Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, ma...
Delemarre-van Waal, H. A.
Graphene forms from a relatively dense, tightly bound C-adatom gas when elemental C is deposited on or segregates to the Ru(0001) surface. Nonlinearity of the graphene growth rate with C-adatom density suggests that growth proceeds by addition of C atom clusters to the graphene edge. The generality of this picture has now been studied by use of low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to observe graphene formation when Ru(0001) and Ir(111) surfaces are exposed to ethylene. The finding that graphene growth velocities and nucleation rates on Ru have precisely the same dependence on adatom concentration as for elemental C deposition implies that hydrocarbon decomposition only affects graphene growth through the rate of adatom formation. For ethylene, that rate decreases with increasing adatom concentration and graphene coverage. Initially, graphene growth on Ir(111) is like that on Ru: the growth velocity is the same nonlinear function of adatom concentration (albeit with much smaller equilibrium adatom concentrations, as we explain with DFT calculations of adatom formation energies). In the later stages of growth, graphene crystals that are rotated relative to the initial nuclei nucleate and grow. The rotated nuclei grow much faster. This difference suggests firstly, that the edge-orientation of the graphene sheets relative to the substrate plays an important role in the growth mechanism, and secondly, that attachment of the clusters to the graphene is the slowest step in rs to the graphene is the slowest step in cluster addition, rather than formation of clusters on the terraces.
This paper focuses on identifying factors influencing the financing decisions of growth-oriented start-ups. A sample of 8 business incubator start-ups has been studied within a qualitative research so as to reach that goal. Their fundraising choices are analyzed using supporting financial and psychological theories. Also, the thesis examines the start-ups’ interaction with a business incubator and investors.It is found that growth oriented start-ups use internal funds in the first instance,...
Korityak, Anton; Fichtel, Tomasz
Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.
Zahra Houshmand Neghabi
Growth responses of the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, were examined in relation to the influence of temperature, body size, season, daylength, light intensity, food ration level and food quality. Sucker growth was maximum at a temperature range of 19-26C, depending upon ex...
Full Text Available The present data of growth factors, oncogenes, tumor-suppressor-genes and environmental factors can be summarized in thus: thyrotropin, growth factors and other hormones do increase thyrocyte growth and specific mutations of growth factor receptors (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], alpha subunit of hetero-trimeric transducer protein [GSP] cause autonomously functioning thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In the thyroid, as in other organs, genes that are found to be differentially expressed between normal thyroid tissue and thyroid carcinomas can be used as targets for molecular-based diagnosis and therapy. Deregulation of tumor suppressor gene p53, however, parallels dedifferentiation of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer but has been found in few cases only. Iodide inhibiting thyrocyte growth will have to be investigated more intensively after sodium-iodide-symporter (NIS has been cloned, and studies may now be available that could lead to form of conservative treatment in especially dedifferentiated thyroid cancer.
Paunovi? Ivan R.
Humoral regulation of somatic and hematopoietic cell growth has been intensely investigated during the past decade. Growth hormone is unique because it regulates the size of the person within the constraints of the genetic program. The somatomedins and insulin growth factors are low molecular weight polypeptides believed to mediate some functions of growth hormone. Epithelial growth factor and nerve growth factor are well-characterized polypeptides that influence the growth and differentiation of epithelial and neural tissues and interact with specific cell surface receptors. The hematopoietins are a family of polypeptide hormones that specifically regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells giving rise to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and B and T lymphocytes. Platelet-derived growth factor modulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro and may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis and myelofibrosis. New knowledge on the biochemistry and physiology of growth factors will probably have a substantial impact on our understanding of human diseases involving abnormal cell growth.
Golde, D.W.; Herschman, H.R.; Lusis, A.J.; Groopman, J.E.
Analysis of gene expression of cancer cell lines exposed to erlotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), showed a marked increase in EGFR mRNA in resistant cell lines but not in susceptible ones. Because cetuximab induces EGFR down-regulation, we explored the hypothesis that treatment with cetuximab would interfere with erlotinib-induced EGFR up-regulation and result in antitumor effects. Exposure of the resistant biliary tract cancer cell line HuCCT1 but not the susceptible A431 epidermoid cell line to erlotinib induced EGFR mRNA and protein expression. Combined treatment with cetuximab blunted the erlotinib-induced EGFR up-regulation and resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the HuCCT1 cells. Blockage of erlotinib-induced EGFR synthesis in HuCCT1 cells by small interfering RNA resulted in identical antitumor effects as cetuximab, providing mechanistic specificity. In mice xenografted with A431, HuCCT1, and the pancreatic cancer cell line Panc430, maximal growth arrest and decrease in Ki67 proliferation index were documented with combined therapy, and EGFR down-regulation was observed in cetuximab-treated tumors. These results may indicate that resistance to EGFR kinase inhibition may be, at least in part, mediated by a highly dynamic feedback loop consisting of up-regulation of the EGFR upon exposure to EGFR kinase inhibitors. Abrogation of this response by small interfering RNA-mediated EGFR mRNA down-regulation and/or by cetuximab-mediated protein clearance induced tumor arrest across several cancer models with different EGFR expression levels, suggesting that resistance and sensitivity are dynamic events where proportional decrease in the target rather than absolute content dictates outcome. PMID:15833824
Jimeno, Antonio; Rubio-Viqueira, Belen; Amador, Maria L; Oppenheimer, Darin; Bouraoud, Nadia; Kulesza, Peter; Sebastiani, Valeria; Maitra, Anirban; Hidalgo, Manuel
Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871) and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812). A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614) were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.
Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela
Catering industry in China is a traditional and generally upward industry; most restaurants are small entrepreneurial restaurants, and growth is a trend. Consequently, there is a need to research the factors of owners influencing the growth decisions, and this thesis will focus on the internal factors of small entrepreneurial restaurant owners. The research method was interviews, five interviewees were chosen as samples, and the whole process was recorded by camera. D. J. Storey. Factors Infl...
Full Text Available The indicator of urban success is the success of its urban services. Although much research on services have been made, there is major gap with regard to the regional services, especially on urban services within a country. As for urban ser-vices, there are few research on factors influencing urban services and its effect on regional growth. In reaction to this, the government intend to accelerate the development of urban services and regional economy in the present Twelfth Five-Year Plan 2011-2015.Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence urban servic-es growth from demand , supply, institutional environment and spatial agglomeration side. By using cross-section mul-tiple regression analysis, the study examine the factors influencing urban services growth in China .The model indicated that except for urbanization, division of labor , other independent variables have contributed positively towards urban services growth in China.
ABDUL Razak bin Chik
Full Text Available The article investigates the influence of individual factors particular scientific and technological activities on the economic growth of regions of Ukraine. Analyzed their dynamics in quantitative and value terms. On the basis of cluster analysis identified regions of the leaders, implemented changes to the forecast of the gross regional product using the dynamic model.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????-??????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ???????? ???????. ????????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????-??????, ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????.
Tischenko Aleksandr N.
Full Text Available This study examined the influence of individual factors (demographic variables, self-efficacy beliefs and personal growth initiative on career growth prospects within the context of radical organizational changes such as downsizing, mergers and acquisition. Data were collected using the questionnaire method from 199 employees in branches of a commercial bank located in a major city in South-Western Nigeria. Results of the simple multiple regression analysis showed that educational attainment (? = -.15, p < .05, tenure in the banking sector (? = -.41, p < .01, basic monthly income (? = .46, p < .001 and job status (? = .34, p < .01 are significant demographic factors in career growth prospects. The analysis of covariance which controlled for covariates revealed significant differences in the career growth prospects of employees with low levels of self-efficacy and those with high levels – in favor of the latter. In contrast, high or low levels of personal growth initiative resulted in comparable levels of career growth prospects. Self-efficacy beliefs and personal growth initiative interacted significantly to affect career growth prospect such that greater levels of career growth prospect was expressed irrespective of whether an employee is high or low on personal growth initiative when self-efficacy belief is high. Implications of findings are discussed.
David E. Okurame
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine, how some physical factors and inoculation techniques affect the growth and sporulation of three insecticidal fungal strains, Hirsutella tompsonii, Paecilomyces sp., and Pandora sp. Although the methods of inoculation, as well as such physical parameters as temperature, the osmotic value of the habitat and UV radiation, exerted an influence on the above-mentioned features of the fungi, their contribution varied from one strain to another. Some of the effects, however (e.g., the production of filamentous structures by Pandora, or the lethal action of glycerol on Pandora, require a close examination.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been employed to treat sports injuries to possibly accelerate healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential, especially for athletes. Growth factors are generally prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency with exception to PRP which may induce adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate any systemic increase of growth factors such as Insulin Like Growth Factor-1, Endothelial Growth Factors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factors, Fibroblast Growth Factors, Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor and Transforming Growth Factors after local intramuscular administration of PRP in young, healthy male subjects keeping in mind adverse treatment effects. Enriched plasma from centrifuged blood samples was injected into the gluteus muscle. Venous blood was collected and serum prepared before as well as 0.5, 3 and 24 hours after PRP administration. Growth factors were analyzed using ELISA test kits. No significant systemic increase of growth factor levels was found after PRP injection except TGF-?2. For that reason the PRP method may be applied for muscle injury treatment in elite athletes although further studies are necessary to clarify the response to the unspecific increased TGF-?2 blood levels, which could increase the risk for local fibrosis. Key pointsMuscle injuryAutologous conditioned plasmaSystemic circulating growth factorsDoping. PMID:24149367
Schippinger, Gert; Fankhauser, Florian; Oettl, Karl; Spirk, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter
Full Text Available This study was exploring on the growth status of micro and small enterprises owned by women in Kitale municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Rift valley province in Kenya and the factors that influenced the growth. The dependent variable in the study was growth, while the independent variables were education, social, cultural, environmental condition, skills, technology and financial capacity. A total of 70 respondents were interviewed using an interview guide instrument carefully developed with structured and unstructured questions. The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing the growth of women entrepreneurship in Kitale and specifically to determine, the women’s level of education, skills and technology they employ, the social/cultural environmental conditions within which they operate and their financial capacity. The 70 respondents represented the target population which was within Kitale Municipality, selected by stratified random sampling procedures. Details in this project include the introduction, problem statement, the purpose, main and specific objectives of the study, research questions and the scope. A discussion of the available literature on women owned micro and small enterprises, included the enterprises’ start- up, undertakings and growth, the missing middle, the social, cultural and environmental conditions , the entrepreneur’s education level, skills technology and financing they access. The interventional efforts and growth models were also discussed. The literature review wound up with a critique, a conclusion and the missing gap. The methodology used in conducting the study was explained in details that included descriptive research design, the population, target population, sample size, sampling technique and procedure, the instruments, data collection procedure, processing and analysis. A questionnaire was administered orally to 70 women in MSE within the municipality in order to gather data. The research findings analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences(SPSS, were discussed using a triangulation style along with tables and figures the major factors affecting growth were found to be lack of training, finance, and multiple roles. The rate of growth was found to be between low and moderate. The whole research process was summarized concisely, concluded and relevant recommendations outlined. This study has made some contribution to research and added to knowledge in the existing literature all of which have been pinpointed in the summary and conclusion. The appendix included the research instrument, some tables, figures, introduction letters, a budget and a work plan. The research findings have helped unravel the problem by answering the research questions outlined and may therefore significantly play the role of assisting the stakeholders in addressing the problem of women in the MSE sector. The stakeholders include the government organs, NGOs, financial institutions, women proponents, the women entrepreneur’s, professionals and the society at large. It is hoped that the recommendation made shall be adopted by the concerned party to improve the growth of women owned MSEs in Kitale municipality and the nation at large.
Ruth Niva Ongachi
Recent studies suggest that the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. However, only a few studies have investigated serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression, or the possible association between genetic variants within the VEGF gene and depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression vs. control individuals, and associations between genetic markers located within VEGF and depression. In addition, determinants of the serum VEGF levels were identified. One-hundred and fifty-five depressed subjects and 280 controls were included in the study. All individuals returned a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms were successfully analysed. VEGF levels were measured in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The genetic marker rs10434 was significantly associated with depression after correction for multiple testing, but not with the serum VEGF level. Our final model included depression and BMI as predictors of serum VEGF levels. Our study suggests a role for circulating serum VEGF in depression. Furthermore, our data also demonstrate that other factors than a diagnosis of depression influence the serum VEGF level. The importance of these factors should be emphasized when studies are compared.
Elfving, Betina; ButtenschØn, Henriette N
The pathogenic process responsible for the loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) is poorly understood. Current research supports the involvement of fibroblast growth factor (FGF20) in the survival of dopaminergic cells. FGF20 is a neurotrophic factor that is preferentially expressed within the substantia nigra of rat brain. The human homologue has been mapped to 8p21.3-8p22, which is within an area of PD linkage revealed through our published genomic screen. To test whether FGF20 influences risk of PD, we genotyped five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lying within the FGF20 gene, in a large family study. We analyzed our sample (644 families) through use of the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT), the genotype PDT, the multilocus-genotype PDT, and the family-based association test to assess association between risk of PD and alleles, genotypes, multilocus genotypes, and haplotypes. We discovered a highly significant association of PD with one intronic SNP, rs1989754 (P=.0006), and two SNPs, rs1721100 (P=.02) and ss20399075 (P=.0008), located in the 3' regulatory region in our overall sample. Furthermore, we detected a haplotype (A-G-C-C-T) that is positively associated with risk of PD (P=.0003), whereas a second haplotype (A-G-G-G-C) was found to be negatively associated with risk of PD (P=.0009). Our results strongly support FGF20 as a risk factor for PD. PMID:15122513
van der Walt, Joelle M; Noureddine, Maher A; Kittappa, Raja; Hauser, Michael A; Scott, William K; McKay, Ron; Zhang, Fengyu; Stajich, Jeffrey M; Fujiwara, Kenichiro; Scott, Burton L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Vance, Jeffery M; Martin, Eden R
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent proangiogenic factor. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene with influence on VEGF expression have been described. In multiple myeloma, VEGF stimulates angiogenesis which is correlated with disease progression and prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the association between genetic variations in the VEGF gene in patients with multiple myeloma and time to treatment failure (TTF) after high-dose melphalan and stem cell support (HDT), overall survival (OS) and efficacy of the anti-angiogenic drug thalidomide. Retrospectively, the SNPs -2,578C>A (rs699947), -460C>T (rs833061), +405G>C (rs2010963) and +936C>T (rs3025039) in the VEGF gene were examined in 348 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma initially treated with HDT, where 176 patients were treated with thalidomide at relapse. None of the examined geno- or haplotypes was associated with differences in TTF after initial therapy or OS. A possible relation between the haplotype -2,578A/-460C/+405G (ACG) and effect of thalidomide was seen. Patients with no copies of the haplotype ACG had a longer time to next treatment than patients with one or two copies of the haplotype ACG, median 13.7 months vs. 9.2 months, p = 0.007. In conclusion, the haplotype ACG in the VEGF gene may influence the efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma. Further analyses are needed to confirm these findings and get insight into the functional effect of these polymorphisms, so in the future we may be able to select multiple myeloma patients who especially will benefit from treatment with thalidomide.
Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting factors were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth factors. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.
Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi
For the development of materials in a fusion reactor environment without a fusion reactor, it is important to understand the generation and accumulation of point defects. This paper discusses five important factors in metals that influence the initial stage of defect clustering under cascade damage conditions. The effect of the PKA energy spectrum on damage evolution was explained from the viewpoint of subcascade formation. Two origins of damage rate dependence of defect cluster formation, direct mutual annihilation of point defects and annihilation of point defects at cascade-induced defect clusters, were mentioned. As the effect of motion of interstitial clusters, an example was given to illustrate the strong correlation between the mobility of interstitial clusters and void growth. Thermal activation processes depend on irradiation temperature. Varying irradiation temperature experiment was evaluated as a technique for investigating the point defect processes during irradiation. Migration of alloying elements during irradiation was reviewed from the standpoint of the interaction of alloying elements with point defects. (author)
Although much effort has been devoted to the delineation of factors involved in the migration of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), the relationship between the chemotactic response and the differentiation status of these cells remains elusive. In the present study, we found that NSCs in varying differentiation states possess different chemotactic responses to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): first, the number of chemotaxing NSCs and the optimal concentrations of VEGF that induced the peak migration vary greatly; second, time-lapse video analysis shows that NSCs at certain differentiation states migrate more efficiently toward VEGF, although the migration speed remains unchanged irrespective of cell states; third, the phosphorylation status of Akt, ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38MAPK is closely related to the differentiation levels of NSCs subjected to VEGF; and, finally, although inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling significantly attenuates VEGF-stimulated transfilter migration of both undifferentiated and differentiating NSCs, NSCs show normal chemotactic response after treatment with inhibitors of SAPK/JNK or p38MAPK. Meanwhile, interference with PI3K/Akt signaling prevents only NSCs of 12 hr differentiation, but not NSCs of 1 day or 3 days differentiation, from migrating in response to VEGF. Moreover, blocking of PI3K/Akt or MAPK signaling impairs the migration efficiency and/or speed, the extent of which depends on the cell differentiation status. Collectively, these results demonstrate that differentiation of NSCs influences their chemotactic responses to VEGF: NSCs in varying differentiation states have different migratory capacities, thereby shedding light on optimization of the therapeutic potential of NSCs to be employed for neural regeneration after injury. PMID:21538456
Liu, Jing; Wei, Youhua; Chen, Yebing; Xu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Huanxiang
Full Text Available The performance of whole building depends on many factors: structure, coating, environment, climate, type of use, service etc. Fungi are essential for the survival of our global ecology but they may pose a significant threat to the health of occupants when they grow in our buildings. The most important factor that affect microbial growth on buildings materials are temperature, moisture and nutrients. The moisture conditions connected with temperature and exposure time are the most important factor for the development of biological problems and damage in buildings. In vitro studies were conducted on the effect of temperature, pH levels and moisture on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum. Maximum growth was observed on pH level 6 and 7 against A. flavus and P. chrysogenum respectively after 12 days. The most suitable temperature for the growth of A. flavus and P. chrysogenum was observed on 25°C and 30°C respectively. The fungus showed maximum growth at 90% relative humidity.
Padma Singh* and Mamta Chauhan
Making the appropriate decision in the face of predation risk dictates the fate of prey, and predation risk is highest at life history boundaries such as settlement. At the end of the larval phase, most coral reef fishes enter patches of reef containing novel predators. Since vision is often obscured in the complex surroundings, chemical information released from damaged conspecific is used to forewarn prey of an active predator. However, larvae enter the reef environment with their own feeding and growth histories, which will influence their motivation to feed and take risks. The present study explored the link between recent growth, feeding history, current performance and behavioural risk taking in newly settling stages of a coral reef damselfish ( Pomacentrus amboinensis). Older and larger juveniles in good body condition had a stronger response to chemical alarm cues of injured conspecifics; these fish spent a longer time in shelter and displayed a more dramatic decrease in foraging behaviour than fish in lower body condition. Feeding experiments supported these findings and emphasized the importance of body condition in affecting risk assessment. Evidently, larval growth history and body condition influences the likelihood of taking risks under the threat of predation immediately after settlement, thereby affecting the probability of survival in P. amboinensis.
Lönnstedt, O. M.; McCormick, M. I.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnostic criteria for growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD in adolescents and young adults are not yet clearly established. We evaluated the factors influencing the GH peak and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF I in order to determine the cut-off limits for the diagnosis of GHD during the transition period. Methods 21 patients treated for GHD due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome at 5.7 ± 4.1 years were reevaluated at 16.0 ± 1.8 years, 0.6 ± 0.6 years after the end of GH treatment. Group 1 had isolated GHD (n = 9 and group 2 had multiple pituitary deficiencies (n = 12, including deficiencies of thyroid stimulating (n = 12, adrenocorticotropin (n = 8 and gonadotropin (n = 9 hormones. Results At diagnosis, group 1 had a greater pituitary height (2.8 ± 1.2 vs 1.6 ± 1.1 mm, P = 0.03 and GH peak (3.8 ± 1.9 vs 1.6 ± 1.5 ng/ml, P At last evaluation, group 1 had greater GH peak (3.9 ± 1.9 vs 0.2 ± 0.4 ng/ml, P = 0.0001 and plasma IGF I (211 ± 88 vs 78 ± 69 ng/ml, P The GH peak decreased between diagnosis and last evaluation only in group 2 (P Conclusion The GH peak response to pharmacological stimulation and the plasma IGF I concentration in young adults with GHD of childhood onset depend on the presence of additional pituitary deficiencies, reflecting a more severe defect of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The sex steroids cannot increase the IGF I if the GH secretion is zero.
In the absence of proteinase formation, factors reported to influence the growth or fermentation by streptococci have been evaluated to determine their quantitative effect upon the production of M protein during the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes. Buffers, amino acids, peptides, gross organic additions, and carbohydrate substrates were tested under a variety of cultural conditions. The M protein content was remarkably constant throughout the late logarithmic period of growth, i.e., when the cell population doubled, the M protein doubled. However, several factors affected the M protein content per milligram of cells (dry weight). When types 1, 12, and 22 were grown aerobically in a semidefined medium, the M protein content of the cell population essentially doubled; in Todd-Hewitt broth, this aerobic effect on M protein synthesis was not observed. When cells grown on Todd-Hewitt broth were transferred to medium containing 0.1% starch and no added glucose, the M protein content per milligram of cells (dry weight) increased as much as fourfold. When growth was initiated in glucose, the rate of M protein formation was at a maximum in the early logarithmic phase of growth and was comparatively greater than the rate of cellular multiplication. When the amount of substrate fermented was greater than 0.2%, increased M protein was not observed. An evaluation of the effects of medium or conditions of growth showed the units of M per milligram of cells (dry weight) were not influenced by a shift in the stoichiometry of either the anaerobic or aerobic fermentation, substrate used, or adenosine triphosphate utilized for growth. These results show that M protein synthesis is subject to limited glucose repression or substrate catabolite repression. PMID:4564878
Pine, L; Reeves, M W
Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of Feixian Formula, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treating pulmonary fibrosis, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and its influence on serum transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF.Methods: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were infused with bleomycin (1 mg/kg through tracheal intubation to induce pulmonary fibrosis, and they were randomly divided into untreated group (n=24, prednisone-treated group (n=24 and Feixian Formula-treated group (n=24. Fifteen male Wistar rats of the sham-operated group were infused with equivalent normal saline. Twenty-four hours after operation, prednisone (5 mg/kg and Feixian Formula (1.25 g/kg were given to the prednisone-treated group and Feixian Formula-treated group respectively by intragastric administration once a day. Equivalent saline was administered to rats of the untreated group and sham-operated group. On the 14th, 28th and 45th day, 5 rats in the sham-operated group and 8 rats in each of the other three groups were dissected to observe pathologic changes of the lung tissues, and the levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: At the 45th day, the degree of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was lesser in rats of the Feixian Formula-treated group as compared with those of the untreated group and prednisone-treated group. The levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were increased, and were significantly higher than those of the sham-operated group, especially on the 45th day (P0.05, and there was no significant difference between the prednisone-treated group and the Feixian Formula-treated group (P>0.05. PDGF in the Feixian Formula-treated group reached the highest level on the 14th day, significantly higher than those of the other three groups (P<0.01. Then it decreased, and was close to that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P=0.792. The levels of PDGF in untreated group and prednisone-treated group were increased depending on time, and were obviously higher than that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P<0.01. Conclusion: Feixian Formula can relieve bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and the mechanism of its action may be related to down-regulating serum PDGF.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Live weight data from 590 Murrah buffalo calves (140 male and 450 female calves) maintained at the Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India, born in the period between 1990 and 2004 were used for this study. Data were analysed using least-squares procedures. The adjusted birth weigh [...] ts of male and female calves were 33.0 ± 0.49 and 31.9 ± 0.27 kg, respectively, with an overall value of 32.4 ± 0.30 kg. The mean body weight at three, six, nine and 12 months of age pooled over periods, season and sex were 62.0 ± 0.65, 87.9 ± 0.95, 112.4 ± 1.23 and 134.16 ± 1.41 kg, respectively. Period of calving influenced the weight significantly at birth, three and six months of ages only. The effect of dam parity on body weight at different ages was highly significant. The calves born during the dam's second parity were generally heavier than those born in other parities. Generally, males had a higher body weight than females at all age groups. All the growth traits showed medium heritability (direct) estimates, which ranged between 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.22 ± 0.16. The genetic correlations were all medium to high and positive. The genetic parameter estimates indicated that the six months weight can be used as a selection tool for genetic improvement of growth traits considering its high heritability and positive genetic correlations with succeeding growth traits.
A.K., Thiruvenkadan; S., Panneerselvam; R., Rajendran.
Measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations remains the single most important tool in the evaluation of growth hormone (GH) replacement in GH-deficient adults, and the therapeutic goal is to maintain the level within the age-adjusted normal range. In healthy adults, IGF-I levels do not differ between males and females, whereas spontaneous GH secretion is approximately twofold higher in females. Untreated GH-deficient women exhibit lower IGF-I levels compared with men, and the increase in serum IGF-I during GH replacement is also significantly less. Put together, these data suggest resistance to GH in women, which in healthy individuals is compensated for by increased GH secretion. Administration of oral oestrogen in healthy post-menopausal women suppresses hepatic IGF-I production and increases pituitary GH release, and oral oestrogen replacement in women with GH deficiency lowers IGF-I concentrations and increases the amount of GH necessary to obtain IGF-I target levels during treatment. These data clearly suggest that hepatic suppression of IGF-I production by oestrogen subserves the gender difference in GH sensitivity, but it is also likely that sex steroids may interact with the GH/IGF axis at further levels. There is also circumstantial evidence to indicate that testosterone stimulates IGF-I production, and it is speculated that a certain threshold level of androgens is essential to ensure hepatic IGF-I production. Whether these data should translate into earlier discontinuation of oestrogen replacement therapy in adult women with hypopituitarism merits consideration.
JØrgensen, Jens O L; Christensen, Jens Juul
The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.? PMID:25223306
Iacob, Roxana E; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E; Doyle, Michael L; Tymiak, Adrienne A; Engen, John R
Full Text Available In this paper, numerical simulations of an orographically induced wave cloud sampled in-situ during the ICE-L (Ice in Clouds Experiment - Layer clouds field campaign are performed and compared directly against the available observations along various straight and level flight paths. The simulations are based on a detailed mixed-phase bin microphysics model embedded within a 1-D column framework with the latest parameterizations for heterogeneous ice nucleation and an adaptive treatment of ice crystal growth based on the evolution of crystal habit. The study focuses on the second of two clouds sampled on 16th November 2007, the in-situ data from which exhibits some interesting and more complex microphysics than other flights from the campaign. The model is used to demonstrate the importance of both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation in explaining the in-situ observations of ice crystal concentration and habit, and how the ability to isolate the influence of both nucleation mechanisms helps when quantifying active IN concentrations. The aspect ratio and density of the simulated ice crystals is shown to evolve in a manner consistent with the in-situ observations along the flight track, particularly during the transition from the mixed-phase region of the cloud to the ice tail dominated by homogeneous nucleation. Some additional model runs are also performed to explore how changes in IN concentration and the value of the deposition coefficient for ice affect the competition between heterogeneous and homogeneous ice formation in the wave cloud, where the Factorial Method is used to isolate and quantify the effect of such non-linear interactions. The findings from this analysis show that the effect on homogeneous freezing rates is small, suggesting that any competition between the microphysical variables is largely overshadowed by the strong dynamical forcing of the cloud in the early stages of ice formation.
Fatigue crack propagation has been studied in A533B plate exposed to simulated PWR primary coolant environment, as part of a U.K. collaborative programme. Compact tension specimens 25 mm or 50 mm thick were fatigued in a non-refreshed autoclave over the temperature range 130 to 290 C and frequency range 0.1 to 0.00167 Hz. A wide range of ?K values were studied using stepped loading techniques on steels with nominal sulphur contents in the range 0.006 to 0.019%. MnS inclusion distributions were characterized by sulphur printing. It was found that a threshold stress intensity amplitude (?Ksub(ThEAC)), needed to be exceeded to trigger sustained environmentally assisted fatigue crack growth rates in PWR primary coolant environments. Below ?Ksub(ThEAC), crack growth was found to be transgranular with ductile striations and secondary cracking giving rates per cycle similar to those observed in air. Above ?Ksub(ThEAC) the cracking remained transgranular, but the fracture morphology changed to facets with some branching and crack growth rates became independent of ?K. Factors found to influence ?Ksub(ThEAC) and subsequent plateau crack growth rates were fatigue cycle frequency, water chemistry and flow rate, temperature and the size and distribution of MnS inclusions in the steel. (author)
Whilst the content of epidermal growth factor in the submandibular salivary glands has been considered to be controlled primarily by the hormonal secretions of the testes, our previous studies indicated that the adrenal glands also affect the cellular content of epidermal growth factor in these glands. In the present study, the influence of the thyroid gland was investigated. One hundred and ten males Swiss White mice were subjected to orchidectomy and/or bilateral adrenalectomy, or thyroidec...
Steidler, N. E.; Reade, P. C.
Small interstitial clusters produced by cascade collisions are known to serve as the nucleation sites of dislocation loops. However, their density is quite low compared with the number of large cascades. Factors which suppress the nucleation of interstitial type dislocation loops are explained and their relative importance is discussed. The first is the positional instability of small interstitial clusters. This effect is expected to enhance the dislocation structure development by agglomeration of the embryos, but it is also expected to suppress the formation of loops by easy escape to sinks. The second is the stochastic fluctuation of point defect reactions with embryos. This effect plays an important role when the point defect concentrations of a quasi-steady state are high. The third is the thermal instability of embryos of loops. The fourth is the cascade localization induced bias (CLIB) effect, which leads a vacancy dominant atmosphere in a cascade. At a low temperature at which vacancies are immobile and embryos are thermally stable, only the first factor is effective. At a very high temperatures on the other hand, the third and fourth factors are the main factors. In the intermediate temperature range, four factors are competitive. ((orig.))
The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.
Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)
Full Text Available Different regions of the world have to face distinct processes of economic growth. The measure of growth is divergent; countries carry distinct evolutionary ways into execution. The state of development as the result of the above processes is different, too. What is the reason? It is the question I would like to answer. My further questions are: What is the reason for economic growth? What kind of factors determines the level of development and cause regional differences? I deal with concentration of economical activities, centre-periphery ratio, relationship between economic growth and sustainable development. This article reviews what I realized in the course of my research.
Tissue engineering represents a promising research field, targeting the creation of new functional muscle tissue in vitro. The aim of the present study was to show the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), as enhancing stimuli on human satellite cell cultures, which are preferred sources of stem cells in engineering skeletal muscle tissue. To detect effects on myogenic maturation and proliferation, AlamarBlue® proliferation, assay and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of following markers was performed: desmin (DES), myogenic factor-5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen-1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and ?1 actin (ACTA1). As a distinct marker of differentiation, immunohistochemical staining and fusion index determination was performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with IGF1 and IGF1-plus-SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. Proliferation was increased by additional SMF application to IGF1-stimulated cell cultures on the first day of myogenesis. Relative gene expression of measured markers was increased by IGF1 application in the first days of myogenesis except for ACTA1. Additional SMF application enhanced this effect. Nevertheless we were unable to demonstrate the formation of contractile muscle tissue. Immunhistochemical staining verified muscle origin and all markers were displayed. PMID:25189891
Birk, Richard; Sommer, J Ulrich; Haas, Dominik; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schultz, Johannes D; Hoermann, Karl; Stern-Straeter, Jens
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT in epidermal cells and the influence on basic fibroblasts growth factor(bFGF.Methods The precursor epithelial stem cells(ESCs were derived by in vitro bFGF-induced dedifferentiation of human keratinocytes(HEK cells.The phenotypic changes of derived ESCs were detected by immunocytochemical staining,and the hTERT expression was detected by flow cytometry,immunofluorescence staining and TRAP-silver staining.HEK without bFGF treatment were used as control,and ESCs simultaneously isolated from human epidermis were used as positive control.Results Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression of ?1-integrin,CK19 and CK14 in derived ESCs was significantly up-regulated,while the CK10 expression was significantly down-regulated.Flow cytometry revealed that the percentage of hTERT+ cell subsets in experimental group(derived ESCs,control group and positive control group was 98.41%,0.77% and 99.76%,respectively.TRAP-silver staining analysis indicated that the telomerase activity was significantly up-regulated in experimental group compared with that in control group,while there was no significantly difference between experimental group and positive control group.Furthermore,immunofluorescence assay revealed that there was difference in subcellular localization of hTERT between experimental group(derived ESCs and positive control group(ESCs.Conclusion Basic fibroblast growth factor may induce epidermal cells to dedifferentiate and regain the phenotype of ESCs,which leads to the changes in hTERT expression and activity,and induces its subcellular shift of the locus.
Febrile neutropenia, a common side effect of myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with cancer, can result in prolonged hospitalization and broad-spectrum antibiotic use, often prompting treatment delays or dose reductions of drug regimens. Prophylactic use of myeloid growth factors (mainly the colony-stimulating factors filgrastim and pegfilgrastim) in patients of heightened risk can reduce the severity and duration of febrile neutropenia. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Myeloid Growth Factors provide recommendations on the use of these agents mainly in the oncology setting based on clinical evidence and expert consensus. This version includes revisions surrounding the issue of timing of pegfilgrastim administration. It also includes new sections on tbo-filgrastim, a recently approved agent that is biologically similar to filgrastim, and the role of myeloid growth factors in the hematopoietic cell transplant setting. PMID:24142827
Crawford, Jeffrey; Armitage, James; Balducci, Lodovico; Becker, Pamela Sue; Blayney, Douglas W; Cataland, Spero R; Heaney, Mark L; Hudock, Susan; Kloth, Dwight D; Kuter, David J; Lyman, Gary H; McMahon, Brandon; Rugo, Hope S; Saad, Ayman A; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Shayani, Sepideh; Steensma, David P; Talbott, Mahsa; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Westervelt, Peter; Westmoreland, Michael; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria
Full Text Available Viewed as a phenomenon with multi-factorial determination, the growth and development of the human organism depend equally on the hereditary patrimony and on the environmental conditions, the socio-economic ones, especially. As a critical transition period from childhood to adult age, adolescence is characterized by increased nutritional needs. The main factor responsible for the variations manifested in human physical development is alimentation – a factor correlated with the socio-economic variations. Similarly with the case of other countries affected by transitions, the difficult economic transformations occurring in the Republic of Moldova have been accompanied by the installation of poverty – a phenomenon affecting especially the families formed of more than 5 members. The teen-agers of the Republic of Moldova register a deficit in the consumption of proteins, especially of animal origin, known as playing a critical role in the period of accelerated growing of the organism. Alimentation and family size are closely correlated with the socio-economic status of the family from which the child comes, while the attention and care given to the child by the family plays an essential part in the growth and development of the teen-ager. Child’s development as a function of such an element is directly related to environmental factors, as follows: alimentation is poorer in more numerous families, as the monthly income per member of family is more reduced, which is immediately reflected in a scarce alimentary consumption; hygiene is insufficient; mother’s care for the child is also reduced, etc. The study was performed on 1,525 subjects (boys and girls with ages between 10 and 16 years, all from the city of Kishinev. The main parameters considered were: stature, weight and average puberal age. The results obtained show that family size influences both the average stature of the teenagers and their weight, over the 10-16 years interval, the situation being even more acute in boys than in girls – a phenomenon confirming their meso-sensitivity, especially in the most critical period of growing (adolescence. The teen-agers coming from less numerous families are taller and fatter than the ones belonging to large families. A negative relation could be also established between the sexual maturation of the adolescent girls and the size of their family: the girls from large families show a 4 month retard of the average pubertal age, comparatively with those coming from less numerous families.
BACK GROUND AND PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific pro-angiogenic factor is proposed to be involved in cancer progression and resistance to radiation therapy by promoting angiogenesis and by protecting endothelial cells from radiation induced apoptosis. The aim of this study, was first to assess the influence of ionizing radiation on plasma VEGF concentration in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy with curative or palliative intent and s...
Wergin, Melanie C.; Roos, Malgorzata; Inteeworn, Nathalie; Laluhova?, Dagmar; Allemann, Katrin; Kaser-hotz, Barbara
The growth of cracks from spark machined slits and gouged grooves has been studied in a CDFR specification cast of 316 stainless steel under thermal shock conditions using sodium as the heat transfer medium. Comparative uniaxial creep fatigue tests have also been performed in servohydraulic machines under isothermal conditions. The cycles used for the thermal shock tests consisted of step increases in temperatures of between 75 and 300 C followed by tensile holds at 600 C of duration 0.05 to 24 hours, and finally slow cooling to the initial temperature ready for the next cycle. The results are presented showing the influence on crack growth of strain range, hold time, number of cycles, types of defect and ferrite stringer direction. (author)
A decline in circulating progesterone concentration plays an important role in the ethiopathogenesis of pseudopregnancy in the bitch. Because growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) are essential for normal mammogenesis and the secretion of these hormones is influenced by changes in the circulating progesterone concentration, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mid-luteal phase ovariectomy on the 6-h pulsatile plasma profiles of GH and PRL and the basal plasma...
Lee, M. H.; Kooistra, H. S.; Mol, J. A.; Dieleman, S. J.; Schaefers-okkens, A. C.
Over the past several decades, concerns about climatic change and its potential impacts on Canada’s various geographical regions and associated ecological processes have grown steadily, especially among land and resource managers. As these risks transition into tangible outcomes in the field, it will be important for resource managers to understand historical climatic variability and natural ecological trends in order to effectively respond to a changing climate. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is considered a stable endpoint for mature forests in the northern hardwood community of central Ontario, and it tends to be the dominant species, in a beech-ironwood-yellow birch matrix. In North America, this species is used for both hardwood lumber and for maple sugar (syrup) products; where it dominates, large recreational opportunities also exist. There are many biotic and abiotic factors that play a large role in the growth and productivity of sugar maple stands, such as soil pH, moisture regime, and site slope and aspect. This research undertaking aims to add to the body of literature addressing the following question: how do site factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic change? The overall objective of the research is to evaluate how biotic and abiotic factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple annual radial growth to climatic variability. This research will focus on sugar maple growth and productivity in Algonquin Provincial Park, and the impact that climatic variability has had in the past on these stands based on site-specific characteristics. In order to complete this goal, 20 sites were identified in Algonquin Provincial Park based on variability of known soil and site properties. These sites were visited in order to collect biotic and abiotic site data, and to measure annual radial growth increment of trees. Using regional climate records and standard dendrochronological methods, the collected increment growth data will be used to build site-specific chronologies in order to determine the differences in tree growth response to climatic variability due to differences in soil and site quality. Preliminary results suggest that variability in site-specific abiotic and biotic conditions may strongly influence individual stand growth responses to climatic variability.
Schutten, K.; Gedalof, Z.
This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Biochemistry and Physiology of GH and Growth Factors, Pathology of Acromegaly, Clinical Endocrinology of Acromegaly, Nonsurgical Therapy of Acromegaly, and Surgical Therapy of Acromegaly.
Ludecke, D.K.; Tolis, G.T.
The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta
There is growing interest in the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in various diseases of disordered mineral metabolism. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), where biochemical evidence of mineral disturbances is especially common, FGF23 measurement has been advocated as an early and sensitive marker for CKD-related bone disease. In this setting, FGF23 analysis may also improve the discrimination of risk of adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes and aid targeting of those patients that are likely to benefit from interventions. Nonetheless, while the physiological relevance of FGF23 in the control of mineral metabolism is now firmly established, relatively little attention has been paid to important preanalytical and analytical aspects of FGF23 measurement that may impact on its clinical utility. Here we review these issues and discuss the suitability of FGF23 testing strategies for routine clinical practice. The current 'state-of-the-art' enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods for FGF23 measurement show poor agreement due to differences in FGF23 fragment detection, antibody specificity and calibration. Such analytical variability does not permit direct comparison of FGF23 measurements made with different assays and is likely to at least in part account for some of the inconsistencies noted between observational studies. From a clinical perspective, the lack of concordance has implications for the development of standardized reference intervals and clinical decision limits. Finally, the inherent assay-dependent biological variability of plasma FGF23 concentration can further complicate the interpretation of results and the design of FGF23-based testing protocols. Currently, it would be premature to consider incorporating FGF23 measurements into standard testing repertoires. PMID:24269946
Smith, Edward R; McMahon, Lawrence P; Holt, Stephen G
Recently, a report on a bilateral tympanic membrane (TM) perforation in a patient after long-term treatment with erlotinib was published. The object of this study was to investigate the destructive potential of topical applied epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors on wound healing of experimental TM perforation in rats by evaluating closure rates and histology. In 12 rats, erlotinib (10 mg/ml) was applied to one TM of each animal and cetuximab (5 mg/ml) to the other side daily for 12 consecutive days. Both the erlotinib group (11.8 days) and cetuximab group (9 days) had prolonged healing latencies compared to a reference value (7 days). We observed differences in the histologic parameters between both groups. Our results suggest that in normal TM, the inhibition of EGFR does not lead to a persistent perforation. However, in case of preexisting TM pathology, a spontaneous perforation in patients under long-term treatment of EGFR inhibitors seems to be possible. PMID:20166887
Kaftan, Holger; Reuther, Lars; Miehe, Bärbel; Hosemann, Werner; Herzog, Michael
Effects of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using allografts in a rat sciatic nerve model. Thirty male white Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 10) randomly: normal control group (NC), allograft group (ALLO), and IGF I-treated group (ALLO/IGF). In the NC group, the left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and, after homeostasis, the muscle was sutured. In the ALLO group, the left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and transected proximal to the tibioperoneal bifurcation where a 10-mm segment was excised. The same procedure was performed in the ALLO/IGF group. The harvested nerves of the rats of the ALLO group were served as allograft for the ALLO/IGF group and vice versa. The NC and ALLO groups received 10 ?L of sterile phosphate buffered saline intraperitoneally once a day for 1 week, and the ALLO/IGF group received 10 ?L of IGF I (100 ng/kg per day) intraperitoneally once a day for 1 week. Behavioral testing, sciatic nerve functional study and the gastrocnemius muscle mass showed earlier regeneration of axons in the ALLO/IGF group than in the ALLO group (P < 0.05). Administration of IGF I could accelerate functional recovery after nerve allografting in the sciatic nerve and may have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection. PMID:25006924
Mohammadi, Rahim; Saadati, Abdolrahim
Subcutaneous fat and marbling both increase in beef cattle during the feeding phase but are antagonistic in regard to their contribution to beef carcass value. The objective of this study was to determine whether cellular factors associated with marbling development change with growth stage throughout the feeding period and whether they are correlated to marbling relative to carcass composition. Twenty-four steers of known origin with the cytosine and thymine (CT) leptin genotype were allotted to 3 harvest groups. Six steers per harvest group were harvested at the following predetermined points: 35 d on feed (early feeding period, EF), average live weight of 464 kg (middle feeding period, MF), and 1.17-cm 12th-rib subcutaneous fat thickness (late feeding period, LF). Longissmus muscle samples were collected within 30 min postmortem and snap frozen for real-time PCR and Western blot analysis of lipoprotein lipase, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), PPAR?, C/EBP-?, and myostatin. Carcass data were recorded, and LM samples were collected and aged 2, 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force determination. Carcass composition was estimated by dissection of the 9-10-11 rib section and subsequent proximate analysis of the soft tissue. Intramuscular fat content of the LM increased linearly throughout the feeding period, giving additional support to marbling as an early developing tissue. Expression of AMPK? was found to be downregulated, whereas SCD expression was upregulated in the LF group relative to the first 2 harvest groups. Additionally, SCD and PPAR? were downregulated in the EF group relative to the latter 2 harvest groups. These changes in gene expression resulted in a linear increase in only PPAR? protein abundance, whereas myostatin tended to increase quadratically. A correlation was found between intramuscular fat and PPAR? abundance. This gives further evidence of the importance of adipocyte hyperplasia in increasing marbling. Targeting and increasing PPAR? expression may serve as a mechanism to increase marbling deposition. Last, LF steaks were more tender than MF or EF steaks, indicating improved tenderness with increased days on feed. PMID:25253804
Kern, S A; Pritchard, R H; Blair, A D; Scramlin, S M; Underwood, K R
Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.
In this investigation, we demonstrate that cells from normal and healing rabbit ligaments are selective in their responsiveness to various growth factors. The cells analyzed included fibroblasts isolated from the synovium, the anterior cruciate ligament, and the medial collateral ligament (midsubstance and epiligament). Fibroblasts isolated from scar tissue of medial collateral ligament that had been allowed to heal for 3 weeks also were analyzed. The addition of insulin-like growth factor-2 or transforming growth factor-beta 1 was observed to alter, in a dose-dependent manner, the expression of plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor by connective tissue cells. However, the response to these growth factors was cell specific. Fibroblasts isolated from the midsubstance, epiligament, and scar tissue of the medial collateral ligament were responsive to these growth factors; fibroblasts isolated from the anterior cruciate ligament and synovium did not have a detectable response. The cells from the normal and healing medial collateral ligament responded to both growth factors by increasing plasminogen activator inhibitor activity. This was observed at both the protein and RNA level. In contrast, the addition of insulin-like growth factor-1 or acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor to cells derived from normal or healing ligament did not result in any detectable alteration of plasminogen activator or plasminogen activator inhibitor activity. These results are similar to those observed with an explant system and indicate that cells isolated from ligament tissue maintain their responsiveness to these growth factors in the absence of matrix. As the major effect of insulin-like growth factor-2 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 on the cells tested was to increase plasminogen activator inhibitor activity, such an alteration should diminish the activity of plasminogen activator, an enzyme capable of directly and indirectly proteolyzing matrix molecules, and thus contribute to a more anabolic environment. PMID:7520487
Murphy, P G; Hart, D A
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P?P?=?0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P?=?0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.
Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…
Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee
Zygosity is influenced by many factors. Monozygotic twins occur spontaneously in approximately 1 in 250 births and are felt to increase twofold with ovulation induction techniques. Monozygotic twinning also increases in proportion to the number of blastocysts transferred during in vitro fertilisation. In contrast, dizygotic twinning appears to be influenced by race, genetic factors, maternal age, fertility enhancing drugs, folic acid supplementation, and maternal nutritional status. PMID:15670115
Hankins, Gary V D; Saade, George R
Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth subs...
Paknejad M.; Ranjbar R
The extracellular matrix (ECM) Matrigel™ has frequently and successfully been used to generate new adipose tissue experimentally, but is unsuitable for human application. This study sought to compare the adipogenic potential of a number of alternative, biologically derived or synthetic ECMs with potential for human application, with and without growth factors and a small fat autograft. Eight groups, with six severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice per group, were created with bilateral chambers (silicone tubes) implanted around the epigastric vascular pedicle, with one chamber/animal containing a 5mg fat autograft. Two animal groups were created for each of four ECMs (Matrigel™, Myogel, Cymetra® and PuraMatrix™) which filled the bilateral chambers. One group/ECM had no growth factors added to chambers whilst the other group had growth factors (GFs) (vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plus fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plus platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)) added to both chambers. At 6weeks, chamber tissue was morphometrically assessed for percent and absolute adipose tissue volume. Overall, the triple GF regime significantly increased percent(?) and absolute(#) adipose tissue volume (pCymetra® (human collagen) constructs yielded the largest total tissue and absolute adipose tissue volume. We found that the pro-angiogenic FGF-2, VEGF-A and PDGF-BB combination in ECMs of synthetic and biological origin produced an overall significantly increased adipose tissue volume at 6weeks and may have clinical application, particularly with Cymetra. PMID:24296126
Ting, Adrian C H; Craft, Randall O; Palmer, Jason A; Gerrand, Yi-Wen; Penington, Anthony J; Morrison, Wayne A; Mitchell, Geraldine M
The angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PlGF) are respectively up- and downregulated by hypoxia. We aimed to study circulating levels of the above factors in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to correlate their levels with the customized centiles of the infants. The study included 25 IUGR and 25 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) full-term, singleton infants and their mothers. Maternal (MS), fetal (UC), and ...
Malamitsi-puchner, Ariadne; Boutsikou, Theodora; Economou, Emmanuel; Sarandakou, Angeliki; Makrakis, Evangelos; Hassiakos, Dimitrios; Creatsas, George
A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)
Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih
Although food habits are not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits. PMID:10342497
Koivisto Hursti, U K
Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946
Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad
Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.
Yong Jun Park
Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim
This paper analyzes the impact of changes in the competitive market structure on an industry's total factor productivity (TFP) growth. The impact of horizontal mergers on TFP growth is of particular interest. The number of proposed horizontal mergers amon...
W. D. Giandrea
Objective?To observe the early postnatal long bone development in Fgfr2+/S252W mutant mice and littermate wild-type (WT) mice, and explore the effect of continued function enhancement of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene on endochondral ossification. Methods?A mouse model of Fgfr2+/S252W simulated human Apert syndrome was reproduced by knock-in technique, and then the gain-of-function mutation Fgfr2+/S252W mice and littermate WT mice were obtained after breeding and identif...
Chen, Peng; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lian-yang
The growth rate of matter perturbation and the expansion rate of the Universe can be used to distinguish modified gravity and dark energy models in explaining the cosmic acceleration. The growth rate is parametrized by the growth index $\\gamma$. We discuss the dependence of $\\gamma$ on the matter energy density $\\Omega$ and its current value $\\Omega_0$ for a more accurate approximation of the growth factor. The observational data, including the data of the growth rate, are u...
Full Text Available Objective?To observe the early postnatal long bone development in Fgfr2+/S252W mutant mice and littermate wild-type (WT mice, and explore the effect of continued function enhancement of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 gene on endochondral ossification. Methods?A mouse model of Fgfr2+/S252W simulated human Apert syndrome was reproduced by knock-in technique, and then the gain-of-function mutation Fgfr2+/S252W mice and littermate WT mice were obtained after breeding and identification. Three Fgfr2+/S252W and same number of WT mice were sacrificed at 7, 10, 14 and 28 postnatal days respectively, and the morphology of long bone was examined with X-ray and Micro CT, the structure of bone and cartilage was observed by HE staining, and the expression of gene in growth plate was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results?Fgfr2+/S252W mouse model exhibited typical craniosynostosis and brachycephalium of Apert syndrome, accompanied by short stature, growth retardation of long bone, delayed appearance of secondary ossification center, decrease of bone density and trabecula number. HE staining showed noticeable shortened zones of proliferation and hypertrophic chondrocytes, irregularity of cell arrangement, and small hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the mutant mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of genes related to chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation was decreased in mutant mice. Conclusions?Gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2 may lead to abnormal development of long bone in mice. FGFR2 may have the function of regulating the development both of osteoblast and chondrocyte lineages, and play an important role in the process of skeletal development.
Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.
Student Claudia MOIS?
Under physiological conditions, cells receive fate-determining signals from their tissue surroundings, primarily in the form of polypeptide growth factors. Integration of these extracellular signals underlies tissue homeostasis. Although departure from homeostasis and tumor initiation are instigated by oncogenic mutations rather than by growth factors, the latter are the major regulators of all subsequent steps of tumor progression, namely clonal expansion, invasion across tissue barriers, angiogenesis, and colonization of distant niches. Here, we discuss the relevant growth factor families, their roles in tumor biology, as well as the respective downstream signaling pathways. Importantly, cancer-associated activating mutations that impinge on these pathways often relieve, in part, the reliance of tumors on growth factors. On the other hand, growth factors are frequently involved in evolvement of resistance to therapeutic regimens, which extends the roles for polypeptide factors to very late phases of tumor progression and offers opportunities for cancer therapy.
Esther Witsch (Weizmann Institute of Science); Michael Sela (Weizmann Institute of Science); Yosef Yarden (The Weizmann Institute of Science)
Full Text Available Purpose to research the therapeutic affect of the allograft of Bones Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs on the acute injury of the spinal nerve of the rat. Method: Take 1 Westar healthy rat, collect the bone marrow, adopt the adherence method to separate BMSCs and culture and mark them, cultivate the BMSCs culture solution with the cell population of about 5H104 ?L-1 for transplantation. Establish 40 westar rat models with the acute injury of the spinal cord, which shall be divided as the transplantation group and the control group, 20 pieces for each group. After a week of injury, inject BMSCs slowly to the injury center of the rat's spinal cord, inject the physiological saline to the control group and observe and inspect the rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function and the protein expression of the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF of the rats of two groups. Result: The rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function of the transplantation group is obvious better than that of the control group after 3-8 weeks of injury and the difference is of significance (p<0.05. Kill two groups of rats after 8 weeks and it is found that the transplantation group is obviously higher than the control group through inspection of the protein expression of NGF and BDNF. The difference is of significance (p<0.05. Conclusion the allograft of BMSCs can remarkably improve the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rats with acute injury of the spinal nerve, which is possibly related with that the transplantation of BMSCs can promote the regeneration and repair of the rat's spinal nerves. It is proven through the NGF and BDNF protein expression data from the experiment of the transplantation group and the control group that BMSCs transplantation can improve the expression of some NGF of the rats with spinal nerve injury. These nerve factors are beneficial for regeneration, growth and repair of the injured nerve tissue cells, so as to further confirm that the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rat's with acute injury of the spinal nerve thanks to the induced regeneration, growth and repair of the spinal nerve cells by BMSCs transplantation.
During iv infusions of epidermal growth factor into sheep, serum calcium concentrations fell, whereas serum magnesium and serum immunoreactive PTH levels increased. Urinary calcium and magnesium decreased significantly. The role of epidermal growth factor in calcium homeostasis is discussed. PMID:3485046
Moore, G P; Wilkinson, M; Panaretto, B A; Delbridge, L W; Posen, S
Growth factor activity has been identified in the chondrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) fractions of human costal cartilage. There was about five times more growth factor activity in the ECM than was found to be associated with the chondrocytes. The growth factor activity in chondrocytes was found to be associated with chromatin. Both the chromatin-associated growth factor (CAGF) activity and extracellular matrix growth factor (EMGF) activity were characterized for molecular weight, charge, and the effect of reduction by sulfhydryl reducing reagents. Biorex cation exchange chromatography showed that both CAGF and EMGF were cationic. CAGF and EMGF have molecular weights between 15,000 and 18,000 as determined by size exclusion chromatography on HPLC TSK 3000 columns equilibrated with guanidine-HCl and dithiothreitol. PMID:7169497
Bekoff, M C; Klagsbrun, M
Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.
Full Text Available Growth factors play important roles in tissue regeneration. However, because of their instability and diffusible nature, improvements in their performance would be desirable for therapeutic applications. Conferring binding affinities would be one way to improve their applicability. Here we review techniques for conjugating growth factors to polypeptides with particular affinities. Conjugation has been designed at the level of gene fusion and of polypeptide ligation. We summarize and discuss the designs and applications of binding growth factors prepared by such conjugation approaches.
Full Text Available Introduction Growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals with endogenous neuroendocrine responses to the genetic programs that determine the body plan. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are integral components of multiple systems controlling both growth and metabolism. The IGF system The IGF system is thought to be more complex than other endocrine systems, as genes for six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs have been identified so far. The IGFs play a critical role in both cell cycle control and apoptosis, two functions involved in regulation of tumorigenesis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I is essential for normal growth. Confirmation of the significance of IGF-I in human physiology was obtained by the discovery of a patient with intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with a mutation in the IGF-1 gene. Stages of evolution of the somatomedin hypothesis The original somatomedin hypothesis postulated that somatic growth was regulated by growth hormone's (GH's stimulation of hepatic IGF-1 production, with IGF-1 acting in an endocrine fashion to promote growth. The dual effectors theory proposed an alternative view, involving direct effects by GH on peripheral tissues not mediated by IGF-1 and GH-stimulated local IGF-1 production for autocrine/paracrine action. It is now clear that G H stimulates the formation of ternary IGF binding complex, which stabilizes IGF-I in the serum.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the factors that influence the working capital requirements (wcr in canada. a sample of 166 canadian firms listed on toronto stock exchange for a period of 3 years from 2008-2010 was selected. this study applied co-relational and non-experimental research design. overall results indicate that operating cycle (oc, return on assets (roa, internationalization of firm, firm’s growth, and firm size influence the wcr in canada. the study also found that oc, roa, leverage, internationalization of the firm, tobin's q, and firm size influence the working capital requirements in the canadian manufacturing industry. in addition, findings show that oc, roa, sales growth, and firm size affect the wcr in the canadian service industry. this study contributes to the literature on the factors that influence working capital requirements. the findings may be useful for the financial managers, investors, and financial management consultants.
Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub or small tree widespread all over the tropics and subtropics. The use of J. curcas (L) kernel meal in fish feed is limited owing to the presence of toxic and antinutritional constituents. In this study, it was detoxified using heat treatment and organic solvent extraction method. The detoxification process was carried out for 60?min to obtain the detoxified meal. Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings (n?=?180; avg. wt. 3.2?±?0.07?g) were randomly distributed in five treatment groups with four replicates and fed isonitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%) for 8?weeks. The inclusion levels of the detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM) and soybean meal (SBM) were as follows: control diet was prepared with fish meal (FM) and wheat meal, without any DJKM and SBM; diets S(50) and J(50) : 50% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively; diets S(75) and J(75) : 75% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively. Highest body mass gain and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression in brain, liver and muscle were observed for the control group, which were statistically similar to those for J(50) group and significantly (p?0.05) higher than for all other groups, whereas growth hormone gene expression in brain, liver and muscle exhibited opposite trend. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration in plasma did not differ significantly among the five groups. Conclusively, growth performance was in parallel with IGF-1 gene expression and exhibited negative trend with GH gene expression. PMID:22077318
Kumar, V; Khalil, W K B; Weiler, U; Becker, K
Full Text Available The growth of trees sprayed in spring with chlormequat is weaker, and their elongation growth ends 2 - 3 weeks earlier than that of unsprayed trees. Trees with growth inhibited by chlormequat set flower buds on the spurs and in the subapical part of long shoots. The course of flower bud differentiation starts in the second half of July and is similar to that in the apple tree.
The Marchigiana is famous for its large body size and favorable dressing percentage. A myostatin (MSTN) gene mutation (a G to T transversion) was identified in the breed. The homozygote "GG" yields a "normal" phenotype, the homozygote "TT" yields a double muscled body shape but sometimes causes survival problems, and the heterozygote genotype produces an extremely muscled body without defects. In practice, Marchigiana "TT" homozygotes are culled from reproduction, but the heterozygotes are chosen as sires. The objective of this study was to assess genes involved in Marchigiana muscle development to improve selection procedures. The effects of the MSTN and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) genes on the growth and muscle traits in the Marchigiana breed were assessed. The effects of MSTN together with the genotype of the causative mutation (g.874G > T) and the effects of the two SNP in the promoter were studied (g.-371T > A and g.-805G > C). The SNP effects were evaluated in a comparison between the means of the several genotypes or for the average gene substitution and dominance effect. Two hundred forty-nine bullocks were evaluated using a performance test. At the beginning and end of the trial, the animals were weighed and their bodies were measured every 21 d up to 12 mo of age. In addition to these observations, morphological scores and the BLUP indices were estimated at the end of the performance test. The obtained results suggested that the MSTN g.874G > T and MYF5 SNP could be considered in the selection program of the Marchigiana breed. A MSTN g.874G > T genotyping service for the breeders could help to avoid the "TT" genotype and to select for the "GT" genotype. The "AA" MYF5 SNP genotype could also be selected for even if good muscle development yields a certain size reduction. PMID:25023801
Sarti, F M; Lasagna, E; Ceccobelli, S; Di Lorenzo, P; Filippini, F; Sbarra, F; Giontella, A; Pieramati, C; Panella, F
Full Text Available Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and management practices; in 2013, they were re-analyzed to investigate the factors that contributed to continued growth for certain companies. Contributions: Through diverse statistical techniques, business policies related to quality, innovation, internationalization and finance were shown to influence business growth and sustainability over time. Limitations of the Research: This study focuses on industrial businesses at least ten years old in Catalonia; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations and economic sectors, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical Implications: Because growth is a measure of business success, identifying variables that contribute to high growth and its sustainability is helpful for businesses that seek to adopt effective policies. Social Implications: Generating employment is one of the primary contributions by high-growth businesses. For years with high unemployment, authorities may be interested in corporate policies that strengthen high-growth businesses. Originality/Added Value: High-growth businesses have been studied throughout the world, but this is the first study to investigate the evolution of businesses after a high-growth phase.
María José García
The growth rate of matter perturbation and the expansion rate of the Universe can be used to distinguish modified gravity and dark energy models in explaining cosmic acceleration. We explore here the inclusion of spatial curvature into the growth factor. We expand previous results using the approximation ?m? and then suggest a new form, fa=?m?+(?-4/7)?k, as an approximation for the growth factor when the curvature ?k is not negligible, and where the growth index ? is usually model dependent. The expression recovers the standard results for the curved and flat ?CDM and Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Using the best fit values of ?m0 and ?k0 to the expansion/distance measurements from Type Ia SNe, baryon acoustic oscillation, WMAP5, and H(z) data, we fit the growth index parameter to current growth factor data and obtain ??(?k?0)=0.65-0.15+0.17 and ?DGP(?k?0)=0.53-0.12+0.14. For the ?CDM model, the 1-? observational bounds are found consistent with theoretical value, unlike the case for the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. We also find that the current data we used is not enough to put significant constraints when the 3 parameters in fa are fit simultaneously. Importantly, we find that, in the presence of curvature, the analytical expression proposed for fssion proposed for fa provides a better fit to the growth factor than other forms and should be useful for future high precision missions and studies.
The communication of somatic cells and oocytes by intrafollicular paracrine factors is essential for follicular growth in the ovary. Insulin-like 3 (INSL3) is a theca cell-secreted paracrine factor. Androgens and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), an oocyte-derived growth factor, are essential for follicular development. Using a rat preantral follicle culture model, we examined in the present study the influence of INSL3 on preantral follicular growth and the molecular mechanisms involved. We have observed that the receptor for INSL3, relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), was exclusively expressed in oocytes. Recombinant INSL3 stimulated Gdf9 expression, preantral follicular growth, and testosterone synthesis in vitro. Inhibition of the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway (with cAMP antagonist, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer) attenuated INSL3-induced Gdf9 expression and preantral follicular growth. Moreover, knocking down Gdf9 expression (with small interfering RNA) or inhibiting GDF9 signaling (with SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase receptor 5 inhibitor, or specific inhibitor of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3) or androgen action (with flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist) suppressed INSL3-induced preantral follicular growth. In addition, LH and DHT regulated the expression of Insl3 mRNA in preantral follicles. These observations suggest that INSL3 is a key theca cell-derived growth factor for preantral follicle and that its action is mediated by GDF9. PMID:24169563
Xue, Kai; Kim, Ji Young; Liu, Jia-yin; Tsang, Benjamin K
Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political a...
Anna-Maija Pietilä; Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen; Päivi Kankkunen; Merja Nikkonen
Tumour growth is angiogenesis dependent. Some authors suggest a prognostic role of microvessel count in colorectal cancer. We tested the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the switch to the angiogenic phenotype in 35 patients with colorectal cancer at different stages of disease. We evaluated the two angiogenic factors, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in tumour, peritumoral mucosa, pathological mesenteric and peripheral...
Landriscina, M.; Cassano, A.; Ratto, C.; Longo, R.; Ippoliti, M.; Palazzotti, B.; Crucitti, F.; Barone, C.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of serum derived from rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints on the expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling substances phospholipase C?-1 (PLC?-1, protein kinase C (PKC and c-myc in gastric mucosal cells.Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into normal group, stomach meridian group, gallbladder meridian group, stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group. Water-immersion and restrained stress methods were adopted for inducing gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Gastric mucosal cells were separated by using pronase digestion method, and incubated by PD153035, a EGFR inhibitor, and 100 ml/L serum. The expression of PLC?-1 in the gastric mucosal cells was tested by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA, while the expression of PKC by isotope incorporate assay and the expression of c-myc by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR.Results: In gastric mucosal cells, weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the normal group, and relatively strong expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group, among which, the expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc in the stomach meridian group were the strongest, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the gallbladder meridian group (P?0.01. Relative weak expressions of PLC?-1, PKC and c-myc were seen in the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group and the gallbladder meridian plus PD153035 group, and there was a significant difference between the stomach meridian group and the stomach meridian plus PD153035 group (P?0.01.Conclusions: The serum derived from the rats treated with electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints can activate the EGFR singling pathway, and this provides an evidence for the theory of "relative particularity between meridians and viscera" in traditional Chinese medicine.
Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGNand mature(CD83 dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb. Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.
Luciana Cavalheiro Marti
Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…
Villella, Edward F.
Background and aim: Significant bone loss develops in the first months and continues years after spinal cord injury. A cross – sectional comparative study was performed to evaluate factors influencing bone loss in spinal cord injured men with paraplegia.
Dionyssiotis, Y.; Lyritis, G. P.; Mavrogenis, A. F.; Papagelopoulos, P. J.
Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.
The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…
Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur
Severe infections and rejections are the most frequent complications following liver transplantation. Transforming Growth Factor-ß (TGF-ß) has a complex array of functionalities in the proliferation, differentiation and growth of almost all human cells, as well as an established effect in the immune response. In order to assess the significance of TGF-ß as a potential diagnostic parameter following liver transplantation we studied the TGF-ß serum levels as well...
The four main approaches to the measurement of total factor productivity (TFP)-growth and its decomposition are (i) Solow's residual analysis, (ii) the Index Number Approach, (iii) Input-Output Analysis (IO), and (iv) Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).The corresponding measures of TFP growth are based on different assumptions, which we expose and interrelate.The Solow Residual serves as the benchmark for our comparisons.The interrelationships between the alternative measures permit an interpret...
Raa, T. Ten; Shestalova, V.
HGF--hepatocyte growth factor--belongs to the growth factors family, derivatives of plasminogen. Authors in this study discuss HGF and its receptor structure, physicochemical properties, release of HGF and its action on cellular level, describe also methods of HGF detection. HGF is a potent mitogen for hepatocytes, plays an important role in liver regeneration after inflammation and partial hepatectomy. Elevated levels of serum HGF were detected in liver diseases with co-existing nephromegaly. HGF has also renotropic properties. A role of HGF in kidney development in physiology and pathology conditions, HGF action in acute renal failure, in chronic renal failure and after kidney transplantation was discussed. According to current literature, HGF importance in glomerulonephritis was described. Elevated concentration of this growth factor correlates with kidney destruction and could be connected with glomerulopathy exacerbation. HGF also plays a role in vascular endothelium defence and regeneration. The importance of HGF in arterial hypertension pathomechanism was underlined. PMID:11398603
Szprynger, K; Szczepa?ska, M; Dyduch, A
Many reports have shown that tongue striated muscles have several unique characteristics not found in other skeletal muscles such as limb and trunk. Several peptide growth factors are reported to play important roles in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, the roles of insulin-like growth factors (IGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha in mouse tongue myogenesis were studied using an organ culture system of the mandible or tongue obtained from mouse embryos. It was found that IGF-I promotes the differentiation of tongue myoblasts. HGF plays an essential role in the migration and proliferation of tongue myogenic cells, and inhibits the differentiation of tongue myoblasts. TGF-alpha does not play an essential role in the proliferation of tongue myogenic cells, but does promote the early differentiation of tongue myoblasts. The role of IGF-I in the differentiation of tongue myoblasts, and that of HGF in the migration, proliferation and differentiation of tongue myogenic cells appear to be almost identical to their roles in the myogenesis of limb and cultured myogenic cell lines. However, the role of TGF-alpha in the proliferation and differentiation of tongue myogenic cells appears to be different from its role in the myogenesis of limb and cultured myogenic cell lines such as C2 and L6. PMID:12630941
Yamane, Akira; Amano, Osamu; Slavkin, Harold C
Although there is considerable information on hormonal systems regulating growth postnatally, little is known about hormonal influences on growth in the fetuw. It has long been postulated that insulin is the major fetal growth promoting hormone. However, chronic administration of insulin to the fetal pig during 14 days in utero, although producing hyperinsulinaemia and elevated somatomedin levels, did not stimulate an increase in length, weight or cell number. Postnatally the principal growth promoting hormones are the growth hormone dependent somatomedins. It is thought that multiplication stimulating activity (MSA) is the fetal somatomedin. However, under similar conditions to those used for insulin administration, MSA did not affect growth in the fetal pig. Administration of somatostatin to chronically catheterized fetuses inhibited (p?0.01) and thyrotrophin releasing factor stimulated (?0.01) GH release. However, chronic administration of SRIF did not inhibit fetal growth. Thus there does seem to be some hypothalamic control over GH secretion but this may not play a major role in regulating fetal growth
Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).
Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.
Human insulin-like growth factor 1 Ec (IGF-1Ec), also called mechano growth factor (MGF), is a splice variant of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which has been shown in vitro as well as in vivo to induce growth and hypertrophy in mechanically stimulated or damaged muscle. Growth, hypertrophy and responses to mechanical stimulation are important reactions of cartilaginous tissues, especially those in growth plates. Therefore, we wanted to ascertain if MGF is expressed in growth plate cartilage and if it influences proliferation of chondrocytes, as it does in musculoskeletal tissues. MGF expression was analyzed in growth plate and control tissue samples from piglets aged 3 to 6 weeks. Furthermore, growth plate chondrocyte cell culture was used to evaluate the effects of the MGF peptide on proliferation. We showed that MGF is expressed in considerable amounts in the tissues evaluated. We found the MGF peptide to be primarily located in the cytoplasm, and in some instances, it was also found in the nucleus of the cells. Addition of MGF peptides was not associated with growth plate chondrocyte proliferation. PMID:24146828
Schlegel, Werner; Raimann, Adalbert; Halbauer, Daniel; Scharmer, Daniela; Sagmeister, Susanne; Wessner, Barbara; Helmreich, Magdalena; Haeusler, Gabriele; Egerbacher, Monika
Full Text Available The article analyses factors influencing balance, explores importanceand significance of national budget. Firstly, to achieve thegoal, the conception of national budget is presented and mainfunctions are excluded. Thereinafter, the article examines nationalbudget revenues, their sources and national budget expensesand their classification. The correlation is accomplished, aimingto establish whether exists dependence of Lithuanian nationalbudget balance on the other factors. The analysis revealed that2 examined factors – level of unemployment and state debt –have hold over national budget balance.
The epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) belong to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (TKs) involved in the proliferation of normal and malignant cells. EGFR has attracted considerable attention as a target for cancer therapy. This article considers various functional roles of EGFR-based systems that are relevant for the early detection and staging of cancers overexpressing EGFR. PMID:22074479
Mitrasinovic, Petar M
Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by 125I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biologicalate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-? was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-? was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-? and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-? was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-?. Although the physiological role of TGF-? in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants
Full Text Available The hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles are often related to their content of soluble material, on the basis of the Kohler theory. Recent studies, however, seem to indicate that the role of aerosol particle semi-volatile fraction properties has been underestimated. In this study, we use a novel method based on a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA system combining particle volatilization and humidification conditioning (VH-TDMA to test the effect of the gentle volatilization of a small fraction of the atmospheric particles on the particle hygroscopic growth in several environments (urban to remote. Results show that the particle hygroscopic properties can either be enhanced or decreased after thermal conditioning of the particle at moderate temperatures (50 to 110°C. The hygroscopic growth factor changes induced by volatilization indicate that some volatile compounds, although present at low concentrations, drastically influence the hygroscopic growth of particles in the way that can not be predicted by the Kohler theory at equilibrium.
Some factors that have influence upon the radon concentration in dwellings are discussed in this paper. Measurements of the exhalation rates from different building materials are presented together with calculations of indoor radon concentrations. The influence of wind and temperature upon the ventilation rate and radon concentration in a test-house have been measured, and the effect of airing and artificial ventilation upon the radon concentration is discussed. (author)
Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.
DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.
New biological markers with predictive or prognostic value are highly warranted in the treatment of ovarian cancer. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system are important components in tumor growth and angiogenesis.
Madsen, Christine Vestergaard; Steffensen, Karina Dahl
Controlled delivery of multiple growth factors (GFs) holds great potential for the clinical treatment of ischemic diseases and might be more therapeutically effective to reestablish vasculature than the provision of a single GF. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent angiogenic factors. However, due to rapid degradation and dilution in the body, their clinical potential will rely on an effective mode of delivery. A coacervate, composed of heparin and a biodegradable polycation, which protects GFs from proteolysis and potentiates their bioactivities, is developed. Here, the coacervate incorporates VEGF and HGF and sustains their release for at least three weeks. Their strong angiogenic effects on endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation in vitro are confirmed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that coacervate-based delivery of these factors has stronger effects than free application of both factors and to coacervate delivery of each GF separately. PMID:24452960
Awada, Hassan K; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Yadong
Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil / Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos) de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches so [...] bre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2), desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%), notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12%) e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) e protozoário Giardia duodenalis (13%) foram os mais comuns; Abstract in english Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data [...] was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.
Rebecca L., Lander; Alastair G., Lander; Lisa, Houghton; Sheila M., Williams; Hugo, Costa-Ribeiro; Daniel L., Barreto; Angela P., Mattos; Rosalind S, Gibson.
Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil / Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos) de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches so [...] bre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2), desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%), notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12%) e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) e protozoário Giardia duodenalis (13%) foram os mais comuns; Abstract in english Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data [...] was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.
Rebecca L., Lander; Alastair G., Lander; Lisa, Houghton; Sheila M., Williams; Hugo, Costa-Ribeiro; Daniel L., Barreto; Angela P., Mattos; Rosalind S, Gibson.
The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated
Selective literatures providing perspective on recall of childhood sexual abuse memories are reviewed. These include known patterns of autobiographical memories in adulthood, metacognitive mechanisms, interpersonal influences, and automatic cognitive processing which can influence judgments and reports of memory recall in children and adults. Some factors in adult experience such as mood state, presence of emotional disorders, past and current relationships, and participation in psychotherapy which can influence autobiographical memory and recall of childhood events are delineated. Available studies directly exploring recovered memories of childhood abuse are considered in light of these studies. Finally, some applications to clinical work and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:8564279
Rogers, M L
A series of experiments on corn meal agar was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in different abiotic and biotic conditions which occur in cow pats. Above a concentration of 50 parasitic larvae (L-3) cm(-2) the fungus produced a maximum of between 500 and 600 nets cm(-2) at 20 degrees C in 2 days on the surface of corn meal agar. There were no differences in the trap-producing capacity of three strains of D. flagrans (CIII4, CI3 and Trol A). On agar at 30 degrees and 20 degrees C, the fungus responded to Coaperia oncophora L-3 very quickly producing a maximum of trapping nets 1 day after induction. At 10 degrees C, traps were produced slowly starting on day 4 after induction and continued over the following week. Duddingtonia flagrans (CI3) grew at a normal rate at least down to an oxygen concentration of 6 vol.% O-2, but it did not grow anaerobically. On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) did not produce trapping nets in an anaerobic atmosphere. Moreover, C. oncophora L-3 stopped migration under anaerobic conditions. When the fungal cultures were transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere, after 1 and 2 weeks under anaerobic conditions, the C. oncophora L-3 resumed migrating on the agar and, in response, D, flagrans produced traps in the same amount as when it had not been under anaerobic stress. Under microaerophilic conditions (6 vol.% O-2) D flagrans was able to grow, but the C, oncophora L-3 were not able to induce trapping nets in D, flagrans (Trol A) because of larval immobility. But, as under anaerobic conditions, the fungus could return to a nematode-trapping state when transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere within 1 or 2 weeks if migrating nematodes were present. Under natural conditions in the cow pat it is expected that the fungus will be ready to attack parasitic larvae, when the oxygen tension increases as a result of, for example the activity of the coprophilic fauna. Artificial light giving 3000-3400 Lux on the surface of the agar significantly depressed the growth rate and the production of trapping nets in D, flagrans (CI3). On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) could grow and produce trapping nets at pH levels of 6.3 to 9.3. Net-production has its optimum between pH 7 and 8. On dry faeces mycelial growth was 7-10 mm during a 15 day period while on moist faeces the fungus expanded 15-20 mm during the same period. Based on the parameters investigated, D. flagrans is expected to be especially active in the well aerated surface layer of a cow pat, an area which normally contains a high concentration of infective nematode parasite larvae, but also an area where the temperature can be high and the water content low.
Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is ...
Vahid Abbas Zadeh; Gholamreza Heydari Kord Zangeneh; Naser Azad
Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommen...
Mahmood Modiri; Abdollah Naami; Ebrahim Abedini
Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.
ZIEL: Kann eine Kombination verschiedener Krafttrainingsmethoden einem traditionellen einmethodischen Krafttraining ebenbürtig oder sogar überlegen sein und wie verhalten sich dabei die Myosin Schwerketten (MHCs)? Wie verhalten sich Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Mechano Growth Factor (MGF), Myogenin und MyoD dabei und haben sie Einfluss auf das MHC-Spektrum? DISKUSSION: Die Ergebnisse sprechen dafür, dass ein kombiniertes Krafttraining einen vergleichbaren Kraftgewinn bewirkt ...
Heinichen, Markus Gerd
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Ajith K. Siriwardena
Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation in genetic potential manifestations. Because of the complex nature of infant growth, several studies have been developed aiming at relating biological, socio-economic, maternal, environmental, cultural, demographic and nutritional determinants among others, with the etiology, development and maintenance of growth. This review reinforces the value of permanent investigation on infant growth, especially concerning the long term impact on infant health.
Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani
Heparin influences numerous pleiotropic growth factors, including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), partially by their release from endothelial and extracellular matrix stores. The effects of sulodexide, a heparin-like glycosaminoglycan medication of growing importance in medicine, on HGF liberation are not known. We performed a 2-week open-label sulodexide trial in healthy male volunteers. The drug was initially administered intravenously (i.v.) in a single dose of 1200 Lipoprotein Lipase Releasing Units (LRU), then -- orally for 12 days (500 LRU twice a day), and -- again by i.v. route (1200 LRU) on day 14. Intravenous sulodexide injections were repeatedly found to induce marked and reproducible increases in immunoreactive plasma HGF levels (more than 3500% vs baseline after 10 min, and more than 1200% after 120 min), and remained unchanged when measured 120 min following oral sulodexide administration. The percentage increments in plasma HGF evoked by i.v. sulodexide at both time points and on both days inversely correlated with baseline levels of the growth factor. On day 14, the HGF levels after 120 min and their percentage increase vs baseline were strongly and directly dependent on i.v. sulodexide dose per kg of body weight. This study shows that sulodexide has a novel, remarkable and plausibly biologically important stimulating effect on the release of pleiotropic hepatocyte growth factor in humans. PMID:17258198
Borawski, Jacek; Dubowski, Miroslaw; Pawlak, Krystyna; Mysliwiec, Michal
Orthodontic programs spend considerable amounts of effort to attract, recruit, and interview the best and brightest applicants. Applicants and programs submit ranked preferences, and resident positions are filled by a computerized matching system (Match). The specific aims of this study were to determine the relative importance of certain factors in applicants' Match ranking of orthodontic programs and differences between orthodontic program directors' perceptions and actual factors cited by applicants influencing their ranking of orthodontic programs. Surveys were mailed to 55 orthodontic program directors and 478 applicants participating in the 2002 orthodontic Match. Forty-nine program director (89%) and 224 applicant (47%) surveys were returned. Rankings and importance of factors cited by applicants in their decision-making process and perceptions of those factors cited by program directors were compared. Applicants' top three factors were: "satisfied current residents," "multiple techniques taught," and "good quality of clinical facility." Program directors' perceived top three factors were: satisfied current residents, "good program reputation," and "good impression of current residents at interview." Comparing program directors' perceptions vs applicants' factors overall, the two groups were statistically different (P good location" (P < .0008). Despite these differences, there was generally a high level of overall agreement between program directors' perceptions and factors actually influencing applicants' ranking of orthodontic programs. PMID:16448274
Lindauer, Steven; Payne, Michael D; Shroff, Bhavna; Tüfekçi, Eser
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17
Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne MØller
Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). Receptors for both GH and PRL are expressed in islet cells and are upregulated during pregnancy. By mutational analysis we have identified different functional domains of the cytoplasmic part of the GH receptor. Thus the mitotic signaling only requires the membrane proximal part of the receptor and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and 3. The activation of the insulin gene however also requires the distal part of the receptor and activation of calcium uptake and STAT5. In order to identify putative autocrine growth factors or targets for growth factors we have cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved in beta cell differentiation and proliferation may lead to new ways of forming beta cells for treatment of diabetes in man.
Svensson, C; Galsgaard, E D
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, fibrous dysplasia, and tumour-induced osteomalacia. In contrast, hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis is associated with accelerated degradation of FGF23. Measuring FGF23 serves as a differential diagnostic tool in elucidating conditions of long-lasting hypophosphatemia.
Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne MØller
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein that belongs to the transferrin family. It is present in breast milk, in epithelial secretions, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. In healthy subjects lactoferrin circulates at concentrations of 2–7 x 10?6 g/ml. Lactoferrin is a pleiotropic factor with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Recently, we have shown that lactoferrin can also promote bone growth. At physiological concentrations, lactoferrin potently stimul...
Naot, Dorit; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R.; Cornish, Jillian
The purpose of this study is to find the factors that influence the working capital requirements (wcr) in canada. a sample of 166 canadian firms listed on toronto stock exchange for a period of 3 years from 2008-2010 was selected. this study applied co-relational and non-experimental research design. overall results indicate that operating cycle (oc), return on assets (roa), internationalization of firm, firm’s growth, and firm size influence the wcr in canada. the study also found that oc,...
Peptide and protein growth factors play critical roles in the control of proliferation, differentiation and survival of most, if not all, cell types. In this review, we describe a newly isolated growth factor from Aplysia californica, mollusk derived growth factor (MDGF), that is a member of the adenosine deaminase-related growth factor (ADGF) subfamily. Other known subfamily members from a range of invertebrate and vertebrate species include: insect-derived growth factor, Drosophila ADGFs, tsetse salivary growth factors, insect adenosine deaminases (ADAs; Lutzomyia, Culex, Aedes, Anopheles), and cat eye syndrome critical region gene 1 (CECR1) in humans, pigs, and zebrafish. ADGFs from vertebrates and invertebrates contain both an ADA domain and a novel N-terminal region of about 100 amino acids. Catalytic residues involved in ADA activity are conserved in ADGFs, and inhibitors of ADA can block ADGF activity. ADA enzymatic activity has been shown, by inhibitor and site-directed mutagenesis studies, to be related to the ability of ADGFs from many species to stimulate cell proliferation. The available evidence suggests that the conversion of adenosine to inosine (or their analogs) is important for the mitogenic actions of ADGFs. Future investigations of this novel subfamily should lead to the identification of their receptors. PMID:15579078
Akalal, D-B G; Schein, C H; Nagle, G T
This article reports on an investigation of factors that influence self-actualisation during retirement. Opsomming In hierdie artikel word verslag gedoen oor ‘n ondersoek na faktore wat self-aktualisering gedurende aftrede beïnvloed. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Kerr, Pam P.; Salomé Schulze
... and Publications En Español Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content It is currently ... June 11, 2012, from https://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq100.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20120723T1306335157 ... Infertility » ?? Last Updated Date: 11/30/ ...
This study explored the concept of school connectedness and the factors that may influence its development with a sample of Chinese adolescents. Six focus groups involving 52 high school students were conducted using a set of predetermined discussion topics. Results indicated that the students fully understood the notion of school connectedness…
Yuen, Mantak; Lau, Patrick S. Y.; Lee, Queenie A. Y.; Gysbers, Norman C.; Chan, Raymond M. C.; Fong, Ricci W.; Chung, Y. B.; Shea, Peter M. K.
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…
Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin
This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…
Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.
Growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) may be part of a neuroendocrine immune axis that stimulates cellular proliferation of primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, thymus) as well as stimulates activation of peripheral lymphocytes and macrophages to enhance specific immune responses. GH can also stimulate production of thymic hormones and cytokines, and in this way impact on immune function. It is not clear whether GH and IGF-I act independently or whether the action of GH is mediated by local production of IGF-I by lymphocytes. Both GH and IGF-I and their receptors are present in lymphocytes. Thus, cells of the immune system may be important targets of the GH-IGF-I axis. PMID:18407143
Gelato, M C
Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.
Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy. PMID:23502135
Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina
Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income) and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening). Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system) have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake. PMID:22190913
Gimeno García, Antonio Z
There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
The influence of two phosphate corrosion compounds on the growth and survival of coliform and other heterotrophic bacteria was investigated in laboratory, field, and model system studies. Growth of Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was not sign...
Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside. PMID:24077096
Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N
In article due to scientific methods is given the information about role of greenery in prevention of facts of nature, in regulation of oxygen balance in biosphere, reduction of quantity of harmful waste thrown out in an environment, ecological cleanliness pollution of the conservation of surroundings about selection of plants on stability to the ecological factors and decorative qualities, positive influence on health of the people with aesthetic and with the spiritual party use in various branches of the national economy. Except for that in clause it is considered measures of protection from harmful influence of high value of the acoustic tone created by various kinds of vehicles and flying devices
Full Text Available Some growth factors, such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, Growth Hormone (GH and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF have beneficial effects on keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Although the mechanism of these factors is unclear. In response to injury, growth factors are secreted by kinds of cutaneous cells. The goal of this project is to investigate the factors that could cause proliferate of the keratinocyte cells in vitro. The keratinocytes were removed from rat pups (10 days. Cultured in media with different concentration of GH, PDGF and EGF separately. The proliferation of cells was evaluated by the method of MTT and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Proliferation of keratinocytes was significantly higher in experimental groups than in control group. EGF maximally stimulated at 10 and 25 ng mL-1. PDGF-BB maximally stimulated at 50 ng mL-1, respectively. And maximal stimulation of GH was 2.5 IU L-1. GH, PDGF-BB and EGF stimulate keratinocyte cells proliferation in different concentration. These growth factors could play in healing of the skin.
Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.
Meysam Kazemi Asfe
We derive the evolution equation of growth factor for the matter over-dense perturbation in f(T) gravity. For instance, we investigate its behavior in power law model at small redshift and compare it to the prediction of ?CDM and dark energy with the same equation of state in the framework of Einstein general relativity. We find that the perturbation in f(T) gravity grows slower than that in Einstein general relativity if ?f/?T > 0 due to the effectively weakened gravity
Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...
Arman, S.; Soltani, M.
The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i) investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence); and ii) investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective) and competiti...
Marcos Gimenes Fernandes; Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes; José Vasconcelos Raposo; Helder Miguel Fernandes
Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil
Full Text Available Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD, wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%, notably Trichuris trichiura (12% and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%, and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13% were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches sobre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2, desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ? 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%, notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12% e Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5% e protozoário Giardia duodenalis (13% foram os mais comuns; < 1% tinha ancilostomíase e Cryptosporidium sp.; 25% apresentaram protozoários cistos não patogênicos. Meninos de famílias muito pobres tiveram menor crescimento e maior risco de helmintose. A desparasitação pode ser considerada uma alternativa para a redução da prevalência de parasitoses intestinais nesse grupo etário.
Rebecca L. Lander
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediate aspects of normal lung growth and development and are important in the restoration of normal alveolar architecture after lung injury. To determine if fibroblasts are a source of soluble growth factors for alveolar type II cells, we investigated the effect of fibroblast-conditioned medium (CM) on alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. Serum-free CM from confluent adult human lung fibroblasts was concentrated fivefold by lyophilization. Type II cells were isolated from adult rats by elastase dissociation and incubated with [3H]thymidine and varying dilutions of concentrated CM and serum from day 1 to 3 of culture. Stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by fibroblast-CM was maximal after 48 h of conditioning and required the presence of serum. The activity of the CM was eliminated by boiling and by treatment with trypsin, pepsin, or dithiothreitol and was additive with saturating concentrations of acidic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin. The growth factor activity bound to heparin-Sepharose and was eluted with 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl. Neutralizing antibody studies demonstrated that the primary mitogens isolated in the 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl fractions were keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor 7) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), respectively. HGF/SF was demonstrated in the crude CM and KGF was detected in the 0.6 M NaCl eluent by immunoblotting. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the lung fibroblasts expressed both KGF and HGF/SF transcripts. Human recombinant KGF and HGF/SF induced a concentration- and serum-dependent increase in rat alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. We conclude that adult human lung fibroblasts produce at least two soluble heparin-binding growth factors, KGF and HGF/SF, which promote DNA synthesis and proliferation of rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. KGF and HGF/SF may be important stimuli for alveolar type II cell proliferation during lung growth and after lung injury. Images PMID:7688769
Panos, R J; Rubin, J S; Csaky, K G; Aaronson, S A; Mason, R J
Full Text Available Sustainable development is a term that is widely used by politicians nowadays. The definition of the concept of sustainable development is constantly revised. Sustainable development is about promoting an integrated approach. It includes economic, social and environmental objectives. Economic objectives include growth, efficiency and stability. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the influences of corruption on sustainable economic growth. The impact is decreasing continuously and the main reason behind this is the change in peoples’ attitude and saturation to ethically questionable actions. Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. There are several factors that influence sustainable development. Among them are: government policies; management and organization; financial and economic factors. The main question for institutional sustainability may be formulated as the following: can the strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to the ultimate end-users? Individuals and organizations can join in sharing resources for creating a sustainable future. Anticorruption strategies are related to the reform of state institutions. One advantage of the fundamental economic reform approach is that by linking anticorruption strategies to the reform of economic policies and institutions, the struggle against corruption can be seen as one of the issues in economic policy. Finally, all development assistance should be implemented with the aim of achieving sustainable benefits.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, there has been growing interest in m-learning consequently emerging m-learning technology is promising technological and educational business. Nevertheless, m-learning is a new business and the different actors are still trialing by ways of a diversity of business models to overcome in able to achieve a sustainable and profitable place in this market. Numbers of m-learning products providers do not succeed in supplying m-learning products. In this situation not only a suitable business model is vital but also environmental and external factors have impact on mobile learning business model. Overall objective of this study was to survey the business model framework of m-learning with effect of external and environmental factors. Approach: Methodical approach was based on a classification of m-learning actors and its environmental factors. Based on this, we analyzed case studies description and developed main environmental factors that constitute the m-learning environment. Factors were summarized in morphological boxes and then through out its three steps result came up. Results: The results indicated technology, market and regulation are three major environmental factors which were forcing m-learning business model and business model should react to changes of these three factors to keep sustainable business. The research further argued the external factors of m-learning environment in order to understanding and developing the m-learning business and the ways these factors influence the business model of m-learning as well. Conclusion/Recommendations: M-learning business is based on many factors such as technology, changes in society, educational drivers, demand for flexible learning and the new learning paradigm but only three major drivers(technology, market and regulation had considerable effect on m-learning business model and should be taken into account as a result if they change business model should be changed.
Abstract: A peptide purified from the salivary gland of a mouse was shown few years ago to accelerate incisor eruption and eyelid opening in newborn mice, and was named epidermal growth factor (EGF). The members of this family of peptide growth factors had been identified in numerous physiological and pathological contexts. EGF binds to a cell surface EGF receptor, which induces a biochemical modification (phosphorylation) of the receptor's cytoplasmic tail. There is a growing consensus in the research community that, in addition to cellular and molecular studies, the dynamics of the EGFR network and its operation must be examined in tissues. A key challenge is to integrate the existing molecular and cellular information into a system-level description of the EGFR network at the tissue and organism level. In this paper, the two examples of EGFR signaling in tissues are described, and the recent efforts to model EGFR autocrine loops, which is a predominant mode of EGFR activation in vivo, are summarized.
Shvartsman, Stanislav; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.
The length of adult sow life is now recognized as both an economic and a welfare concern. However, there are no consistent definitions to measure sow longevity. This study assessed 6 different descriptions of longevity and determined their relationship with developmental performance factors. Longevity definitions included stayability (probability of a sow producing 40 pigs or probability of her reaching 4 parities), lifespan (number of parities a female has accumulated before culling), lifetime prolificacy (number of pigs born alive during the productive lifetime of a female), herd life (time from first farrowing to culling), and pigs produced per day of life. Data consisted of 14,262 records of Yorkshire females from both nucleus and multiplication herds across 21 farms from 4 seedstock systems. Within a subset of the data, information was available on the litter birth record of the female and her growth and composition data. Therefore, data were subdivided into 2 data sets, consisting of 1) data A, data from the farrowing records of a female, and 2) data B, data A and information from the litter birth record of a female and the growth and backfat data from a female. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the relationship of developmental factors and first farrowing record with longevity. Those factors that were significantly (P growth. Within a contemporary group, fatter, slower growing gilts had a decreased risk of being culled. Additionally, sows that had more pigs born alive, fewer stillborn pigs, and heavier litters at 21 d of lactation in their first litter had a decreased risk of being culled. Furthermore, sows from nucleus herds experienced a greater risk of being culled. Many factors affected longevity, regardless of definition. Pork producers can implement management protocols that can extend the productive life of breeding females, resulting in improved profitability and animal welfare. PMID:21183709
Hoge, M D; Bates, R O
Tumour growth is angiogenesis dependent. Some authors suggest a prognostic role of microvessel count in colorectal cancer. We tested the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the switch to the angiogenic phenotype in 35 patients with colorectal cancer at different stages of disease. We evaluated the two angiogenic factors, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in tumour, peritumoral mucosa, pathological mesenteric and peripheral blood. We used ten endoscopic intestinal biopsies and ten peripheral blood samples from healthy subjects as control. bFGF was significantly lower in tumour tissues and in peritumoral mucosas than in healthy mucosas, whereas VEGF was up-regulated in tumours but not in peritumoral mucosa. Both angiogenic factors were greatly increased in mesenteric blood. VEGF tumour and serum levels were significantly correlated with the stage of disease. bFGF tumour and serum concentration were not correlated with the stage of disease. The high levels of bFGF in mesenteric blood suggest that this growth factor might be abnormally released from tumour tissue and peritumoral mucosa and could function as an early effector in the switch to the angiogenic phenotype. In contrast, VEGF, whose levels show a significant correlation with the stage of disease, could act in a following step, supporting tumour progression. PMID:9743297
Landriscina, M.; Cassano, A.; Ratto, C.; Longo, R.; Ippoliti, M.; Palazzotti, B.; Crucitti, F.; Barone, C.
The procoagulant protein tissue factor (F3) is a powerful growth promoter in many tumors, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. More generally, it is unknown whether hemostatic factors expressed on tumor cells influence tissue factor-mediated effects on cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the influence of tissue factor, endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR, PROCR), and protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1, F2R) on the growth of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), using human MPM cells that lack or express tissue factor, EPCR or PAR1, and an orthotopic nude mouse model of MPM. Intrapleural administration of MPM cells expressing tissue factor and PAR1 but lacking EPCR and PAR2 (F2RL1) generated large tumors in the pleural cavity. Suppression of tissue factor or PAR1 expression in these cells markedly reduced tumor growth. In contrast, tissue factor overexpression in nonaggressive MPM cells that expressed EPCR and PAR1 with minimal levels of tissue factor did not increase their limited tumorigenicity. More importantly, ectopic expression of EPCR in aggressive MPM cells attenuated their growth potential, whereas EPCR silencing in nonaggressive MPM cells engineered to overexpress tissue factor increased their tumorigenicity. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that EPCR expression in tumor cells reduced tumor cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Overall, our results enlighten the mechanism by which tissue factor promotes tumor growth through PAR1, and they show how EPCR can attenuate the growth of tissue factor-expressing tumor cells. PMID:23539451
Keshava, Shiva; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Tucker, Torry A; Idell, Steven; Rao, L Vijaya Mohan; Pendurthi, Usha R
Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were localized and characterized in eight samples of human meningioma (four fibrous, two meningothelial, and two angioblastic types), using quantitative autoradiographic techniques. Effects of both growth factors on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in the cultured meningioma cells were examined. High numbers of specific binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF were homogeneously present in tissue sections derived from fibrous and meningothelial types of meningiomas, whereas binding sites for these growth factors were not detectable in adjacent leptomeninges. While relatively large numbers of IGF-I binding sites were located in the wall of the intratumoral vasculature, the number of binding sites in the stromal component was lower in angioblastic-type meningiomas, including a low number of EGF binding sites detected only in the stromal portion. Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF in the meningiomas examined (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.6 to 2.9 nM, and the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) = 16 to 80 fmol/mg for IGF-I; and Kd = 0.6 to 4.0 nM, Bmax = 3 to 39 fmol/mg for EGF). Both growth factors increased the synthesis of DNA, in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The combination of IGF-I and EGF synergistically stimulated the synthesis of DNA, and the effects seen with 10% fetal bovine serum could be reproduced at a concentration of 10(-10) M. These observations can be interpreted to mean that both IGF-I and EGF may be involved in the growth modulation of meningiomas, possibly through paracrine or autocrine mechanisms.
Kurihara, M.; Tokunaga, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Shigematsu, K.; Niwa, M.; Mori, K. (Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))
The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms
When nonrandom mating alters offspring numbers or the distribution of offspring phenotypes, it has the potential to impact the population growth rate. Similarly, sex-specific demographic parameters that influence the availability of mating partners can leave a signature on the population growth rate. We develop a general framework to explore how mating patterns and sex differences influence the population growth rate. We do this by constructing a two-sex integral projection model to explore w...
Schindler, S.; Neuhaus, P.; Gaillard, Jm; Coulson, T.
Temperature profoundly affects the growth rates of aquatic organisms, and its control is essential for effective aquaculture. Characteristically, both low and high temperatures produce slow growth rates and inefficient food conversion, while intermediate temperature ranges provide rapid growth and efficient food conversion. Distinct, species-specific optimum temperatures and upper and lower temperatures of zero growth can often be defined. Thermal effects can be greatly modified by amounts and quality of food. These data not only provide the basis for criteria which maintain growth of wild organisms but also for effectively using waste heat to create optimal conditions of temperature and food ration for growing aquatic organisms commercially
Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.
Jovanovi? Snežana T.
Aldosterone regulates blood pressure through its effects on the cardiovascular system and kidney. Aldosterone can also contribute to the development of hypertension that leads to chronic pathologies such as nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Aldosterone directly modulates renal cell proliferation and differentiation as part of normal kidney development. The stimulation of rapidly activated protein kinase cascades is one facet of how aldosterone regulates renal cell growth. These cascades may also contribute to myofibroblastic transformation and cell proliferation observed in pathological conditions of the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that is accelerated by hypertension. EGFR-dependent proliferation of the renal epithelium is a factor in cyst development and trans-activation of EGFR is a key feature in initiating aldosterone-induced signalling cascades. Delineating the components of aldosterone-induced signalling cascades may identify novel therapeutic targets for proliferative diseases of the kidney.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that constitutes one of four members of the erbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Binding of EGFR to its cognate ligands leads to autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways that are involved in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Although present in normal cells, EGFR is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell lines and has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. EGFR activation also plays a role in resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatment in tumor cells. Over the past two decades, much effort has been directed at developing anticancer agents that can interfere with EGFR activity. The most common pharmacologic approaches to inhibiting EGFR have been to develop monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors. Monoclonal antibodies block ligand binding to the extracellular domain, whereas the small-molecule inhibitors exert their effects at the intracellular portion of the receptor to prevent tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and subsequent activation of signal transduction pathways. A number of EGFR inhibitors have been developed that can arrest tumor growth and, in some cases, cause tumor regression. When used in combination with cytotoxic treatments, chemotherapy, and radiation, EGFR inhibitors have been able to potentiate their anticancer activitytheir anticancer activity
Full Text Available The marine and coastal intake filtration device is mainly used to filter out the salt spray aerosol particles. So, the laboratory studies of the intake filtration device need to simulate the salt spray aerosols state of the ocean environment. But the distribution of ocean salt spray aerosol particle of diameter is very wide, so the simulation device of salt spray aersol should produce a variety of salt spray aerosol particles. The paper is to mainly study the influencing factors of salt spray aerosol device to produce different particles diameter. And the investigation and study mainly include two aspects: numerical simulation and experimental study.
The purpose of the study is to identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. A follow-up study was performed on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated form 1984-1998. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. The conclusion is that biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatis carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatment splits in radiation therapy. (R.P.)
Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.
Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh
Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance
Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 regulates a broad spectrum of biological activities involved in growth, development and differentiation. The current study was designed to investigate the associations of IGFBP2 gene polymorphisms with the variance components and genetic parameters of four weekly intervals of growth rate (0-4, 4-8, 8-12 weeks of the Kampung chicken that were evaluated with classical models of quantitative genetics. Thirty two females and 16 males Kampung chicken were genotyped with IGFBP2 gene using PCR-RFLP method. Retrieved 3 genotype (CC, CT and TT and 2 alleles (C and T. The influence of average effect of the C allele was greater than T allele on a 4-8 weeks intervals of growth rate, meanwhile for the males turn into 0-4 and 8-12 weeks interval growth rate. Ratio component additive and dominant deviation to each genotype is always equal for each interval growth rate. Variance component from heterozygote nearly zero when frequency of homozygote nearly equal and ratio variance dominance were opposite to allele frequency. Narrow-sense heritability based on genetic variance component of 0-4, 4-8 and 8-12 weeks interval growth rate for female were 0.01, 0.47 and 0.87 while for male chicken were 0.94, 0.07 and 0.12, respectively. It was concluded that IGFBP 2 gene association with growth rate on 4-8 and 8-12 weeks on females but in males only effect on growth rate on 0-4 weeks.
The concept of limiting factor includes the lack of welfare factors and the presence of decimating factors. Originally applied to populations and species, the concept may also be applied to wildlife in the aggregate. Because the decimating factor of economic growth eliminates welfare factors for virtually all imperiled species via the principle of competitive exclusion, economic growth may be classified as the limiting factor for wildlife conservation. The wildlife profession has been virt...
Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.
Do the fibrin architecture and leukocyte content influence the growth factor release of platelet concentrates? An evidence-based answer comparing a pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) gel and a leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF).
Platelet concentrates for surgical use are tools of regenerative medicine designed for the local release of platelet growth factors into a surgical or wounded site, in order to stimulate tissue healing or regeneration. Leukocyte content and fibrin architecture are 2 key characteristics of all platelet concentrates and allow to classify these technologies in 4 families, but very little is known about the impact of these 2 parameters on the intrinsic biology of these products. In this demonstration, we highlight some outstanding differences in the growth factor and matrix protein release between 2 families of platelet concentrate: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP, here the Anitua's PRGF - Preparation Rich in Growth Factors - technique) and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF, here the Choukroun's method). These 2 families are the extreme opposites in terms of fibrin architecture and leukocyte content. The slow release of 3 key growth factors (Transforming Growth Factor ?1 (TGF?1), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor AB (PDGF-AB) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)) and matrix proteins (fibronectin, vitronectin and thrombospondin-1) from the L-PRF and P-PRP gel membranes in culture medium is described and discussed. During 7 days, the L-PRF membranes slowly release significantly larger amounts of all these molecules than the P-PRP gel membranes, and the 2 products display different release patterns. In both platelet concentrates, vitronectin is the sole molecule to be released almost completely after only 4 hours, suggesting that this molecule is not trapped in the fibrin matrix and not produced by the leukocytes. Moreover the P-PRP gel membranes completely dissolve in the culture medium after less than 5 days only, while the L-PRF membranes are still intact after 7 days. This simple demonstration shows that the polymerization and final architecture of the fibrin matrix considerably influence the strength and the growth factor trapping/release potential of the membrane. It also suggests that the leukocyte populations have a strong influence on the release of some growth factors, particularly TGF?1. Finally, the various platelet concentrates present very different biological characteristics, and an accurate definition and characterization of the different families of product is a key issue for a better understanding and comparison of the reported clinical effects of these surgical adjuvants. PMID:21740377
Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Jimbo, Ryo; Barbé, Giovanni; Del Corso, Marco; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto
Growth factors (GFs) are major regulatory proteins that can govern cell fate, migration, and organization. Numerous aspects of the cell milieu can modulate cell responses to GFs, and GF regulation is often achieved by the native extracellular matrix (ECM). For example, the ECM can sequester GFs and thereby control GF bioavailability. In addition, GFs can exert distinct effects depending on whether they are sequestered in solution, at two-dimensional interfaces, or within three-dimensional matrices. Understanding how the context of GF sequestering impacts cell function in the native ECM can instruct the design of soluble or insoluble GF sequestering moieties, which can then be used in a variety of bioengineering applications. This Feature Article provides an overview of the natural mechanisms of GF sequestering in the cell milieu, and reviews the recent bioengineering approaches that have sequestered GFs to modulate cell function. Results to date demonstrate that the cell response to GF sequestering depends on the affinity of the sequestering interaction, the spatial proximity of sequestering in relation to cells, the source of the GF (supplemented or endogenous), and the phase of the sequestering moiety (soluble or insoluble). We highlight the importance of context for the future design of biomaterials that can leverage endogenous molecules in the cell milieu and mitigate the need for supplemented factors. PMID:25182455
Belair, David G; Le, Ngoc Nhi; Murphy, William L
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english STUDY AIM: To determine which models are used by occupational therapists who attended a workshop on the Kawa Model, in their practice, the demographic factors related to the use of these models and the reasons why they use various models in their practice. METHOD: A descriptive, single case study me [...] thod was used with embedded units. The research instrument consisted of a survey questionnaire with closed and some semi-structured questions. RESULTS: The characteristics of therapists influenced their use of models. This was determined by their educational background, their level of experience and exposure in the clinical field and their work setting. Time constraints and the nature of the presenting clients also played a role. The clinicians' overall attitude towards new theory and their habituated ways were highlighted as constant factors influencing model use. The use of models provides structure and assists occupational therapists to produce proper, profession-specific, scientifically-based intervention. Models taught during undergraduate studies need to be relevant to address clients' needs in their specific context.
Antonette, Owen; Fasloen, Adams; Denise, Franszen.
Nursing development units (NDUs) have long been advocated as 'test-beds' for pioneering leading-edge practice development. This article reports on the findings of a study examining factors influencing the development of NDUs, and, more recently, established multidisciplinary practice development units (PDUs). Individual and focus group interviews were undertaken with key stakeholders involved in six NDUs/PDUs accredited by the University of Leeds. The findings from the study highlight a number of internal and external factors that have impacted upon the progress made by these units. Importantly, the role of the clinical leader, the staffing establishment, organizational infrastructures to facilitate dissemination and the nature of the support from managers and medical staff have all influenced the success of the NDUs/PDUs. In order to ensure the long-term viability of an NDU/PDU it is essential that practice development is planned and managed in a systematic and coordinated way with a full appraisal undertaken of the human, physical and financial resources necessary to implement and disseminate change and that the work of the NDU/PDU is incorporated in the trust's strategic plans in order to ensure organizational support. PMID:11235272
Gerrish, K; Ferguson, A
Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.
Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz
Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents approximately 15% of the newly diagnosed cancers worldwide and is characterized by tissue lacking in estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors. TNBC disproportionately affects younger women and women of colour, and new treatments are needed. The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a determinant of cell proliferation in neoplasia, and OGF is an endogenously produced pentapeptide that inhibits cell replication by interacting with OGFr and upregulating cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways thus reducing DNA synthesis. In these studies we investigated the presence and function of the OGF-OGFr axis in two human TNBC cell lines, as well as in breast cancer cell lines containing hormonal receptors. TNBC cell lines MDA-MD-231 and BT-20, as well as human breast cancer cells SK-BR-3 and MCF-7, were examined for the presence of pentapeptide and receptors, as well as their response to OGF. Specificity of peptide and receptor was confirmed by antibody neutralization and molecular studies to knockdown classical receptor protein. The requirement for protein transcription and translation and RNA transcription were investigated. Growth of TNBC cells in the presence of OGF and standard of care chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel was evaluated to determine both efficacy and protective effects against toxicity. OGF treatment inhibited TNBC cells in a dosage related, receptor mediated, and reversible manner. OGF was the specific endogenous opioid to inhibit cell proliferation, and this was mediated by p21 cyclin dependent inhibitory kinase pathways, and required protein and RNA synthesis. OGFr was the specific receptor involved; both peptide and receptor were detected in all four cell lines. OGF treatment inhibited growth of all cancer cell lines evaluated, and reduced cell death in cultures exposed to paclitaxel. The OGF-OGFr axis is present and functioning in TNBC cell lines, and provides a novel biological pathway as potential therapy. PMID:23918871
Zagon, Ian S; Porterfield, Nancy K; McLaughlin, Patricia J
The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality. PMID:22976454
Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan
... Roberts, W. (Updated 2010 May). Growth Hormone Deficiency. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ... edu . IGF-1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1). ARUP Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing. [On-line information]. ...
Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxi...
McLoughlin Paul; Costello Christine M; Howell Katherine; Sands Michelle
Activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor pathway is a common event in many cancer types. Here we review the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling in breast cancer, from SNPs in FGFR2 that influence breast cancer risk and SNPs in FGFR4 that associate with breast cancer prognosis, and potential therapeutic targets such as receptor amplification and aberrant autocrine and paracrine ligand expression. We discuss the multiple therapeutic strategies in preclinical and clin...
Jain, Vikram K.; Turner, Nicholas C.
Evaluación de factores ambientales que influyen en características de crecimiento del nacimiento al destete de corderos Hampshire / Environmental factors influencing growth variables from birth to weaning in Hampshire lambs
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar los efectos de sexo de la cría (macho, hembra), tipo de nacimiento de la cría (sencillo, doble), edad de la madre (2 a 7 y más años), granja (10 unidades), semental anidado en granja, así como interacciones dobles, que influyen en el peso al nacimiento (PN), peso [...] al destete ajustado por edad (PDA) y promedio de ganancia diaria de peso pre-destete (GDP) de corderos Hampshire de 10 granjas en Hidalgo, México. Se analizó una base de datos de 2006 a 2009 con 998 observaciones para PN y 933 para PDA y GDP. La alimentación se basó en granos, alfalfa, forraje de avena, y minerales. El análisis estadístico se efectuó con el procedimiento GLM del SAS. Las medias generales fueron PN: 5.1±0.9 kg, PDA: 32.3±5.4 kg, y GDP: 0.300±0.055 kg. Hubo efectos (P Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of sex of lamb (SL: male, female), type of birth (TB: single, twin), age of dam (AD: 2 to 7 years and older), farm (F: 10 units), and sire nested within farm, as well as first-order interactions that influence the variation of birth weight (BW), [...] adjusted weaning weight (AWW) and average pre-weaning daily weight gain (ADG) of Hampshire lambs from 10 farms in Hidalgo, México. A data base from 2006 to 2009 with 998 observations for BW and 933 for AWW and ADG was analyzed. Feeding of parents and lambs was based on grains, alfalfa, oats hay, and minerals. The statistical analysis was carried out with the GLM procedure of SAS. Overall means were BW: 5.1±0.9 kg, AWW: 32.3±5.4 kg, and ADG: 0.300±0.055 kg. Significant effects (P
José A., Ramirez-Tello; Glafiro, Torres-Hernández; Lino, de la Cruz-Colín; Manuel A., Ochoa-Cordero; Javier, Suárez-Espinosa.
INTRODUCTION: The family of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and their receptors (FGFRs) play a critical role in nervous system development. Aberrant expression or a change in the pattern of their expression may contribute to neural tumour formation. The FGFR expression status in vestibular schwannoma is unknown. AIM: To characterize the pattern of FGFR-1, FGFR-3 and FGFR-4 expression in resection vestibular schwannoma. METHOD: Fifty paraffin-embedded archival specimens of vestibular schwannomas were immunostained fro FGFR-1, FGFR-3 and FGFR-4 using specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies. signals were graded as weak, moderate or strong by two independent observers. Normal tissues and appropriate positive and negative controls were included. RESULTS: FGFR-1 and FGFR-3 appeared to have similar patterns of immunoreactivity with predominantly membrane and cytoplasmic signals in control tissues. In contrast, in vestibular schwannomas, FGFR-1 and FGFR-3, preferentially localize to the nucleau, with moderate to strong signals in 80% and 76% of the specimens, respectively. FGFR-4 expression was upregulated in 70% of vestibular schwannomas to a moderate level, localizing to the perinuclear and cytoplasmic area. Differential cellular localization of receptor proteins has been demonstrated in vestibular schwannomas. CONCLUSION: This is the first comprehensive study characterizing FGFR expression in vestibular schwannoma. The development of vestibular schwannomas is associated with an altered pattern and level of FGFR expression. Our ongoing work aims to examine their significance in the pathogenesis of vestibular schwannomas. PMID:11123169
Nair; Leung; Ince; Ramsden; Wilson
Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.As florestas tropicais secas representam cerca da metade das florestas tropicais do mundo e são ecossistemas que estão sofrendo uma grande deterioração pelas atividades humanas. Neste artigo realizamos uma revisão de literatura sobre a dinâmica da regeneração das florestas tropicais secas enfocando principalmente nos fatores abióticos que influenciam esta regeneração, tais como, o clima estacional, a fertilidade e umidade do solo e as perturbações naturais e antrópicas. O principal objetivo é compreender um aspecto muito importante da dinâmica sucessional das florestas tropicais secas.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of relevant microstructural and compositional factors on the creep of 12 representative dental amalgams by means of stepwise multiple linear regression. The independent variables accepted by the regression were volume percent of the eta' (Cu6Sn5) phase, grain size of the gamma 1 (Ag2Hg3) phase, volume percent of the gamma (Ag3Sn) plus epsilon (Cu3Sn) phases, number of very small eta' crystals (less than 1.5 microns) per mm, and weight percent of Hg. The results of this regression showed an adjusted R2 of 0.949, significant at p = 0.002. PMID:1960248
Mahler, D B; Adey, J D
Emotional stress may influence the development and exacerbation of psoriasis. The proportion of psoriasis patients who believe stress affects their skin condition (i.e., "stress responders") is considerably high, ranging from 37% to 78%. Stress may worsen psoriasis severity and may even lengthen the time to disease clearance. Although a pathogenic association appears likely, additional well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm such a causal relationship. Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenomedullary systems has been proposed as one possible underlying cause of stress-induced flares of psoriasis. While stress may be an exacerbating factor, psoriasis itself may contribute to significant adverse psychological sequelae. Breaking this stress cycle may be an important part of any therapeutic approach. Thus, stress reduction through psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy may be useful in treating psoriatic patients who are stress responders. PMID:21611682
Heller, M M; Lee, E S; Koo, J Y
Full Text Available Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.71 and 1955 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. Using principal component analysis, the study has detected six factors including customer’s information, building trust, secure internet access, having good internet infrastructure and internet users.
Vahid Abbas Zadeh
Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.
Calcium phosphates are the most frequently used ceramics for bone regeneration due to their biocompatibility and favorable resorption properties. Their performance can however be improved if they are associated to growth factors. In order to control the release of growth factors, we have inted to synthesize calcium phosphates with controlled mesoporosity. This thesis represents the first work that combines mesoporous calcium phosphates with the growth factors TGF and VEGF. To obtain hydroxyap...
Numerous candidate genes have been proposed as susceptibility factors for the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interaction plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and tumourigenesis of epithelial tissues. To our knowledge, however, no study has examined the relationship between the EGF/EGFR and NPC. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of EGF +61 G/A and EGFR +2073 A/T and NPC. A total of 173 patients with NPC and 206 age- and sex-matched controls were the participants. Genotypes were determined using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism strategy and DNA sequencing. There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of EGF +61 G/A and EGFR +2073 A/T polymorphisms between the group of patients with NPC and the control group in a Chinese population (for EGF +61 G/A: OR=1.29, 95% CI: 0.95-1.74; for EGFR +2073 A/T: OR=0.91, 95% CI: 0.67-1.23). Further studies are still needed to explore the complicated interaction between environmental factors and EGF +61 G/A and EGFR +2073 A/T polymorphisms in the risk of NPC, particularly in ethnically different populations. PMID:18722874
Gao, Lin-Bo; Wei, Ye-Sheng; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Yan-Yun; Liang, Wei-Bo; Li, Cui; Li, Yi; Bai, Peng; Fang, Wen-Liang; Xue, Hui; Zhang, Lin
Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)
Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The biological functions of transforming growth factor-? signaling that involves Smad proteins have not been previously investigated with respect to coronary artery bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to observe the immunostaining of proteins that are related to this signaling pathway. METHODS: Fifteen remnants of coronary artery bypass grafts, including nine saphenous veins, three radial arteries and three mammary arteries, were collected from 12 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 were performed. RESULTS: The saphenous veins showed more severe intimal degeneration, more severe smooth muscle cell proliferation and more collagen deposition than the arterial grafts, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that the majority of the transforming growth factor-?1 signaling cytokines were primarily localized in the cytoplasm in the medial layers of all three types of grafts, whereas ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the interstices were observed particularly in the saphenous vein and radial arterial grafts. CONCLUSION: Enhanced transforming growth factor-?1 signal transduction with medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and ectopic transforming growth factor-?1, the presence of the type I receptor of transforming growth factor-?, and Smad7 overexpressions in the extracellular matrix may provide primary evidence for early or late graft failure.
Angiosarcomas are rare malignant vascular tumours. Angiosarcoma expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has previously been reported, but angiosarcoma expression of other angiogenic growth factors has not been systematically studied. Non-VEGF angiogenic growth factors are a potential mechanism of resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy, but they also represent potential therapeutic targets. Immunohistochemistry analysis evaluated the expression of 13 angiogenic growth factors and receptors in 27 separate benign and malignant archived human vascular tumour samples. The expression of 55 angiogenesis-related proteins was subsequently profiled in five fresh human angiosarcoma tumour samples using antibody arrays. Angiosarcomas expressed a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Significantly higher levels of Notch1 were detected compared with benign haemangiomas (p=0.033), but lower levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) compared to benign haemangiomas (p=0.07) and inflammatory vascular lesions (p=0.009). Vascular tumour expression of FGF receptor (FGFR)-1 correlated with angiopoietin (Ang)-2, Tie2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Notch1 expression (p=0.001, p=0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). Notch1 also correlated with Tie2 expression (p=0.004). In conclusion, angiosarcomas express multiple angiogenic growth factors. Treatments could be targeted at individual angiogenic growth factors. However, our findings provide a rationale for combination therapy, or for treatments that target common downstream signalling intermediaries, such as Akt, mTOR or ERK. PMID:24984271
Young, Robin J; Fernando, Malee; Hughes, David; Brown, Nicola J; Woll, Penella J
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine exogenous and endogenous factors have been analyzed; - reflexive and elastic economic growth factors have been determined; - economic policy was given the role of reflective element within the system to ensure economic growth. The system of factors should be considered within the system that ensures economic growth. It comprises two important elements which enlist the economic growth factors system, economic growth rates system and two reflexive elements – the state economic policy and economic growth models system. While analyzing the economic growth factors, their quality and impact upon the economy should be considered. Economic growth depends on the factors, consideration of which is one of the most important aspects of the economic growth theory. Economic growth reasons are the factors that cause this growth. These are phenomena and processes that can increase the production output, improve efficiency and quality. Factors classification completeness and their diversity do not necessarily mean the dead end of the study. Any classification has the sense only if it fulfills the certain function. If we take into account economic growth modeling, factors diversification and their characteristics classification it implies that models are becoming more complex, the range of their parameters expands, however it does not necessarily lead to more accurate prognosis. All the factors have different impact upon the economic development. Their first type is elastic ones. These factors directly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand. For instance, net export means the increasing foreign demand for our national products; favorable weather conditions lead to the agricultural produce growing supply without any significant change in the economy. These factors rates can be measured and their impact upon economic growth can be easily determined. Another group of factors that indirectly regulate the correlation between the supply and demand are the reflexive factors. They function through structural changes, distribution and motivation system, insignificant restrictions and stimulus. These factors can only be characterized by indirect rates (human development index to measure human capital and their impact upon economic growth, supply and demand is minor in the long run. This group enlists institutional and social factors that become more and more important in post industrial economy. Taking into account economic growth factors impact upon the supply and demand, we can sate that analysis that has been carried out provides good grounds to improve the research methodology in the field of economic growth modeling. We cannot definitely say if there are certain economic growth factors that are entirely independent from the state regulation. Firstly, government itself indirectly impacts the economic growth, by adopting new laws, for instance. Secondly, the main function of the state is to administratively regulate the economic system. This processit can lead to a significant development. Consequently the state plays one of the major roles in the economic factors development. Conclusions and directions of further researches. To ensure Ukraine’s constant economic development and to establish corresponding strategies to reach that goal it is of utmost importance to classify the economic growth factors and to study carefully their impact on the economic processes as the whole.
A method of growing bioengineered tissues includes, as a major component, the use of mammalian cells that have been transfected with genes for secretion of regulator and growth-factor substances. In a typical application, one either seeds the cells onto an artificial matrix made of a synthetic or natural biocompatible material, or else one cultures the cells until they secrete a desired amount of an extracellular matrix. If such a bioengineered tissue construct is to be used for surgical replacement of injured tissue, then the cells should preferably be the patient s own cells or, if not, at least cells matched to the patient s cells according to a human-leucocyteantigen (HLA) test. The bioengineered tissue construct is typically implanted in the patient's injured natural tissue, wherein the growth-factor genes enhance metabolic functions that promote the in vitro development of functional tissue constructs and their integration with native tissues. If the matrix is biodegradable, then one of the results of metabolism could be absorption of the matrix and replacement of the matrix with tissue formed at least partly by the transfected cells. The method was developed for articular chondrocytes but can (at least in principle) be extended to a variety of cell types and biocompatible matrix materials, including ones that have been exploited in prior tissue-engineering methods. Examples of cell types include chondrocytes, hepatocytes, islet cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, other organ cells, bone- and cartilage-forming cells, epithelial and endothelial cells, connective- tissue stem cells, mesodermal stem cells, and cells of the liver and the pancreas. Cells can be obtained from cell-line cultures, biopsies, and tissue banks. Genes, molecules, or nucleic acids that secrete factors that influence the growth of cells, the production of extracellular matrix material, and other cell functions can be inserted in cells by any of a variety of standard transfection techniques.
Madry, Henning; Langer, Robert S.; Freed, Lisa E.; Trippel, Stephen; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
The present study examines the ontogeny of the nerve growth factor receptor of neural crest cells in vitro and the phenotypic nature of the neural crest cells expressing this receptor. /sup 125/I-NGF binding assays and autoradiographic and immunofluorescence techniques have demonstrated the presence of a subpopulation of quail neural crest cells that express specific NGF receptors after 3-4 days in vitro. This subpopulations represents approximately 28% of the cells in 5-day primary cultures and 30-35% of the cells in secondary cultures; these cells generally exhibited a flattened, phase-dark morphology. Approximately one-third of these cells also labeled with a 2 hr pulse of /sup 3/H thymidine. Catecholamine-containing neural crest cells generally lacked NGF receptors. NGF receptor-positive cells also failed to demonstrate somatostatin-, neuron-specific enolase-, or S-100-like immunoreactivity. Melanocytes do not appear to express NGF receptors. Exogenous nerve growth factor did not influence the morphology or mitotic status of the cells in culture.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent hepatocyte mitogen that exerts opposing effects depending on cell density. Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in mammalian cells that modulates growth and apoptosis. We previously showed that GSH level is inversely related to cell density of hepatocytes and is positively related to growth. Our current work examined whether HGF can modulate GSH synthesis in a cell density-dependent manner and how GSH in turn influence HGF's effects. We found HGF treatment of H4IIE cells increased cell GSH levels only under subconfluent density. The increase in cell GSH under low density was due to increased transcription of GSH synthetic enzymes. This correlated with increased protein levels and nuclear binding activities of c-Jun, c-Fos, p65, p50, Nrf1 and Nrf2 to the promoter region of these genes. HGF acts as a mitogen in H4IIE cells under low cell density and protects against tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)-induced apoptosis by limiting JNK activation. However, HGF is pro-apoptotic under high cell density and exacerbates TNF?-induced apoptosis by potentiating JNK activation. The increase in cell GSH under low cell density allows HGF to exert its full mitogenic effect but is not necessary for its anti-apoptotic effect
We examined the effect of the trophic protein, nerve growth factor (NGF), on cultures of fetal rat neostriatum and basal forebrain-medial septal area (BF-MS) to define its role in brain development. Treatment of cultures with NGF resulted in an increase in the specific activity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (CAT) in both brain areas. CAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons. In the BF-MS, NGF treatment elicited a marked increase in staining intensity and an apparent increase in the number of CAT-positive neurons. Moreover, treatment of BF-MS cultures with NGF increased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting that the cholinergic neuron as a whole was affected. To begin defining mechanisms of action of NGF in the BF-MS, we detected NGF receptors by two independent methods. Receptors were localized to two different cellular populations: neuron-like cells, and non-neuron-like cells. Dissociation studies with [125I]NGF suggested that high affinity receptors were localized to the neuron-like population. Only low-affinity receptors were localized to the non-neuron-like cells. Moreover, employing combined immunocytochemistry and [125I]NGF autoradiography, we detected a subpopulation of CAT-containing neutrons that exhibited high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing cell group also expressed high affinity binding. However, only subsets of cholinergic or GABA neurons expressed of cholinergic or GABA neurons expressed high-affinity biding, suggesting that these transmitter populations are composed of differentially response subpopulations
Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503
Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.
Transforming growth factor-? is a central mediator of the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma, the most common and malignant form of intrinsic brain tumours. Transforming growth factor-? promotes invasiveness and angiogenesis, maintains cancer cell stemness and induces profound immunosuppression in the host. Integrins regulate cellular adhesion and transmit signals important for cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and motility, and may be involved in the activation of transforming growth factor-?. We report that ?v?3, ?v?5 and ?v?8 integrins are broadly expressed not only in glioblastoma blood vessels but also in tumour cells. Exposure to ?v, ?3 or ?5 neutralizing antibodies, RNA interference-mediated integrin gene silencing or pharmacological integrin inhibition using the cyclic RGD peptide EMD 121974 (cilengitide) results in reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 in most glioma cell lines, including glioma-initiating cell lines and reduced transforming growth factor-?-mediated reporter gene activity, coinciding with reduced transforming growth factor-? protein levels in the supernatant. Time course experiments indicated that the loss of transforming growth factor-? bioactivity due to integrin inhibition likely results from two distinct mechanisms: an early effect on activation of preformed inactive protein, and second, major effect on transforming growth factor-? gene transcription as confirmed by decreased activity of the transforming growth factor-? gene promoter and decreased transforming growth factor-?(1) and transforming growth factor-?(2) messenger RNA expression levels. In vivo, EMD 121974 (cilengitide), which is currently in late clinical development as an antiangiogenic agent in newly diagnosed glioblastoma, was a weak antagonist of pSmad2 phosphorylation. These results validate integrin inhibition as a promising strategy not only to inhibit angiogenesis, but also to block transforming growth factor-?-controlled features of malignancy including invasiveness, stemness and immunosuppression in human glioblastoma. PMID:23378223
Roth, Patrick; Silginer, Manuela; Goodman, Simon L; Hasenbach, Kathy; Thies, Svenja; Maurer, Gabriele; Schraml, Peter; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Moch, Holger; Tritschler, Isabel; Weller, Michael
This paper reviews available reports on the advantages and possibilities of clinical use of platelet-rich plasma preparations, with particular emphasis on platelet growth factors. Platelets, an important reservoir of growth factors in the body, play an important role in many processes such as coagulation, immune response, angiogenesis and the healing of damaged tissues. Numerous proteins are contained in the alpha-granules of platelets: platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor (TGF), platelet factor interleukin (IL), platelet-derived angiogenesis factor (PDAF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor IGF and fibronectin. The development of methods and systems for blood and cell sorting (e.g. CAPSS - compact advanced platelet sequestration system Elektromedics 500, PCCS - platelet concentrate collection system Curasan) have made it possible to obtain significant concentrations of platelets (even by 338 percent) and high concentrations of growth factors, in a form of sterile mass that can be used immediately for clinical purposes. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP; autologous platelet-rich plasma - APRP) are platelet concentrates made of autogenous blood with a high number of platelets in a small volume of plasma. The clinical efficacy of platelet concentrates depends mainly on the number of platelets and the concentration of their growth factors, which act as transmitters in most processes in tissues, particularly in healing where they are responsible for proliferation, differentiation, chemotaxis and tissue morphogenesis. They operate as part of autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. Growth factors derived from centrifuged blood were first used in patients with chronic skin ulcers. The clinical use of PRP for a wide variety of applications has been reported mostly in oral and maxillo-facial surgery, orthopedic surgery, treatment of soft tissue diseases and injuries, treatment of burns, hard-to-heal wounds, tissue engineering and implantology. PMID:23648195
Lubkowska, A; Dolegowska, B; Banfi, G
Full Text Available Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through which an organized system was formed was applied. Finally, the values of entropy system and of the organization level of the factors system were determined.
Nervous system growth and differentiation are closely correlated with the presence of iodine and thyroid hormones in initial development stages. In the human species, encephalon maturation during the first quarter of pregnancy is affected according to recent studies by the transplacenta passage of maternal thyroid hormones while it depends on initial iodiothyronin secretion by the foetal gland after the 12th week of pregnancy. Thyroid hormone deficiency during nervous system development cause...
Silvestro, Leandra; Zambelli, Maria Cristina
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2 or hypoxia (10% O2 for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.
Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.
AIM: To elucidate the biological effects of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) on intrahepatic cholan-giocarcinoma (ICC). METHODS: We investigated the effects of TGF-?1 on human ICC cell lines (HuCCT1, MEC, and HuH-28) by monitoring the influence of TGF-?1 on tumor growth and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in ICC cells. RESULTS: All three human ICC cell lines produced TGF-?1 and demonstrated accelerated growth in the presence of TGF-?1 with no apoptotic effect. Studies on HuCCT1 revealed a TGF-?1-induced stimulation of the expression of TGF-?1, as well as a decrease in TGF-?1 mRNA expression induced by neutralizing anti-TGF-?1 antibody. These results indicate that TGF-?1 stimulates the production and function of TGF-?1 in an autocrine fashion. Further, IL-6 secretion was observed in all three cell lines and exhibited an inhibitory response to neutralizing anti-TGF-?1 antibody. Experiments using HuCCT1 revealed a TGF-?1-induced acceleration of IL-6 protein expression and mRNA levels. These findings demonstrate a functional interaction between TGF-?1 and IL-6. All three cell lines proliferated in the presence of IL-6. In contrast, TGF-?1 induced no growth effect in HuCCT1 in the presence of small interfering RNA against a specific cell surface receptor of IL-6 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. CONCLUSION: ICC cells produce TGF-?1 and confer a TGF-?1-induced growth effect in an autocrine fashion. TGF-?1 activates IL-6 production, and the functional interaction between TGF-?1 and IL-6 contributes to ICC cell growth by TGF-?1. PMID:17072955
Shimizu, Tetsuya; Yokomuro, Shigeki; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Arima, Yasuo; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi
Because of the importance of epidermal growth factor signaling pathway in oncogenesis, maintenance, and progression of different types of tumors, there are great significance that non-invasive monitoring of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the diagnosis and the judge of therapeutic efficacy. The studys of radioactive tracers for EGFR have provided a good basis for the molecular imaging of EGFR. (authors)
Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…
Full Text Available This article attempts to identify factors affecting participation in payment of irrigation service fees. There are five variables comprising demographic and economic of land variables were tested to find the variables that influenced the participation significantly. The five variables tested consisted of age and formal education as demographic variables; land productivity, land size, and land tenure as the economic of land variables. The results showed that formal education (demographic variable had positive relationship and land size (economic of land variable had negative relationship with the participation. Positive relationship between formal education and participation in payment of irrigation service fees meant that the participation increased as farmers’ education increased. Meanwhile, negative relationship between land size and the participation in payment of irrigation service fees showed that the farmers’ participation wouldincrease as the land size owned by farmers decreased. In other words, participation in payment of irrigation service fees was higher among farmers with small lands rather than that among farmers with large lands.
Gelar Satya Budhi
The aim of this study was to find out the relationship between body iron stores and serum aluminum levels among 82 stable CAPD patients. The influence of other factors such as time on CAPD and residual renal function was also considered. Thirty-three patients received aluminum hydroxide as a phosphate binder, and they had significantly higher aluminum levels (36.45 microg/l) than the patients who were not taking aluminum preparations (17.2 microg/l, p = 0.001). A statistically-significant correlation between serum aluminum levels and residual renal function and time on CAPD was also observed (p 0.05). In previous reports, low serum iron levels were associated with high serum aluminum concentration among hemodialysis patients. However, this effect was not observed in the CAPD population under study. The highest risk of hyperaluminemia was found in the patients who were taking aluminum hydroxide, had worse residual renal function and had been longer on CAPD. PMID:9725777
Montenegro, J; Aguirre, R; Saracho, R; Moina, I; Martínez, I
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O código genético é degenerado, isto é, o mesmo amino ácido pode ser codificado por vários codons. Apesar de codificarem o mesmo amino ácido, estes codons sinônimos não são utilizados da mesma forma em genomas diferentes, e mesmo em um único genoma o padrão de uso dos codons sinônimos pode variar mu [...] ito entre os genes, ou ainda ao longo de um único gene. Com a recente introdução de seqüências genômicas completas as razões destes desvios no uso de codons estão começando a ser entendidas. Neste artigo nós vamos apresentar alguns dos fatores propostos para as variações no uso de codons sinônimos e as forças seletivas que podem influenciar tais variações. Abstract in english The genetic code is degenerate, i.e. some amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. Although coding for the same amino acid, synonymous codons are not equally used in different genomes, and even in a single genome the synonymous codon usage can vary widely among genes, or even along the gene [...] sequences. With the recent advent of full genome sequences we are starting to unravel the reasons for these deviations. In this review we will cover some of the proposed factors that might cause different codon usage bias and the selective forces influencing it.
Hannah M. W., Salim; Andre R. O., Cavalcanti.
Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.
Marcos Gimenes Fernandes
Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.
The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ...
Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.
The unifying hypothesis of the NSCORT in gravitational biology postulates that the ECM and growth factors are key interrelated components of a macromolecular regulatory system. The ECM is known to be important in growth and branching morphogenesis of embryonic organs. Growth factors have been detected in the developing embryo, and often the pattern of localization is associated with areas undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Causal relationships between these components may be of fundamental importance in control of branching morphogenesis.
Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.
The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a biological pathway that is present in human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. OGF, chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is an endogenous opioid peptide that interfaces with OGFr to delay cells moving through the cell cycle by upregulation of cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways. OGF inhibitory activity is dose dependent, receptor mediated, reversible, protein and RNA dependent, but not related to apoptosis or necrosis. The OGF-OGFr axis can be targeted for treatment of human ovarian cancer by (i) administration of exogenous OGF, (ii) genetic manipulation to over-express OGFr and (iii) use of low dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, which stimulates production of OGF and OGFr for subsequent interaction following blockade of the receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis may be a feasible target for treatment of cancer of the ovary (i) in a prophylactic fashion, (ii) following cytoreduction or (iii) in conjunction with standard chemotherapy for additive effectiveness. In summary, preclinical data support the transition of these novel therapies for treatment of human ovarian cancer from the bench to bedside to provide additional targets for treatment of this devastating disease. PMID:23856908
Zagon, Ian S; Donahue, Renee; McLaughlin, Patricia J
Myocardium is very sensitive to gravitational changes. During a spaceflight cardiovascular atrophy paired with rhythm problems and orthostatic intolerance can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on cardiac fibroblasts (CF) grown under altered gravity conditions.
Ulbrich, Claudia; Leder, Annekatrin
Full Text Available Abstract The influence of physical factors, such as microwave radiations, is today an alternative in agriculture for stimulation of plant vitality. In this study we aimed to evaluate the influence of microwaves in the early seedlings stages for 4 Romanian barley genotypes: Cardinal, Sistem, Dana and Maresal. This study was conducted to determine whether there are differentiated responses to microwave irradiation, at different powers and different exposure times, on the dynamics of root growth in some barley cultivars. Root growth measurements were performed after 3, 7 and 14 days of treatment with microwaves. It was observed that genotype, power or exposure time had significant influence both on root growth and on the number of roots of the studied barley genotypes. Microwave treatment caused significant differences in seedlings root growth. The greatest influence on root growth had the time of exposure. The best results in terms of root growth were obtained for the Cardinal and Sistem variety. At these varieties we observed the best stimulation effect, and the lowest influence of the microwave action. The most affected genotype was Dana, with the lowest stimulation effect.
The goal of this work was to determine the molecular basis for the induction of tumour vascularization and progression by injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated that administration of wound fluid derived from cutaneous injuries in pigs reduced the lag for vascularization and initiation of growth of C6 glioma spheroids, implanted in nude mice, and accelerated tumour doubling time. The former effect can be attributed to the angiogenic capacity of wound fluid as detected i...
Abramovitch, R.; Marikovsky, M.; Meir, G.; Neeman, M.
Full Text Available Sugiyarto, Wardani PK, Setyono P, Mahajoeno E, Sunarto. 2013. Influence of mycorrhiza and organic ferlitizer to the growth of matoa (Pometia pinnata seedling. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 57-62. The purpose of this research was to find out the influence of mycorrhiza, organic fertilizer and their combination to the growth of seedlings matoa. The reseach was arranged on Completely Randomized design with two treatments factor; i.e. giving mycorrhiza (0 g, 5 g, 10 g/polybag and giving organic fertilizer (0 mL, 1 mL, 2 mL/polybag respectively each in 6 replications. The observed treatments were plant height, leaf number and plant biomass. The observation datas were analyzed by multivariate analysis level of 5 %, continued with LSD test. The result showed that there was no significant influence on given mycorrhiza for matoa seedling growth for all of the growth parameters. There was no influence of organic fertilizer for plant height parameter, but significantly influence for the number of leaf and biomass. The best increase of the number of leaf and biomass was on organic fertilizer treatment at 2 mL dosage. There were no influence in the growth of matoa by the combination treatments betwen mycorrhyza and organik fertilizer.
Background/Aim—Fibroadenomas are benign tumours composed of both glandular and fibrous tissue. The mechanisms regulating the growth of these tumours and the relation between the stromal and epithelial cells are poorly understood. Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) is a well known fibroblast activator, which acts through four specific cell surface receptors, among which, fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is highly specific. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution...
Rosa, S.; Sessa, F.; Colombo, L.; Tibiletti, M.; Furlan, D.; Capella, C.
Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth were the subject of many recent theoretical and empirical works. These works generally focused on link between finance and growth according to the maturity of financial systems. The Tunisian economy knew a long period of financial repression before starting several phases of liberalization. The aim of the paper is to determinate the impact of the development of the Tunisian financial system on economic growth. We identified economic and financial development indicators of Tunisian economy. The empirical study on Tunisia is based on causality tests within B-VAR framework. Reciprocal relationships are only finding between the ratio of investment on GDP and the loans granted to private and public sectors. The economic role of government is highlighted, over the pre-reforms period as well as during the recent time.
Imène Ben Fredj
Full Text Available In this article the author's approach to consideration of the factors influencing innovative activity of managing subjects is presented. Innovations, as one of the major factors, are presented.
Sobchenko N. V.
Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ?. Whereas transforming growth factor ? reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated
Basic fibroblast growth factor is one of a class of heparin-binding growth factors that stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in chronic periapical lesions of endodontic origin. Ten chronic inflammatory periapical lesions were examined using immunohistochemical staining. The experimental control group consisted of four specimens of uninflamed periodontal ligament tissue. Two independent observers graded the staining intensity for basic fibroblast growth factor. An immunopositive, cytoplasmic, and nuclear reaction for basic fibroblast growth factor, with varying degrees of upregulation was observed in all 10 chronic periapical lesions. We speculate that the formation of granulation tissue and the activation of epithelial cell rests in chronical apical lesions might be associated with a local rise in the tissue level of basic fibroblast growth factor. Therefore, this growth factor could play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic apical periodontitis and periapical cysts. PMID:16631837
Moldauer, Ivan; Velez, Ines; Kuttler, Sergio
Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea...
Malikeh Beheshtifar; Fateme-Begom Kamani-Fard
The activity of beavers Castor canadensis in freshwater environments can have considerable localized impacts on the physical and biological components of riparian ecosystems. By changing the habitat of a stream, beaver dams can cause spatial variation in growth opportunity that may have direct consequences for the growth of resident fish. In a small stream in eastern Canada, we studied the effects of an ephemeral beaver pond on the growth and maturity of age-2 Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr tagged with passive integrated transponder tags. Water temperature remained relatively uniform throughout the study site. We found very little movement of recaptured fish in the study site. Fish that were recaptured in the beaver pond displayed faster summer growth rates in both length and mass than fish that were recaptured immediately above or below the pond. We also found that parr in the pond maintained relatively high condition factors, whereas fish above and below the pond appeared to decrease in condition factor throughout the summer. In addition to growth, the maturation rates of age-2 males were higher above the dam than below. This study demonstrates the effect a beaver dam can have on individual growth rates. By influencing growth during sensitive periods, the beaver pond may also influence individual life history pathways. This information could be an important component in ecosystem models that predict the effect of beaver population dynamics on the growth of individual salmonids at the landscape scale. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.
Sigourney, D.B.; Letcher, B.H.; Cunjak, R.A.
BACKGROUND: As downsizing of institutional care continues, patients discharged are likely to have more severe mental illnesses, and to have experienced longer tenures within institutions than patients who have been discharged in the past. As greater numbers of patients are removed from mental hospitals, the objective burden experienced by informal care-givers may increase, particularly if formal care levels are inadequate. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This paper documents who assumes informal care-giver roles, and the form such care-giving takes for patients discharged from a state hospital. Specifically, this paper identifies (i) what factors affect a person's decision to assume a care-giver role, including the participation of other network members in care-giving, (ii) what factors influence whether care-giving is provided in time or in direct purchase of care and (iii) how the patient's treatment location affects the decision of the network member to assume any care-giving role. DATA AND ANALYTICAL METHODS: Data for this paper are taken from a longitudinal study of the closure of a state mental hospital in central Indiana. Seventy-seven patients were asked to identify their community networks. Ninety-eight network members were surveyed about the informal care, both in time or through direct expenditures, they provided to these patients one year after discharge. Care-giving relationships were estimated using a multivariate probit model. Such a model estimates the extent to which the decision to provide care in either form depends on the care-giving activities assumed by other network members associated with a given patient, as well as the characteristics of individual patients and network members. RESULTS: Forty-one per cent of network members provided some level of informal care, with 13.3% providing some care in time, and 35.7% providing some care through direct expenditures. A positive relationship was found between participation in informal care-giving and the perception by the network member that patient needs were not being met by professionals. The decision to provide informal care was also found to be sensitive to the level of informal and formal care received by the patient. Care-giving in expense was found to be positively related to the care-giving decisions of other informal care-givers, but care-giving in time was not. Network members were more likely to provide care in time for patients who had been recently discharged to the community than for patients who remained in institutional settings. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the transfer of persons with severe mental illnesses from state hospitals to the community may shift the care burden between formal and informal providers. If this is the case, discharge criteria should include such factors as the community resources available to the patient. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: The responsiveness of network members to perceived unmet need bespeaks the importance of informal care when the continuity of formal care cannot be assured. Findings also suggest there may be some substitution of formal and informal care when patients are discharged from institutions. Further analysis is required to determine whether network members' perceptions of unmet need are accurate, and means by which network members can be made better attuned to unmet needs actually experienced by patients. PMID:11964494
Holmes, Ann M.; Deb, Partha
Normal and neoplastic tissues display cellular hierarchies that integrate extracellular cues to maintain tissue function through bidirectional signals mediated via cell surface proteins. Two papers in Cancer Cell, one in this issue (Day and colleagues) and one in a recent issue (Binda and colleagues), describe how Eph receptor tyrosine kinases critically define and regulate the growth of cancer stem cells.
Venere, Monica; Lathia, Justin D.; Rich, Jeremy N.
The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.
Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)
Growth factor bioavailability in therapeutic applications such as wound healing is limited by extracellular matrix sequestration, proteolysis, and clearance. Local, transient delivery by gene transfer is an attractive concept. Many transfection strategies are available, and adenoviral vectors are in clinical trials. Keratinocyte growth factor-1 (KGF-1), an epithelial-specific member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, has achieved limited success in protein formulations. Matrix- and cell-based strategies for delivering a KGF-1 virion to target tissue may improve the reproducibility and efficiency of the process, although the advantages of cell-based therapy must be weighed against its added cost and complexity. PMID:18478013
Davidson, Jeffrey M
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been known to be a significant factor in the development and growth of many types of cancers. It is now accepted that the EGFR signal transduction net work plays an important role in multiple tumorigenic processes, contributing to cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as protection from apoptosis. Recently, EGFR monoclonal antibodies (McAb) and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors have been validated as new treatment approach for those EGFR-positive cancers and have shown activity aginst advanced, chemofractory cancers in clinical trials. This article focuses on three EGFR targeted molecularly therapies of cancers. (authors)
The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.
Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY)
Full Text Available There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.
Laurie Drozdowski, Alan BR Thomson
Antiangiogenic therapy is emerging as a highly promising strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer, but the clinical benefits are usually transitory. The purpose of this study was to identify and target alternative angiogenic pathways that are upregulated in ovarian xenografts during treatment with bevacizumab. For this, angiogenesis-focused gene expression arrays were used to measure gene expression levels in SKOV3 and A2780 serous ovarian xenografts treated with bevacizumab or control. Reverse transcription-PCR was used for results validation. The insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was found upregulated in tumor and stromal cells in the two ovarian xenograft models treated with bevacizumab. Cixutumumab was used to block IGF-1 signaling in vivo. Dual anti-VEGF and IGF blockade with bevacizumab and cixutumumab resulted in increased inhibition of tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry measured multivessel density, Akt activation, and cell proliferation, whereas terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay measured apoptosis in ovarian cancer xenografts. Bevacizumab and cixutumumab combination increased tumor cell apoptosis in vivo compared with therapy targeting either individual pathway. The combination blocked angiogenesis and cell proliferation but not more significantly than each antibody alone. In summary, IGF-1 activation represents an important mechanism of adaptive escape during anti-VEGF therapy in ovarian cancer. This study provides the rationale for designing bevacizumab-based combination regimens to enhance antitumor activity. PMID:22700681
Shao, Minghai; Hollar, Stacy; Chambliss, Daphne; Schmitt, Jordan; Emerson, Robert; Chelladurai, Bhadrani; Perkins, Susan; Ivan, Mircea; Matei, Daniela
Solubilized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) has been used in an extension of the Geysen epitope mapping protocol in order to provide additional insight into the amino acid residues in human transforming growth factor alpha (hTGF alpha) which are critical to recognition and binding. Overlapping heptapeptides which encompassed the 50 amino acid primary sequence of hTGF alpha were synthesized on a polyethylene solid phase, and the amount of detergent-solubilized EGF-R bound to each peptide was measured using ELISA. EGF-R appeared to bind reproducibly to four heptapeptides cognate to sequences in both the N- and C-domains of hTGF alpha (residues 22-28, 28-34, 36-42, and 44-50). Visualization of these four regions on three-dimensional solution phase structures of hTGF alpha, derived from 1H NMR measurements [Kline, T.-P., Brown, F.K., Brown, S.C., Jeffs, P.W., Kopple, K.D., & Mueller, L. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 7805-7813], indicated that the peptide segments are located on a single face of the protein and suggested the presence of a potential receptor binding cavity. If peptide segments within both the N- and C-domains of hTGF alpha are involved in binding to EGF-R, then this has direct consequences for possible molecular mechanisms by which receptor activation might take place. For example, the observed conformational flexibility in the six NMR-derived hTGF alpha structures due to variations in the main-chain torsion angles of Val-33, in combination with the involvement of residues from both domains in the proposed binding cavity, may imply that receptor activation results from interdomain reorientation in the protein ligand.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1390737
Richter, A; Conlan, J W; Ward, M E; Chamberlin, S G; Alexander, P; Richards, N G; Davies, D E
This review describes precisely the consequence of TGF?1 prevalence in the organism, and its significant influence on physiological and pathophysiological processes. Organ and tissue distinctiveness hinder unambiguous characterisation of the cytokine. However, there are constant functions of TGF?1 inducing no controversy: it participates in foetal development, control of cell growth and differentiation, induces fibrosis and scar formation (the process of 'wound healing'), causes the suppression of immune response, is involved in angiogenesis, the development of tumours, and inflammatory processes. Thus, TGF?1 is a multifunctional cytokine. There are three fundamental directions of its activities: I. TGF?1 regulates cell proliferation, growth, differentiation and cells movement. II. TGF?1 has immunomodulatory effects. III. TGF?1 has profibrogenic effects. TGF?1 action can be local and systemic. This review describes TGF?1 in pathology: colitis ulcerosa, Crohn's disease, coeliac disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic foot, pulmonary hypertension, and Alzheimer's disease. TGF?1 and its receptors are also of interest to endocrinologists. Lack of TGF?1-dependent growth control may result in oncogenesis: papillary, follicular and anaplastic thyroid cancers, prostate, breast and uterine cervical cancer, oesophagus, gastric, colorectal and liver cancers, NSCLC, and malignant melanoma. Excessive TGF?1 activity is an integral part of the fibrotic processes occurring in the response to injury. An increased TGF?1 expression has been observed in patients with pulmonary, kidney, and liver fibrosis. In chronic hepatitis, the prolonged stimulation of hepatic stellate cells being the result of chronic damage to hepatocytes results in the release of profibrogenic abundant factors such as TGF?1 and leads to the development of liver cirrhosis. The results of experimental procedures and treatment known as anti-TGF?1 strategy acting against the fibrosis in various tissues leads to hope regarding the use of anti-TGF?1 strategy in clinical practice. PMID:24186596
Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Marek, Bogdan; Borgiel-Marek, Halina; Kos-Kud?a, Beata
This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)
Masud, E. [ed.
Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and growth factor receptors mediate multiple physio-pathological responses to a diverse array of extracellular stimuli. In this regard, it has been largely demonstrated that GPCRs and growth factor receptors generate a multifaceted signaling network, which triggers relevant biological effects in normal and cancer cells. For instance, some GPCRs transactivate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which stimulates diverse transduction pathways leading to gene expression changes, cell migration, survival and proliferation. Moreover, it has been reported that a functional interaction between growth factor receptors and steroid hormones like estrogens is involved in the growth of many types of tumors as well as in the resistance to endocrine therapy. This review highlights recent findings on the cross-talk between a member of the GPCR family, the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER, formerly known as GPR30) and two main growth factor receptors like EGFR and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR). The biological implications of the functional interaction between these important mediators of cell responses particularly in cancer are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'. PMID:23542661
Lappano, Rosamaria; De Marco, Paola; De Francesco, Ernestina Marianna; Chimento, Adele; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Maggiolini, Marcello
In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the kinetic energy of an ablating, inward-driven, solid spherical shell is used to compressionally heat the low-density fuel inside. For a given drive, the maximum achievable compressed fuel density and temperature - and hence the maximum neutron production rate depend on the degree of shell isentropy and integrity maintained during the compression. Shell integrity will be degraded by hydrodynamic instability growth of areal density imperfections in the capsule. Surface imperfections on the shell grow as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities when the shell is accelerated by the ablating lower-density plasma. Perturbations at the outer capsule surface are transferred hydrodynamically to the inner surface, where deceleration of the shell by the lower-density fuel gives rise to further RT growth at the pusher-fuel interface.
Landen, O.L.; Keane, C.J.; Hammel, B.A. [and others
Examined factors influencing the selection of a major area of study by undergraduate female students (N=437). Subjects were asked to indicate how important were 16 factors identified as potentially influential. Results were reported in terms of three distinct groupings of items: academic, social, and economic/pragmatic influences. (JAC)
Peterson, Karen L.; Roscoe, Bruce
This study reports on the algebraic generalisation strategies used by two fifth grade students along with the factors that appeared to influence these strategies. These students were examined over 18 instructional sessions using a teaching experiment methodology. The results highlighted the complex factors that appeared to influence student…
Lannin, John; Barker, David; Townsend, Brian
Vascular bypass procedures in the central nervous system (CNS) remain technically challenging, hindered by complications and often failing to prevent adverse outcome such as stroke. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for a safe and effective CNS revascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are promising candidates for revascularization; however, their effects appear to be tissue-specific and their potential in the CNS has not been fully explored. To test growth factors for angiogenesis in the CNS, we characterized the effects of endothelium-specific growth factors on the brain vasculature and parenchyma. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding the growth factors were injected transcranially to the frontoparietal cerebrum of mice. Angiogenesis, mural cell investment, leukocyte recruitment, vascular permeability, reactive gliosis and neuronal patterning were evaluated by 3-dimensional immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, optical projection tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Placenta growth factor (PlGF) stimulated robust angiogenesis and arteriogenesis without significant side effects, whereas VEGF and VEGF-C incited growth of aberrant vessels, severe edema, and inflammation. VEGF-B, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and a VEGF/angiopoietin-1 chimera had minimal effects on the brain vessels or parenchyma. Of the growth factors tested, PlGF emerged as the most efficient and safe angiogenic factor, hence making it a candidate for therapeutic CNS revascularization. PMID:23803710
Gaál, Emília Ilona; Tammela, Tuomas; Anisimov, Andrey; Marbacher, Serge; Honkanen, Petri; Zarkada, Georgia; Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Alitalo, Kari
There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.
Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni
Atomic force microscopy was applied to investigate the influence of protein and precipitant (sodium-potassium tartrate) concentration on thaumatin crystal growth mechanisms. At constant protein concentration, a decrease of salt concentration from 0.8 to 0.085 M caused a transition of the crystal growth mechanism from two-dimensional nucleation to dislocation growth. At different, fixed concentrations of salt, the protein concentration, which does not induce multiple crystal nucleation, was increased from 8 to 60 mg/ml with corresponding increases in the tangential velocity of growth steps from 5 to 17.5 nm/s. Results from these experiments suggest that a highly concentrated protein solution, as might be found in a protein rich phase, may not induce crystal nucleation, but can promote crystal growth if screw dislocations are present in the crystal.
Kuznetsov, Yu. G.; Malkin, A. J.; McPherson, A.
Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.
Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight. Presented with an imbalanced dietary phosphorus to calcium ratio, increased secretion of FGF23 will inhibit renal phosphorus reabsorption, resulting in increased excretion and reduced circulating phosphorus. Increased intake and excretion of phosphorus is associated with increased kidney stone risk in both the terrestrial and microgravity environments. Highly processed foods and carbonated beverages are associated with higher phosphorus content. Ideally, the dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio should be at minimum 1:1. Nutritional requirements for spaceflight suggest that this ratio not be less than 0.67 (3), while the International Space Station (ISS) menu provides 1020 mg Ca and 1856 mg P, for a ratio of 0.55 (3). Subjects in NASA's bed rest studies, by design, have consumed intake ratios much closer to 1.0 (4). FGF23 also has an inhibitory influence on PTH secretion and 1(alpha)-hydroxylase, both of which are required for activating vitamin D with the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will result in decreased intestinal phosphorus absorption, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion (via decreased renal reabsorption). Should a decrease in 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D be necessary to reduce intestinal phosphorus absorption, calcium absorption will also proportionally be reduced, potentially leading to skeletal demineralization. Demineralization of bone can increase kidney stone risk, a medical issue that could prove detrimental to mission success. Given the interrelationships described above, we sought to determine circulating FGF23 concentrations in spaceflight and ground analog studies to better understand the potential effects of dietary phosphorus on bone and calcium metabolism. We analyzed serum from ISS astronauts participating in studies of bone biochemistry, including the Nutrition SMO and Pro K experiments, and we also evaluated FGF23 during extended-duration bed rest. Serum intact FGF23 levels were determined using an ELISA kit from Kainos laboratories in Japan. While initial evaluation of the data showed no changes over time during flight or bed rest, evaluation continues of FGF23 data in light of dietary factors, PTH, vitamin D status, and other biochemical and endocrine factors.
Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.
Full Text Available Hair is a protective appendage on the body that is considered accessory structure of the integument. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. The morphological changes of the hair cycle have been very clear that hair morphogenesis and epidermal development are orchestrated by an array of growth factors. In this review, we summarize the major growth factors involved in promoting growth of hair follicles
J. M. Wang
The influence factors of dynamic adsorption of noble gases in activated carbon is discussed in this paper. The influence of flow rate in a certain range and of CO2 concentration in normal environment may be ignored. Dynamic absorption coefficient increases with the increase in system pressure and decreases with the increase in temperature and relative humidity. Water content in activated carbon is practically used as an influence factor instead of relative humidity in the condition of unbalanced adsorption. (authors)
Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.
K. R. Sowmya
When the sympathetic nerve-like cell line PC12 is exposed to nerve growth factor (NGF), there is a rapid and transient phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in cellular proteins, as demonstrated by immunoblotting of cell extracts with high-affinity polyclonal antibodies specific for phosphotyrosine residues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), which does not cause the morphological differentiation of PC12 cells that is produced by NGF, also induces protein-tyrosine phosphorylation. The methyltransf...
Maher, P. A.
Polypeptide growth factors bind to the extracellular domains of cell surface receptors, triggering activation of receptor-intrinsic or receptor-associated protein kinases. Although this central thesis is widely accepted, one family of proteins, the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), have for more than a decade attracted a research “counter-culture” looking for direct FGF actions inside cells. Goldfarb discusses how the search for alternative signaling pathways is moving mainstream with the...
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-?, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15) mRNA and protein are influenced by photoperiod-induced ovarian regression and recrudescence in Siberian hamster ovaries.
Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod (SD) inhibits ovarian function, including folliculogenesis, whereas function is restored with their transfer to long photoperiods (LD). To investigate the mechanism of photo-stimulated recrudescence, we assessed key folliculogenic factors-anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-?, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15)-across the estrus cycle and in photo-regressed and recrudescing ovaries. Adult hamsters were exposed to either LD or SD for 14 weeks, which respectively represent functional and regressed ovaries. Select regressed hamsters were transferred back to LD for 2 (post-transfer week 2; PTw2) or 8 weeks (PTw8). Ovaries were collected and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemistry or frozen in liquid nitrogen for real-time PCR. AMH, inhibin-?, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA and protein were detected in all stages of the estrus cycle. Fourteen weeks of SD exposure increased (P?GDF9, and BMP15, but not inhibin-? mRNA levels as compared to LD. Transfer of regressed hamsters to stimulatory long photoperiod for 8 weeks returned AMH and GDF9 mRNA levels to LD-treated levels, and further increased mRNA levels for inhibin-? and BMP15. Immunostaining for AMH, inhibin-?, GDF9, and BMP15 proteins was most intense in preantral/antral follicles and oocytes. The overall immunostaining extent for AMH and inhibin-? generally mirrored the mRNA data, though no changes were observed for GDF9 or BMP15 immunostaining. Shifts in mRNA and protein levels across photoperiod conditions suggest possible syncretic roles for these folliculogenic factors in photo-stimulated recrudescence via potential regulation of follicle recruitment, preservation, and development. PMID:23877969
Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
Gupta, N.; Fischer, A. R. H.; Lans, I. A.; Frewer, L. J.
Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…
Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta
In the design of engineered tissues, guided balance of biomaterial degeneration with tissue synthesis offers refined control of construct development. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model that describes the steady state metabolism of extracellular matrix molecules (ECM: glycosaminoglycan and collagen) in an engineered cartilage construct taking into account localized environmental changes that may arise because of the application of growth factors. The variable effects of growth factors were incorporated in the form of random noise rather than the difference in rates of synthesis and catabolism. Thus, the frequency of ECM accumulation for each matrix molecule in the steady state under the random influence of growth factor was produced relative to the matrix carrying capacity. Published synthesis-rate time constants and steady state ECM conditions from chondrocyte-polymer scaffold composites provided both input and validation for the model. Although the presence of growth factors in the presented system dynamics were considered randomized, the results described a positive feedback or promotional ECM synthesis at low levels of growth factors. While a negative feedback or inhibition of ECM synthesis was characterized at higher levels of growth factors. This transition phenomenon is based on a comparison with the results of a steady state condition in the form of a deterministic model and supports previous reports of guided accumulation in musculoskeletal, connective, and neuronal tissues. PMID:15255217
Saha, Asit K; Mazumdar, Jagannath; Kohles, Sean S
We have used rats with epidermal growth factor (EGF) autoantibodies to study the role of EGF deficiency during perinatal development. The study was focused on organs known to contain EGF or its receptor. Compared with controls, the offspring of autoimmune rats had a higher perinatal mortality and a lower birth weight. The weight of the lungs was particularly low in the offspring of EGF-immunized rats, and morphologically the lungs from the surviving pups seemed atelectatic and had alveolar duct dilatation, which indicates mild respiratory distress syndrome. Judged from immunohistochemical studies, the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio was lower in pups from EGF-immunized rats. This difference was, however, not significant (p = 0.07), but flow cytometric analyses showed a significantly lower proportion of the liver cells from newborn EGF-deficient pups to be in S-phase and indicated that these cells were larger than liver cells from controls. To study possible alterations in EGF binding, 125I-EGF was injected i.v. in newborn rats. 125I-EGF bound in all the organs investigated. The binding is listed in decreasing order: liver, gut, skin, kidney, and lungs. In the pups from EGF-immunized rats, the lungs and the skin bound a significantly higher amount than the controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Raaberg, Lasse; NexØ, Ebba
Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea sources, and evidence of the creative planning process; and organizational creativity is as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The creative climate encourages people to generate new ideas and helps the organization to grow and increase its efficiency and at the same time it enables members to generate and implement creative ideas more effectively.
Endocytic uptake and intracellular transport of acidic FGF was studied in cells transfected with FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4). Acidification of the cytosol to block endocytic uptake from coated pits did not inhibit endocytosis of the growth factor in COS cells transfected with FGFR4, indicating that it is to a large extent taken up by an alternative endocytic pathway. Fractionation of the cells demonstrated that part of the growth factor receptor was present in a low-density, caveolin-containing fr...
Citores, Luci?a; Wesche, Jørgen; Kolpakova, Elona; Olsnes, Sjur
Diagnostic radiography is leading cause of manmade radiation exposure to the populace. The various types of examinations vary considerably with respect to patient dose. Surveys have shown that further to the variation due to technical advancements over time, the applied doses depend rather significantly on the standard of radiological practice in a specific setting and on the individual radiographer. Factors which affect patient in a standard radiological practice can be grouped into three; technical factors, patient characteristics and frequency of examination. The technical factors are as determined by the individual radiographer. If optimal performance is to be achieved, it is necessary to understand how these factors affect radiation dose and option available for reducing it.
Full Text Available Our previous laboratory study revealed that insufficient Ni supply can limit nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium, a primary diazotrophic phytoplankton in the tropical and subtropical oceans. Here we show that light intensity and Ni availability interrelate to influence Trichodesmium growth. Trichodesmium growth is severely inhibited under high light (670 uE m-2 s-1 and insufficient Ni condition. On the contrary, the sufficient supply of Ni in seawater can sustain the growth of Trichodesmium under either high or low light conditions. We also observed elevated intracellular Ni uptake in Trichodesmium grown under relatively high light condition, supporting that the Ni requirement is used for removing superoxide generated through photosynthetic electron transport. This study shows that light saturation condition for Trichodesmium growth is Ni concentration dependent. This finding may exhibit implications for interpreting temporal and spatial distributions and activities of Trichodesmium in both modern and ancient oceans when light intensity and Ni concentrations have significantly varied.
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with having preventive screening tests in a population-based sample of Ontario women. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey linked to data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to ascertain whether women aged 20 or older had Pap smears, mammography, bone densitometry, or cholesterol testing. Factors associated with having testing were subjected to logistic regression analysis. SETTING: Ontario....
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Melanoma is a heterogeneous disease of skin and mucous membranes which shows significant increase in incidence worldwide in the past decades. In the process of forming new blood vessels stimulators of angiogenesis participate. There is an increase production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C and VEGF-D, which expression cause change of endothelial cells, and higher degree of tumor's aggressiveness. The aim of this research was to determine the level of VEGF expression in skin melanoma in different body regions and in different primary stages of the disease. Methods. The research was conducted on bioptic materials of skin in 39 patients. On excision-made materials a routine histological preparation was done and following parameters were determined: histological type, alteration thickness (according to Breslow, Clark level, TNM (Tumor Nodus Metastasis stage (pT, alteration width, thickness of lymphocytic infiltration in the tumor, mitotic index, phase of the tumor growth, presence of ulcerations, cellular type of the tumor, localization and level of VEGF expression. Results. Analysis confirmed that 61.54% of skin melanoma showed a high VEGF expression. Nodular and acral lentiginous melanomas showed more frequently a high level of VEGF expression, while superficial spreading melanoma showed a lower level of VEGF expression (p = 0.032, p < 0.05. A higher level of expression was present in thicker melanomas (higher in the Breslow stage; p = 0.011, p < 0.05. The width of the lesion did not have an influence on the level of VEGF expression in melanoma (U =142.000, p = 0.273. Conclusion. Melanomas show a higher level of VEGF expression. Nodular and acral lentiginous types of melanoma show a high level of VEGF expression, while superficial spreading melanoma shows a lower level of VEGF expression. Melanomas in higher-stage disease (Breslow, Clark, pTNM show a higher level of VEGF expression.
Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.
Full Text Available From the view of university character, this study discussed the influencing factors of University-Industry collaboration. Using negative binomial regression and quantile regression model, the study empirically analyzed the U-I collaboration of 431 Universities in China. The results showed that: There are differences of influencing factors between high-quality and medium-quality universities and under the control of area and university type, the research quality and commercialization tendency are main influencing factors for university to collaborate with industry.
Full Text Available Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to organize resources and competence in novel patterns. Enterprises extend their ability to develop new business concepts, their dynamic capability, by accessing external resources. This study proposes to investigate how the use of external resources varies in the course of SMEs innovation processes, and how deployment of external resources is influenced by the nature of the innovation as well as by the context of the innovation process.
ONCIOIU FLORIN RAZVAN
Pilot experiments were conducted to analyse the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue and alfalfa), the addition of fertilizer, different concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agents (EMA) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during the bioremedi...
Tang, J. C.; Wang, R. G.; Niu, X. W.; Wang, M.; Chu, H. R.; Zhou, Q. X.
Full Text Available The growth of population is influenced by the number of factors in a particular region. The important factors such as the demographic, economic, social and physical factors have great bearing upon the growth of population. Now a day, Geography is not merely descriptive subject.
Narke Sunil Yuvaraj
Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to org...
ONCIOIU FLORIN RAZVAN; HOLBAN ONCIOIU IONICA
The origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been investigated. Unilateral nephrectomy decreased the concentration, total output of EGF and EGF/creatinine ratio by approximately 50%, while the output of creatinine was unchanged. Removal of the submandibular glands and duodenal Brunner's glands, organs known to produce EGF, had no influence on the output of EGF in urine. Renal clearance of EGF exceeded that of creatinine, and after bilateral nephrectomy or bilateral ligation of the ureters, the concentration of creatinine in serum increased, while the concentration of EGF was below the detection limit of the assay. Renal production of EGF was confirmed by immunohistochemistry demonstrating EGF immunoreactivity in the afferent arteriole of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. EGF in the submandibular glands and in urine was found to differ with chromatofocusing and reverse-phase HPLC. At isoelectric focusing the pI of submandibular EGF was 4.8 and 5.4 while that of urinary EGF was 5.3 and 6.4. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that urinary EGF mainly originates from the kidneys and is localized to the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus.
NexØ, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier
We explored serum concentrations and mRNA expression of insulin-like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis components in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and peripheral monocytes (PM) of 18 healthy females, 11 obese non-diabetic females (OB) and 13 obese women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) examined at baseline and after very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). T2DM women had decreased expression of IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), IGFBP-2 (IGF binding protein-2) and IGFBP-3 in SCAT and increased expression of IGF-1R in PM compared to control group. IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 mRNA expression in SCAT of OB was comparable to control group. In T2DM women VLCD increased serum levels and SCAT expression of IGFBP-2 and PM expression of IGFBP-3. We conclude that decreased IGF-1, IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 expression in SCAT and increased IGF-1R expression in PM of T2DM subjects might contribute to changes of fat differentiation capacity and to regulation of subclinical inflammation by PM, respectively. Increased SCAT and circulating IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in PM might participate in metabolic improvements after VLCD. PMID:22548717
Touskova, V; Trachta, P; Kavalkova, P; Drapalova, J; Haluzikova, D; Mraz, M; Lacinova, Z; Marek, J; Haluzik, M
Primate models of spinal cord injury differ from rodent models in several respects, including the relative size and functional neuroanatomy of spinal projections. Fundamental differences in scale raise the possibility that retrograde injury signals, and treatments applied at the level of the spinal cord that exhibit efficacy in rodents, may fail to influence neurons at the far greater distances of primate systems. Thus, we examined both local and remote neuronal responses to neurotrophic factor-secreting cell grafts placed within sites of right C7 hemisection lesions in the rhesus macaque. Six months after gene delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) into C7 lesion sites, we found both local effects of growth factors on axonal growth, and remote effects of growth factors reflected in significant reductions in axotomy-induced atrophy of large pyramidal neurons within the primary motor cortex. Additional examination in a rodent model suggested that BDNF, rather than NT-3, mediated remote protection of corticospinal neurons in the brain. Thus, injured neural systems retain the ability to respond to growth signals over the extended distances of the primate CNS, promoting local axonal growth and preventing lesion-induced neuronal degeneration at a distance. Remote cortical effects of spinally administered growth factors could "prime" the neuron to respond to experimental therapies that promote axonal plasticity or regeneration. PMID:20660255
Brock, John H; Rosenzweig, Ephron S; Blesch, Armin; Moseanko, Rod; Havton, Leif A; Edgerton, V Reggie; Tuszynski, Mark H
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence financial leverage of small business firms in India. This study also seeks to extend the findings of Michaelas et al. (1999. Small business owners from Punjab area of India were surveyed in order to gather information. Subjects were asked about their perceptions, beliefs, and feelings regarding the factors that influence financial leverage of their firms. This study utilized survey research (a non-experimental field study design. The findings of this paper show that small business growth, small business performance, total assets, sales, tax, and family have positive influence on the financial leverage of small business firms in India. This study contributes to the literature on the factors that influence financial leverage of small business firms. The findings may be useful for the financial managers, investors, and financial management consultants.
Amarjit Singh Gill
Full Text Available Electronic Data Interchange (EDI implementation is viewed as an important tool for transmission of business data. Yet, its implementation has not reached the predicted level whereby the implementation is often stalled at infancy stage. Many factors were pinpointed as inhibitors or barriers for success of EDI implementation. This study examines key EDI influencing factors and their relationship with implementation level, firm size and type of users. Mail surveys on 108 manufacturers were the main data collection method. Findings indicate that implementation level differs based on influencing factors, while these factors differ based on type of users and do not differ based on firm size. Relatively, internal factors were found to be more significant than external factors. This study also recommends future research to further examine influences of users’ type with different EDI aspects.
Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and student’s self efficacy.
M. Kür?ad Özlen
Full Text Available The influence of ultrasound introduced into the melt during the growth of single crystals of gallium arsenide. Ultrasonic vibrations had a frequency of 820 kHz and amplitude of 0.1-0.2 micrometer. Found an increase in the homogeneity of impurity distribution of the bands growth without change of the dislocation structure of single crystals. In the simulation result of the ultrasonic wave interaction with the melt in the crucible on the basis of the theory of formation of phases is established that nucleation rate associated with the frequency and amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration acting on the melt.
Pheochromocytomas, neural crest tumors, express an abundance of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II). To assess further the potential for IGF-II to play an autocrine role for these tumors, we measured 1) IGF-II content by RRA in 7 pheochromocytomas and peripheral blood in these patients, 2) IGF-II receptors by Western analysis, and 3) characterized the tumor binding proteins by ligand blot studies. IGF-II levels in the tumors varied from 2.8-41 micrograms/g. Chromatography revealed that 60% of the peptide eluted as a large mol wt form of IGF-II (8.7-10 kDa); the remainder coeluted with mature peptide (7.5 kDa). This was in contrast to IGF-II levels in normal adrenal tissue (0.225 +/- 0.005 micrograms/g) or another neural crest-derived tumor, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (0.63 +/- 0.02 micrograms/g). Serum IGF-II levels in the 7 patients with pheochromocytoma (720 +/- 71 ng/mL) were similar to those in 35 normal controls (762 +/- 69 ng/mL). Radiolabeled IGF-II (9 +/- 1%) and IGF-I (20 +/- 2%) bound specifically to pheochromocytoma membranes. Western analysis of these membranes using a specific antiserum directed against the type II receptor demonstrated a band at 210 kDa. Affinity cross-linking studies with [125I]IGF-I demonstrated a specific band at 140 kDa. Ligand blot analysis was performed on the void volume pools from the Sephadex G-75 column and demonstrated bands at about 30 and 25 kDa. In conclusion, these data 1) confirm that pheochromocytomas have increased levels of IGF-II; 2) demonstrate that despite high IGF-II concentrations in the tumors, peripheral levels are not elevated, suggesting that very little tumoral IGF-II is released into the circulation, unlike catecholamines; 3) demonstrate the presence of IGF-II and IGF-I receptors; 4) describe binding protein species similar to those present in other tissues. Thus, the presence of high levels of IGF-II and both type I and type II receptors suggests that IGF II may act through both receptors to alter tumor growth. PMID:2172273
Gelato, M C; Vassalotti, J
This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…
Catabolism and growth impairment are well known complications of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). This may be caused by disease activity itself and/or the medical treatment, which may lead to changes in the growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. Interest has focused on corticosteroids, as they are known to influence the growth hormone/IGF-I axis.
GrØnbek, H; ThØgersen, T
Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.
Full Text Available Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is one of the most frequent malignancies, worldwide. It is important to find out what prognostic factors can facilitate diagnosis, optimize therapeutic decisions, and improve the survival of these patients. Despite improvements in surgical techniques combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, the novel therapies such as small molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (TKIs and humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are very much needed. On the other hand, neoadjuvant chemotherapy which may improve the outcome is accompanied by toxicity by destruction of normal cells. Side effects may be avoided by developing therapies that specifically target molecular characteristics of tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is one of tyrosine kinases receptors widely distributed in human epithelial cell membrane. Genetic polymorphisms in EGFR genes influence cell cycle progression, angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis. EGFR mutations are mostly observed in lung tumors; curiously they are more prevalent in Asian women diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Also, esophageal SCC shows a relatively high incidence of EGFR (33% and/or HER2 (31% overexpression. Patients who carry these mutations in EGFR have been founded tending to have a better response to gefitinib, an EGFR-TKI, whereas patients with the wild-type genotype show a better response to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, finding clinical characteristics and environmental interactions with EGFR can affect on investigations about novel anti-cancer therapies like monoclonal antibodies and gene therapy and studies which identify patients who may benefit from EGFR targeted therapies. Hence, it may be effective on the improvement of prognosis in these patients.
In Sweden and elsewhere there is evidence of poorer cancer survival for patients of low socioeconomic status (SES), and in some settings differences in treatment by SES have been shown. The aim of this thesis was to explore factors which influence cancer treatment decisions, such as knowledge reaped from clinical trials, patient-related factors, and physician-related factors. In a register study of colorectal cancer, all stages, patients were stratified for SES-factors. Differences were seen ...
Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in th...
Saayman, Melville; Du Plessis, Engelina
Influence of hydrocarbon partial pressure on single carbon nanotube (CNT) growth in chemical vapor deposition is investigated by a new theoretical model based on kinetic theory of gases and, phonon vibrations of carbon nanotube on catalyst. Results show that CNTs with larger diameter grow lesser owing to higher damping factors and CNT inertia. In addition, an optimum temperature for the growth is obtained for a CNT with a specific diameter and catalyst. Also it is shown that the optimum temperature is changed by using different catalysts. Finally effect of the partial pressure on the growth is also discussed. It is demonstrated that increasing partial pressure leads to the longest CNTs and also, influence of partial pressure on CNTs with smaller diameters is stronger. All results of the presented mechanism are in good agreement with reported experimental results.
Full Text Available This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking while Primary and Secondary Influence was rated the least impacting factor. Both Utilitarian Outcomes and Availability of Internet were rated as second most impacting factor followed by Availability, Cost, Ease of Use, Security, Trust and Self Confidence.
SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA
Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-?) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and tumor control.
In this field activity students will discover some of the factors that influence weathering of rock by making observations, asking questions and completing an investigation of their own design in a local cemetery.
Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.)
Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.).
Stephenson, C.A.; Seibert, J.J.; Glasier, C.M.; Leithiser, R.E. Jr.; Iqbal, V. (Arkansas Univ. for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (USA). Dept. of Pediatrics; Arkansas Univ. for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (USA)); Strain, J.D. (Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (USA))
The complex puzzle of maternal factors involved in mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is being put together. The risk of perinatal infection increases with mother's disease progression, but it remains stable in women seroconverting to HIV-1 during pregnancy and in consecutive pregnancies. Thus, transmission correlates with the HIV-1 progression rather than the duration of infection in the mother. Nutritional alterations such as vitamin A deficiency may al...
Tovo, Pier Angelo
This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students ...
Ku?rs?ad O?zlen, M.; Mehmet Özgün
On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing student’s buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence student’s buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public...
Yulihasri Eri; Md. Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud
Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...
As part of a research project, a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of nonidentical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins, n = 100 test persons) was examined between 1963 and 1969 and recently, 20 years later, followed up. The index twins were drawn from among the patients making use of the services of an outpatient clinic; they had been diagnosed as having psychoneurotic, character-neurotic of psychosomatic disorders. The question again looked into was that of nature versus nurture: identical twins displayed significantly higher similarity with regard to both severity of their neuroses and manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did nonidentical twins. The hereditary factor proved to be of greater import for the continuing childhood neuroses than for the subsiding childhood neuroses. Yet a certain hereditary factor effect was observed for the neuroses which first manifest themselves in adulthood. Our findings indicate that the hereditary factor is not more pronounced in childhood than in adulthood; it is equally effective in adults. PMID:7480573
Muhs, A; Schepank, H
Full Text Available Decision-making is one of the most important functions of managers in any kind of organization. Among different manager's decisions strategic decision-making is a complex process that must be understood completely before it can be practiced effectively. Those responsible for strategic decision-making face a task of extreme complexity and ambiguity. For these reasons, over the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to the construction of models to aid managers and executives in making better decisions concerning the complex and highly uncertain business environment. In spite of much work that has been conducted in the area of strategic decision-making especially during the 1990's, we still know little about strategic decision-making process and factors affecting it.This paper builds on previous theoretical and empirical studies to determine the extent to which contextual factors impact the strategic decision-making processes. Results showed that researches on contextual factors effecting strategic decision-making process are either limited or have produced contradictory results, especially studies relating decision’s familiarity, magnitude of impact, organizational size, firm’s performance, dynamism, hostility, heterogeneity, industry, cognitive diversity, cognitive conflict, and manager’s need for achievement to strategic decision-making processes. Thus, the study of strategic decision-making process remains very important and much more empirical research is required before any definitive conclusion can be reached.
Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), and the IGFBP proteases are involved in the regulation of somatic growth and cellular proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. IGFs are potent mitogenic agents whose actions are determined by the availability of free IGFs to interact with the IGF receptors. IGFBPs comprise a family of proteins that bind IGFs with high affinity and specificity and thereby regulate IGF-dependent actions. IGFBPs have recently emerged as IGF-independent regulators of cell growth. Various IGFBP association proteins as well as cleavage of IGFBPs by specific proteases modulate levels of free IGFs and IGFBPs. The ubiquity and complexity of the IGF axis promise exciting discoveries and applications for the future. PMID:10226802
Ferry, R. J.; Katz, L. E. L.; Grimberg, Adda; Cohen, P.; Weinzimer, S. A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis has been reported to be one of the contributory factors to the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. This study aims to compare the expression of different angiogenesis growth factors namely (1 the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF subfamily: A, B, C, D and placenta growth factor (PlGF; (2 nerve growth factor (NGF and (3 von Willebrand factor (vWFr in the skins of patients with psoriasis vulgaris and non-psoriatic volunteers. Results Comparative immunohistochemistry study was performed on the paraffin-sectioned psoriatic and healthy skins with the abovementioned markers. VEGF-C (p = 0.016 and NGF (p = 0.027 were expressed intensely in the cases when compared with the controls. The NGF was the only marker that was solely expressed in the cases and absent in all the controls. Conclusion The NGF (angiogenesis and VEGF-C (lymphangiogenesis might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris and could be researched further as potential new targeted therapies for psoriasis vulgaris.
Purified human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) from urine promotes anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar medium. This growth is enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and is specifically inhibited by hEGF antiserum. Transforming growth factors of the alpha type (TGF-alpha), potentially present in normal human urine or urine from tumor-bearing patients, also promote anchorage-independent cell growth and compete with EGF for membrane receptor binding. Consequently, TGF-alpha cannot be distinguished from urinary hEGF by these two functional assays. Therefore, a technique for separation of TGF-alpha and related peptides from urinary EGF based on biochemical characteristics would be useful. Radioiodination of characterized growth factors [mouse EGF (mEGF), hEGF, and rat TGF-alpha (rTGF-alpha)], which were then separately added to human urine, was used to evaluate a resolution scheme that separates TGF-alpha from the high level of background hEGF present in human urine. Methyl bonded microparticulate silica efficiently adsorbed the 125I-labeled mEGF, 125I-labeled hEGF, and 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha that were added to 24-h human urine samples. Fractional elution with acetonitrile (MeCN) of the adsorbed silica released approximately 70 to 80% of the 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF between 25 and 30% MeCN, and over 80% of the 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha between 15 and 25% MeCN, with retention after dialysis of less than 0.2 and 1.7% of the original urinary protein, respectively. A single-step enrichment of about 400-fold for mEGF and hEGF, and 50-fold for rTGF-alpha were achieved rapidly. 125I-labeled mEGF and 125I-labeled hEGF eluted later than would be predicted on the basis of their reported molecular weight of approximately 6000, whereas 125I-labeled rTGF-alpha eluted from Bio-Gel P-10 at an approximate molecular weight of 8000 to 9000
The erb-B oncogene has been shown to be a deleted version of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. These mutations are thought to cause a constitutive activation of the receptor which is then able to induce uncontrolled growth of specific cell types. Mutational analysis of the erb-B gene indicates that specific domains of the erb-B protein interact with specific cellular target proteins to cause transformation
With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China. - Highlights: ? We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO2 emissions. ? Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. ? These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. ? Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO2 emission is different. ? Improvingission is different. ? Improving technology level is the most important way for CO2 reduction in China.
The production of active dried starter cultures can be influenced at several levels in the production process. In this paper the following process factors are discussed: osmotic stress during growth and cell density prior to drying. Contradicting results are reported in the literature on the influence of osmotic stress during growth on the residual activity after drying. The combined approach in which two process factors were studied at a time resulted in an explanation for the discrepancy in earlier work. The cell density prior to drying had an important influence on the glucose fermenting activity after drying. Residual activities ranging from 0.10 to 0.83 were achieved using initial cell densities between 0.025 and 0.23 g of cell/g of sample, respectively. The drying tolerance of cells grown with osmotic stress of 1 M NaCl was low (residual activity = 0. 06) and was not related to the cell density prior to drying. The influence of osmotic stress during growth on the drying tolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum was dependent on the cell density prior to drying. PMID:9622539
Linders; Kets; de Bont JAM; van't Riet K
Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.
Full Text Available Previous studies have examined motivation from economic perspectives or studied relationships between economic, behavioral, demographic & lifestyle variables but examination of various utility maximization and behavioral variables taken together provides a complete understanding of the investment decision process. This study incorporated this concept by taking 30 variables from diverse decision criteria including contemporary concerns. Results revealed seven homogenous groups among these 30 variables which were grouped into seven factors that address major investor considerations. The findings suggest that individual’s base their stock purchase decisions on wealth-maximization criteria combined with past and present stock performance along with other diverse variables; they do not rely on a single approach.
To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue
The low temperature homoepitaxial growth of silicon has been probed in situ by Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) in a Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) chamber in the temperature range 250 C-400 C. The continuous change in the RHEED patterns during the growth of thick films (several hundred angstroms) shows the progressive appearance of a surface roughness during and after the decay of RHEED oscillations. This is a clear evidence for kinetic roughening in the case of silicon epitaxial growth at low temperatures on the Si(111) face. The surface width, ?, measured as the film thickness, h, is increased, can be described by: ?(h, T) ? Ah exp (Ef/kT) with Ef ? 0.65 eV. This is in marked difference with the kinetic roughening behavior measured during the growth of a metal like iron by means of the same RHEED technique (see Chevrier et al., Europhys. Lett. 8 (1991) 737). Furthermore, an extrapolation of this behavior to epitaxial growths at higher temperatures (T ? 600 C-800 C) suggests an effective influence of kinetic roughening in the determination of growth temperatures generally used for silicon MBE (i.e. the empirical usual growth temperatures Tepi? 650 C). During growth at substrate temperatures between 250 C and 400 C, the nucleation of misoriented silicon islands takes place following the occurrence of kinetic roughening at the surface. In this range of temperatures, this suggests that the loss of epitaxy occuts that the loss of epitaxy occurs on a rough surface through the proliferation of defects and of misoriented crystals. (orig.)
Reproductive success is a critical component of individual fitness, and also an important determinant of growth rates of populations characterized by early maturity and high fecundity. We used radiotelemetry data collected during 2003-2008 to estimate reproductive parameters in a declining northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population in South Florida, and to test hypotheses regarding factors influencing these parameters. The overall clutch size was 12.10 ?? 0.22, but females laid more eggs in their first clutch (12.43 ?? 0.24) than in subsequent clutches (10.19 ?? 0.53) within a nesting season. Daily nest survival was higher for first (0.966 ?? 0.003) than subsequent nests (0.936 ?? 0.011). Hatchability (proportion of laid eggs that hatched conditional upon nest survival to hatching) was 0.853 ?? 0.008, but was higher for nests incubated by females (0.873 ?? 0.009) than those incubated by males (0.798 ?? 0.018). The proportion of individuals attempting a second nest was 0.112 ?? 0.024 and 0.281 ?? 0.040 when the first nest was successful and failed, respectively. Hatchability was lower when the nesting habitat was burned the previous winter. We found no evidence that food strip density (a management practice to provide supplemental food) influenced any of the reproductive parameters. Mean summer temperature affected hatchability, nest survival, and proportion of nests incubated by males. Overall, the reproductive output in our study population was lower than that reported for most other bobwhite populations, indicating that low reproductive performance may have contributed to bobwhite population declines in our study site. These results suggest that current management practices, particularly those related to habitat and harvest management, need careful evaluation. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Rolland, V.; Hostetler, J.A.; Hines, T.C.; Percival, H.F.; Oli, M.K.
The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of th
According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population. PMID:22565801
Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care. PMID:25068881
Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S
Counting bacteria in natural water samples by cultivation yields only low recovery efficiencies (ca. 1%), compared to total counts obtained after 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol (DAPI) staining. In order to optimize the cultivation of heterotrophic planktonic bacteria from Lake Constance (Germany), selected parameters of the medium composition were modified. The most important factor was the concentration of organic substrate (nutrient broth plus yeast extract), which significantly influenced the "most probable number" obtained in liquid growth medium. Reduced oxygen concentrations (3-12%) lowered the "most probable number". Addition of N-acyl homoserine lactones to the medium increased the cultivability slightly. Low substrate concentrations [0.03-0.06% (w/v)], an incubation atmosphere of 21% oxygen at 16 degrees C for 4 weeks were optimal and increased the cultivability ("most probable number" related to total bacterial counts) to an average cultivability of 18+/-11%, (n=8). The results indicate that cultivabilities of heterotrophic bacteria from lakewater samples can be significantly increased by modifying the cultivation methods. PMID:11566226
Bussmann, I; Philipp, B; Schink, B
Full Text Available National savings as a basic investment resource are viewed in modern economic literature not only at the level of national economy but at the level of world economy as well.When the income level is decreased people do not reduce the consumption level but they reduce their level of savings.Having analysed this problem, the following conclusion can be drawn:savings can be negative when income level is low under the condition that the previous income level was higher than the current one;in a short run, by increasing income savings grow in an absolute as well as in a relative expression;in a long run, by increasing income savings grow only in an absolute expression and in a relative expression they remain stable (norm of savings is a ratio of the part of income that is saved to the income itself.Factors that may have influence on the norm of net national savings are as following:Monetization index as a ratio of a monetary aggregate M2 to GDP;Growth rate of GDP per capita;Consumer Price Index;Effective rate of interest;Currency exchange rate;Balance of payments;Level of unemployment;Part of population over 60 years old.
Cells generate new organelles when stimulated by extracellular factors to grow and divide; however, little is known about how growth and mitogenic signalling pathways regulate organelle biogenesis. Using mitochondria as a model organelle, we have investigated this problem in primary Schwann cells, for which distinct factors act solely as mitogens (neuregulin) or as promoters of cell growth (insulin-like growth factor 1; IGF1). We find that neuregulin and IGF1 act synergistically to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA replication, resulting in increased mitochondrial density in these cells. Moreover, constitutive oncogenic Ras signalling results in a further increase in mitochondrial density. This synergistic effect is seen at the global transcriptional level, requires both the ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathways and is mediated by the transcription factor ERRalpha. Interestingly, the effect is independent of Akt-TOR signalling, a major regulator of cell growth in these cells. This separation of the pathways that drive mitochondrial biogenesis and cell growth provides a mechanism for the modulation of mitochondrial density according to the metabolic requirements of the cell. PMID:19920079
Echave, Pedro; Machado-da-Silva, Gisela; Arkell, Rebecca S; Duchen, Michael R; Jacobson, Jake; Mitter, Richard; Lloyd, Alison C
We tested the hypothesis that normal synovial fibroblasts might proliferate in response to transforming growth factors (TGFs), peptides that are extracted with acid-ethanol from bovine kidney or salivary gland and that cause anchorage-independent growth of normal cells. A 72-hour exposure of confluent monolayers of rabbit synovial fibroblasts in 10% fetal calf serum to partially purified TGF-beta in the presence of TGF-alpha gave a 2- to 5-fold increase in incorporation of 3H-thymidine, protein content, and cell number. Similar results were obtained with high pressure liquid chromatography-purified TGF-beta in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) (a type of TGF-alpha). By itself, purified TGF-beta was not mitogenic; it depended absolutely on EGF. However, only TGF-beta along with EGF, and not EGF alone, induced a marked morphologic change: a piling up of cells into foci resembling those commonly seen in primary cultures of rheumatoid synovial cells. Mitogenic responses induced by the TGF-beta-EGF combination were prevented by all-trans-retinoic acid but not by indomethacin or dexamethasone. The data indicate that TGF-beta, a peptide extracted from normal cells, can act in concert with EGF to cause proliferation and piling up of synovial cells and raise the possibility that these factors may play a role in rheumatoid arthritis and other proliferative but nonmalignant diseases as well. PMID:6315022
Brinckerhoff, C E
Purpose This study analyzed the influence of SP on growth factors related to wound healing in mice in the presence of infectious keratitis. Methods Naturally resistant mice were injected intraperitoneally with SP or phosphate buffered saline (PBS), infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and corneal mRNA levels of growth factors and apoptosis genes tested. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) determined protein levels, while immunohistochemistry tested distribution, macrophage phenotype, and cell quantitation. In vitro, macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ± SP and mRNA levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis genes tested. Results After SP, epidermal growth factor (EGF) mRNA and protein levels were disparately regulated early, with no differences later in disease. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) mRNA and protein levels were increased after SP treatment. Enumerating dual-labeled stromal cells revealed no difference between SP- vs. PBS-treated groups in the percent of EGF-labeled fibroblasts or macrophages, but significant increases in both HGF- and FGF-7 labeled cells. Type 2 (M2) macrophages and caspase-3 mRNA levels were decreased, while B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) mRNA expression was increased after SP treatment. In vitro, mRNA levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and Bcl-2 were elevated, while transforming growth factor (TGF)-? was decreased after macrophage stimulation with SP (+ LPS) over LPS alone. (Mice: n=105 control; 105 experimental). Conclusions These data show that treatment with SP in infectious keratitis elevates growth factors, but also adversely effects disease by enhancing the inflammatory response and its sequelae. PMID:22722806
Foldenauer, Megan E. B.; McClellan, Sharon A.; Barrett, Ronald P.; Zhang, Yunfan; Hazlett, Linda D.
The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 ?g, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 ?g Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 ?g Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability
Polypeptide growth factors bind to the extracellular domains of cell surface receptors, triggering activation of receptor-intrinsic or receptor-associated protein kinases. Although this central thesis is widely accepted, one family of proteins, the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), have for more than a decade attracted a research "counterculture" looking for direct FGF actions inside cells. Goldfarb discusses how the search for alternative signaling pathways is moving mainstream with the help of two recent publications reporting specific intracellular targets for FGF and FGF-like proteins.
Mitchell Goldfarb (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV)
Investigations of constant and variable amplitude loading, including a variety of overloads, were carried out experimentally as well as numerically in order to characterize the fatigue crack growth behaviour of nodular cast iron with a ferritic matrix. Under constant cyclic loading the crack growth rate, which depends on the graphite size can be described well by the NASGRO equation. The mean distance between the graphite particles and the shape factor also influence the fracture behaviour. The experimental investigations show that overloads yield to acceleration effects in fatigue crack growth. The calculation of the a-N curves based on different usual life prediction models yields non-conservative results. Therefore, a modified strip yield model is presented which allows the prediction of the crack growth acceleration after overloads in nodular cast iron.
Investigations of constant and variable amplitude loading, including a variety of overloads, were carried out experimentally as well as numerically in order to characterize the fatigue crack growth behaviour of nodular cast iron with a ferritic matrix. Under constant cyclic loading the crack growth rate, which depends on the graphite size can be described well by the NASGRO equation. The mean distance between the graphite particles and the shape factor also influence the fracture behaviour. The experimental investigations show that overloads yield to acceleration effects in fatigue crack growth. The calculation of the a-N curves based on different usual life prediction models yields non-conservative results. Therefore, a modified strip yield model is presented which allows the prediction of the crack growth acceleration after overloads in nodular cast iron.
Mottitschka, T.; Pusch, G.; Biermann, H.; Zybell, L.; Kuna, M.
Thirty-six patients with blunt duodenal injury have been treated at Detroit General Hospital since 1960. The majority of the patients were driving an automobile under the influence of alcohol and none were wearing seat restraints. Diagnosis was often delayed due to a failure to recognize the significant, but subtle, physical and roentgenographic findings of retro-peritoneal injury. Morbidity and mortality were related to a delay in operative intervention, the severity of duodenal injury, the presence and degree of associated pancreatic injury, and the choice of operative therapy. Patients with intramural hematoma or complete duodenal perforation without pancreatic injury did well with simple closure or evacuation of the hematoma. Patients with duodenal perforation and minor pancreatic injury did best after primary closure and pancreatic drainage if operation was performed within 24 hours; delay beyond 24 hours resulted in a high incidence of duodenal fistula after simple closure, and therefore is an indication for a bypass procedure, such as a distal gastrectomy, vagotomy, tube duodenostomy, and gastrojejunostomy. Patients with combined duodenal and major pancreatic disruption did best after a bypass procedure when the main pancreatic ductal system was intact, whereas pancreaticoduodenectomy was the best procedure when the main pancreatic duct was disrupted. PMID:1177329
Lucas, C E; Ledgerwood, A M
Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research
Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…
Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin
This experimental study investigated internal (psychological characteristics) and external (World Wide Web site features) factors influencing learning and disorientation in Web navigation. The research design was a two-factors ANOVA (ANalysis Of VAriance) with mode of navigation (linear, nonlinear) and distracters (i.e., the presence of…
Baylor, Amy L.
Reports on a study designed to identify factors that influence national use of two popular computer-assisted career guidance systems, DISCOVER and the System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI). Suggests that several institutionally based factors determine DISCOVER and SIGI use, including staff competence, organizational dynamics,…
Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others
This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…
Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.
An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects. PMID:19875838
Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy
The highly ordered structures of the hearing and balance organs of vertebrate ears go through a coordinated sequence of cellular and morphogenetic events. It is to be expected that protein growth factors and other extracellular signals will regulate many events during embryonic development of the ear, including the induction of the ear, the specific induction of sensory epithelia, the proliferation of the cells that form the sensory epithelia, the differentiation of the sensory and supporting cells, and the attraction and maintenance of innervation. After embryonic development, growth factors will support cell survival and innervation of new sensory cells. In damaged sensory epithelia, supplementation of the normal growth factors in these tissues has the potential to influence cellular responses to trauma, to reduce cell death and to promote the replacement of dead cells through renewed proliferation and differentiation, so as to improve hearing and balance health via preventive and restorative treatments. Assessment of the influences of specific growth factors on the sensory epithelia of vertebrate ears is at an early stage: this paper provides a brief account of what we know from studies of normal and experimentally manipulated epithelia, discusses the current questions and suggests directions for future studies. PMID:8866134
Corwin, J T; Warchol, M E; Saffer, L D; Finley, J E; Gu, R; Lamber, P R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which mRNA expression changes are significantly associated. Among key metabolic pathways, this analysis revealed de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides and ATP producing and consuming reactions at fast cellular growth. By scoring the significance of overlap between growth rate dependent genes and known transcription factor target sets, transcription factors that coordinate balanced growth were also identified. Our analysis shows that Fhl1, Rap1, and Sfp1, regulating protein biosynthesis, have significantly enriched target sets for genes up-regulated with increasing growth rate. Cell cycle regulators, such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more conservative estimate of growth rate dependent genes than previously reported. We also provide a global view of how a small set of transcription factors, 13 in total, contribute to control of cellular growth rate. We anticipate that multi-factorial designs will play an increasing role in elucidating cellular regulation.
Pronk Jack T
Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which mRNA expression changes are significantly associated. Among key metabolic pathways, this analysis revealed de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides and ATP producing and consuming reactions at fast cellular growth. By scoring the significance of overlap between growth rate dependent genes and known transcription factor target sets, transcription factors that coordinate balanced growth were also identified. Our analysis shows that FhII, Rap1, and Sfp1, regulating protein biosynthesis, have significantly enriched target sets for genes up-regulated with increasing growth rate. Cell cycle regulators, such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion: Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more conservative estimate of growth rate dependent genes than previously reported. We also provide a global view of how a small set of transcription factors, 13 in total, contribute to control of cellular growth rate. We anticipate that multi-factorial designs will play an increasing role in elucidating cellular regulation.
Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher
Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required
In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405
Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana
Full Text Available This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. Using simple regression analysis, the study has detected that all mentioned factors influence organizational change, positively. In addition, Freedman test indicates that partnership maintains the highest impact followed by believe in change, communication, organizational commitment and training.
Abbas Saleh Ardestani
An important goal in medical imaging is the assessment of image quality in a way that relates to clinical efficacy. An objective approach is to evaluate the performance of diagnosis for specific tasks, using ROC analysis. We shall concentrate here on classification tasks. While many factors may confine the performance achieved for these tasks, we shall investigate two main limiting factors: image blurring and object variability. Psychophysical studies followed by ROC analysis are widely used for system assessment, but it is of great practical interest to be able to predict the outcome of psychophysical studies, especially for system design and optimization. The ideal observer is often chosen as a standard of comparison for the human observer since, at least for simple tasks, its performance can be readily calculated using statistical decision theory. We already know, however, of cases reported in the literature where the human observer performs far below ideal, and one of the purposes of this dissertation is to determine whether there are other practical circumstances where human and ideal performances diverge. Moreover, when the complexity of the task increases, the ideal observer becomes quickly intractable, and other observers such as the Hotelling and the nonprewhitening (npw) ideal observers may be considered instead. A practical problem where our intuition tells us that the ideal observer may fail to predict human performance occurs with imaging devices that are characterized by a PSF having long spatial tails. The investigation of the impact of long-tailed PSFs on detection is of great interest since they are commonly encountered in medical imaging and even more generally in image science. We shall show that the ideal observer is a poor predictor of human performance for a simple two-hypothesis detection task and that linear filtering of the images does indeed help the human observer. Another practical problem of considerable interest is the effect of background nonuniformity on detectability since, it is one more step towards assessing image quality for real clinical images. When the background is known exactly (BKE), the Hotelling and the npw ideal observers predict that detection is optimal for an infinite aperture; a spatially varying background (SVB) results in an optimum aperture size. Moreover, given a fixed aperture size and a BKE, an increase in exposure time is highly beneficial for both observers. For SVB, on the other hand, the Hotelling observer benefits from an increases in exposure time, while the npw ideal observer quickly saturates. In terms of human performance, results show a good agreement with the Hotelling-observer predictions, while the performance disagrees strongly with the npw ideal observer.
Rolland, Jannick Paule Yvette
Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) is conventionally diagnosed and confirmed by diminished peak Growth Hormone (GH) levels to provocative testing. Serum Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are under the influence of GH and reflect the spontaneous endogenous GH secretion. Owing to the absence of a circadian rhythm, it is possible to take individual measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 at any time of the day for evaluation of GH status instead of subjecting the individual to cumbersome provocative tests. Objectives of this study were to compare IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 assays with Exercise and L-Dopa stimulation tests in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short stature children using ITT as gold standard. Methods: This validation study was conducted at Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP, Rawalpindi, from November 2005 to October 2006. Fifty-two short stature children were included in the study. Basal samples for GH levels and simultaneous IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 measurements were obtained and afterwards all children were subjected to sequential exercise and LDopa stimulation tests. Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) was performed one week later with all the necessary precautionary measures. On the basis of ITT results, children were divided into two groups, i.e., 31 growth hormone deficient and 21 Normal Variant Short Stature (NVSS). Results: The diagnostic value of exercise stimulation test remained highest with sensitivity 90.3%, specificity 76.0%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 84.84%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 84.2% and accuracy 84.6%. The conventional L-Dopa stimulation had sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 38.0%, PPV 69.7%, NPV 88.8 % and accuracy 73.0%. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were positively correlated with post ITT peak GH levels (r= 0.527, r=0.464 respectively, both p<0.001). The diagnostic value of IGF-1 had sensitivity 83.87%, specificity 76.2%, PPV 83.87%, NPV 76.2% and accuracy 80.76%. The diagnostic value of IGFBP-3 had sensitivity 54.83%, specificity 90.47%, PPV 89.47%, NPV 57.57% and accuracy 69.23%. With combined use of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 diagnostic value had sensitivity 69.35%, specificity 83.33% PPV 86%, NPV 64.81% and accuracy 75%. Conclusion Growth Hormones provocative tests still remain the most useful investigations for the diagnosis of GHD. Measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 have shown comparable diagnostic performance with growth hormone stimulation tests and are valuable for patients convenience and ease of performance and can be useful in the initial workup of short stature. (author)
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mitogen, morphogen, and motogen that functions in tissue healing and acts as an anti-fibrotic factor. The mechanism for this is not well understood. Recent studies implicate somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in fibrosis. We examined the effects of HGF on ACE expression in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC). Short term treatment of BPAEC with HGF transiently increased both ACE mRNA (3 h) and activity (24 h), as determined by ACE prot...
Day, Regina M.; Thiel, Gerald; Lum, Julie; Che?vere, Rube?n D.; Yang, Yongzhen; Stevens, Joanne; Sibert, Laura; Fanburg, Barry L.
Factors released from rat alveolar macrophages exposed to high (95 ?g/mL) concentrations of the fibrogenic agent, nickel subsulfide, were found to inhibit the proliferation of cultured lung epithelial cells and stimulate the growth of fibroblasts. Such factors, if present in the alveoli of rats exposed by inhalation to nickel subsulfide in vivo, may play a role in inhibiting re-epithelization of nickel-damaged lungs and in stimulating fibroblast proliferation, leading to pulmonary fibrosis. (author)
Introduction: Neurogenic components, as neurotrophic factors and neuropeptides, are probably involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) with the neuroimmunocutaneous system as they modify the functions of immunoactive cells in the skin. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the best-characterized member of the neurotrophin family. Both NGF and neuropeptides (NPs) may be associated with the disease pathogenesis. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the plasma level of NGF and N...
Hodeib Abeer; Hanafy Hesham
A large body of evidence implies that growth and differentiation factors, based on their ability to regulate various functions of cells originating in the periodontal tissues, may support periodontal wound healing/regeneration, creating an environment conducive to and/or immediately inducing de novo tissue formation. This study presents a short systematic overview on growth and differentiation factor technologies evaluated in the clinic for their potential to enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration.
Stavropoulos, A; Wikesjö, U M E
This study reports on the algebraic generalisation strategies used by two fifth grade students along with the factors that appeared to influence these strategies. These students were examined over 18 instructional sessions using a teaching experiment methodology. The results highlighted the complex factors that appeared to influence student strategy use, which included: (a) input value, (b) mathematical structure of the task, (c) prior strategies, (d) visual image of the situation, and (e) social interactions with the teacher and other student. Particular combinations of these factors appeared to increase the predictability of student strategy use. However, the complex nature of the factors influencing these strategies demonstrates the challenges that exist in encouraging students to move toward more sophisticated strategies.
Lannin, John; Barker, David; Townsend, Brian
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly that use of internet banking in Tunisia is influenced moststrongly by convenience, risk, security and prior internet knowledge. Only information on online banking did notaffect intention to use internet banking service in Tunisia. The results also propose that demographic factorsimpact significantly internet banking behaviour, specifically, occupation and instruction. Finally, this papersuggests that an understanding the factors affecting intention to use internet banking is very important to thepractitioners who plan and promote new forms of banking in the current competitive market.
The study aims to provide understanding on the way people understand rumours at their workplace from the other person’s perspective. Specifically, this study examines the factors that influence the conception of rumours. Using purposive sampling and the researchers as the instrument, this study found that the conception of rumours in workplace are caused by several factors and these factors are categorised into rumour context and functions reliant and rumour content reliant. Rumour con...
Mohd Mursyiddin Abdul Manaf; Ghani, Erlane K.; Ismie Roha Mohamed Jais
As there is a possibility that Se influences the growth of animals via thyroid hormone metabolism, the following three experiments were undertaken in order to determine the effects of dietary Se on growth, skeletal muscle protein turnover and thyroid hormone status in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens were raised on a Se-deficient diet until 12 d of age and then used for the experiments. In Experiment 1, twenty-eight birds were randomly assigned to four groups and fed purified diets with the following amounts of Se supplementation: 0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg Se/kg diet. Dietary Se supplementation significantly increased plasma 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) concentration and improved growth, while plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration was decreased. In Experiment 2, twenty-eight birds were assigned to four groups and fed either a Se-deficient diet or a Se-supplemented diet (0.3 mg Se/kg diet) with or without the supplementation of iopanoic acid, a specific inhibitor of 5'-deiodinase (5 mg/kg diet). The growth was promoted and feed efficiency was improved by dietary Se supplementation as was also observed in Experiment 1. However, this effect of Se was halted by iopanoic acid supplementation. Hepatic 5'-deiodinase activity was elevated by Se and inhibited by iopanoic acid. In Experiment 3, birds were fed on the following diets to show that Se influences growth of birds via thyroid hormone metabolism: Se-deficient diet, Se-supplemented diets (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) and T3 supplemented diets (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg diet). Lower dietary T3 supplementation (0.1 mg/kg diet) resulted in growth promotion similar to Se supplementation, while higher level of T3 caused growth depression. Furthermore, it was observed that the rate of skeletal muscle protein breakdown tended to be increased by Se similarly to the effect of T3. In conclusion, it was shown in the present study that Se deficiency depresses growth of broilers by inhibiting hepatic 5'-deiodinase activity which causes lower plasma T3 concentration. PMID:11177187
Jianhua, H; Ohtsuka, A; Hayashi, K
The use of growth factor composites from platelets has been introduced to many areas of clinical applications and studies. With the richest source of growth factors (GFs), beneficial effects have been shown on tissue regeneration and wound healing. However, animal and clinical studies have revealed inconsistent outcomes with the use of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs), which were likely due to variations in the presence and concentrations of GFs between various sources. Autologous PDGFs are considered to be safer, but they are limited by the feasibility of large-scale production to be used extensively in the acute phase, greater surface area, or general cosmetic applications. This study employed a simple process to obtain growth factor composites from activated platelets of porcine origin, namely skin renewal growth factors (SRGF). The functions of SRGF were subsequently evaluated on cultured human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and melanocytes. Our data revealed that SRGF significantly promoted the proliferation of fibroblasts, accompanied by increased expression of collagens (types I, III, IV, and VIII) and proteoglycans. Diminished proliferation and arrested differentiation of keratinocytes were evidenced by the attenuated expression of laminin V and keratin 10. In addition, SRGF also suppressed the growth of melanocytes and reduced the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and paired box 3 (PAX3), which mediates melanogensis. Our results suggest that SRGF possesses beneficial properties and is a promising and cost-effective composition for the development of a safe cosmetic agent or topical products for skin regeneration. The development of SRGF may also provide an alternative strategy for tissue engineering. PMID:22950429
Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Wu, Yo-Ping Greg; Lo, Wen-Cheng
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover >35% of the Earth's land area and contribute to important ecological functions in arid and semiarid ecosystems, including erosion reduction, hydrological cycling, and nutrient cycling. Artificial rapid cultivation of BSCs can provide a novel alternative to traditional biological methods for controlling soil and water loss such as the planting of trees, shrubs, and grasses. At present, little is known regarding the cultivation of BSCs in the field due to lack of knowledge regarding the influencing factors that control BSCs growth. Thus, we determined the effects of various environmental factors (shade; watering; N, P, K, and Ca concentrations) on the growth of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs from the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States. The soil surface changes and chlorophyll a concentrations were used as proxies of BSC growth and development. After 4 months, five factors were found to impact BSC growth with the following order of importance: NH4NO3 ? watering frequency>shading>CaCO3 ? KH2PO4. The soil water content was the primary positive factor affecting BSC growth, and BSCs that were watered every 5 days harbored greater biomass than those watered every 10 days. Groups that received NH4NO3 consistently exhibited poor growth, suggesting that fixed N amendment may suppress BSC growth. The effect of shading on the BSC biomass was inconsistent and depended on many factors including the soil water content and availability of nutrients. KH2PO4 and CaCO3 had nonsignificant effects on BSC growth. Collectively, our results indicate that the rapid restoration of BSCs can be controlled and realized by artificial "broadcasting" cultivation through the optimization of environmental factors. PMID:24625498
Bu, Chongfeng; Wu, Shufang; Yang, Yongsheng; Zheng, Mingguo
Full Text Available For the past three years MDPI has announced the newly released impact factors for its Open Access journals by the means of an annual editorial [1–3]. In 2012 we are—once again—pleased to report that the growth of the impact factors of MDPI’s Open Access journals continues. This year’s edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR, which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes 10 journals published by MDPI, including three that have received their first official Impact Factors—International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH, Materials and Nutrients. Table 1 reports the latest Impact Factors for 2011. Figure 1 graphically depicts the evolution of the Impact Factors for four MDPI open access journals that have received Impact Factors in the past. Table 2 reports the ranking of the MDPI journals within the subject categories of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE.
These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,…
Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick
To study the effects of exogenously applied nerve growth factor (NGF) on colchicine-induced neurodegeneration in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal formation, male Fischer 344 rats (n=75) weighing 275-325 grams received colchicine [COLCH; 2.5 ug/site in 0.5 ul of artificial...
Nephropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes which further directs to end stage renal disease. Extensive work has been done to find out the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of the DN. Now, many researchers have been convinced that almost all of the molecular mediators and intracellular signaling pathways involved in progression of diabetic nephropathy have involvement in transforming growth factor beta (TGF- ?) at some stage. In DN, hyperglycemia causes increase in the expression of TGF- ? genes, TGF- ? proteins and their receptors. Increased glucose level mediates these effects through activation of polyol pathway, protein kinase C pathway, hexosamine pathway, increases advanced glycation end products (AGE) and increases oxidative stress. Hyperglycemia also activates the TGF- ? via activation of glucose transporters (GLUT), angiotensine II and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Activated TGF-? further leads to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and glomerulosclerosis through activation of connective tissue growth factor (CDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We have discussed the progression of hyperglycemia to DN via TGF- ?, whose schematic presentation may serve as an effective way to understand the mechanisms and to find out an effective way for the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24919657
Garud, Mayuresh Sudamrao; Kulkarni, Yogesh Anant
At present, diabetic kidney disease affects about 15-25 % of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 30-40 % of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several decades of extensive research have elucidated various pathways to be implicated in the development of diabetic kidney disease. These include metabolic factors beyond blood glucose (e.g. advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs)), haemodynamic factors (e.g. the renin angiotensin system (RAS)), intracellular signaling molecule proteins (e.g. protein kinase C (PKC)) and growth factors/cytokines (e.g. growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)). This review focuses on the role of three of these growth factors, i.e. GH, IGFs and VEGF. A brief discussion of each system is followed by description of its expression in the normal kidney. Then, for each system, in vitro, experimental and clinical evidence addressing the role of the system in diabetic kidney disease ispresented. The interplay of each system to other potential pathways will also be addressed. Finally, well-known and potential therapeutic strategies targeting the GH/IGF and VEGF systems in a specific or indirect way will discussed.
Flyvbjerg, Allan; Khatir, Dinah S
Stem cell fate is influenced by a number of factors and interactions that require robust control for safe and effective regeneration of functional tissue. Coordinated interactions with soluble factors, other cells, and extracellular matrices define a local biochemical and mechanical niche with complex and dynamic regulation that stem cells sense. Decellularized tissue matrices and synthetic polymer niches are being used in the clinic, and they are also beginning to clarify fundamental aspects...
Discher, Dennis E.; Mooney, David J.; Zandstra, Peter W.
Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.
Full Text Available Cell proliferation and growth are regulated by a complex network of growth factor and growth inhibitorinitiated signal transduction pathways. The disruption of these signaling pathways through genetic, epigenetic, or somatic alterations is a major area of cancer research. Increasing evidence indicates that oncogenic activation of growth factors and their receptor proteins occur through mutations (oncoproteins that lead to constitutive activation of the signaling pathways, thus providing the grounds for putative prognostic marker(s and potential target(s for treatment of various cancers. Over the past few years, the study of genomics has revealed the gene expression signatures for many malignancies. Present communication outlines literature survey on genomic molecular markers of breast, lung, and prostate cancers. Reassuringly, the dominant genomic markers of these malignancies include oncoproteins and provide a support for their clinical validity as cancer targets. More specifically, this article reviews recent advances in clinical targeting of these malignancies by two types of growth factor/receptors, namely transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?, and EGFR subfamily of tyrosine kinase receptors including ErbB2. Overexpression of these proteins has been demonstrated in patients with cancer progression and correlated with poor prognosis, increased frequency of metastasis and death. In addition, EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitors have been used in targeted therapy of lung and breast cancer, respectively. Recent investigations of lung cancer have uncovered that EGFR inhibitors have their greatest effect in patients with EGFR somatic mutations thus raising a possibility that EGFR mutations may be a molecular predictors of sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors.
Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.
Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.
Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.
Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.
Full Text Available Outcomes research needs to be conducted in countries beyond the USA if nursing classification is to move into visibility and acceptance in health care delivery around the world. Clinical outcomes that reflect nursing interventions have not been well documented. Recent socioeconomic changes in Taiwan have provided a unique opportunity to measure nursing-sensitive outcomes in nurse-managed nursing homes. The purpose of recently completed research conducted in eight selected nursing homes in Taiwan was to explore factors influencing two nursing-sensitive outcomes, namely, biopsychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. Nursing-sensitive outcomes are defined as changes in health status upon which nursing care has had a direct influence. The researchers considered the impact of both individual patient factors and organizational factors on the care outcomes. Individual patient factors were found to be significantly more important than organizational factors in determining biopsychosocial function.
Yang, Ke-Ping A., Simms, Lillian M., Yin, Jeo-Chen T
Background Our understanding of complex signaling networks is still fragmentary. Isolated processes have been studied extensively but cross-talk is omnipresent and precludes intuitive predictions of signaling outcomes. The need for quantitative data on dynamic systems is apparent especially for our understanding of pathological processes. In our study we create and integrate data on phosphorylations that are initiated by several growth factor receptors. We present an approach for quantitative, time-resolved phosphoproteomic profiling that integrates the important contributions by phosphotyrosines. Methods A549 lung carcinoma cells were used as a model and stimulated with hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor. We employed a quick protein digestion workflow with spin filters without using urea. Phosphopeptides in general were enriched by sequential elution from immobilized metal affinity chromatography (SIMAC) with TiO2 enrichment. Phosphotyrosine containing peptides were enriched by immunoprecipitation. iTRAQ™ labeling enabled multiplexed quantification of changes during stimulation and comparison of different stimuli. Several fragmentation techniques were used in order to maximize identification of peptides as well as localization of phosphorylation sites. Results and Conclusions The combination of SIMAC with phosphotyrosine enrichment leads to a significant increase in identification of potential signaling events in growth factor receptor signaling networks. In a typical set of measurements (time course of one stimulant) 1500 to 2000 unique phosphopeptides are found. 200 of these contain phosphotyrosine. A large fraction of known network components can be identified. Combining data from collision induced dissociation (normal and higher energy) and electron transfer dissociation adds confidence in modification site assignment. The workflow is relatively simple but the integration of complementary techniques leads to a deeper insight into cellular signaling networks and the potential pharmacological intervention thereof.
Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike
Abstract Introduction Cartilage degeneration driven by catabolic stimuli is a critical pathophysiological process in osteoarthritis (OA). We have defined fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) as a degenerative mediator in adult human articular chondrocytes. Biological effects mediated by FGF-2 include inhibition of proteoglycan production, up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and stimulation of other catabolic factors. In this study, we identified the specific receptor responsi...
Yan, Dongyao; Chen, Di; Cool, Simon M.; Wijnen, Andre J.; Mikecz, Katalin; Murphy, Gillian; Im, Hee-jeong
r on metals was greater than that of soluble growth factor. - Highlights: ? Epidermal growth factor was covalently immobilized on titan or stainless steel surfaces. ? Amino groups were formed on the surfaces by the treatment and the growth factor was immobilized through amide bonds. ? The immobilized epidermal growth factor accelerated cell proliferation more than soluble ones on the surfaces.
This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to grow in macrophages is central to its pathogenicity. We found previously that the widespread 210 strain of M. tuberculosis grew more rapidly than other strains in human macrophages. Because principal sigma factors influence virulence in some bacteria, we analysed mRNA expression of the principal sigma factor, sigA, in M. tuberculosis isolates during growth in human macrophages. Isolates of the 210 strain had higher sigA mRNA levels and higher intracellular growth rates, compared with other clinical strains and the laboratory strain H37Rv. SigA was also upregulated in the 210 isolate TB294 during growth in macrophages, compared with growth in broth. In contrast, H37Rv sigA mRNA levels did not change under these conditions. Overexpression of sigA enhanced growth of recombinant M. tuberculosis in macrophages and in lungs of mice after aerosol infection, whereas recombinant strains expressing antisense transcripts to sigA showed decreased growth in both models. In the presence of superoxide, sense sigA transformants showed greater resistance than vector controls, and the antisense sigA transformant did not grow. We conclude that M. tuberculosis sigA modulates the expression of genes that contribute to virulence, enhancing growth in human macrophages and during the early phases of pulmonary infection in vivo. This effect may be mediated in part by increased resistance to reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:15009884
Wu, Shiping; Howard, Susan T; Lakey, David L; Kipnis, Andre; Samten, Buka; Safi, Hassan; Gruppo, Veronica; Wizel, Benjamin; Shams, Homayoun; Basaraba, Randall J; Orme, Ian M; Barnes, Peter F
Lava domes are conical structures that grow by the infusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Dome growth can be characterized by repeated cycles of growth punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for its composite strength. Within these cycles, deformation ranges from slow long term deformation to sudden deep-seated collapses. Collapses may range from small raveling failures to voluminous and fast-moving pyroclastic flows with rapid and long-downslope-reach from the edifice. Infusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the spatial distribution of strength in the structure. Solidification, driven by degassing-induced crystallization of magma leads to the formation of a continuously evolving frictional talus as a hard outer shell. This shell encapsulates the cohesion-dominated soft ductile core. Here we explore the mechanics of lava dome growth and failure using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. This meshless model follows the natural evolution of a brittle carapace formed by loss of volatiles and rheological stiffening and avoids difficulties of hour-glassing and mesh-entangelment typical in meshed models. We test the fidelity of the model against existing experimental and observational models of lava dome growth. The particle-dynamics model follows the natural development of dome growth and collapse which is infeasible using simple analytical models. The model provides insight into the triggers that lead to the transition in collapse mechasnism from shallow flank collapse to deep seated sector collapse. Increase in material stiffness due to decrease in infusion rate results in the transition of growth pattern from endogenous to exogenous. The material stiffness and strength are strongly controlled by the magma infusion rate. Increase in infusion rate decreases the time available for degassing induced crystallization leading to a transition in the growth pattern, while a decrease in infusion rate results in larger crystals causing the material to stiffen leading to formation of spines. Material stiffness controls the growth direction of the viscous plug in the lava dome interior. Material strength and stiffness controled by rate of infusion influence lava dome growth more significantly than coefficient of frictional of the talus.
Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.
Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human melanocytes involve a complex series of interactions during which both genetic and environmental factors play roles. At present, the regulation of these processes is poorly understood. The authors have induced the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on cultured human melanocytes with phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate and have correlated this event with the appearance of a more differentiated, dendritic morphology. Criteria for NGF receptor expression included protein accumulation and cell-surface immunofluorescent staining with a monoclonal antibody directed against the human receptor and induction of the messenger RNA species as determined by blot-hybridization studies. The presence of the receptor could also be induced by UV irradiation or growth factor deprivation. The NGF receptor is inducible in cultured human melanocytes, and they suggest that NGF may modulate the behavior of this neural crest-derived cell in the skin
1. Modelling the effects of climate change on freshwater fishes requires robust field-based estimates accounting for interactions among multiple factors.2. We used data from an 8-year individual-based study of a wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population to test the influence of water temperature on season-specific growth in the context of variation in other environmental (i.e. season, stream flow) or biotic factors (local brook trout biomass density and fish age and size) in West Brook, a third-order stream in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.3. Changes in ambient temperature influenced individual growth rates. In general, higher temperatures were associated with higher growth rates in winter and spring and lower growth rates in summer and autumn. However, the effect of temperature on growth was strongly context-dependent, differing in both magnitude and direction as a function of season, stream flow and fish biomass density.4. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong and complex interactive effects on trout growth. At the coldest temperatures (in winter), high stream flows were associated with reduced trout growth rates. During spring and autumn and in typical summers (when water temperatures were close to growth optima), higher flows were associated with increased growth rates. In addition, the effect of flow at a given temperature (the flow-temperature interaction) differed among seasons.5. Trout density negatively affected growth rate and had strong interactions with temperature in two of four seasons (i.e. spring and summer) with greater negative effects at high temperatures.6. Our study provided robust, integrative field-based estimates of the effects of temperature on growth rates for a species which serves as a model organism for cold-water adapted ectotherms facing the consequences of environmental change. Results of the study strongly suggest that failure to derive season-specific estimates, or to explicitly consider interactions with flow regime and fish density, will seriously compromise our ability to predict the effects of climate change on stream fish growth rates. Further, the concordance we found between empirical observations and likely energetic mechanisms suggests that our general results should be relevant at broader spatial and temporal scales. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Xu, C.; Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.
The responses of preterm neonates to acute tissue-damaging stimuli have been described. However, factors which influence these responses have received little attention. In this study, we observed 124 premature infants before, during and after a routine heel lance and determined how two contextual variables (severity of illness and behavioral state) influenced their behavioral responses. Significant changes in facial actions occurred between baseline and the most invasive phase of the heel lance procedure, stick. The fundamental frequency, harmonic structure and peak spectral energy of the infant's cry were also significantly increased during the stick phase. Behavioral state was found to influence the facial action variables and severity of illness modified the acoustic cry variables. Accurate identification of pain in premature infants requires consideration of factors that influence their response. PMID:7854790
Stevens, B J; Johnston, C C; Horton, L
Scientific analysis of energy consumption and its influencing factors is of great importance for energy strategy and policy planning. The energy consumption in China 1953-2006 is estimated by applying the energy ecological footprint (EEF) method, and the fluctuation periods of annual China's per capita EEF (EEFcpc) growth rate are analyzed with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method in this paper. EEF intensity is analyzed to depict energy efficiency in China. The main timescales of the 37 factors that affect the annual growth rate of EEFcpc are also discussed based on EMD and factor analysis methods. Results show three obvious undulation cycles of the annual growth rate of EEFcpc, i.e., 4.6, 14.4 and 34.2 years over the last 53 years. The analysis findings from the common synthesized factors of IMF1, IMF2 and IMF3 timescales of the 37 factors suggest that China's energy policy-makers should attach more importance to stabilizing economic growth, optimizing industrial structure, regulating domestic petroleum exploitation and improving transportation efficiency
BACKGROUND. Research suggests that patients are more satisfied with patient-centred consultations than with doctor-centred consultations and that some health measures are positively influenced by this type of consultation. Research on the factors that influence the patient centredness of the consultation is sparse but suggests that women doctors are more patient centred than men doctors. AIM. A study was designed, first, to confirm or reject the suggestion that women general practitioners are...
Law, S. A.; Britten, N.
Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a multifunctional growth factor that promotes proliferation, motility, and morphogenesis in epithelial cells. Recently the HGF receptor, c-met protooncogene product, has been shown to be expressed in developing limb buds (Sonnenberg, E., D. Meyer, M. Weidner, and C. Birchmeiyer, 1993. J. Cell Biol. 123: 223-235), suggesting that some populations of mesenchymal cells in limb buds respond to HGF/SF. To test the possibility that HGF/SF is invol...
The effect of growth hormone (GH) on binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to liver membrane preparations was investigated in hypophysectomized mice and partially GH-deficient, genetic mutant "little" (lit/lit) mice. The EGF binding of normal male mice and testosterone-treated females was higher than in normal females. Due to diminished receptor concentration, hepatic EGF binding was decreased in male and female lit/lit mice to a level that was unaffected by gender or androgen treatment. G...
Jansson, J. O.; Ekberg, S.; Hoath, S. B.; Beamer, W. G.; Frohman, L. A.
We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.
Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging were found to have a significant impact on customer e-loyalty in Internet banking.
Ameen M Al-Agaga
Abstract Background Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors are key growth factors in the process of alveolar repair. We hypothesized that excessive alveolar destruction observed in lung emphysema involves impaired expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors or their respective receptors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in lung sa...
Marchal Joëlle; Leçon-Malas Véronique; Boutten Anne; Bonay Marcel; Soler Paul; Fournier Michel; Leseche Guy; Dehoux Monique; Crestani Bruno
Tumor angiogenesis is the foundation of tumor growth and metastasis. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) plays a pivotal role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. VEGFR has become a common molecular target which has a potential value in angiogenesis diagnosis and therapy at present. Radionuclide receptor imaging has the advantage of high sensitivity and specificity, by which distribution density of VEGFR and its affinity with its ligand in tumor tissue can be revealed. VEGFR imaging is helpful in diagnosis, staging and detection of recurrence and metastasis of tumor and plays an instructive role in biological therapy of tumor mediated by VEGFR. (authors)
Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on organizational structure has been in researchers’ focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Many of these factors are from the environment where traditional view commonly divided into internal and external factors. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate the influencing factors and impact on organizational structure of a sample of firms located in Hanoi, Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were administered with respect to these factors. The variables studied were identified from among the factors considered in contingency theory and by incorporating elements of the strategic choice approach. After grouping the variables into two factors (related to external and internal respectively, the results revealed three groups of firms according to how they regarded the impact of these factors on organizational structures. In those groups that consider the variables of internal factors to be modifiers of structure the organizational structures are of the “complex classical” type, whereas simple forms predominate in the group that believes these variables do not modify their structure.
Information about the role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) is mainly derived from knockout (KO) and transgenic mice, human mutations in IGF1, IGF1R and IGFALS, and association studies with IGF1 SNPs. Igf1 KO mice show severely impaired pre- and postnatal growth and brain development and sensorineural hearing loss. Both local and endocrine IGF-1 are needed for normal growth. Igfals KO mice show a modest postnatal growth attenuation. Homozygous igf1r KO mice are severely growth impaired, while heterozygous mutations only show mild growth retardation. Two patients with a complete absence of biologically active IGF-1 showed severe pre- and postnatal growth, extreme microcephaly, sensorineural deafness and failure to thrive. A patient with a mutation that led to a partially functional protein had a less severe growth phenotype and no deafness, similarly to two siblings with a heterozygous IGF1 mutation. Heterozygosity for a dysfunctional IGF1 mutation leads to a mild effect on birth weight, adult height and head circumference. Patients with heterozygous mutations or deletions of IGF1R have a moderate pre- and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly and a history of feeding problems. Children with homozygous mutations of IGFALS have a low or normal birth weight, a mild growth failure, a head circumference in the lower normal range, and no failure to thrive. Association studies of IGF1 polymorphisms in large populations have shown variable results with respect to height, but a more consistent association with head circumference. In conclusion, a normal IGF-I bioactivity (normal local and endocrine IGF-1 availability, normal IGF1R function, normal signaling) is needed for a normal pre- and postnatal longitudinal and cranial growth. IGF-1 dysfunction causes severe growth failure, while heterozygous defects of IGF1R and homozygous defects of IGFALS are associated with a milder phenotype. Feeding disturbances in infants with IGF1 and IGF1R mutations suggest a role of IGF-1 signaling in regulatory brain centers. PMID:23428682
Wit, Jan M; Walenkamp, Marie J
Full Text Available Tourism industry plays an essential role on development of economy and it is considered as one of green industries. Many countries try to promote investment on tourism to create various job opportunities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on tourism industry in city of Yazd, Iran. The proposed study uses three multiple criteria decision making techniques namely, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW and Taxonomy to rank 40 factors. The results indicate that factors such as Being located in the center axis of communication, Strengths in transportation, The ease of access to tourism destinations and Sufficient knowledge of some historical attractions are among important factors influencing tourism industry.
Mojtaba Khalesi Ardakani