transfected with full length or truncated human EGFR and differences in growth rates in vivo and in vitro analysed. A growth advantage was seen for cells expressing mutant receptor compared to full length EGFR in vivo only. Administration of an anti-mutant EGFR antibody to mice transiently reduced the growth rates of mutant tumours, confirming that the mutant receptor itself was important in this enhanced tumorigenicity. This showed that stimuli present in vivo and not in vitro may be contributing to growth. We therefore analysed the regulation of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Although levels of secreted VEGF did not differ significantly between wild-type and mutant EGFR cell lines when grown in vitro under normoxic conditions, following exposure to 0.1% hypoxia levels of VEGF produced by mutant cells increased 3.5-6.6 fold compared to 2 or less for full length EGFR cells. The fold induction was influenced by experimental conditions, including cell confluence and percentage of fetal bovine serum, but was consistently higher for mutant cell lines. The increase in VEGF under hypoxic conditions was blocked by the addition of PI3 kinase inhibitors, indicating that the latter pathway is important in the hypoxic stress response. Basal levels were not affected. Addition of insulin-like growth factor-1 also increased levels of VEGF under normoxic conditions in the mutant cells and no further increase was seen when added to cells exposed to 0.1% oxygen, indicating that levels of VEGF were already maximally stimulated. These results show that the mutant EGFR interacts with other growth factors and hypoxia to regulate VEGF via a PI3 kinase pathway, and suggests a specific role for anti-mutant EGFR antibodies and PI3 kinase inhibitors as therapy of this specific tumour target.

Clarke K; Smith K; Gullick WJ; Harris AL

2001-05-01

171

Growth factors III part: transforming growth factors (TGF) Factores de crecimiento III: factores transformadores del crecimiento (TGF)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review is presented on the basic concepts of Transforming Growth Factors both a and p; it includes general considerations, biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, and biological effects. Se presenta una revisión de los conceptos básicos sobre los factores transformadores del crecimiento, tanto alfa como beta, incluyendo los siguientes aspectos: consideraciones generales, estructura bioquímica, concentraciones, proteínas transportadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos.

Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.; Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

1996-01-01

172

Factores de crecimiento III: factores transformadores del crecimiento (TGF) Growth factors III part: transforming growth factors (TGF)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de los conceptos básicos sobre los factores transformadores del crecimiento, tanto alfa como beta, incluyendo los siguientes aspectos: consideraciones generales, estructura bioquímica, concentraciones, proteínas transportadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos. A review is presented on the basic concepts of Transforming Growth Factors both a and p; it includes general considerations, biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, and biological effects.

Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.; Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

1996-01-01

173

Review of identified factors influencing contraceptive use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction It is necessary to know the factors that influence contraceptive behavior in order to overcome obstacles of contraceptive use by implementing modern family planning programs that have to be based on logistic management and directed to the client. The factor isolated till now are systematized into the two groups: the socio-demographic factors - to a greater extent associated with developing countries and the psychological factors -mainly related to developed countries. Socio-demographic f actors of the contraceptive use The most significant socio-demographic determinants of contraceptive behavior appear to be the age, women's educational level but even the educational level of the husband/partner, occupation, environment (urban/rural), some cultural factors, and high price of contraceptives. Psychological variables as a factor of contraceptive (non)use In the group of psychological variables that influence contraceptive use it is possible to distinguish: the presence of illusion of fertility control, locus of control, level of Ego maturity, femininity and masculinity, i.e. the accepted gender roles, level of self-acceptance. The majority of the factors show that the presence of personal initiative and assertiveness are associated with higher level of contraception use.

Bjelica Artur; Trnini?-Pjevi? Aleksandra

2008-01-01

174

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? in human milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-? was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-? was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-? and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-? was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-?. Although the physiological role of TGF-? in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants

1991-01-01

175

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses). The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years). The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

?ilda Pe?ari?; Miroslav Tu?man

2010-01-01

176

Serum platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

New biological markers with predictive or prognostic value are highly warranted in the treatment of ovarian cancer. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system are important components in tumor growth and angiogenesis.

Madsen, Christine Vestergaard; Steffensen, Karina Dahl

2012-01-01

177

Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

Naser Azad

2012-01-01

178

Binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in human myometrium and leiomyomata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of uterine myometrium and leiomyoma from 11 women were analyzed for the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors. In addition, the content of soluble insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-BP/PP12) was measured in the tissue cytosols. Cell membrane preparations of myoma tissue bound significantly more insulin-like growth factor I than did those of adjacent normal myometrium, whereas myoma tissue bound less epidermal growth factor than did the normal myometrium. The differences in both insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor binding were due to changes in receptor concentration rather than to alterations in receptor affinity. Neither myoma nor myometrial tissue contained detectable levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. The changes in epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I binding to the myometrium may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomata.

Tommola, P.; Pekonen, F.; Rutanen, E.M. (Minerva Institute for Medical Research, Kauniainen (Finland))

1989-10-01

179

Influence of organizational factors on safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1990-01-01

180

SKIN TOPICAL COMPOSITION CONTAINING EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR AND FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A skin topical composition comprising an epidermal growth factor and a fibroblast growth factor is provided to improve effects of skin whitening, melanin formation inhibition, skin moisturizing, skin wrinkle improvement and stretch mark and oxidation inhibition by optimizing the mixing ratio of effective ingredients. A skin topical composition for improving skin beauty comprises 0.01-1 ppm of epidermal growth factor, 0.01-1 ppm of fibroblast growth factor, 1.0-5.0 wt.% of amino acid peptide, 0.1-2.0 wt.% of glabridin, 0.1-3.0 wt.% of ubiquinone(coenzyme Q10) and 0.1-2.0 wt.% of vegetable collagen(extension N-200), and has a formulation selected from cosmetic lotion, cream, ointment, emulsion, foundation, oil, pack, soap, body soap, lipstick, nail cosmetic, eye cosmetic, perfume, washing cosmetic, toothpaste, mouth wash, deodorizer, bath agent, shampoo, rinse, hair tonic, hair spray or hair dye.

PARK HEE JUN

 
 
 
 
181

COMPOSITION FOR TREATING ATOPIC DERMATITIS CONTAINING EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR AND FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition comprising an epidermal growth factor and a fibroblast growth factor is provided to treat atopic dermatitis, whiten the skin by inhibiting melanin formation, moisturize the skin, and inhibit skin wrinkles, stretch mark and oxidation. A composition for treating atopic dermatitis comprises 0.01-1 ppm of epidermal growth factor, 0.01-1 ppm of fibroblast growth factor, 1.0-5.0 wt.% of amino acid peptide, 0.1-3.0 wt.% of PGA(polyglutamic acid), 0.01-1.0 wt.% of ceramide, 0.1-3.0 wt.% of ubiquinone(coenzyme Q10) and 0.1-3.0 wt.% of DNA gel, and is formulated as cosmetic lotion, cream, ointment, emulsion, foundation, oil, pack, soap, body soap, lipstick, perfume, toothpaste, mouth wash, body cleanser, shampoo, rinse, hair tonic, hair spray or hair dye.

PARK HEE JUN

182

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Melissa Oliveira-Cunha; William G. Newman; Ajith K. Siriwardena

2011-01-01

183

Transforming growth factor-? and smooth muscle differentiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family members are multifunctional cytokines regulating diverse cellular functions such as growth, adhesion, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. TGF-?s elicit their effects via specific type?I?and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. Knockout mouse models for the different components of the TGF-? signaling pathway have revealed their critical roles in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. Genetic studies in humans have linked mutations in these signaling components to specific cardiovascular disorders such as aorta aneurysm and congenital heart diseases due to SMC defects. In this review, the current understanding of TGF-? function in SMC differentiation is highlighted, and the role of TGF-? signaling in SMC-related diseases is discussed.

Xia Guo; Shi-You Chen

2012-01-01

184

Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

2002-01-01

185

Longitudinal bone growth in vitro: effects of insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Longitudinal growth was studied using an in vitro model system of intact rat long bones. Metatarsal bones from 18- and 19-day-old rat fetuses, entirely (18 days) or mainly (19 days) composed of chondrocytes, showed a steady rate of growth and radiolabelled thymidine incorporation for at least 7 days in serum-free media. Addition of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I to the culture media resulted in a direct stimulation of the longitudinal growth. Recombinant human growth hormone was also able to stimulate bone growth, although this was generally accomplished after a time lag of more than 2 days. A monoclonal antibody to IGF-I abolished both the IGF-I and GH-stimulated growth. However, the antibody had no effect on the growth of the bone explants in control, serum-free medium. Unlike the fetal long bones, bones from 2-day-old neonatal rats were arrested in their growth after 1-2 days in vitro. The neonatal bones responded to IGF-I and GH in a similar fashion as the fetal bones. Thus in this study in vitro evidence of a direct effect of GH on long bone growth via stimulating local production of IGF by the growth plate chondrocytes is presented. Furthermore, endogenous growth factors, others than IGFs, appear to play a crucial role in the regulation of fetal long bone growth.

Scheven BA; Hamilton NJ

1991-05-01

186

Longitudinal bone growth in vitro: effects of insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal growth was studied using an in vitro model system of intact rat long bones. Metatarsal bones from 18- and 19-day-old rat fetuses, entirely (18 days) or mainly (19 days) composed of chondrocytes, showed a steady rate of growth and radiolabelled thymidine incorporation for at least 7 days in serum-free media. Addition of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I to the culture media resulted in a direct stimulation of the longitudinal growth. Recombinant human growth hormone was also able to stimulate bone growth, although this was generally accomplished after a time lag of more than 2 days. A monoclonal antibody to IGF-I abolished both the IGF-I and GH-stimulated growth. However, the antibody had no effect on the growth of the bone explants in control, serum-free medium. Unlike the fetal long bones, bones from 2-day-old neonatal rats were arrested in their growth after 1-2 days in vitro. The neonatal bones responded to IGF-I and GH in a similar fashion as the fetal bones. Thus in this study in vitro evidence of a direct effect of GH on long bone growth via stimulating local production of IGF by the growth plate chondrocytes is presented. Furthermore, endogenous growth factors, others than IGFs, appear to play a crucial role in the regulation of fetal long bone growth. PMID:2028719

Scheven, B A; Hamilton, N J

1991-05-01

187

Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17

Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

2010-01-01

188

Methods of detecting growth differentiation factor-11  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PCT No. PCT/US95/08543 Sec. 371 Date Mar. 13, 1997 Sec. 102(e) Date Mar. 13, 1997 PCT Filed Jul. 7, 1995 PCT Pub. No. WO96/01845 PCT Pub. Date Jan. 25, 1996Growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) is disclosed along with its polynucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence. Also disclosed are diagnostic and therapeutic methods of using the GDF-11 polypeptide and polynucleotide sequences.

LEE SE-JIN; MCPHERRON ALEXANDRA C

189

Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning) behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

Jawahar Nesan

2012-01-01

190

Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos) de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches sobre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2), desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%), notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12%) e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) e protozoário Giardia duodenalis (13%) foram os mais comuns; < 1% tinha ancilostomíase e Cryptosporidium sp.; 25% apresentaram protozoários cistos não patogênicos. Meninos de famílias muito pobres tiveram menor crescimento e maior risco de helmintose. A desparasitação pode ser considerada uma alternativa para a redução da prevalência de parasitoses intestinais nesse grupo etário.

Rebecca L. Lander; Alastair G. Lander; Lisa Houghton; Sheila M. Williams; Hugo Costa-Ribeiro; Daniel L. Barreto; Angela P. Mattos; Rosalind S Gibson

2012-01-01

191

Redox-Regulated Growth Factor Survival Signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Significance: Once the thought of as unwanted byproducts of cellular respiration in eukaryotes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to facilitate essential physiological roles. It is now understood that ROS are critical mediators of intracellular signaling. Control of signal transduction downstream of growth factor receptors by ROS is a complex process whose details are only recently coming to light. Recent Advances: Indeed, recent evidence points to control of signal propagation by ROS at multiple levels in the typical cascade. Growth factor stimulation activates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Noxs) at the membrane, producing superoxide in the extracellular matrix, which is catalyzed to the membrane-permeable hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) that mediates intracellular signaling events. Critical Issues: The potential for H(2)O(2), however, to disrupt cellular functions by damaging proteins and nucleic acids demands that its levels are kept in check by receptor-associated peroxiredoxins. This interplay of Nox and peroxiredoxin activity moderates levels of H(2)O(2) sufficiently to modify signaling partners locally. Among the best studied of these partners are redox-controlled phosphatases that are inactivated by H(2)O(2). Phosphatases regulate signal propagation downstream of receptors, and thus their inactivation allows a further level of control. Transmission of information further downstream to targets such as transcription factors, themselves regulated by ROS, completes this pathway. Future Directions: Thus, signal propagation or attenuation can be dictated by ROS at multiple points. Given the complex nature of these processes, we envisage the emerging trends in the field of redox signaling in the context of growth factor stimulation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000. PMID:23198948

Woolley, John F; Corcoran, Aoife; Groeger, Gillian; Landry, William D; Cotter, Thomas G

2013-01-15

192

Redox-Regulated Growth Factor Survival Signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Significance: Once the thought of as unwanted byproducts of cellular respiration in eukaryotes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to facilitate essential physiological roles. It is now understood that ROS are critical mediators of intracellular signaling. Control of signal transduction downstream of growth factor receptors by ROS is a complex process whose details are only recently coming to light. Recent Advances: Indeed, recent evidence points to control of signal propagation by ROS at multiple levels in the typical cascade. Growth factor stimulation activates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Noxs) at the membrane, producing superoxide in the extracellular matrix, which is catalyzed to the membrane-permeable hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) that mediates intracellular signaling events. Critical Issues: The potential for H(2)O(2), however, to disrupt cellular functions by damaging proteins and nucleic acids demands that its levels are kept in check by receptor-associated peroxiredoxins. This interplay of Nox and peroxiredoxin activity moderates levels of H(2)O(2) sufficiently to modify signaling partners locally. Among the best studied of these partners are redox-controlled phosphatases that are inactivated by H(2)O(2). Phosphatases regulate signal propagation downstream of receptors, and thus their inactivation allows a further level of control. Transmission of information further downstream to targets such as transcription factors, themselves regulated by ROS, completes this pathway. Future Directions: Thus, signal propagation or attenuation can be dictated by ROS at multiple points. Given the complex nature of these processes, we envisage the emerging trends in the field of redox signaling in the context of growth factor stimulation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

Woolley JF; Corcoran A; Groeger G; Landry WD; Cotter TG

2013-01-01

193

Proteolytic processing regulates placental growth factor activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation, yet mechanisms of its action and regulation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that proteolytic processing regulates the biological activity of PlGF. Specifically, we show that plasmin processing of PlGF-2 yields a protease-resistant core fragment comprising the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 binding site but lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain encoding the heparin-binding domain and an 8-amino acid peptide encoded by exon 7. We have identified plasmin cleavage sites, generated a truncated PlGF118 isoform mimicking plasmin-processed PlGF, and explored its biological function in comparison with that of PlGF-1 and -2. The angiogenic responses induced by the diverse PlGF forms were distinct. Whereas PlGF-2 increased endothelial cell chemotaxis, vascular sprouting, and granulation tissue formation upon skin injury, these activities were abrogated following plasmin digestion. Investigation of PlGF/Neuropilin-1 binding and function suggests a critical role for heparin-binding domain/Neuropilin-1 interaction and its regulation by plasmin processing. Collectively, here we provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation of PlGF-2/Neuropilin-1-mediated tissue vascularization and growth.

Hoffmann DC; Willenborg S; Koch M; Zwolanek D; Müller S; Becker AK; Metzger S; Ehrbar M; Kurschat P; Hellmich M; Hubbell JA; Eming SA

2013-06-01

194

Proteolytic processing regulates placental growth factor activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation, yet mechanisms of its action and regulation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that proteolytic processing regulates the biological activity of PlGF. Specifically, we show that plasmin processing of PlGF-2 yields a protease-resistant core fragment comprising the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 binding site but lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain encoding the heparin-binding domain and an 8-amino acid peptide encoded by exon 7. We have identified plasmin cleavage sites, generated a truncated PlGF118 isoform mimicking plasmin-processed PlGF, and explored its biological function in comparison with that of PlGF-1 and -2. The angiogenic responses induced by the diverse PlGF forms were distinct. Whereas PlGF-2 increased endothelial cell chemotaxis, vascular sprouting, and granulation tissue formation upon skin injury, these activities were abrogated following plasmin digestion. Investigation of PlGF/Neuropilin-1 binding and function suggests a critical role for heparin-binding domain/Neuropilin-1 interaction and its regulation by plasmin processing. Collectively, here we provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation of PlGF-2/Neuropilin-1-mediated tissue vascularization and growth. PMID:23645683

Hoffmann, Daniel C; Willenborg, Sebastian; Koch, Manuel; Zwolanek, Daniela; Müller, Stefan; Becker, Ann-Kathrin A; Metzger, Stephanie; Ehrbar, Martin; Kurschat, Peter; Hellmich, Martin; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Eming, Sabine A

2013-05-03

195

Age and factors influencing consumer behaviour  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When evaluating a product or service, consumers seek out information to judge whether that specific product will meet certain criteria. The main concern of sales providers is how to increase their purchasers' willingness to buy a product. The authors studied the impact of age on the perceived importance and interaction of three factors known to influence people when buying clothes: price, durability and suitability. A sample of 160 French adults aged 18-90 rated their likelihood of buying an item of clothing in 27 scenarios, in which three levels (low, moderate and high) of each of the above three factors were combined in an orthogonal factorial design. For younger participants, a low price was considered a sufficient reason to buy the item of clothing. For older participants, suitability was a more important factor, while for the eldest people, durability was the most important.

Hervé Catherine; Mullet Etienne

2009-05-01

196

CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets), the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size) have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets).

Toth Kristof; Toth Jozsef

2012-01-01

197

Bioregulation of lubricin expression by growth factors and cytokines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lubricin, also commonly referred to as superficial zone protein (SZP) and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), is a multifaceted, cytoprotective glycoprotein that contributes to the boundary lubrication properties facilitating low friction levels at interfacing surfaces of articular cartilage. Biological processes effecting the gain or loss of lubricin function may therefore have important consequences relevant to joint physiology and pathology. Herein, we describe experiments conducted to extend our understanding of the influence of various cytokines and growth factors on lubricin gene expression and protein secretion in synovial tissues. Exposure of synoviocytes, chondrocytes and cartilage explants to proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) results in a marked reduction in the expression and/or abundance of secreted lubricin, with corresponding alterations in the amounts of cartilage-associated (boundary) lubricin. Conversely, treatment with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) significantly upregulates lubricin synthesis, secretion and cartilage boundary association. Oncostatin M also appears to be capable of modulating lubricin metabolism, with the potential to induce lubricin synthesis by chondrocytes. Collectively, the results of studies on cytokine and growth factor regulation of lubricin biosynthesis and biodistribution may help provide new insights and therapeutic perspectives for promoting joint function.

A R C Jones; C R Flannery

2007-01-01

198

Temperature influences on growth of aquatic organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Temperature profoundly affects the growth rates of aquatic organisms, and its control is essential for effective aquaculture. Characteristically, both low and high temperatures produce slow growth rates and inefficient food conversion, while intermediate temperature ranges provide rapid growth and efficient food conversion. Distinct, species-specific optimum temperatures and upper and lower temperatures of zero growth can often be defined. Thermal effects can be greatly modified by amounts and quality of food. These data not only provide the basis for criteria which maintain growth of wild organisms but also for effectively using waste heat to create optimal conditions of temperature and food ration for growing aquatic organisms commercially

1977-05-11

199

Increased epidermal growth factor receptors in gastric carcinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidermal growth factor and the homologous alpha-tumor growth factor are mitogenic polypeptides that act by binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor. The present study investigated whether increased production of epidermal growth factor/alpha-tumor growth factor or increased density of epidermal growth factor receptors may occur in gastric carcinomas as compared with normal mucosa from the same individuals. Epidermal growth factor receptors were measurable by (125I)EGF-binding assays in 13 of 15 normal mucosas and in 15 of 15 carcinomas. The epidermal growth factor-binding capacity was significantly higher in carcinomas than in mucosa. A comparison of pairs of mucosa and carcinomas showed an increase of epidermal growth factor receptors in 9 of 15 carcinomas, no change in 3, and a decrease in 2 carcinomas. One mucinous adenocarcinoma contained extreme numbers of epidermal growth factor receptors (2445 fmol/mg protein) corresponding to a 320-fold increase over normal mucosa. Epidermal growth factor-like activity was increased in 2 of 22 carcinomas compared with mucosa. We conclude that relative overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors occurs in a fraction of gastric carcinomas. Whether increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptors is associated with particular patterns of tumor progression needs to be investigated. PMID:2311877

Pfeiffer, A; Rothbauer, E; Wiebecke, B; Pratschke, E; Krämling, H J; Mann, K

1990-04-01

200

Factors influencing laboratory animal spontaneous tumor profiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In chemical carcinogenicity and drug-safety testing, a carcinogen is defined as an agent that when administered by an appropriate route causes an increased incidence of tumors in experimental animals as compared to unexposed control animals. Although a carcinogen may cause the appearance of tumors in organs where tumors do not usually occur in a given strain, the usual response is to increase the types of tumors seen spontaneously and to shorten the period of latency. The use of carcinogenesis experiments for research and safety assessment requires properly designed and well-conducted experiments and a knowledge of background data and variations in tumor incidences of control animals. Many factors can influence the reported incidences of spontaneous tumors. These include species, strain, sex, age, and source of the experimental test animal; study duration; extent of the pathology examination; dietary and environmental conditions; qualifications and experience of the study pathologist; diagnostic criteria and nomenclature conventions; and quality assurance and review procedures. This paper discusses several factors which may influence the incidence of tumors in control and test animals, and provides examples to illustrate the potential for these factors to affect the data.

Hardisty JF

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

1975-04-05

202

Roles of insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and the IGF-1 receptor in epidermal growth factor-stimulated growth of 3T3 cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BALB/c3T3 cells are exquisitely growth regulated and require platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) for growth. When BALB/c3T3 cells are transfected with plasmids constitutively expressing both EGF and the human IGF-1 receptor mRNAs, th...

Pietrzkowski, Z; Sell, C; Lammers, R; Ullrich, A; Baserga, R

203

[Growth differentiation factor 15--a new marker in heart diseases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a cytokine with cardioprotective properties, which inhibits hypertrophy, cardiac remodeling and apoptosis. Participates in the life and cell death. The concentration of GDF-15 rapidly increases under the influence of ischemia-reperfusion damage to heart muscle, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and pressure overload. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, heart failure and pulmonary embolism provides independent prognostic information, both short-and long-term. It is potentially a new marker of risk stratification in patients with heart disease and therapeutic decision making.

Olechnicki M; Kasprzak K; Goch A

2010-06-01

204

Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival) proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102%) with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1):10-15

Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H

2010-01-01

205

[New nurse turnover intention and influencing factors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. METHODS: Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. RESULTS: Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. CONCLUSION: New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.

Han SS; Sohn IS; Kim NE

2009-12-01

206

Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample) and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample) are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

Jovanovi? Snežana T.; Ma?ej Ognjen D.; Denin-?ur?evi? Jelena D.

2004-01-01

207

Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of the study is to identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. A follow-up study was performed on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated form 1984-1998. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. The conclusion is that biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatis carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatment splits in radiation therapy. (R.P.)

1999-01-01

208

Endothelial cell protein C receptor opposes mesothelioma growth driven by tissue factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The procoagulant protein tissue factor (F3) is a powerful growth promoter in many tumors, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. More generally, it is unknown whether hemostatic factors expressed on tumor cells influence tissue factor-mediated effects on cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the influence of tissue factor, endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR, PROCR), and protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1, F2R) on the growth of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), using human MPM cells that lack or express tissue factor, EPCR or PAR1, and an orthotopic nude mouse model of MPM. Intrapleural administration of MPM cells expressing tissue factor and PAR1 but lacking EPCR and PAR2 (F2RL1) generated large tumors in the pleural cavity. Suppression of tissue factor or PAR1 expression in these cells markedly reduced tumor growth. In contrast, tissue factor overexpression in nonaggressive MPM cells that expressed EPCR and PAR1 with minimal levels of tissue factor did not increase their limited tumorigenicity. More importantly, ectopic expression of EPCR in aggressive MPM cells attenuated their growth potential, whereas EPCR silencing in nonaggressive MPM cells engineered to overexpress tissue factor increased their tumorigenicity. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that EPCR expression in tumor cells reduced tumor cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Overall, our results enlighten the mechanism by which tissue factor promotes tumor growth through PAR1, and they show how EPCR can attenuate the growth of tissue factor-expressing tumor cells. PMID:23539451

Keshava, Shiva; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Tucker, Torry A; Idell, Steven; Rao, L Vijaya Mohan; Pendurthi, Usha R

2013-03-28

209

Endothelial cell protein C receptor opposes mesothelioma growth driven by tissue factor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The procoagulant protein tissue factor (F3) is a powerful growth promoter in many tumors, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. More generally, it is unknown whether hemostatic factors expressed on tumor cells influence tissue factor-mediated effects on cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the influence of tissue factor, endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR, PROCR), and protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1, F2R) on the growth of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), using human MPM cells that lack or express tissue factor, EPCR or PAR1, and an orthotopic nude mouse model of MPM. Intrapleural administration of MPM cells expressing tissue factor and PAR1 but lacking EPCR and PAR2 (F2RL1) generated large tumors in the pleural cavity. Suppression of tissue factor or PAR1 expression in these cells markedly reduced tumor growth. In contrast, tissue factor overexpression in nonaggressive MPM cells that expressed EPCR and PAR1 with minimal levels of tissue factor did not increase their limited tumorigenicity. More importantly, ectopic expression of EPCR in aggressive MPM cells attenuated their growth potential, whereas EPCR silencing in nonaggressive MPM cells engineered to overexpress tissue factor increased their tumorigenicity. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that EPCR expression in tumor cells reduced tumor cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Overall, our results enlighten the mechanism by which tissue factor promotes tumor growth through PAR1, and they show how EPCR can attenuate the growth of tissue factor-expressing tumor cells.

Keshava S; Sahoo S; Tucker TA; Idell S; Rao LV; Pendurthi UR

2013-07-01

210

Factors influencing choice of countermeasure strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are number of countermeasures that can be used, singly and in combination, to reduce doses in the short-term following a nuclear accident. Which strategy is adopted will depend on local factors, such as the type of accident, local geography and demography, and the resources available, and on the form of national and international guidance is to facilitate a consistent level of response to accidents, wherever they occur, whilst at the same time providing for flexibility of response to suit local circumstances. This paper discusses the influence of all these factors on the choice of protective strategy. The goal of any off-site emergency response strategy should be the protection of the public, not just against radiation, but in the sense of providing overall benefit. To achieve this goal, differing local and national constraint mean that the precise strategy adopted may vary from site to site. (Authors). 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

1995-01-01

211

Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1997-02-01

212

Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.).

1997-01-01

213

Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

2009-08-01

214

Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in tissue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract: A peptide purified from the salivary gland of a mouse was shown few years ago to accelerate incisor eruption and eyelid opening in newborn mice, and was named epidermal growth factor (EGF). The members of this family of peptide growth factors had been identified in numerous physiological and pathological contexts. EGF binds to a cell surface EGF receptor, which induces a biochemical modification (phosphorylation) of the receptor's cytoplasmic tail. There is a growing consensus in the research community that, in addition to cellular and molecular studies, the dynamics of the EGFR network and its operation must be examined in tissues. A key challenge is to integrate the existing molecular and cellular information into a system-level description of the EGFR network at the tissue and organism level. In this paper, the two examples of EGFR signaling in tissues are described, and the recent efforts to model EGFR autocrine loops, which is a predominant mode of EGFR activation in vivo, are summarized.

Shvartsman, Stanislav; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

2004-08-01

215

THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE BIRTH RATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.

SAVU MIHAELA

2013-01-01

216

Factors influencing breast changes after pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pregnancy and breastfeeding are major factors reducing breast cancer (BC) risk. A potential mechanism for this effect might be changes in mammographic density, but other factors might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing changes in breast size and breast stiffness after pregnancy. Of a consecutive cohort of 5991 women who gave birth between 1996 and 1999, 559 replied to a questionnaire including questions about breast changes. The women completed their own assessments of changes in breast size and stiffness since their last pregnancy. Factors being investigated regarding their predictive value for these changes were: BMI before pregnancy, weight gain, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), number of pregnancies, breastfeeding, and BMI of the children's fathers. A decrease in breast size was reported in 21.8% of the participants and an increase in 35.1%. With regard to the breast stiffness, 66.4% reported a decrease and only 5% reported an increase. Independent predictors for increased breast size were age at FFTP, increase in BMI since last pregnancy, BMI before pregnancy, and time since FFTP. Factors predictive of greater breast stiffness included age at FFTP, BMI before FFTP, time since FFTP, breastfeeding status, and number of pregnancies. Breast changes after pregnancy depend on several variables, which are described as BC-risk factors. Individual reaction of the female breast to a pregnancy leads to different outcomes with regard to breast size and stiffness. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these individual responses interact with the effect of pregnancy on the BC risk.

Rauh C; Faschingbauer F; Haeberle L; Jud SM; Heusinger K; Fasching PA; Goecke TW; Rajakaruna N; Voigt F; Bani MR; Lux MP; Renner SP; Loehberg CR; Hartmann A; Schulz-Wendtland R; Beckmann MW; Bayer CM

2013-05-01

217

Factors influencing plutonium sorption in shale media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extent and factors influencing sorption of plutonium (Pu) in shale media have been studied in batch-type experiments. The equilibrium time and isotherm of Pu sorption have been firstly determined. The effect of shale grain size, aqueous pH, water/solid ratio, co-existing ions (cations and anions) and temperature were studied as the factors likely to influence Pu sorption. The experimental variables included the following: grain sizes in five ranges, 0.12 to 0.15 mm, 0.15 to 0.18mm, 0.18 to 0.25mm, 0.25 to 0.38 mm, and 0.38 to 0.83 mm; solution pH values of 4, 6, 8, and 10; water/solid ratios of 10:0.25, 10:0.5, 10:0.75, and 10:1; temperatures of 20 C, 40 C, and 60 C; and selected coexisting conventional cations including Na+, Fe+, Al3+, Ca2+, and K+ and anions including SO42-, CO32, NO3-, and Cl- in each case in solutions of the same total ionic strength. The experimental results demonstrate that the equilibrium time of Pu sorption is 9d, that the sorption behavior of Pu in the solution is well described by the Freundlich sorption isotherm (Cs = kCeqN), and that Pu is strongly sorbed on shale media. The extent of Pu sorption increased with decreasing grain size, apparently in response to the increase in specific surface area and total pore volume. The results also show that Pu sorption increases with increasing solution pH and with increasing water/solid ratio. The influence of co-existing anions on Pu sorption was much stronger, under the same conditions, than that of the cations; this was attributed to Pu complexation in solution, i.e., the complexing apparently weakened the sorption of Pu on shale particles in the solution. Finally, the influence of varying temperature on Pu sorption is found to be less important than that of other factors, but should never be ignored. (orig.)

2010-01-01

218

Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor receptors in meningioma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were localized and characterized in eight samples of human meningioma (four fibrous, two meningothelial, and two angioblastic types), using quantitative autoradiographic techniques. Effects of both growth factors on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in the cultured meningioma cells were examined. High numbers of specific binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF were homogeneously present in tissue sections derived from fibrous and meningothelial types of meningiomas, whereas binding sites for these growth factors were not detectable in adjacent leptomeninges. While relatively large numbers of IGF-I binding sites were located in the wall of the intratumoral vasculature, the number of binding sites in the stromal component was lower in angioblastic-type meningiomas, including a low number of EGF binding sites detected only in the stromal portion. Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF in the meningiomas examined (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.6 to 2.9 nM, and the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) = 16 to 80 fmol/mg for IGF-I; and Kd = 0.6 to 4.0 nM, Bmax = 3 to 39 fmol/mg for EGF). Both growth factors increased the synthesis of DNA, in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The combination of IGF-I and EGF synergistically stimulated the synthesis of DNA, and the effects seen with 10% fetal bovine serum could be reproduced at a concentration of 10(-10) M. These observations can be interpreted to mean that both IGF-I and EGF may be involved in the growth modulation of meningiomas, possibly through paracrine or autocrine mechanisms.

Kurihara, M.; Tokunaga, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Shigematsu, K.; Niwa, M.; Mori, K. (Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

1989-10-01

219

Gravity as an obligatory factor in normal higher plant growth and development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gravity may influence different aspects of plant activity. The present report deals with two questions: gravity as an ecological factor determining spatial orientation of plant growth; and second, a possible requirement for gravity in the process of normal growth, morphogenesis and generative development of plants.

Merkys AJ; Laurinavichius RS; Rupainene OY; Shvegzhdene DV; Yaroshius AV

1981-01-01

220

Factores de crecimiento IV: Factor de crecimiento epidérmico,Factores estimuladores de colonias, Neurotropinas Growth factors: epidermal growth factor, colony stimulating factors and neurotropins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En esta cuarta entrega sobre los factores de crecimiento se revisan el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGF), los factores estimuladores de colonias (CSF) y las neurotropinas. Como se ha venido presentando en las anteriores entregas, se hace referencia a su estructura bioquímica, su mecanismo de acción, sus efectos biológicos y sus interacciones. Las neurotropinas y el EGF, por tratarse de factores que actúan predominantemente en el microambiente tisular, no pueden manejarse en el contexto de concentraciones circulantes, situación que sí es factible para los CSF. De otro lado, se revisan los mecanismos de las neurotropinas en el sistema nervioso. In this fourth review of growth factors we summarize, as in previous papers, topics related to biochemical structure, mechanisms of action, biological effects and cross-interactions for epidermal growth factor (EGF), colony stimulating factors (CSF) and neurotropins. Since the effects of EGF and neurotropins are exerted predominantly at the microenvironment level, they can not be evaluated by means of its circulating levels, a fact that could be possible for CSFs.

Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.; Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Does acid rain directly influence plant growth. Some comments and observations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acid rain has been implicated as being directly phytotoxic. A review of the experimental evidence was conducted. Although there are several mechanisms by which acid rain could influence plant growth, the evidence suggests that plants are probably not being directly affected by ambient acid rain. Rain acidity may affect soils with poor buffering capabilities and thus indirectly influence plant growth in some regions. Factors other than rain acidity may be responsible for the reported reductions in forest growth in North America and Europe. 27 references.

Amthor, J.S.

1984-01-01

222

Factors Influencing Household Food Security Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, impaired physical and mental development and reduced productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the Influencing factors on the household food insecurity status. This cross-sectional study conducted on 2500 households selected from Qaresoo region in the northwest of Iran. Household food security status measured by a validated short questionnaire including six questions and other required data (influencing factors) obtained alongside the validated questionnaire. Chisquare and logistic regression used for data analysis using SPSS software. Forty Percent of households suffered from low food insecurity and twenty percent had experienced very low food insecurity. Severity of household food insecurity increased with increasing distance from the city (Exp (B) = 1.05, 95% C.I = 1.03-1.07). It decreased with increasing centers that provides food (Exp (B) = 0.97, 95% C.I = 0.97-0.98) Residential infrastructure (Exp (B) = 0.99, 95% C.I = 0.98-0.99) Family size (Exp (B) = 0.92, 95% C.I = 0.87-0.98) and the presence of both parents in comparison the presence of single parent at home (Exp (B) = 0.46, 95% C.I = 0.32-0.66). Spearman correlation test also showed that mean per capita income had a significant inverse correlation with household food insecurity status. (Correlation coefficient = –0.3, P < 0.05). Socioeconomic factors were affecting the household food insecurity status. More studies seem to be essential in order to provide practical solutions to reduce the severity of food insecurity.

Sharafkhani Rahim; Dastgiri Saeed; Gharaaghaji Asl Rasool; Ghavamzadeh Saeed

2011-01-01

223

Factors influencing successful radioiodine therapy of thyroid  

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Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13), operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq) and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq) of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1), the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS), and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05) influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.

Popadi? Silvija M.; Voji?i? Jelena V.; Peter Andrea; Maleševi? Milica ?.; Mihailovi? Jasna; Kermeci Katarina

2003-01-01

224

Human epidermal growth factor receptor residue covalently cross-linked to epidermal growth factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor monoclonal antibody (mAb), mAb LA22, was used to analyze the covalent coupling of human EGF receptors to mouse EGF by the amine-reactive cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate. A soluble Mr 105,000 truncated form of the receptor secreted by A-431 epidermoid carcinoma cells and consisting of the ligand-binding extracellular domain was cross-linked to 125I-labeled EGF. Digestion of this complex with an endoproteinase that specifically cleaves at the COOH side of glutamyl residue released a single radiolabeled glycosylated fragment of Mr18,000 that reacted with mAb LA22. The receptor residue(s) involved in the covalent coupling of rat 125I-labeled transforming growth factor ? was similarly localized to this region of the receptor. This receptor interval, which included two glycosylated asparaginyl residues at positions 328 and 337, contained but three amino acid residues that were potentially reactive with disuccinimidyl suberate: Lys-332, Lys-333, and Lys-336. These results indicated that disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked the NH2 group of EGF residue Asn-1 to the human EGF receptor residue Lys-336. The results further suggest that EGF and transforming growth factor ?, two members of the EGF family of peptide growth factors, interact with closely apposed or identical features of the receptor.

1990-01-01

225

Human epidermal growth factor receptor residue covalently cross-linked to epidermal growth factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor monoclonal antibody (mAb), mAb LA22, was used to analyze the covalent coupling of human EGF receptors to mouse EGF by the amine-reactive cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate. A soluble Mr 105,000 truncated form of the receptor secreted by A-431 epider...

Wu, D G; Wang, L H; Chi, Y; Sato, G H; Sato, J D

226

Factors Influencing How Teachers Manage Their Classrooms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teaching and learning a foreign language is a social process which requires theinteraction of two important parts of the process, the teacher and the students, in a socialenvironment. As this process takes place in a social context, it is inevitable toexperience some problems while teaching the students having different needs, interestsand levels. These problems may be caused by the students, teachers as well as thephysical environment in which teaching and learning take place. It is clear that languageteaching skill is not enough to handle these problems; teachers also need classroommanagement skills so that they are able to manage their classrooms. It is believed thatsuccessful classroom management is highly related to effective instruction. Asclassroom management is a general term that is affected by many factors, theeffectiveness of classroom environment depends on how teachers cope with thesefactors and provide their students with a positive and friendly classroom atmosphere. Itis clear that a detailed analysis of the factors that affect successful classroommanagement and adequate teacher training on how to cope with them will makeunmanageable classrooms manageable which will immediately result in effectiveteaching and learning process. In this article, factors that influence successful classroommanagement will be analyzed and possible solutions to these problems will bepresented.

Arif SARIÇOBAN; Sevilay SAKIZLI

2006-01-01

227

Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that constitutes one of four members of the erbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Binding of EGFR to its cognate ligands leads to autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways that are involved in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Although present in normal cells, EGFR is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell lines and has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. EGFR activation also plays a role in resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatment in tumor cells. Over the past two decades, much effort has been directed at developing anticancer agents that can interfere with EGFR activity. The most common pharmacologic approaches to inhibiting EGFR have been to develop monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors. Monoclonal antibodies block ligand binding to the extracellular domain, whereas the small-molecule inhibitors exert their effects at the intracellular portion of the receptor to prevent tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways. A number of EGFR inhibitors have been developed that can arrest tumor growth and, in some cases, cause tumor regression. When used in combination with cytotoxic treatments, chemotherapy, and radiation, EGFR inhibitors have been able to potentiate their anticancer activity.

2004-01-01

228

Angiogenic growth factors in rheumatoid arthritis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated whether the angiogenic profile, which is based on the local expression and systemic levels of angiogenic growth factors (VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2, and the corresponding receptors), differs between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We determined the expression of VEGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2 together with its receptors (VEGFR-1/-2 and Tie2) in synovium tissue (ST) and muscular tissue (MT) from patients with RA and OA using quantitative PCR. Tissue samples were obtained from 15 RA and 19 OA patients during total knee arthroplasty. Control MT samples (n = 10) were obtained during spinal surgery. Results are correlated to VEGF and angiopoietin serum levels via ELISA measurements. The VEGF expressions in ST and serum levels were significantly higher in RA patients than in OA patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 expression in ST from RA patients were significantly higher than in OA patients (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05). The relative concentration of angiopoietins (Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio) was significantly increased in RA (P < 0.01). Serum levels for Ang-2 showed no significant differences. Statistical analysis showed a significant higher level of Tie2 in RA patients (P < 0.001). Analysis of local levels of VEGF, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie2 in the muscular tissue showed no significant difference between RA and OA patients. These results underline the importance of pro-angiogenic growth factor levels for RA corroborating the assumption that VEGF and angiopoietins play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA.

Schroeder M; Viezens L; Fuhrhop I; Rüther W; Schaefer C; Schwarzloh B; Algenstaedt P; Fink B; Hansen-Algenstaedt N

2013-02-01

229

A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

Ebrahim Abedini; Abdollah Naami; Mahmood Modiri

2013-01-01

230

Factors influencing the demand for Australian coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, econometric models are used to identify factors influencing the demand for Australian coal. Of particular interest is the responsiveness of international demand for coal to changes in the prices of coal and substitute fuels, and the responsiveness of demand for Australian coal to relative changes in the prices of coal from competing suppliers. Data on the use of coal and other fuels in the electricity generation, iron and steel and industrial sectors of Western European and other OECD countries are used to derive estimates of the price elasticity of demand for coal. Results are given for Western European and OECD countries as groups rather than individually. 38 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs.

Ball, K.; Loncas, T.

1991-01-01

231

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

S ARMAN; M SOLTANI

2003-01-01

232

Factors influencing properties of coal briquettes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To maximize the efficiency of manufasture of smokeless fuel briquettes from blends of high-rank coals and pitches, it is necessary to optimize feedstock selection to maintain strength during carbonization and subsequent handling. From an understanding of carbonization behaviour of feedstock components and of microcarbonization phenomena at interfaces, the contribution of interfacial interactions to strength properties of briquettes is assessed. The crushing strength, microstrength and optical texture of briquettes from a range of feedstocks were determined before and after carbonization at 970 K. These techniques promoted understanding of the carbonization behaviour of blends of feedstocks and strength-structure relations in resultant briquettes. Factors of feedstock selection that influenced the strength of carbonized briquettes were identified. 19 refs., 7 tabs.

Clarke, D.E.; Marsh, H. (University of Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1989-08-01

233

Factors influencing the prognosis in bladder cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the categories T1, T2 and T3NxM0 bladder cancer, with a diameter not exceeding 5 cm, the treatment in the Rotterdam Radio-Therapy Institute consists of interstitial irradiation with needles containing radioactive material. The results of treatment and the role of additional external irradiation are discussed. Category T3NxM0 tumors with a diameter exceeding 5 cm are treated by external irradiation followed by cystectomy; the results are presented here. Factors influencing prognosis appeared to be the degree of differentiation, number of transurethral resections (TURs) prior to definitive treatment, intravenous pyelography (IVP), vascular invasion, T category after preoperative irradiation, and postsurgical histopathologically-assessed T category (pT).

Wijnmaalen, A.; van der Werf-Messing, B.H.

1986-04-01

234

Keratinocyte growth factor is a growth factor for mammary epithelium in vivo. The mammary epithelium of lactating rats is resistant to the proliferative action of keratinocyte growth factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. KGF is secreted by stromal cells and affects epithelial but not mesenchymal cell proliferation. KGF injected intravenously was found to cause dramatic proliferation of mammary epithelium in the mammary glands ...

Ulich, T. R.; Yi, E. S.; Cardiff, R.; Yin, S.; Bikhazi, N.; Biltz, R.; Morris, C. F.; Pierce, G. F.

235

Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes may need to be considered if groundwater composition is found to change with time. (author, shortened). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

1995-01-01

236

Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.

Petrovici Dan A; Ritson Christopher

2006-01-01

237

Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-4 Differentially Inhibits Growth Factor-induced Angiogenesis*  

Science.gov (United States)

An in-depth understanding of the molecular and cellular complexity of angiogenesis continues to advance as new stimulators and inhibitors of blood vessel formation are uncovered. Gaining a more complete understanding of the response of blood vessels to both stimulatory and inhibitory molecules will likely contribute to more effective strategies to control pathological angiogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that endothelial cell interactions with structurally altered collagen type IV may suppress the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), a well documented inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling axis. We report for the first time that IGFBP-4 differentially inhibits angiogenesis induced by distinct growth factor signaling pathways as IGFBP-4 inhibited FGF-2- and IGF-1-stimulated angiogenesis but failed to inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The resistance of VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis to IGFBP-4 inhibition appears to depend on sustained activation of p38 MAPK as blocking its activity restored the anti-angiogenic effects of IGFBP-4 on VEGF-induced blood vessel growth in vivo. These novel findings provide new insight into how blood vessels respond to endogenous inhibitors during angiogenesis stimulated by distinct growth factor signaling pathways.

Contois, Liangru W.; Nugent, Desiree P.; Caron, Jennifer M.; Cretu, Alexandra; Tweedie, Eric; Akalu, Abebe; Liebes, Leonard; Friesel, Robert; Rosen, Clifford; Vary, Calvin; Brooks, Peter C.

2012-01-01

238

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 differentially inhibits growth factor-induced angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An in-depth understanding of the molecular and cellular complexity of angiogenesis continues to advance as new stimulators and inhibitors of blood vessel formation are uncovered. Gaining a more complete understanding of the response of blood vessels to both stimulatory and inhibitory molecules will likely contribute to more effective strategies to control pathological angiogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that endothelial cell interactions with structurally altered collagen type IV may suppress the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), a well documented inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling axis. We report for the first time that IGFBP-4 differentially inhibits angiogenesis induced by distinct growth factor signaling pathways as IGFBP-4 inhibited FGF-2- and IGF-1-stimulated angiogenesis but failed to inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The resistance of VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis to IGFBP-4 inhibition appears to depend on sustained activation of p38 MAPK as blocking its activity restored the anti-angiogenic effects of IGFBP-4 on VEGF-induced blood vessel growth in vivo. These novel findings provide new insight into how blood vessels respond to endogenous inhibitors during angiogenesis stimulated by distinct growth factor signaling pathways. PMID:22134921

Contois, Liangru W; Nugent, Desiree P; Caron, Jennifer M; Cretu, Alexandra; Tweedie, Eric; Akalu, Abebe; Liebes, Leonard; Friesel, Robert; Rosen, Clifford; Vary, Calvin; Brooks, Peter C

2011-12-01

239

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 differentially inhibits growth factor-induced angiogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An in-depth understanding of the molecular and cellular complexity of angiogenesis continues to advance as new stimulators and inhibitors of blood vessel formation are uncovered. Gaining a more complete understanding of the response of blood vessels to both stimulatory and inhibitory molecules will likely contribute to more effective strategies to control pathological angiogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that endothelial cell interactions with structurally altered collagen type IV may suppress the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), a well documented inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling axis. We report for the first time that IGFBP-4 differentially inhibits angiogenesis induced by distinct growth factor signaling pathways as IGFBP-4 inhibited FGF-2- and IGF-1-stimulated angiogenesis but failed to inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The resistance of VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis to IGFBP-4 inhibition appears to depend on sustained activation of p38 MAPK as blocking its activity restored the anti-angiogenic effects of IGFBP-4 on VEGF-induced blood vessel growth in vivo. These novel findings provide new insight into how blood vessels respond to endogenous inhibitors during angiogenesis stimulated by distinct growth factor signaling pathways.

Contois LW; Nugent DP; Caron JM; Cretu A; Tweedie E; Akalu A; Liebes L; Friesel R; Rosen C; Vary C; Brooks PC

2012-01-01

240

Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth ...

Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

 
 
 
 
241

Factors influencing residents' pursuit of urology fellowships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictors of residents' pursuit of fellowship training by surveying current urology residents and recent graduates. Postgraduate fellowship training of urologists could be an important source of urologic physician-scientists and continued innovation in urologic care. METHODS: A Web-based survey was electronically mailed to urology residents and recent graduates of urologic residency. Variables concerning sex, marital status, debt load, research and clinical exposure, publications, and postgraduate careers were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 71 respondents, 46 (65%) were married and 45% had children/dependents. Of the 69% who applied for fellowship, the "most important" factors influencing the pursuit of fellowship were intellectual appeal (82%), mentors (79%), the desire for an additional point of view for surgical training (58%), and the desire to pursue a career in academics (52%). Forty of those completing a fellowship (87%) versus two of those completing residency alone (13%) would pursue a career in academics. Residents with a mentor were 20 times more likely to pursue a urology fellowship. A shorter residency (5 years), encouragement by a program director, and manuscript publication during residency were also independent predictors. CONCLUSION: Mentorship, a shorter residency, and manuscript publication during residency were independent predictors of pursuing fellowship training. Debt load, age, marital status, and a desire to pursue a career in academic medicine were not significant factors.

Freilich DA; Nguyen HT; Phillips JL

2011-11-01

242

Opioid growth factor - opioid growth factor receptor axis inhibits proliferation of triple negative breast cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents approximately 15% of the newly diagnosed cancers worldwide and is characterized by tissue lacking in estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors. TNBC disproportionately affects younger women and women of colour, and new treatments are needed. The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a determinant of cell proliferation in neoplasia, and OGF is an endogenously produced pentapeptide that inhibits cell replication by interacting with OGFr and upregulating cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways thus reducing DNA synthesis. In these studies we investigated the presence and function of the OGF-OGFr axis in two human TNBC cell lines, as well as in breast cancer cell lines containing hormonal receptors. TNBC cell lines MDA-MD-231 and BT-20, as well as human breast cancer cells SK-BR-3 and MCF-7, were examined for the presence of pentapeptide and receptors, as well as their response to OGF. Specificity of peptide and receptor was confirmed by antibody neutralization and molecular studies to knockdown classical receptor protein. The requirement for protein transcription and translation and RNA transcription were investigated. Growth of TNBC cells in the presence of OGF and standard of care chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel was evaluated to determine both efficacy and protective effects against toxicity. OGF treatment inhibited TNBC cells in a dosage related, receptor mediated, and reversible manner. OGF was the specific endogenous opioid to inhibit cell proliferation, and this was mediated by p21 cyclin dependent inhibitory kinase pathways, and required protein and RNA synthesis. OGFr was the specific receptor involved; both peptide and receptor were detected in all four cell lines. OGF treatment inhibited growth of all cancer cell lines evaluated, and reduced cell death in cultures exposed to paclitaxel. The OGF-OGFr axis is present and functioning in TNBC cell lines, and provides a novel biological pathway as potential therapy.

Zagon IS; Porterfield NK; McLaughlin PJ

2013-06-01

243

Growth factors II: insuline-like growth binging proteins (GFBPs) Factores de crecimiento II: factores insulinoides de crecimiento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review summarizes recent knowledge concerning Insulin.like growth factors I and II, with emphasis on their biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, biological effects, and alterations of their concentrations in biological fluids. Se revisan los Factores Insulinoides de Crecimiento, también denominados ";Factores de Crecimiento Similares a la Insulina";, sobre los cuales se dispone de abundante información. Se sintetizan conocimientos recientes sobre dichos factores con énfasis en los siguientes aspectos: estructura bioquímica, concentraciones y sus cambios en los líquidos biológicos, proteínas fijadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos.

Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño; Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.

1996-01-01

244

Factores de crecimiento II: factores insulinoides de crecimiento Growth factors II: insuline-like growth binging proteins (GFBPs)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se revisan los Factores Insulinoides de Crecimiento, también denominados ";Factores de Crecimiento Similares a la Insulina";, sobre los cuales se dispone de abundante información. Se sintetizan conocimientos recientes sobre dichos factores con énfasis en los siguientes aspectos: estructura bioquímica, concentraciones y sus cambios en los líquidos biológicos, proteínas fijadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos. This review summarizes recent knowledge concerning Insulin.like growth factors I and II, with emphasis on their biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, biological effects, and alterations of their concentrations in biological fluids.

Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño; Juan Guillermo Maldonado E.

1996-01-01

245

Organisation of the Influence Factors System for Foodstuffs Lyophilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying) presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through which an organized system was formed was applied. Finally, the values of entropy system and of the organization level of the factors system were determined.

Gabriela-Victoria Anghel; Dumitru Mnerie; Dumitru Tucu; Titus Slavici; Alin Vasile Mneri

2007-01-01

246

Factors influencing induction of adaptive response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

Misonoh, Jun [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio

2000-07-01

247

Factors influencing induction of adaptive response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

2000-01-01

248

Growth/differentiation factor-11: an evolutionary conserved growth factor in vertebrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth and differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily and is thought to be derived together with myostatin (known also as GDF-8) from an ancestral gene. In the present study, we report the isolation and characterization of GDF-11 homolog from a marine teleost, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, and show that this growth factor is highly conserved throughout vertebrates. Using bioinformatics, we identified GDF-11 in Tetraodon, Takifugu, medaka, and stickleback and found that they are highly conserved at the amino acid sequence as well as gene organization. Moreover, we found conservation of syntenic relationships among vertebrates in the GDF-11 locus. Transcripts for GDF-11 can be found in eggs and early embryos, albeit at low levels, while in post-hatching larvae expression levels are high and decreases as development progresses, suggesting that GDF-11 might have a role during early development of fish as found in tetrapods and zebrafish. Finally, GDF-11 is expressed in various tissues in the adult fish including muscle, brain, and eye. PMID:20694476

Funkenstein, Bruria; Olekh, Elena

2010-08-07

249

Growth/differentiation factor-11: an evolutionary conserved growth factor in vertebrates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth and differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily and is thought to be derived together with myostatin (known also as GDF-8) from an ancestral gene. In the present study, we report the isolation and characterization of GDF-11 homolog from a marine teleost, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, and show that this growth factor is highly conserved throughout vertebrates. Using bioinformatics, we identified GDF-11 in Tetraodon, Takifugu, medaka, and stickleback and found that they are highly conserved at the amino acid sequence as well as gene organization. Moreover, we found conservation of syntenic relationships among vertebrates in the GDF-11 locus. Transcripts for GDF-11 can be found in eggs and early embryos, albeit at low levels, while in post-hatching larvae expression levels are high and decreases as development progresses, suggesting that GDF-11 might have a role during early development of fish as found in tetrapods and zebrafish. Finally, GDF-11 is expressed in various tissues in the adult fish including muscle, brain, and eye.

Funkenstein B; Olekh E

2010-11-01

250

Factors influencing the carcinogenicity of food chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between food and cancer is extremely complex. It is generally accepted that diet is a contributory factor in the aetiology of a large proportion of cancers, but with very few exceptions, we are unable to identify specific causal agents. Many food components have genotoxic potential and more are produced endogenously during digestion. Conversely, there is increasing evidence that consumption of some foods may decrease the risk of cancer, and a number of plant constituents have been shown to have the potential to inhibit various stages of the carcinogenic process. Yet we have little understanding of the interactions between the different food-related genotoxic and protective factors. A further complication is the variation in individual susceptibility and vulnerability. As a result we are still not able to determine the optimal diet for minimising cancer risk. In recognition of these issues, the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is funding a number of projects aimed at providing greater mechanistic understanding of the links between food and cancer, in order to offer detailed advice to the public. This report summarises the proceedings of a workshop entitled 'Factors influencing the carcinogenicity of food chemicals', held in London on 1 June 1998, providing overviews of some of the key issues, and demonstrating how the MAFF-funded research is contributing to advances in these areas. It includes discussion of genetic polymorphisms and how they may contribute to individual susceptibility and help to identify causal links between food components and colorectal cancer. Biomarkers of DNA damage in human studies and of inhibition of carcinogen activation and endogenous formation of genotoxic reactive nitrogen species are examined. Also considered are the potential uses of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling techniques for providing more accurate estimates of risk and reducing the uncertainty in extrapolation between species and doses. Research now in progress will help to establish the critical risk and protective factors involved in diet-related colorectal cancers, in order to provide a sound scientific basis for formulation of dietary advice to the public. PMID:10403629

Manson, M M; Benford, D J

1999-06-15

251

Factors influencing the carcinogenicity of food chemicals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between food and cancer is extremely complex. It is generally accepted that diet is a contributory factor in the aetiology of a large proportion of cancers, but with very few exceptions, we are unable to identify specific causal agents. Many food components have genotoxic potential and more are produced endogenously during digestion. Conversely, there is increasing evidence that consumption of some foods may decrease the risk of cancer, and a number of plant constituents have been shown to have the potential to inhibit various stages of the carcinogenic process. Yet we have little understanding of the interactions between the different food-related genotoxic and protective factors. A further complication is the variation in individual susceptibility and vulnerability. As a result we are still not able to determine the optimal diet for minimising cancer risk. In recognition of these issues, the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is funding a number of projects aimed at providing greater mechanistic understanding of the links between food and cancer, in order to offer detailed advice to the public. This report summarises the proceedings of a workshop entitled 'Factors influencing the carcinogenicity of food chemicals', held in London on 1 June 1998, providing overviews of some of the key issues, and demonstrating how the MAFF-funded research is contributing to advances in these areas. It includes discussion of genetic polymorphisms and how they may contribute to individual susceptibility and help to identify causal links between food components and colorectal cancer. Biomarkers of DNA damage in human studies and of inhibition of carcinogen activation and endogenous formation of genotoxic reactive nitrogen species are examined. Also considered are the potential uses of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling techniques for providing more accurate estimates of risk and reducing the uncertainty in extrapolation between species and doses. Research now in progress will help to establish the critical risk and protective factors involved in diet-related colorectal cancers, in order to provide a sound scientific basis for formulation of dietary advice to the public.

Manson MM; Benford DJ

1999-06-01

252

Patterns of epidermal growth factor receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta3 expression in skin with chronic venous insufficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth factors which act as signalling peptides through specific cell surface receptors are involved in functions such as cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Here, we report on alterations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor beta3 (TGF-beta3) expression patterns in the skin at various stages of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Thirty punch biopsies were taken from patients with CVI and growth factors or the growth factor receptor were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques. EGFR, bFGF, and TGF-beta3 expression is strongly increased in the stroma of venous eczema and in leg ulcer skin, and to a lesser extent in the dermis of patients with lipodermatosclerosis. Venous eczema and lipodermatosclerosis epidermis show an elevated EGFR and bFGF synthesis throughout all strata. In the different CVI stages, telangiectases and reticular veins and pigmentation EGFR and bFGF staining are limited to the basal layer. We conclude that the alterations in the expression of EGFR, bFGF and TGF-beta3 precede changes in the affected skin within progressing stages of CVI. The exact mechanisms of growth factor involvement in the pathogenesis of venous ulceration remain to be resolved.

Peschen M; Grenz H; Grothe C; Schöpf E; Vanscheidt W

1998-07-01

253

Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A Structural Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6) bind insulin-like growth factors-I and -II (IGF-I and IGF-II) with high affinity. These binding proteins maintain IGFs in the circulation and direct them to target tissues, where they promote cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival via the type 1 IGF receptor. IGFBPs also interact with many other molecules, which not only influence their modulation of IGF action but also mediate IGF-independent activities that regulate processes such as cell migration and apoptosis by modulating gene transcription. IGFBPs-1 to -6 are structurally similar proteins consisting of three distinct domains, N-terminal, linker, and C-terminal. There have been major advances in our understanding of IGFBP structure in the last decade and a half. While there is still no structure of an intact IGFBP, several structures of individual N- and C-domains have been solved. The structure of a complex of N-BP-4:IGF-I:C-BP-4 has also been solved, providing a detailed picture of the structural features of the IGF binding site and the mechanism of binding. Structural studies have also identified features important for interaction with extracellular matrix components and integrins. This review summarizes structural studies reported so far and highlights features important for binding not only IGF but also other partners. We also highlight future directions in which structural studies will add to our knowledge of the role played by the IGFBP family in normal growth and development, as well as in disease.

Forbes, Briony E.; McCarthy, Peter; Norton, Raymond S.

2012-01-01

254

Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent spatiotemporal dual roles of placental growth factor in modulation of angiogenesis and tumor growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Placental growth factor (PlGF) remodels tumor vasculatures toward a normalized phenotype, which affects tumor growth, invasion and drug responses. However, the coordinative and spatiotemporal relation between PlGF and VEGF in modulation of tumor angiogenesis and vascular remodeling is less understood. Here we report that PlGF positively and negatively modulate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling through a VEGF-dependent mechanism. In two independent tumor models, we show that PlGF inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis and displayed a marked vascular remodeling effect, leading to normalized microvessels with infrequent vascular branches and increased perivascular cell coverage. Surprisingly, elimination of VEGF gene (i.e., VEGF-null) in PlGF-expressing tumors resulted in (i) accelerated tumor growth rates and angiogenesis and (ii) complete attenuation of PlGF-induced vascular normalization. Thus, PlGF positively and negatively modulates tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling through VEGF-dependent spatiotemporal mechanisms. Our data uncover molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between PlGF and VEGF in modulation of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and have conceptual implication for antiangiogenic cancer therapy.

Yang X; Zhang Y; Yang Y; Lim S; Cao Z; Rak J; Cao Y

2013-08-01

255

Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent spatiotemporal dual roles of placental growth factor in modulation of angiogenesis and tumor growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Placental growth factor (PlGF) remodels tumor vasculatures toward a normalized phenotype, which affects tumor growth, invasion and drug responses. However, the coordinative and spatiotemporal relation between PlGF and VEGF in modulation of tumor angiogenesis and vascular remodeling is less understood. Here we report that PlGF positively and negatively modulate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling through a VEGF-dependent mechanism. In two independent tumor models, we show that PlGF inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis and displayed a marked vascular remodeling effect, leading to normalized microvessels with infrequent vascular branches and increased perivascular cell coverage. Surprisingly, elimination of VEGF gene (i.e., VEGF-null) in PlGF-expressing tumors resulted in (i) accelerated tumor growth rates and angiogenesis and (ii) complete attenuation of PlGF-induced vascular normalization. Thus, PlGF positively and negatively modulates tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling through VEGF-dependent spatiotemporal mechanisms. Our data uncover molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between PlGF and VEGF in modulation of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and have conceptual implication for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. PMID:23918367

Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yin; Yang, Yunlong; Lim, Sharon; Cao, Ziquan; Rak, Janusz; Cao, Yihai

2013-08-05

256

Population in factor accumulation-based growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the conditions under which, within a two-sector endogenous growth model with human and physical capital accumulation but without R&D-driven disembodied technological progress, it is possible to observe an ambiguous effect of population growth on economic growth, as empirical evid...

BUCCI, ALBERTO

257

Nerve growth factor actions on the brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined the effect of the trophic protein, nerve growth factor (NGF), on cultures of fetal rat neostriatum and basal forebrain-medial septal area (BF-MS) to define its role in brain development. Treatment of cultures with NGF resulted in an increase in the specific activity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (CAT) in both brain areas. CAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons. In the BF-MS, NGF treatment elicited a marked increase in staining intensity and an apparent increase in the number of CAT-positive neurons. Moreover, treatment of BF-MS cultures with NGF increased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting that the cholinergic neuron as a whole was affected. To begin defining mechanisms of action of NGF in the BF-MS, we detected NGF receptors by two independent methods. Receptors were localized to two different cellular populations: neuron-like cells, and non-neuron-like cells. Dissociation studies with [125I]NGF suggested that high affinity receptors were localized to the neuron-like population. Only low-affinity receptors were localized to the non-neuron-like cells. Moreover, employing combined immunocytochemistry and [125I]NGF autoradiography, we detected a subpopulation of CAT-containing neutrons that exhibited high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing cell group also expressed high affinity binding. However, only subsets of cholinergic or GABA neurons expressed high-affinity biding, suggesting that these transmitter populations are composed of differentially response subpopulations

1989-01-01

258

Refolding transforming growth factor beta family proteins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a method of inducing folding of a denatured polypeptide, the method comprising: providing a denatured polypeptide comprising a transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) superfamily member and contacting the polypeptide with an amount of a refolding buffer effective to induce folding of the polypeptide, wherein the refolding buffer comprises (i) potassium phosphate or sodium phosphate at a concentration of 25mM to 150mM with a pH of 5.8 to 8.0, (ii) guanidine-HCL at a concentration of 0.3M to 2M, (iii) L-Arginine at a concentration of 0.25M to 1M, (iv) polyoxyethylene-20-sorbitan monooleate at a concentration of 0.05% to 1%, and (v) oxidized glutathione at a concentration of 1mM to 4mM and reduced glutathione at a concentration of 0.05mM to 0.8mM, wherein the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione is from 5:1 to 20:1.

ROSSOMANDO ANTHONY; PEPINSKY R BLAKE; GONG BANJIAN

259

Nerve growth factor actions on the brain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examined the effect of the trophic protein, nerve growth factor (NGF), on cultures of fetal rat neostriatum and basal forebrain-medial septal area (BF-MS) to define its role in brain development. Treatment of cultures with NGF resulted in an increase in the specific activity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (CAT) in both brain areas. CAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons. In the BF-MS, NGF treatment elicited a marked increase in staining intensity and an apparent increase in the number of CAT-positive neurons. Moreover, treatment of BF-MS cultures with NGF increased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting that the cholinergic neuron as a whole was affected. To begin defining mechanisms of action of NGF in the BF-MS, we detected NGF receptors by two independent methods. Receptors were localized to two different cellular populations: neuron-like cells, and non-neuron-like cells. Dissociation studies with ({sup 125}I)NGF suggested that high affinity receptors were localized to the neuron-like population. Only low-affinity receptors were localized to the non-neuron-like cells. Moreover, employing combined immunocytochemistry and ({sup 125}I)NGF autoradiography, we detected a subpopulation of CAT-containing neutrons that exhibited high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing cell group also expressed high affinity binding. However, only subsets of cholinergic or GABA neurons expressed high-affinity biding, suggesting that these transmitter populations are composed of differentially response subpopulations.

Martinez, H.J.

1989-01-01

260

Nerve growth factor therapy for corneal disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the experimental and clinical data on the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) in corneal physiopathology and to discuss the future development of NGF therapy for corneal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: NGF plays a key role in the modulation of immune reaction, trophic support, healing of ocular surface, corneal sensitivity and tear film function. These properties of NGF make this neurotrophin a potential therapeutic agent for several corneal diseases. In this review, experimental evidence of the mechanisms of action of NGF on the ocular surface and clinical data on topical NGF use are described and discussed. This review includes the studies performed on corneal diseases such as neurotrophic keratitis, peripheral ulcerative keratopathy, dry eye and corneal surgery. Moreover, experimental studies that extended the NGF action on herpes virus corneal infection and ocular surface stem cell differentiation and proliferation are also reviewed. SUMMARY: Since the first clinical use of topical NGF therapy in patients with neurotrophic keratitis, the ocular surface healing and immune-modulating actions of NGF have been extensively studied and demonstrated in the past two decades, opening new perspectives for its use in clinical practice in patients with infective and noninfective diseases of the ocular surface.

Lambiase A; Sacchetti M; Bonini S

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, CTGF expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast, pancreas and gastric cancer correlates to worse prognosis whereas the opposite is true for colorectal, lung and ovarian cancer. This discrepancy is not yet understood. High expression of CTGF is a hallmark of ileal carcinoids, which are well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas with serotonin production originating from the small intestine and proximal colon. These tumors maintain a high grade of differentiation and low proliferation. Despite this, they are malignant and most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. These tumors demonstrate several phenotypes potentially related to CTGF function namely: cell migration, absent tumor cell apoptosis, as well as, reactive and well vascularised myofibroblast rich stroma and fibrosis development locally and in distal organs. The presence of CTGF in other endocrine tumors indicates a role in the progression of well-differentiated tumors.

Jacobson Annica; Cunningham Janet L

2012-01-01

262

Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics), sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

Cristina, Romeo T.

2007-01-01

263

R7 photoreceptor axon growth is temporally controlled by the transcription factor Ttk69, which inhibits growth in part by promoting transforming growth factor-?/activin signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Work on axon growth has classically focused on understanding how extrinsic cues control growth cone dynamics independent of the cell body. However, more recently, neuron-intrinsic transcription factors have been shown to influence both normal and regenerative axon growth, suggesting that understanding their mechanism of action is of clinical importance. We are studying axon targeting in the Drosophila visual system and here show that the BTB/POZ zinc-finger transcription factor Tramtrack69 (Ttk69) plays an instructive role in inhibiting the growth of R7 photoreceptor axon terminals. Although ttk69 mutant R7 axons project to the correct medullar target layer, M6, their terminals fail to remain retinotopically restricted and instead grow laterally within M6. This overgrowth is not caused by an inability to be repelled by neighboring R7 axons or by an inability to recognize and initiate synapse formation with postsynaptic targets. The overgrowth is progressive and occurs even if contact between ttk69 mutant R7 axons and their normal target layer is disrupted. Ttk69 is first expressed in wild-type R7s after their axons have reached the medulla; ttk69 mutant R7 axon terminal overgrowth begins shortly after this time point. We find that expressing Ttk69 prematurely in R7s collapses their growth cones and disrupts axon extension, indicating that Ttk69 plays an instructive role in this process. A TGF-?/Activin pathway was shown previously to inhibit R7 axon terminal growth. We find that Ttk69 is required for normal activation of this pathway but that Ttk69 likely also inhibits R7 axon growth by a TGF-?/Activin-independent mechanism.

Kniss JS; Holbrook S; Herman TG

2013-01-01

264

Secretion of growth factors from macrophages when cultured with microparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of macrophages on osteoblast (OB) performance and differentiation. In this regard, we studied the secretion of growth factors including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) from before and after activation of macrophages. We also evaluated osteogenic markers in the co-culture of macrophages and OBs. The macrophages were seeded on microparticles (MPs) based on chitosan (CS). Two types of MPs were fabricated including CS MPs and 10% calcium phosphate (CaHPO4 )-incorporated CS MPs. Macrophage seeded on MPs was activated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The expression of BMP-2, BMP-6, BMP-7, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) from macrophages seeded and cultured on hybrid MPs before and after activation of LPS at predetermined times was quantified using a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All of the above growth factors were expressed from MP-macrophage cultures before LPS activation. Osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen I (COL-I) in the cultures of MP-OB-macrophage were quantified using a quantitative RT-PCR at days 2, 4, and 7. We found an elevation of gene expression of ALP and COL-1 in the co-cultures of OB-macrophage on MPs compared to OB on MP cultures. These data suggest that macrophages enhance expression of osteogenic markers in OBs, and demonstrate the importance of the role of macrophages in bone regeneration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 3170-3180, 2013. PMID:23554098

Bhat, Archana; Wooten, R Mark; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage Champa

2013-04-02

265

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

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Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR) were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01). Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01). Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01) influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01). The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

A. Ozluturk; O. Guler; M. Yanar; O. Akbulut; N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

266

Transforming growth factor-? in graft vessels: histology and immunohistochemistry  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The biological functions of transforming growth factor-? signaling that involves Smad proteins have not been previously investigated with respect to coronary artery bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to observe the immunostaining of proteins that are related to this signaling pathway. METHODS: Fifteen remnants of coronary artery bypass grafts, including nine saphenous veins, three radial arteries and three mammary arteries, were collected from 12 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 were performed. RESULTS: The saphenous veins showed more severe intimal degeneration, more severe smooth muscle cell proliferation and more collagen deposition than the arterial grafts, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that the majority of the transforming growth factor-?1 signaling cytokines were primarily localized in the cytoplasm in the medial layers of all three types of grafts, whereas ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the interstices were observed particularly in the saphenous vein and radial arterial grafts. CONCLUSION: Enhanced transforming growth factor-?1 signal transduction with medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, the presence of the type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the extracellular matrix may provide primary evidence for early or late graft failure.

Shi-Min Yuan; Yan-Qing Wang; Yi Shen; Hua Jing

2011-01-01

267

Carbachol stimulates a different phospholipid metabolism than nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in PC12 cells.  

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We have examined 1,2-diglycerides (DGs) generated in PC12 cells in response to the muscarinic agonist carbachol and compared them with those generated in response to the differentiation factors nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Whereas carbachol stimulates a greater release of ...

Pessin, M S; Altin, J G; Jarpe, M; Tansley, F; Bradshaw, R A; Raben, D M

268

FACTORS INFLUENCING PAYMENT OF IRRIGATION SERVICE FEES  

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Full Text Available This article attempts to identify factors affecting participation in payment of irrigation service fees. There are five variables comprising demographic and economic of land variables were tested to find the variables that influenced the participation significantly. The five variables tested consisted of age and formal education as demographic variables; land productivity, land size, and land tenure as the economic of land variables. The results showed that formal education (demographic variable) had positive relationship and land size (economic of land variable) had negative relationship with the participation. Positive relationship between formal education and participation in payment of irrigation service fees meant that the participation increased as farmers’ education increased. Meanwhile, negative relationship between land size and the participation in payment of irrigation service fees showed that the farmers’ participation wouldincrease as the land size owned by farmers decreased. In other words, participation in payment of irrigation service fees was higher among farmers with small lands rather than that among farmers with large lands.

Gelar Satya Budhi

2006-01-01

269

Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length  

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Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

Miyoshi,Ko; Kasahara,Kyosuke; Miyazaki,Ikuko; Asanuma,Masato

2011-01-01

270

Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????????  

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Full Text Available The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? – ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

2013-01-01

271

Basic science for the clinician 57: transforming growth factor ?.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As is so often the case, a molecule gets named for its first identified activity or apparent role and then that initial name sticks, even as new and perhaps fundamentally different activities emerge from later studies. It is the special power of evolution that takes a certain activity and then uses it over and over again in pursuit of apparently disparate goals in a maturing or mature organism. In general terms, transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) is intimately involved in a variety of differentiation and growth inhibition processes, in apoptosis, and in deposition of the extracellular matrix. Initially identified in its role in oncogenesis, TGF-? is now implicated in a number of vascular and rheumatologic disorders, perhaps most notably the scleroderma. TGF-? has been identified as a powerful influence in angiogenesis, wound healing, joint inflammation, tumor growth and metastasis, and, of course, immunoregulation. So "what is in a name?" A rose by any other name would smell as sweet and would still be immunologically active, even if the name is "misleading."

Sigal LH

2012-08-01

272

Increased Melanoma Growth and Metastasis Spreading in Mice Overexpressing Placenta Growth Factor  

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Placenta growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor family, plays an important role in adult pathological angiogenesis. To further investigate PlGF functions in tumor growth and metastasis formation, we used transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin under the cont...

Marcellini, Marcella; De Luca, Naomi; Riccioni, Teresa; Ciucci, Alessandro; Orecchia, Angela; Lacal, Pedro Miguel

273

Transforming growth factor-alpha short-circuits downregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand which is distinguished from EGF by its acid-labile structure and potent transforming function. We recently reported that TGFalpha induces less efficient EGFR heterodimerization and downregulation than does EGF (Gulliford et al., 1997, Oncogene, 15:2219-2223). Here we use isoform-specific EGFR and ErbB2 antibodies to show that the duration of EGFR signalling induced by a single TGFalpha exposure is less than that induced by equimolar EGF. The protein trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA) reduces the duration of EGF signalling to an extent similar to that seen with TGFalpha alone; the effects of TGFalpha and BFA on EGFR degradation are opposite, however, with TGFalpha sparing EGFR from downregulation but BFA accelerating EGF-dependent receptor loss. This suggests that BFA blocks EGFR recycling and thus shortens EGF-dependent receptor signalling, whereas TGFalpha shortens receptor signalling and thus blocks EGFR downregulation. Consistent with this, repeated application of TGFalpha is accompanied by prolonged EGFR expression and signalling, whereas similar application of EGF causes receptor downregulation and signal termination. These findings indicate that constitutive secretion of pH-labile TGFalpha may perpetuate EGFR signalling by permitting early oligomer dissociation and dephosphorylation within acidic endosomes, thereby extinguishing a phosphotyrosine-based downregulation signal and creating an irreversible autocrine growth loop.

Ouyang X; Gulliford T; Huang G; Epstein RJ

1999-04-01

274

Early influences of nutrition on fetal growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

During pregnancy, the metabolic requirements of the mother are increased; however, the relationship between maternal intake of key nutrients and optimal fetal growth is not always clear. In this chapter, we have reviewed randomized controlled trials of nutritional interventions during pregnancy, with a particular focus on birthweight and infants who are small for gestational age (SGA). Of the trials that have investigated changing macronutrient and energy intakes during pregnancy, supplements in which energy is provided by protein yielded the most promising results, producing a 31-32% reduction in the risk of SGA infants and an increase in birthweight (38-60 g) compared with control. Single-nutrient intervention trials using n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplements demonstrated small increases in birthweight (?50 g) and birth length (?0.5 cm), which may be explained by small increases in gestation length (approximately 2.5 days). n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy did not however decrease the proportion of SGA infants. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation trials in developing countries have resulted in increased mean birthweight (22-44 g) and reduced the risk SGA by 9-15%. Further nutritional intervention studies which are rigorously designed and implemented are needed particularly to delineate differential effects in developed and developing countries. PMID:23502134

Makrides, Maria; Anderson, Amanda; Gibson, Robert A

2013-01-22

275

Early influences of nutrition on fetal growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During pregnancy, the metabolic requirements of the mother are increased; however, the relationship between maternal intake of key nutrients and optimal fetal growth is not always clear. In this chapter, we have reviewed randomized controlled trials of nutritional interventions during pregnancy, with a particular focus on birthweight and infants who are small for gestational age (SGA). Of the trials that have investigated changing macronutrient and energy intakes during pregnancy, supplements in which <25% of the energy is provided by protein yielded the most promising results, producing a 31-32% reduction in the risk of SGA infants and an increase in birthweight (38-60 g) compared with control. Single-nutrient intervention trials using n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplements demonstrated small increases in birthweight (?50 g) and birth length (?0.5 cm), which may be explained by small increases in gestation length (approximately 2.5 days). n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy did not however decrease the proportion of SGA infants. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation trials in developing countries have resulted in increased mean birthweight (22-44 g) and reduced the risk SGA by 9-15%. Further nutritional intervention studies which are rigorously designed and implemented are needed particularly to delineate differential effects in developed and developing countries.

Makrides M; Anderson A; Gibson RA

2013-01-01

276

Integrin control of the transforming growth factor-? pathway in glioblastoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transforming growth factor-? is a central mediator of the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma, the most common and malignant form of intrinsic brain tumours. Transforming growth factor-? promotes invasiveness and angiogenesis, maintains cancer cell stemness and induces profound immunosuppression in the host. Integrins regulate cellular adhesion and transmit signals important for cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and motility, and may be involved in the activation of transforming growth factor-?. We report that ?v?3, ?v?5 and ?v?8 integrins are broadly expressed not only in glioblastoma blood vessels but also in tumour cells. Exposure to ?v, ?3 or ?5 neutralizing antibodies, RNA interference-mediated integrin gene silencing or pharmacological integrin inhibition using the cyclic RGD peptide EMD 121974 (cilengitide) results in reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 in most glioma cell lines, including glioma-initiating cell lines and reduced transforming growth factor-?-mediated reporter gene activity, coinciding with reduced transforming growth factor-? protein levels in the supernatant. Time course experiments indicated that the loss of transforming growth factor-? bioactivity due to integrin inhibition likely results from two distinct mechanisms: an early effect on activation of preformed inactive protein, and second, major effect on transforming growth factor-? gene transcription as confirmed by decreased activity of the transforming growth factor-? gene promoter and decreased transforming growth factor-?(1) and transforming growth factor-?(2) messenger RNA expression levels. In vivo, EMD 121974 (cilengitide), which is currently in late clinical development as an antiangiogenic agent in newly diagnosed glioblastoma, was a weak antagonist of pSmad2 phosphorylation. These results validate integrin inhibition as a promising strategy not only to inhibit angiogenesis, but also to block transforming growth factor-?-controlled features of malignancy including invasiveness, stemness and immunosuppression in human glioblastoma.

Roth P; Silginer M; Goodman SL; Hasenbach K; Thies S; Maurer G; Schraml P; Tabatabai G; Moch H; Tritschler I; Weller M

2013-02-01

277

Zoledronic acid decreases gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor by human epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delayed wound healing in patients taking bisphosphonates could result from decreased expression of growth factors, which are directly related to cell proliferation and migration. In this study, we evaluated the gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by epithelial cells exposed to zoledronic acid 5?mol for 48h using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The gene expression of VEGF and bFGF by epithelial cells exposed to zoledronic acid decreased by 34% and 51%, respectively (p=0.0001 and p=0.0001). We conclude that zoledronic acid can decrease the expression of growth factors by epithelial cells. PMID:23773293

Basso, Fernanda G; Turrioni, Ana Paula S; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

2013-06-14

278

Zoledronic acid decreases gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor by human epithelial cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Delayed wound healing in patients taking bisphosphonates could result from decreased expression of growth factors, which are directly related to cell proliferation and migration. In this study, we evaluated the gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by epithelial cells exposed to zoledronic acid 5?mol for 48h using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The gene expression of VEGF and bFGF by epithelial cells exposed to zoledronic acid decreased by 34% and 51%, respectively (p=0.0001 and p=0.0001). We conclude that zoledronic acid can decrease the expression of growth factors by epithelial cells.

Basso FG; Turrioni AP; Hebling J; de Souza Costa CA

2013-06-01

279

Fibroblast growth factor 23 and Klotho are present in the growth plate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Regulation of phosphate homeostasis is essential for mineralization and enchondral ossification. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and its obligatory co-receptor Klotho (KL) play a key role in this process by influencing both renal phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism. In disease, excessive action of FGF23 leads to hypophosphatemic rickets, while its deficiency causes tumoral calcinosis. Although osteocytes and osteoblasts are widely seen as the primary source of FGF23 under physiological conditions, the origin of systemic FGF23 remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the expression of FGF23 and KL in porcine growth plate cartilage, adjacent tissues, and parenchymal tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue samples were obtained from 4- to 6-week-old piglets. mRNA expression was quantified by real-time PCR and normalized to 18S rRNA. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for FGF23, KL, collagen type X, and FGF receptor 1. Growth plate chondrocyte subpopulations were acquired by collagenase digestion of growth plate explants and subsequent density gradient centrifugation. RESULTS: We could detect both FGF23 and KL mRNA and protein in growth plate chondrocytes. FGF23 expression was mainly found in hypertrophic and resting chondrocytes. Furthermore, significant expression of both genes was observed in bone, liver, and spleen. CONCLUSION: These data challenge previous expression analyses, in particular theories of bone as the exclusive source of FGF23. Moreover, significant expression of FGF23 and KL within the growth plate and adjacent tissues imply a potential local role of FGF23 in chondrocyte differentiation and tissue mineralization.

Raimann A; Ertl DA; Helmreich M; Sagmeister S; Egerbacher M; Haeusler G

2013-01-01

280

THE FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF MANAGING SUBJECTS ???????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????  

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Full Text Available In this article the author's approach to consideration of the factors influencing innovative activity of managing subjects is presented. Innovations, as one of the major factors, are presented.

Sobchenko N. V.; Kuleshova L. V.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Factors influencing peritoneal dialysis patients' psychosocial adjustment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The specific aims of this study were as follows: (1) to describe psychosocial adjustment in adults with end-stage renal disease who underwent maintenance peritoneal dialysis; (2) to explore the influence of demographics, clinical variables, symptom distress and social support on psychosocial adjustment and (3) to determine predictive factors of psychosocial adjustment. BACKGROUND: Proper psychosocial adjustment is important for patients with end-stage renal disease to cope with multiple stressors of their disease and to balance their lives within the restrictions imposed by peritoneal dialysis treatment. Knowledge on psychosocial adjustment in patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis has been limited. DESIGN: The study was based on a predictive correlational design. METHOD: One hundred peritoneal dialysis patients were recruited from outpatient peritoneal dialysis clinics of a general hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Data were collected with the study questionnaires, including the Physical Symptom Distress Scale, the Social Support Scale and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale - self-report. RESULTS: The mean score on the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale was 359·7 (SD = 40·0), indicating that these participants were moderately struggling in adjusting to their illness. Symptom distress, family social support and financial status explained 38·3% of the variance in psychosocial adjustment (F(3,96)  = 21·5, p < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: The level of psychosocial adjustment in peritoneal dialysis patients is suboptimal. Overall, the patients with high physical symptom distress, weak family social support and poor financial status reported deficient psychosocial adjustment to their illness. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The findings of this study are relevant to the understanding of preconditions that enable peritoneal dialysis patients to successfully adjust to the disease and its diverse consequences. Patients with insufficient income, higher symptom distress and less family social support have a greater risk of psychosocial maladjustment. Medical professionals may use these variables to identify higher risk groups for early intensive intervention.

Wang TJ; Lin MY; Liang SY; Wu SF; Tung HH; Tsay SL

2013-01-01

282

Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 in diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short-stature children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) is conventionally diagnosed and confirmed by diminished peak Growth Hormone (GH) levels to provocative testing. Serum Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are under the influence of GH and reflect the spontaneous endogenous GH secretion. Owing to the absence of a circadian rhythm, it is possible to take individual measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 at any time of the day for evaluation of GH status instead of subjecting the individual to cumbersome provocative tests. Objectives of this study were to compare IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 assays with Exercise and L-Dopa stimulation tests in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short stature children using ITT as gold standard. Methods: This validation study was conducted at Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP, Rawalpindi, from November 2005 to October 2006. Fifty-two short stature children were included in the study. Basal samples for GH levels and simultaneous IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 measurements were obtained and afterwards all children were subjected to sequential exercise and LDopa stimulation tests. Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) was performed one week later with all the necessary precautionary measures. On the basis of ITT results, children were divided into two groups, i.e., 31 growth hormone deficient and 21 Normal Variant Short Stature (NVSS). Results: The diagnostic value of exercise stimulation test remained highest with sensitivity 90.3%, specificity 76.0%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 84.84%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 84.2% and accuracy 84.6%. The conventional L-Dopa stimulation had sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 38.0%, PPV 69.7%, NPV 88.8 % and accuracy 73.0%. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were positively correlated with post ITT peak GH levels (r= 0.527, r=0.464 respectively, both p

2009-01-01

283

Total Factor Productivity Growth and the Environment: A Case for Green Growth Accounting  

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We examine whether the use of the environment, proxied by CO2 emissions, as a factor of production contributes, in addition to conventional factors of production to output growth, and thus it should be accounted for in total factor productivity growth (TFPG) measurement and deducted from the .residu...

Xepapadeas, Anastasios; Tzouvelekas, E.; Vouvaki, D.

284

Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.

Sands Michelle; Howell Katherine; Costello Christine M; McLoughlin Paul

2011-01-01

285

Tumor epidermal growth factor receptor molecular imaging research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the importance of epidermal growth factor signaling pathway in oncogenesis, maintenance, and progression of different types of tumors, there are great significance that non-invasive monitoring of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the diagnosis and the judge of therapeutic efficacy. The studys of radioactive tracers for EGFR have provided a good basis for the molecular imaging of EGFR. (authors)

2009-01-01

286

Recombination human epidermal growth factor spray and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a recombinant human epidermal growth factor spraying agent, which includes a recombinant human epidermal growth factor, surfactant, protector and a pharmaceutical acceptable carrier, wherein, the spray contains transfersomes, and the particle sizes of at least 80 percent transfersomes are uniform. The invention further provides a method for producing the spray.

LINLIN PAN; BINHUA CHEN; YUAN GAO; LINGYUN XIA; MINGHUI ZHOU

287

Regulation of growth differentiation factor 15 expression by intracellular iron.  

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Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and has been identified in different contexts as a hypoxia-inducible gene product and as a molecule involved in hepcidin regulation. The biology of iron and oxygen is closely related, an...

Lakhal, S; Talbot, NP; Crosby, A; Stoepker, C; Townsend, AR

288

Keratinocyte Growth Factor Improves Repair in the Injured Tracheal Epithelium  

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Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a critical growth factor in lung development and is a protective agent after lung injury, although the exact mechanisms of this protective effect have not yet been elucidated. Our laboratory has shown that circulating epithelial progenitor cells can traffic to the...

Gomperts, Brigitte N.; Belperio, John A.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Keane, Michael P.; Burdick, Marie D.; Strieter, Robert M.

289

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is required for postnatal thymic regeneration  

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Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family that mediates epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation in a variety of tissues, including the thymus. We studied the role of KGF in T-cell development with KGF-/- mice and demonstrated that thymic cellularit...

Alpdogan, Önder; Hubbard, Vanessa M.; Smith, Odette M.; Patel, Neel; Lu, Sydney; Goldberg, Gabrielle L.; Gray, Daniel H.

290

Protection of Epithelial Cells by Keratincoyte Growth Factor Signaling  

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Oxidative injury to the lung is associated with widespread injury to the alveolar epithelium, which can be fatal unless the process is controlled and repaired. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, has been shown to protect the lung from a variety of oxid...

Ray, Prabir

291

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in melanocytic nevi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanocytic nevi represent a benign neoplastic proliferation of melanocytes. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in these proliferations is low in most cases; whereas an increased expression of this factor may be an indicator of pre-neoplastic changes in melanocyte lesions. We performed a semi-quantitative assessment of the level of vascular endothelial growth factor expression (score 0 to 3) on samples taken from 34 patients with benign melanocyte alterations of the skin. Melanocytic nevi showed an expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in 79.41% of the cases. The low level of expression (score 1) was seen in 70.59% cases. The results showed no statistically significant difference in the presence and level of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in relation to the following morphological parameters: histological type, a defect in the surface, density of inflammation infiltrate, mitotic index, growth phase and cell type.

Gajanin Vesna; Krivoku?a Zdenka; Gajanin Radoslav; Vujkovi? Zoran; Sladojevi? Igor; Zrni? Bogdan

2011-01-01

292

Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation  

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Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.

I. Hruzina

2010-01-01

293

Nerve growth factor-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor expression of astrocyte in retinal vascular development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The angiogenic aspect of neurotrophins and their receptors rather than the neuroscientific aspect has been focused. However, their role in retinal vascular development is underdiscovered. The purpose of this study is to understand the role of neurotrophin receptors in retinal vascular development and the mechanisms of their action. To identify the expression of tropomyosin receptor kinase receptor (Trk) in developing retina, tissues of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 26 day-old mice were prepared for experiments. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence double staining against glial fibrillary acidic protein and type IV collagen were performed. TrkA was expressed mainly along the vessel structure in inner part of retina, especially in retinal astrocyte. In cultured primary astrocyte, recombinant nerve growth factor (NGF) was used to activate TrkA. NGF induced the phosphorylation of TrkA, and it also enhanced the level of activated Akt and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) reversed the NGF-induced activation of these two molecules. This study demonstrated that TrkA activation on NGF leads to VEGF elevation by PI3K-Akt pathway and therefore suggested that TrkA could be a stimulator of retinal vascular development.

Kim YS; Jo DH; Lee H; Kim JH; Kim KW; Kim JH

2013-02-01

294

Targeting the opioid growth factor: opioid growth factor receptor axis for treatment of human ovarian cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a biological pathway that is present in human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. OGF, chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is an endogenous opioid peptide that interfaces with OGFr to delay cells moving through the cell cycle by upregulation of cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways. OGF inhibitory activity is dose dependent, receptor mediated, reversible, protein and RNA dependent, but not related to apoptosis or necrosis. The OGF-OGFr axis can be targeted for treatment of human ovarian cancer by (i) administration of exogenous OGF, (ii) genetic manipulation to over-express OGFr and (iii) use of low dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, which stimulates production of OGF and OGFr for subsequent interaction following blockade of the receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis may be a feasible target for treatment of cancer of the ovary (i) in a prophylactic fashion, (ii) following cytoreduction or (iii) in conjunction with standard chemotherapy for additive effectiveness. In summary, preclinical data support the transition of these novel therapies for treatment of human ovarian cancer from the bench to bedside to provide additional targets for treatment of this devastating disease. PMID:23856908

Zagon, Ian S; Donahue, Renee; McLaughlin, Patricia J

2013-05-01

295

Targeting the opioid growth factor: opioid growth factor receptor axis for treatment of human ovarian cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a biological pathway that is present in human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. OGF, chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is an endogenous opioid peptide that interfaces with OGFr to delay cells moving through the cell cycle by upregulation of cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways. OGF inhibitory activity is dose dependent, receptor mediated, reversible, protein and RNA dependent, but not related to apoptosis or necrosis. The OGF-OGFr axis can be targeted for treatment of human ovarian cancer by (i) administration of exogenous OGF, (ii) genetic manipulation to over-express OGFr and (iii) use of low dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, which stimulates production of OGF and OGFr for subsequent interaction following blockade of the receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis may be a feasible target for treatment of cancer of the ovary (i) in a prophylactic fashion, (ii) following cytoreduction or (iii) in conjunction with standard chemotherapy for additive effectiveness. In summary, preclinical data support the transition of these novel therapies for treatment of human ovarian cancer from the bench to bedside to provide additional targets for treatment of this devastating disease.

Zagon IS; Donahue R; McLaughlin PJ

2013-05-01

296

INTERCULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Translation is a complex process, involving linguistic, cultural and personal factors. This article seeks to show how intercultural factors constitute one of the main sources of translation difficultties. The author suggests that a systematic discussion of these factors would be useful in establishing effective strategies for avoiding pitfalls in translation between English and Chinese.

Dai Xiaoqian

2005-01-01

297

Characterization of Growth-Differentiation Factor 15, a Transforming Growth Factor ? Superfamily Member Induced following Liver Injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have identified a new murine transforming growth factor ? superfamily member, growth-differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15), that is expressed at highest levels in adult liver. As determined by Northern analysis, the expression of Gdf15 in liver was rapidly and dramatically up-regulated following vari...

Hsiao, Edward C.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers-Koniaris, Teresa; Sebald, Suzanne M.; Huynh, Thanh V.; Lee, Se-Jin

298

A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.

Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela Victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

2007-01-01

299

Inducible growth mode switches influence Valonia rhizoid differentiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cell differentiation and cell type commitment are an integral part of plant growth and development. Investigations on how environmental conditions affect the formation of shoots, roots, and rhizoids can help illustrate how plants determine cell fate and overall morphology. In this study, we evaluated the role of substratum and light on rhizoid differentiation in the coenocytic green alga, Valonia aegagropila. Elongating rhizoids displayed varying growth modes and cell shape upon exposure to different substrata and light conditions. It was found that soft substrata and dark incubation promoted rhizoid elongation via tip growth while subsequent exposure to light prevented tip growth and instead induced swelling in the apical region of rhizoids. Swelling was accompanied by the accumulation of protoplasm in the rhizoid tip through expansion of the cell wall and uninhibited cytoplasmic streaming. Subsequent diffuse growth led to the transformation from slender, rod-shaped rhizoids into spherical thallus-like structures that required photosynthesis. Further manipulation of light regimes caused vacillating cell growth redirections. An elongating V. aegagropila rhizoid cell thus appears capable of growth mode switching that is regulated by immediate environmental conditions thereby influencing ultimate cell shape and function. This is the first description of inducible, multiple growth mode shifts in a single intact plant cell that directly impact its differentiation.

Elvira PR; Sekida S; Okuda K

2013-02-01

300

Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.

K. R. Sowmya; N. Panchanatham

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Factors That Influence the Activity of 2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one on Erwinia Species in Growth Assays 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors affecting the inhibitory activity of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) against Erwinia carotovora, a nonpathogen of Zea mays L., and against a maize pathovar of Erwinia chrysanthemi (ECZ) were examined. Most experiments were performed with DIMBOA dissolved in a bacterial growth medium containing 10 g/liter of sucrose, inorganic salts, and 1 g/liter of casamino acids at pH 6.75. When temperature and pH were held constant, inhibition of E. carotovora varied linearly with the logarithm of the initial cell population. By altering temperatures, assays with constant pH and initial cell populations were performed under conditions of varying DIMBOA stability. When E. carotovora was grown at 24, 28, 32, and 36 C in the presence of 0.1 to 0.5 mm DIMBOA, the inhibition of bacterial growth was maintained long after DIMBOA had decomposed in the medium to levels which, if added initially, would not have been inhibitory. When assays were performed at pH 5.5, the pH of aqueous maize extracts, E. carotovora was more inhibited than at pH 6.75; however, ECZ was substantially less inhibited at the lower pH.

Woodward, Michael D.; Corcuera, Luis J.; Helgeson, John P.; Kelman, Arthur; Upper, Christen D.

1978-01-01

302

Factors That Influence the Activity of 2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one on Erwinia Species in Growth Assays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors affecting the inhibitory activity of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) against Erwinia carotovora, a nonpathogen of Zea mays L., and against a maize pathovar of Erwinia chrysanthemi (ECZ) were examined. Most experiments were performed with DIMBOA dissolved in a bacterial growth medium containing 10 g/liter of sucrose, inorganic salts, and 1 g/liter of casamino acids at pH 6.75. When temperature and pH were held constant, inhibition of E. carotovora varied linearly with the logarithm of the initial cell population. By altering temperatures, assays with constant pH and initial cell populations were performed under conditions of varying DIMBOA stability. When E. carotovora was grown at 24, 28, 32, and 36 C in the presence of 0.1 to 0.5 mm DIMBOA, the inhibition of bacterial growth was maintained long after DIMBOA had decomposed in the medium to levels which, if added initially, would not have been inhibitory. When assays were performed at pH 5.5, the pH of aqueous maize extracts, E. carotovora was more inhibited than at pH 6.75; however, ECZ was substantially less inhibited at the lower pH.

Woodward MD; Corcuera LJ; Helgeson JP; Kelman A; Upper CD

1978-05-01

303

Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ..beta... Whereas transforming growth factor ..beta.. reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated.

Russell, S.B.; Trupin, K.M.; Rodriguez-Eaton, S.; Russell, J.D.; Trupin, J.S.

1988-01-01

304

Temporal regulation of growth cone lamellar protrusion and the influence of target tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Guided nerve fiber growth depends upon the activities of the neuronal growth cone lamellae and filopodia. Defining the dynamics of growth cone remodeling and the influences that act on it may lead to greater understanding of guided axonal growth. While there were differences in the remodeling of growth cones of nerve fibers extended from spinal cord explants and from dorsal root ganglia of Rana pipiens larvae, both types exhibited fluctuations in lamellar expanse over time to produce "lamellar cycles." We now show that these cycles are characterized by the temporal regulation of lamellar protrusion rate, the percentage of the lamellar perimeter undergoing protrusion, and invariant lamellar retraction with respect to time. Since axotomies did not abolish the lamellar cycles, the mechanism underlying cycling appears to reside at the level of the nerve fiber terminus. The previously demonstrated effects of the target tissue on growth cone remodeling appear to be due to target tissue-released factors that bind to the culture substratum, as evidenced by experiments using target tissue-conditioned medium. Further, the target tissue attenuated the fluctuations in lamellar protrusion rate during cycling, which resulted in changes in growth cone remodeling and morphology. These alterations may be related to the chemokinetic and chemotropic effects of the target on the nerve fiber extension. Thus, the process of remodeling of growth cone lamellar structures is the result of intrinsically controlled modifications in lamellar protrusion and target-based influences.

Gallo G; Pollack ED

1997-12-01

305

Temporal regulation of growth cone lamellar protrusion and the influence of target tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Guided nerve fiber growth depends upon the activities of the neuronal growth cone lamellae and filopodia. Defining the dynamics of growth cone remodeling and the influences that act on it may lead to greater understanding of guided axonal growth. While there were differences in the remodeling of growth cones of nerve fibers extended from spinal cord explants and from dorsal root ganglia of Rana pipiens larvae, both types exhibited fluctuations in lamellar expanse over time to produce "lamellar cycles." We now show that these cycles are characterized by the temporal regulation of lamellar protrusion rate, the percentage of the lamellar perimeter undergoing protrusion, and invariant lamellar retraction with respect to time. Since axotomies did not abolish the lamellar cycles, the mechanism underlying cycling appears to reside at the level of the nerve fiber terminus. The previously demonstrated effects of the target tissue on growth cone remodeling appear to be due to target tissue-released factors that bind to the culture substratum, as evidenced by experiments using target tissue-conditioned medium. Further, the target tissue attenuated the fluctuations in lamellar protrusion rate during cycling, which resulted in changes in growth cone remodeling and morphology. These alterations may be related to the chemokinetic and chemotropic effects of the target on the nerve fiber extension. Thus, the process of remodeling of growth cone lamellar structures is the result of intrinsically controlled modifications in lamellar protrusion and target-based influences. PMID:9407014

Gallo, G; Pollack, E D

1997-12-01

306

Differential Effects of Myopathy-Associated Caveolin-3 Mutants on Growth Factor Signaling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caveolin-3 is an important scaffold protein of cholesterol-rich caveolae. Mutations of caveolin-3 cause hereditary myopathies that comprise remarkably different pathologies. Growth factor signaling plays an important role in muscle physiology; it is influenced by caveolins and cholesterol-rich rafts...

Brauers, Eva; Dreier, Agnes; Roos, Andreas; Wormland, Berthold; Weis, Joachim; Krüttgen, Alexander

307

Transforming growth factor-? in graft vessels: histology and immunohistochemistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The biological functions of transforming growth factor-? signaling that involves Smad proteins have not been previously investigated with respect to coronary artery bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to observe the immunostaining of proteins that are related to this signaling pathway. METHODS: Fifteen remnants of coronary artery bypass grafts, including nine saphenous veins, three radial arteries and three mammary arteries, were collected fro (more) m 12 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 were performed. RESULTS: The saphenous veins showed more severe intimal degeneration, more severe smooth muscle cell proliferation and more collagen deposition than the arterial grafts, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that the majority of the transforming growth factor-?1 signaling cytokines were primarily localized in the cytoplasm in the medial layers of all three types of grafts, whereas ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the interstices were observed particularly in the saphenous vein and radial arterial grafts. CONCLUSION: Enhanced transforming growth factor-?1 signal transduction with medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, the presence of the type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the extracellular matrix may provide primary evidence for early or late graft failure.

Yuan, Shi-Min; Wang, Yan-Qing; Shen, Yi; Jing, Hua

2011-01-01

308

Factors influencing perioperative nurses' error reporting preferences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To explore the influence of scope of practice and patient outcomes on error reporting, 13 nurses were interviewed after they reviewed four "error" scenarios ranging in both scope of practice and seriousness of outcome. Of 52 theoretical incidents, only 30 were identified as errors. The nurses indicated they would formally report errors for only eight of the incidents. For another 10 incidents, the nurses would have reported using an informal reporting system only. Qualitative analysis of the interviews revealed that perceived scope of practice influenced reporting preferences, and seriousness of outcome was only a secondary consideration. Selective error reporting and the reasons for selective reporting have negative implications for patient safety.

Espin S; Regehr G; Levinson W; Baker GR; Biancucci C; Lingard L

2007-03-01

309

Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectiona...

Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

310

Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.

Laurie Drozdowski, Alan BR Thomson

2009-01-01

311

Intestinal hormones and growth factors: effects on the small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In part I, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids. PMID:19152442

Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan B R

2009-01-28

312

Epidermal growth factor receptor targeted molecularly therapies of cancers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been known to be a significant factor in the development and growth of many types of cancers. It is now accepted that the EGFR signal transduction net work plays an important role in multiple tumorigenic processes, contributing to cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as protection from apoptosis. Recently, EGFR monoclonal antibodies (McAb) and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors have been validated as new treatment approach for those EGFR-positive cancers and have shown activity aginst advanced, chemofractory cancers in clinical trials. This article focuses on three EGFR targeted molecularly therapies of cancers. (authors)

2007-01-01

313

Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)

2012-04-24

314

Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)

2009-10-06

315

Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-?, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15) mRNA and protein are influenced by photoperiod-induced ovarian regression and recrudescence in Siberian hamster ovaries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod (SD) inhibits ovarian function, including folliculogenesis, whereas function is restored with their transfer to long photoperiods (LD). To investigate the mechanism of photo-stimulated recrudescence, we assessed key folliculogenic factors - anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-?, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15) - across the estrus cycle and in photo-regressed and recrudescing ovaries. Adult hamsters were exposed to either LD or SD for 14 weeks, which respectively represent functional and regressed ovaries. Select regressed hamsters were transferred back to LD for two (post-transfer week 2; PTw2) or eight weeks (PTw8). Ovaries were collected and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemistry or frozen in liquid nitrogen for real-time PCR. AMH, inhibin-?, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA and protein were detected in all stages of the estrus cycle. Fourteen weeks of SD exposure increased (P?factors in photo-stimulated, recrudescence via potential regulation of follicle recruitment, preservation, and development. Mol. Reprod. Dev. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Shahed A; Young KA

2013-07-01

316

Organizational, financial, and environmental factors influencing deans' tenure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At a time when continuity of leadership in medical schools is most crucial, the tenures of deans continue to decrease. In the present study of factors influencing the tenures of 382 U.S. medical school deans from 1985 to 1994, the authors focused on issues that were likely to have had a greater impact on deans' tenures in recent years. They assumed that longer tenures are associated with less complex organizational factors and more stable environmental factors. Conversely, they assumed that deans and their tenures are adversely affected by an institution's declining financial health, a complex organizational structure, and a changing clinical marketplace where there is rapid growth of managed care. The authors compared the relationships between these factors and the length of deans' tenures during the ten-year period studied. Among the most important findings were the fact that schools that were less healthy financially, that had the same owner as the primary teaching hospital, and that had smaller numbers of faculty tended to have shorter dean's tenures and higher turnovers of deans. While the reason for shorter tenures of deans at schools that are less financially healthy is understandable, the effect of common ownership of the school and teaching hospital is less obvious, but perhaps the greater preoccupation of deans with the clinical enterprise in that circumstance is a significant constraint. The authors hope that the insights from their findings will be useful to future candidates for deanships in their negotiations with university officials and will help all parties reach more explicit agreements on such issues as expectations for financial performance of the medical school and the roles and relationships of the dean and the teaching hospital director.

Levin R; Bhak K; Moy E; Valente E; Griner PF

1998-06-01

317

The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor alpha in renal cell carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immunohistochemical stains using antibody to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) were applied to 67 cases of renal cell carcinoma retrieved from the files of the Division of Surgical Pathology. The 64 patients (33 females, 31 males) ranged in age from 35 to 87 years (mean, 61 years). Two patients had more than one renal carcinoma included in this study. Fifty-seven cases (85%) expressed EGFR, with staining largely confined to the cell membrane. Staining intensity was directly correlated with tumor grade (P = 0.02, T test), size (P = 0.04), and stage (P = 0.01). Those cases with more intense EGFR staining also appear to have shorter patient survival than those showing less intense staining (43 mo versus 63 mo, P = 0.05). Forty-nine cases (73%) expressed TGF-alpha in a distribution similar to that of EGFR. There was no significant correlation between TGF-alpha staining intensity and tumor size, stage, or grade. When the tumor expressed either EGFR or TGF-alpha but not both proteins, average patient survival was 38 months, while the average survival of those patients whose tumors expressed both EGFR and TGF-alpha was 61 months (P = 0.04). Three of eleven cases, all of which expressed EGFR, were felt to show EGFR gene amplification using a modification of the differential polymerase chain reaction on archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. EGFR and TGF-alpha likely play a role in the progression of renal cell carcinoma, and their coexpression may have favorable prognostic implications.

Lager DJ; Slagel DD; Palechek PL

1994-06-01

318

Comparison of vascular growth factors in the murine brain reveals placenta growth factor as prime candidate for CNS revascularization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular bypass procedures in the central nervous system (CNS) remain technically challenging, hindered by complications and often failing to prevent adverse outcome such as stroke. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for a safe and effective CNS revascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are promising candidates for revascularization; however, their effects appear to be tissue-specific and their potential in the CNS has not been fully explored. To test growth factors for angiogenesis in the CNS, we characterized the effects of endothelium-specific growth factors on the brain vasculature and parenchyma. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding the growth factors were injected transcranially to the frontoparietal cerebrum of mice. Angiogenesis, mural cell investment, leukocyte recruitment, vascular permeability, reactive gliosis and neuronal patterning were evaluated by 3-dimensional immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, optical projection tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Placenta growth factor (PlGF) stimulated robust angiogenesis and arteriogenesis without significant side effects, whereas VEGF and VEGF-C incited growth of aberrant vessels, severe edema, and inflammation. VEGF-B, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and a VEGF/angiopoietin-1 chimera had minimal effects on the brain vessels or parenchyma. Of the growth factors tested, PlGF emerged as the most efficient and safe angiogenic factor, hence making it a candidate for therapeutic CNS revascularization. PMID:23803710

Gaál, Emília Ilona; Tammela, Tuomas; Anisimov, Andrey; Marbacher, Serge; Honkanen, Petri; Zarkada, Georgia; Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Alitalo, Kari

2013-06-26

319

Comparison of vascular growth factors in the murine brain reveals placenta growth factor as prime candidate for CNS revascularization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vascular bypass procedures in the central nervous system (CNS) remain technically challenging, hindered by complications and often failing to prevent adverse outcome such as stroke. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for a safe and effective CNS revascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are promising candidates for revascularization; however, their effects appear to be tissue-specific and their potential in the CNS has not been fully explored. To test growth factors for angiogenesis in the CNS, we characterized the effects of endothelium-specific growth factors on the brain vasculature and parenchyma. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding the growth factors were injected transcranially to the frontoparietal cerebrum of mice. Angiogenesis, mural cell investment, leukocyte recruitment, vascular permeability, reactive gliosis and neuronal patterning were evaluated by 3-dimensional immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, optical projection tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Placenta growth factor (PlGF) stimulated robust angiogenesis and arteriogenesis without significant side effects, whereas VEGF and VEGF-C incited growth of aberrant vessels, severe edema, and inflammation. VEGF-B, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and a VEGF/angiopoietin-1 chimera had minimal effects on the brain vessels or parenchyma. Of the growth factors tested, PlGF emerged as the most efficient and safe angiogenic factor, hence making it a candidate for therapeutic CNS revascularization.

Gaál EI; Tammela T; Anisimov A; Marbacher S; Honkanen P; Zarkada G; Leppänen VM; Tatlisumak T; Hernesniemi J; Niemelä M; Alitalo K

2013-08-01

320

High-growth-factor implosions (HEP4)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the kinetic energy of an ablating, inward-driven, solid spherical shell is used to compressionally heat the low-density fuel inside. For a given drive, the maximum achievable compressed fuel density and temperature - and hence the maximum neutron production rate depend on the degree of shell isentropy and integrity maintained during the compression. Shell integrity will be degraded by hydrodynamic instability growth of areal density imperfections in the capsule. Surface imperfections on the shell grow as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities when the shell is accelerated by the ablating lower-density plasma. Perturbations at the outer capsule surface are transferred hydrodynamically to the inner surface, where deceleration of the shell by the lower-density fuel gives rise to further RT growth at the pusher-fuel interface.

Landen, O.L.; Keane, C.J.; Hammel, B.A. [and others

1996-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Progress in Relevant Growth Factors Promoting the Growth of Hair Follicle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hair is a protective appendage on the body that is considered accessory structure of the integument. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. The morphological changes of the hair cycle have been very clear that hair morphogenesis and epidermal development are orchestrated by an array of growth factors. In this review, we summarize the major growth factors involved in promoting growth of hair follicles

J. M. Wang; J. T. Zhang

2012-01-01

322

Fibroblast growth factor decreases locomotor activity in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spontaneous locomotor behavior of rats receiving subcutaneous administration of either acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors was recorded in an activity cage. We report that doses between 1 and 100 micrograms/kg significantly decreased the horizontal and vertical activity, as well as the exploratory and stereotypy behavior of the rats. These effects of fibroblast growth factors seem to be specific since (i) they were cancelled by protein hydrolysis and anti-fibroblast growth factor antibodies, (ii) they were unrelated to their hypotensive activity and (iii) they were not attributable to their high structural similarity with the cytokine interleukin-1. Thus fibroblast growth factors did not show any thermogenic activity, did not affect the hypothalamic output of corticotropin-releasing factor and did not change the plasma levels of corticosterone. Pretreatment of the rats with a specific inhibitor of brain nitric oxide synthase prevented the effects of fibroblast growth factors, suggesting the involvement of nitric oxide in these behavioral modifications. Our results contribute to the accumulating evidence describing non-mitogenic activities of fibroblast growth factors. PMID:8951874

Guaza, C; Garcia-Andrés, C; Sandi, C; Muñoz-Willery, I; Cuevas, P; Giménez-Gallego, G

1996-12-01

323

Is slow nail growth a risk factor for onychomycosis?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was carried out to determine whether slow nail growth is a predisposing factor for onychomycosis or if onychomycosis results in slow nail growth. Forty-nine patients with unilateral onychomycosis of the great toenail were enrolled and classified in two groups according to the size of affected area, i.e. more than half or less than half of the toenail. The growth rates of affected and unaffected great toenails of all patients were measured. Before a normal appearance was reached, the growth rates of affected great toenails, when the affected area occupied more than half of total nail plate, was slower than that of the unaffected great toenails. After a normal appearance was achieved, there were no differences in growth rates between affected and unaffected great toenails. Therefore, this study of patients with unilateral toenail onychomycosis did not support the hypothesis that slow nail growth rate is a predisposing factor for onychomycosis.

Yu HJ; Kwon HM; Oh DH; Kim JS

2004-07-01

324

Body size regulation and insulin-like growth factor signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How animals achieve their specific body size is a fundamental, but still largely unresolved, biological question. Over the past decades, studies on the insect model system have provided some important insights into the process of body size determination and highlighted the importance of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling. Fat body, the Drosophila counterpart of liver and adipose tissue, senses nutrient availability and controls larval growth rate by modulating peripheral insulin signaling. Similarly, insulin-like growth factor I produced from liver and muscle promotes postnatal body growth in mammals. Organismal growth is tightly coupled with the process of sexual maturation wherein the sex steroid hormone attenuates body growth. This review summarizes some important findings from Drosophila and mammalian studies that shed light on the general mechanism of animal size determination.

Hyun S

2013-07-01

325

FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATION IN SMES IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to organize resources and competence in novel patterns. Enterprises extend their ability to develop new business concepts, their dynamic capability, by accessing external resources. This study proposes to investigate how the use of external resources varies in the course of SMEs innovation processes, and how deployment of external resources is influenced by the nature of the innovation as well as by the context of the innovation process.

HOLBAN ONCIOIU IONICA; ONCIOIU FLORIN RAZVAN

2010-01-01

326

Intracellular growth factors in polycythemia vera and other myeloproliferative disorders.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In polycythemia vera, idiopathic myelofibrosis, and essential thrombocytosis, hematopoietic cell proliferation is increased in the absence of a recognizable stimulus, suggesting the autonomous production of growth factors in these disorders. Sonicates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) fr...

Eid, J; Ebert, R F; Gesell, M S; Spivak, J L

327

Role of transforming growth factor-? in hematologic malignancies  

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The transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling pathway is an essential regulator of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. During hematopoiesis, the TGF-? signaling pathway is a potent negative regulator of proliferation while stimulating diff...

Dong, Mei; Blobe, Gerard C.

328

Factors influencing skeletal maturation at diagnosis of paediatric Cushing's disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth retardation is a recognised complication of paediatric Cushing's disease (CD), but there are few published data on skeletal maturation at diagnosis. We assessed factors contributing to skeletal maturation in patients with paediatric CD.

Peters, CJ; Ahmed, ML; Storr, HL; Davies, KM; Martin, LJ; Allgrove, J

329

THIAMINE AND NICOTINIC ACID: ANAEROBIC GROWTH FACTORS FOR MUCOR ROUXII  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (Rutgers, the State University, New Brunswick, N. J.), and Walter J. Nickerson. Thiamine and nicotinic acid: Anaerobic growth factors for Mucor rouxii. J. Bacteriol. 82:142–148. 1961.—Mucor rouxii requires preformed thiamine and nicotinic acid for anaerobic growth. Such requirem...

Bartnicki-Garcia, S.; Nickerson, Walter J.

330

Factors influencing attractiveness of soft tissue profile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The factors affecting the attractiveness of the soft tissue profile are assessed in only very few nonmatched and controversial studies. We aimed to evaluate these factors in a matched comprehensive study. METHODS: Profile photographs of 100 students with good occlusion were sorted according to facial beauty by 20 judges. After excluding 40 unmatched subjects or those with marginal scores, 12 soft tissue variables were compared among profiles of 30 attractive and 30 unattractive matched participants (t test, ? = 0.05). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: As the most important factor, excessive mandibular retrusion made both men and women unattractive. Both attractive men and women tended to have less prominent noses with higher nose tips, protruded upper lips compared with the position of lower lips, and deeper lower faces. Closeness of lips to the middle of vertical chin-nose distance enhanced female beauty only. Straight profiles and more protruded maxillae merely made men more attractive.

Khosravanifard B; Rakhshan V; Raeesi E

2013-01-01

331

Influencing Factors of Science Olympiad Students’ Success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and student’s self efficacy.

M. Kür?ad Özlen; Mehmet Özgün

2013-01-01

332

Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life. PMID:24028035

Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

2013-01-01

333

Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

Cummings G; Olson K; Raymond-Seniuk C; Lo E; Masaoud E; Bakker D; Fitch M; Green E; Butler L; Conlon M

2013-01-01

334

FACTORS INFLUENCING BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION TO ADOPT NET BANKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking while Primary and Secondary Influence was rated the least impacting factor. Both Utilitarian Outcomes and Availability of Internet were rated as second most impacting factor followed by Availability, Cost, Ease of Use, Security, Trust and Self Confidence.

SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA; M.V.SURYANARAYANA

2013-01-01

335

Periodontal regeneration: focus on growth and differentiation factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several growth and differentiation factors have shown potential as therapeutic agents to support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, although optimal dosage, release kinetics, and suitable delivery systems are still unknown. Experimental variables, including delivery systems, dose, and the common use of poorly characterized preclinical models, make it difficult to discern the genuine efficacy of each of these factors. Only a few growth and differentiation factors have reached clinical evaluation. It appears that well-defined discriminating preclinical models followed by well-designed clinical trials are needed to further investigate the true potential of these and other candidate factors. Thus, current research is focused on finding relevant growth and differentiation factors, optimal dosages, and the best approaches for delivery to develop clinically meaningful therapies in patient-centered settings.

Lee, Jaebum; Stavropoulos, Andreas

2010-01-01

336

Examining the Factors Influencing Environmental Innovations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Technological innovation is a key factor for achieving a better environmental performance of firms and the economy as a whole, to the extent that it helps to increase the material/energy efficiency of production processes and to reduce emission/effluents associated to outputs. Environmental innovati...

Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Zoboli, Roberto

337

Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We have used rats with epidermal growth factor (EGF) autoantibodies to study the role of EGF deficiency during perinatal development. The study was focused on organs known to contain EGF or its receptor. Compared with controls, the offspring of autoimmune rats had a higher perinatal mortality and a lower birth weight. The weight of the lungs was particularly low in the offspring of EGF-immunized rats, and morphologically the lungs from the surviving pups seemed atelectatic and had alveolar duct dilatation, which indicates mild respiratory distress syndrome. Judged from immunohistochemical studies, the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio was lower in pups from EGF-immunized rats. This difference was, however, not significant (p = 0.07), but flow cytometric analyses showed a significantly lower proportion of the liver cells from newborn EGF-deficient pups to be in S-phase and indicated that these cells were larger than liver cells from controls. To study possible alterations in EGF binding, 125I-EGF was injected i.v. in newborn rats. 125I-EGF bound in all the organs investigated. The binding is listed in decreasing order: liver, gut, skin, kidney, and lungs. In the pups from EGF-immunized rats, the lungs and the skin bound a significantly higher amount than the controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Raaberg, Lasse; NexØ, Ebba

1995-01-01

338

Growth-promoting action and growth factor release by different platelet derivatives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Platelet derivatives are commonly used in wound healing and tissue regeneration. Different procedures of platelet preparation may differentially affect growth factor release and cell growth. Preparation of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is accompanied by release of growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1), and several cytokines. When compared with the standard procedure for platelet-rich plasma (PRP), PRF released 2-fold less PDGF, but >15-fold and >2-fold VEGF and TGF?1, respectively. Also, the release of several cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN?, MIP-1?, MIP-1? and TNF?) was significantly increased in PRF-conditioned medium (CM), compared to PRP-CM. Incubation of both human skin fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with PRF-derived membrane (mPRF) or with PRF-CM enhanced cell proliferation by >2-fold (p?growth at a higher extent compared to PRF. At variance, PRF effect on HUVEC growth was significantly greater than that of PRP, consistent with a higher concentration of VEGF in the PRF-CM. Thus, the procedure of PRP preparation leads to a larger release of PDGF, as a possible result of platelet degranulation, while PRF enhances the release of proangiogenic factors.

Passaretti F; Tia M; D'Esposito V; Pascale MD; Corso MD; Sepulveres R; Liguoro D; Valentino R; Beguinot F; Formisano P; Sammartino G

2013-07-01

339

Lifetime growth in wild meerkats: incorporating life history and environmental factors into a standard growth model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lifetime records of changes in individual size or mass in wild animals are scarce and, as such, few studies have attempted to model variation in these traits across the lifespan or to assess the factors that affect them. However, quantifying lifetime growth is essential for understanding trade-offs between growth and other life history parameters, such as reproductive performance or survival. Here, we used model selection based on information theory to measure changes in body mass over the lifespan of wild meerkats, and compared the relative fits of several standard growth models (monomolecular, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and Richards). We found that meerkats exhibit monomolecular growth, with the best model incorporating separate growth rates before and after nutritional independence, as well as effects of season and total rainfall in the previous nine months. Our study demonstrates how simple growth curves may be improved by considering life history and environmental factors, which may be particularly relevant when quantifying growth patterns in wild populations.

English S; Bateman AW; Clutton-Brock TH

2012-05-01

340

Evaluation Of Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf- ) And Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Expression In OralSquamous Cell Carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the pattern of expression of transforming growth factor & (TGF-&) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate their expression with tumor grading. Methods:' (')*!+#,,)))Results:For both markers, positive staining reaction was characterized by cytoplasmic or cytoplasmic and membranous staining. EGFR was expre- './- & '01! -2 ))'particularly strong at the margin of invading cords and nests of tumour cells and poorly differentiated malignant cells. The expression of both markers was significantly correlated with histological grading; while the staining intensity showed no correlation with tumor grading. Conclusion: This study showed that OSCC express both EGFR and TGF-& and their expression indicated that these markers may have a potential diagnostic value in histologic examination. In addition their increased expression in high tumour grades suggest that they may be used as indicators of tumor aggressiveness. Key words: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma, epidermal growth factor receptor, transforming growth factor-& and immunohistochemistry.

Effat A. Abbas, **Wafaa E. Abdel-Aal And ***Aml A. Samy

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Mutant epidermal growth factor receptor enhances induction of vascular endothelial growth factor by hypoxia and insulin-like growth factor-1 via a PI3 kinase dependent pathway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over-expression of truncated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occurs in a variety of malignancies including glioblastoma multiforme, breast and lung cancer. The truncation deletes an extracellular domain and results in constitutive activation of the receptor. NIH3T3 cells were transfected wit...

Clarke, K; Smith, K; Gullick, W J; Harris, A L

342

Organizational Creativity: A Substantial Factor to Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea sources, and evidence of the creative planning process; and organizational creativity is as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The creative climate encourages people to generate new ideas and helps the organization to grow and increase its efficiency and at the same time it enables members to generate and implement creative ideas more effectively.

Malikeh Beheshtifar; Fateme-Begom Kamani-Fard

2013-01-01

343

Intussusception: Clinical and radiographic factors influencing reducibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.).

Stephenson, C.A.; Seibert, J.J.; Glasier, C.M.; Leithiser, R.E. Jr.; Iqbal, V. (Arkansas Univ. for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (USA). Dept. of Pediatrics; Arkansas Univ. for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (USA)); Strain, J.D. (Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (USA))

1989-11-01

344

Intussusception: Clinical and radiographic factors influencing reducibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.).

1989-01-01

345

Transforming growth factor-? and breast cancer: Cell cycle arrest by transforming growth factor-? and its disruption in cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Altered responsiveness to extracellular signals and cell cycle dysregulation are hallmarks of cancer. The cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) that integrate mitogenic and growth inhibitory signals. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? mediates G1 cell cycle arrest by inducing or ...

Donovan, Jeffrey; Slingerland, Joyce

346

Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU) content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995). In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

A. Di Francia; F. Masucci; M.T. Maresca di Serracapriola; F. Gioffré; V. Proto

2011-01-01

347

Preventive screening. What factors influence testing?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with having preventive screening tests in a population-based sample of Ontario women. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey linked to data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to ascertain whether women aged 20 or older had Pap smears, mammography, bone densitometry, or cholesterol testing. Factors associated with having testing were subjected to logistic regression analysis. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 20 or older; from 19,600 Canadian households, 2232 Ontario women gave consent to linkage of administrative databases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-specific population screening rates. Odds ratios and probabilities of having screening in relation to socioeconomic, geographic, and physician-associated factors. RESULTS: Having screening was associated with age, income, education, and place of residence. Women with regular physicians were more likely to have Pap smears (odds ratio [OR] 4.4, range 1.7 to 12), densitometry (OR 22, range 3.6 to 140), and cholesterol testing (OR 8.0, range 2.3 to 29). Women who had periodic health examinations were more likely to have Pap smears (OR 6.7, range 4.6 to 9.8), mammograms (OR 3.7, range 2.3 to 5.9), densitometry (OR 3.7, range 1.3 to 10.5), and cholesterol testing (OR 3.0, range 2.0 to 4.5). The probability of having testing increased with number of visits a year to a doctor, but ceased to increase after three visits. CONCLUSION: Having screening tests was associated with socioeconomic factors including income, education, and place of residence. Patients who went to doctors for episodic care only were less likely to have preventive screening than patients who went for periodic health examinations.

Finkelstein MM

2002-01-01

348

CHARACTERIZATION OF UTERINE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR EXPRESSION DURING THE ESTROUS CYCLE AND EARLY PREGNANCY IN PIGS  

Science.gov (United States)

Uterine capacity is a component contributing to litter size in swine. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene is located near a uterine capacity quantitative trait locus on chromosome 8. EGF has been reported to stimulate epithelial cell growth, and therefore may influence endometrial function. We ha...

349

Significance of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in skin melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Melanoma is a heterogeneous disease of skin and mucous membranes which shows significant increase in incidence worldwide in the past decades. In the process of forming new blood vessels stimulators of angiogenesis participate. There is an increase production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C and VEGF-D), which expression cause change of endothelial cells, and higher degree of tumor's aggressiveness. The aim of this research was to determine the level of VEGF expression in skin melanoma in different body regions and in different primary stages of the disease. Methods. The research was conducted on bioptic materials of skin in 39 patients. On excision-made materials a routine histological preparation was done and following parameters were determined: histological type, alteration thickness (according to Breslow), Clark level, TNM (Tumor Nodus Metastasis) stage (pT), alteration width, thickness of lymphocytic infiltration in the tumor, mitotic index, phase of the tumor growth, presence of ulcerations, cellular type of the tumor, localization and level of VEGF expression. Results. Analysis confirmed that 61.54% of skin melanoma showed a high VEGF expression. Nodular and acral lentiginous melanomas showed more frequently a high level of VEGF expression, while superficial spreading melanoma showed a lower level of VEGF expression (p = 0.032, p < 0.05). A higher level of expression was present in thicker melanomas (higher in the Breslow stage; p = 0.011, p < 0.05). The width of the lesion did not have an influence on the level of VEGF expression in melanoma (U =142.000, p = 0.273). Conclusion. Melanomas show a higher level of VEGF expression. Nodular and acral lentiginous types of melanoma show a high level of VEGF expression, while superficial spreading melanoma shows a lower level of VEGF expression. Melanomas in higher-stage disease (Breslow, Clark, pTNM) show a higher level of VEGF expression.

Gajanin Vesna; Krivoku?a Zdenka; Kosti? Kristina; Gajanin Radoslav; Sladojevi? Igor

2010-01-01

350

A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy) per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

Lawlor Peadar G; Lynch P Brendan

2007-01-01

351

A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy) per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter. PMID:21851695

Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan

2007-06-01

352

Factor Prices and Productivity Growth During the British Industrial Revolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents new estimates of total factor productivity growth in Britain for the period 1770–1860. We use the dual technique and argue that the estimates we derive from factor prices are of similar quality to quantity-based calculations. Our results provide further evidence, calculated on th...

Antras, Pol; Voth, Hans-Joachim

353

Epidermal growth factor induces rapid, reversible aggregation of the purified epidermal growth factor receptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor from A-431 cells was purified by affinity chromatography with monoclonal anti-receptor antibodies. The purified radiolabeled receptor was incubated with EGF and then analyzed by gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions. In these gels, the EGF receptor migrates in two forms: a fast-migrating (low) form and an EGF-induced slow-migrating (high) form. On the basis of the various control and calibration experiments described, it is concluded that the low form represents the monomeric 170-kilodalton EGF receptor and the high form represents an EGF receptor dimer. The binding of EGF causes a rapid, temperature-sensitive dimerization of the EGF receptor. Receptor dimerization is fully reversible and involves saturable, noncovalent interactions that are stable at neutral pH and in nonionic detergents. Both the monomeric and dimeric forms of the receptor bind EGF and undergo self-phosphorylation. The dimeric form of the receptor may possess higher ligand binding affinity, and it seems to be phosphorylated earlier than the monomeric form following the addition of EGF and [?-32P]ATP. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that receptor oligomerization is an intrinsic property of the occupied EGF receptor and that it may play a role in the activation of the kinase function and the subsequent transmembrane signaling process.

1987-01-01

354

Growth hormone-releasing factor and fibroblast growth factor regulate somatostatin gene expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A multiple peptide-synthesizing clonal rat cell line was used to study the effect(s) of GRF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the synthesis and secretion of somatostatin (SS). The presence of SS-specific mRNA in 44-2C cells was shown morphologically by in situ hybridization. The release and cellular content of SS increased significantly after treatment with rat hypothalamic GRF (rGRF), the ED50 for rGRF stimulation of intracellular SS was 1.9 X 10(-11) M. GRF stimulated SS production in serum-supplemented and serum-free cultures. Results obtained after incubation of 44-2C cells with 125I-labeled rGRF indicated uptake and nuclear localization of rGRF by 44-2C cells. FGF stimulated the secretion and cellular content of SS. We propose that bFGF regulates the short term secretion and accumulation of SS and mediates rGRF-stimulated SS expression.

Zeytin FN; Rusk SF; De Lellis R

1988-03-01

355

Factors Influencing Mortality in Pediatric Trauma Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to research the factors we thought might be affect mortality in a pediatric age group (0-15 y) with multiple trauma.Materials and Methods: In our study of 1658 pediatric patients suffering from falling events, burns, cutting and perforating instrument injuries, gunshot injuries and vehicle accidents admitted to Dicle University. hospital ED between March 2003 and December 2006 were analyzed and included to the study consecutively. The patients were divided in two groups, the patients who survived were in group 1, and the patients who died were in group 2.Results: Of the 1658 patients, 70.5% (n= 1169) were male, 29.5% (n= 489) were female and 107 patient died (6.46 %). Mean age was 6.75+-0.397 in group 2 (who died) and 7.00+-0.99 in group 1, (survived). Low RTS score (OR (odds ratio)=1.565, CI=1.297-1.889, p<0.05). Falling down from height OR=0.637, CI=0.408- 0.995, p<0.05), postulated admission (OR=2.035 CI=1.267-3.267, p<0.05) and medical treatment (OR=0.451, CI=0.273-0.744, p<0.05) were found to be the effective factors in pediatric patients with multiple trauma.Conclusion: The falling events, abdominal and thoracic trauma with low ?SS, RTS, TR?SS and postulated admission to ED are the factors that affect the mortality in pediatric trauma patients.

Mahmut Ta?; Cahfer Gülo?lu; Murat Orak; Mehmet Üstünda?; Mustafa Aldemir

2012-01-01

356

p8 inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells and its expression is induced through pathways involved in growth inhibition and repressed by factors promoting cell growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background p8 is a stress-induced protein with multiple functions and biochemically related to the architectural factor HMG-I/Y. We analyzed the expression and function of p8 in pancreatic cancer-derived cells. Methods Expression of p8 was silenced in the human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 and BxPc-3 by infection with a retrovirus expressing p8 RNA in the antisense orientation. Cell growth was measured in control and p8-silenced cells. Influence on p8 expression of the induction of intracellular pathways promoting cellular growth or growth arrest was monitored. Results p8-silenced cells grew more rapidly than control cells transfected with the empty retrovirus. Activation of the Ras?Raf?MEK?ERK and JNK intracellular pathways down-regulated p8 expression. In addition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 up-regulates expression of p8. Conversely, p38 or TGF?-1 induced p8 expression whereas the specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 down-regulated p8 expression. Finally, TGF?-1 induction was in part mediated through p38. Conclusions p8 inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. p8 expression is induced through pathways involved in growth inhibition and repressed by factors that promote cell growth. These results suggest that p8 belongs to a pathway regulating the growth of pancreatic cancer cells.

Malicet Cédric; Lesavre Nathalie; Vasseur Sophie; Iovanna Juan L

2003-01-01

357

Factors Influencing Individual Investor Behaviour in Karachi  

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Full Text Available Previous studies have examined motivation from economic perspectives or studied relationships between economic, behavioral, demographic & lifestyle variables but examination of various utility maximization and behavioral variables taken together provides a complete understanding of the investment decision process. This study incorporated this concept by taking 30 variables from diverse decision criteria including contemporary concerns. Results revealed seven homogenous groups among these 30 variables which were grouped into seven factors that address major investor considerations. The findings suggest that individual’s base their stock purchase decisions on wealth-maximization criteria combined with past and present stock performance along with other diverse variables; they do not rely on a single approach.

Sania Usmani

2012-01-01

358

Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma  

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Full Text Available Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-?, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-?, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.

Elias G. Elias; Joanne H. Hasskamp; Bhuvnesh K. Sharma

2010-01-01

359

Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

Millet JP; Moreno A; Fina L; del Baño L; Orcau A; de Olalla PG; Caylà JA

2013-06-01

360

Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

Bbaale, Edward

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS  

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Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI), Industry Production Index (IPI), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and interest rates (IR) on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS) and Corporate Bonds (CBs) for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

Norliza Ahmad; Joriah Muhammad; Tajul Ariffin Masron

2009-01-01

362

A descriptive analysis of factors influencing physician assistant specialty selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study assessed factors impacting practice selection among primary care and specialty physician assistants (PAs). Certified PAs randomized by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA) (30,000) were surveyed, with 2,020 responses (RR = 6.7%). Results showed that factors influencing primary care and specialty selection differ. Increasing reimbursements may not increase selection of primary care by PAs.

Halasy MP; Leafman J; Mathieson K; Bowman R; Cannon J

2012-07-01

363

Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

2005-01-01

364

?????????????????? Factors influencing success and failure of confessing one'slove  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Love is a high interest issue for university studenls, and confessing one's love is an important trigger to start a love relationship. The purpose of this study was to find the factors influencings success and failure of confessing ones'love. As in the preceding study, factors used were the time nee...

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365

Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-Beta 1 in patients with fasciocutaneous and muscle flaps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiogenesis involves multiple sequential mechanisms stimulating the growth of host endothelium. It occurs in surgical flaps at the interface with the reconstructed wound bed. In this study, concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta ) were analyzed in sera and wound fluids of 30 patients who underwent surgical treatment with muscle (n = 15) and fasciocutaneous flaps (n = 15). At 12 hours after operation, bFGF levels in wound fluids of patients with muscle flaps were significantly (p bradytrophic tissue. PMID:12496566

Pallua, Norbert; Ulrich, Dietmar

2003-01-01

366

Factors influencing whether children walk to school.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

2013-04-17

367

Factors influencing nursing in Macaca fascicularis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nursing by two mother-infant pairs in a caged colony of Macaca fascicularis was monitored at 1-min intervals for 8 h beginning 8:30 a.m. BST, once a week for 3 months in the summer of 1973. Nursing occupied about 210 min in 8 daylight hours for the infants at 10 weeks of age, and the time spent nursing decreased at the average rate of 9.4 min per week until the infants were about 6 months old. The time spent nursing by the infants studied here resembles closely the times spent nursing by some other macaques and by baboons. In the course of a day the amount of time spent nursing varies significantly with a diurnal peak. If nursing by one mother-infant pair is independent of nursing by the other pair, then the time the two pairs spend nursing together would be a function of the product of the frequencies of nursing by each pair. The expected times for the pairs nursing together based on the hypothesis of independent events were significantly less than the observed times the pairs nursed together. Nursing, therefore, involves a positive influence or imitation of one nursing pair by the other. Nursing sessions involving both mother-infant pairs were longer on the average than sessions involving only one pair.

Chance MR; Jones E; Shostak S

1977-01-01

368

Factors influencing whether children walk to school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children.

Su JG; Jerrett M; McConnell R; Berhane K; Dunton G; Shankardass K; Reynolds K; Chang R; Wolch J

2013-07-01

369

NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE  

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Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

Joseph Baker; Sean Horton; Jennifer Robertson-Wilson; Michael Wall

2003-01-01

370

Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research.

1991-01-01

371

Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl/sub 2/ or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 ..mu..g, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r/sup 2/ = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 ..mu..g Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 ..mu..g Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl/sub 2/ except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in /sup 65/Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability.

Mahalko, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

1986-03-05

372

Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Tunisia  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly that use of internet banking in Tunisia is influenced moststrongly by convenience, risk, security and prior internet knowledge. Only information on online banking did notaffect intention to use internet banking service in Tunisia. The results also propose that demographic factorsimpact significantly internet banking behaviour, specifically, occupation and instruction. Finally, this papersuggests that an understanding the factors affecting intention to use internet banking is very important to thepractitioners who plan and promote new forms of banking in the current competitive market.

Wadie Nasri

2011-01-01

373

Immunohistochemical detection of insulin-like growth factor-I, transforming growth factor-beta2, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor-receptor expression in developing rat ovary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) in developing rat ovaries. Eighteen female Wistar rats were enrolled in this study; newborn (n=6), one-month-old (n=6) and adult (n=6) rats. Formalin-fixed and parafin-embedded ovarian tissues were stained with antibodies against IGF-I, TGF-beta2, bFGF and EGF-R, immunohistochemically. The ovarian cells were evaluated by semi-quantitative scoring system under light microscope. The staining of IGF-I, TGF-beta2, bFGF and EGF-R were most intense in the oocytes and were heavily at one-month-old rats. A moderate immunostaining in theca cells and corpus luteii reacted with IGF-I in adult rats. Furthermore the staining intensity for IGF-I was moderate in granulosa cells of newborn rat ovaries. We detected also a moderate staining for TGF-beta2 in corpus luteii of adult rats. In addition, we found a bFGF immunostaining mainly in oocytes of follicles of young and adult rats. Immunostaining for EGF-R was moderate in granulosa cells of one-month-old rats. In conclusion, this study suggests that growth factors play a pivotal role in ovarian function, especially in follicular development. The role of growth factor in controlling degeneration or growth (or both) of ovary follicles remain as explained.

Ergin K; Gürsoy E; Ba?imo?lu Koca Y; Ba?alo?lu H; Seyrek K

2008-08-01

374

Immunohistochemical detection of insulin-like growth factor-I, transforming growth factor-beta2, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor-receptor expression in developing rat ovary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) in developing rat ovaries. Eighteen female Wistar rats were enrolled in this study; newborn (n=6), one-month-old (n=6) and adult (n=6) rats. Formalin-fixed and parafin-embedded ovarian tissues were stained with antibodies against IGF-I, TGF-beta2, bFGF and EGF-R, immunohistochemically. The ovarian cells were evaluated by semi-quantitative scoring system under light microscope. The staining of IGF-I, TGF-beta2, bFGF and EGF-R were most intense in the oocytes and were heavily at one-month-old rats. A moderate immunostaining in theca cells and corpus luteii reacted with IGF-I in adult rats. Furthermore the staining intensity for IGF-I was moderate in granulosa cells of newborn rat ovaries. We detected also a moderate staining for TGF-beta2 in corpus luteii of adult rats. In addition, we found a bFGF immunostaining mainly in oocytes of follicles of young and adult rats. Immunostaining for EGF-R was moderate in granulosa cells of one-month-old rats. In conclusion, this study suggests that growth factors play a pivotal role in ovarian function, especially in follicular development. The role of growth factor in controlling degeneration or growth (or both) of ovary follicles remain as explained. PMID:18586513

Ergin, K; Gürsoy, E; Ba?imo?lu Koca, Yücel; Ba?alo?lu, H; Seyrek, K

2008-06-30

375

Prenatal growth and early postnatal influences on adult motor cortical excitability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Suboptimal prenatal growth may adversely influence motor neurophysiologic development and predispose the individual to greater risk of neurodegenerative disorders in later life. We investigated the influences of prenatal growth and the postnatal environment on motor cortical function in young adults. METHODS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to construct corticospinal stimulus-response curves for 35 young adults (mean age: 28 +/- 0.5 years; 19 males) born >or=37 weeks' gestation. Birth weight centile was calculated relative to maternal size, parity, ethnicity, gender, and gestation. Handgrip strength and dexterity were measured separately. Regression analyses assessed the influence of prenatal (birth weight centile and gestation) and postnatal (socioeconomic indices and maternal education) factors on corticospinal parameters, strength, and dexterity scores. RESULTS: Lower birth weight was associated with increased interhemispheric asymmetry in motor threshold and increased cortical stimulus-response curve slope. A shorter gestation predicted a larger area under this curve in the right hand. High motor threshold was predicted by greater environmental adversity in early postnatal life, but not by prenatal factors. Higher birth weight centile and lower motor threshold were associated with greater educational achievement. CONCLUSIONS: Poor in utero growth and mild prematurity are associated with altered corticospinal excitability in adulthood. An early postnatal environment with less early postnatal socioeconomic disadvantage and having a mother with a completed high school education partly ameliorates this. While altered cortical development has some functional consequences already evident in early adulthood, it may have a later, additional adverse impact on aging-related changes in motor function.

Pitcher JB; Robertson AL; Cockington RA; Moore VM

2009-07-01

376

Influence of initial conditions on large scale dynamo growth rate  

CERN Multimedia

To investigate the effect of energy and helicity on the growth of large scale magnetic field, helical kinetic forcing was applied to the magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) system that had a specific distribution of energy and helicity as an initial condition. Simulation results show the saturation of a system is not influenced by the initial conditions, but the growth rate of large scale magnetic field is proportionally dependent on the initial large scale magnetic energy and helicity. Comparison of the profiles of evolving magnetic and kinetic energy implies that the large scale kinetic energy plays a preceding role in the MHD dynamo in the early time regime. Kinetic energy was observed to migrate backward when the external energy flew into the three dimensional MHD system. The data were analyzed and interpreted using the equations from quasi normal approximation and two scale mean field method.

Park, Kiwan

2013-01-01

377

Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-?) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and tumor control.

2009-05-01