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Sample records for factors influence eating

  1. Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument

    Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour…

  2. Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE, respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p < .05 the variance of females’ EAT-26 scores, whereas BD, DPCE, fat percentage, age, ethnicity and competitive level significantly explained ( p < .05 the variance of risk behaviours for males’ ED. Thus, only BD influenced risk behaviours for ED in both sexes.

  3. Why don’t adolescents eat fish? Factors influencing fish consumption in school

    Prell, Hillevi; Berg, Christina; Jonsson, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Background: Theory-based research is needed to promote healthy eating in adolescents and to work out interventions. Objective: To examine what factors influence adolescents’ fish consumption in school. Design: A total of 162 pupils from the 8th grade (age º14 years) at two schools completed a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In 150 of these subjects, fish consumption was assessed by observation on four occasions. Results: Attitudes towards the fish, friends’ behaviour a...

  4. Factors Influencing Changes in Eating Patterns Among Hong Kong Young Adults Transitioning to Tertiary Education.

    Kwok, Sin Tung; Capra, Sandra; Leveritt, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Transitioning to tertiary education is a significant life course event that has the potential to influence lifelong eating patterns. This study used a theoretic model developed from a life course perspective to examine factors influencing the change of food choices among 31 young adults in Hong Kong after they moved on to tertiary education. Qualitative analysis of transcripts based on the constant comparative method revealed that present life course experiences, especially increased autonomy, and social-environmental factors strongly influenced young adults' present food choices. A model was developed from life course theory and social-ecological theory to reflect the factors that led to change of food choices among participants. The model provides unique insights on food choices of the future adult population. It could also be used as a reference for the development of nutrition education interventions targeting tertiary students as they experience increased autonomy. In conclusion, food choices of young adults on transitioning to tertiary education are strongly influenced by increased autonomy and change of social and environmental factors. PMID:27052300

  5. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women

    Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher...

  6. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders.

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology. PMID:27222139

  7. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  8. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  9. Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.

    Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone

    2002-03-01

    Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms). PMID:11902388

  10. Maternal influences on daughters' restrained eating behavior.

    Francis, Lori A; Birch, Leann L

    2005-11-01

    This study examined whether mothers' preoccupation with their own weight and eating was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior. Participants included 173 non-Hispanic, White mother-daughter dyads, measured longitudinally when daughters were ages 5, 7, 9, and 11. Mothers who were preoccupied with their own weight and eating reported higher levels of restricting daughters' intake and encouraging daughters to lose weight over time. Mothers' encouragement of daughters' weight loss was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior; this relationship was partially mediated by daughters' perception of maternal pressure to lose weight. These findings suggest that mothers' preoccupation with weight and eating, via attempts to influence daughters' weight and eating, may place daughters at risk for developing problematic eating behaviors. PMID:16287400

  11. Autonomy and Submissiveness as Cognitive and Cultural Factors Influencing Eating Disorders in Italy and Sweden: An Exploratory Study.

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Veronese, Guido; Nevonen, Lauri; Fiore, Francesca; Centorame, Franceso; Favaretto, Ettore; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61) and Swedish (n = 31) female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism) and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism). Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy. PMID:27247654

  12. Autonomy and Submissiveness as Cognitive and Cultural Factors Influencing Eating Disorders in Italy and Sweden: An Exploratory Study

    Sandra Sassaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61 and Swedish (n = 31 female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism. Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.

  13. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  14. Risk factors for eating disorders

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305

  15. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...

  16. Psychological Factors Predict Eating Disorder Onset and Maintenance at 10-year Follow-up

    Holland, Lauren A.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eating behaviors in men and women (N=1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-...

  17. Relevant risk factors, current eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning in eating disorders

    Carretero García, Anna; Sánchez Planell, Luis; Rusiñol Estragués, Jordi; Raich, Rosa M.; Sánchez Carracedo, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first aim of this study is to assess retrospectively the relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (EDs). The second aim is the assessment of eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evaluation prior to intervention of 73 patients with bulimia nervosa of the purging type (BN-P; n=29), binge eating disorder (BED; n=6), eating disorder not otherwise specified purging type (EDNOS-P; n=17...

  18. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  19. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

    Zhuoli Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  20. Environmental influences on youth eating habits: insights from parents and teachers in South Korea.

    Park, Sohyun; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lawrence, Robert; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Youth obesity has increased over the past two decades in South Korea. Researchers employed in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with parents and teachers from 26 schools in metropolitan South Korea, to examine environmental factors affecting youth eating habits. Home environment and exposure to healthy foods were the most important factors influencing healthy eating habits. Families with working mothers eat out more than do families with stay-at-home mothers. Poor nutrition education is associated with low vegetable intake in elementary school lunches. A cultural emphasis on academic achievement adversely affects children's eating practices. Findings can guide future studies and inform program development. PMID:24884552

  1. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    Marla Reicks

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among early adolescents (10–14 years, poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions.

  2. Reciprocal Influence of Couple Dynamics and Eating Disorders.

    Linville, Deanna; Cobb, Erin; Shen, Fei; Stadelman, Suzie

    2016-04-01

    Little research has focused on the ways that eating disorder processes and adult couple dynamics influence one another. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reciprocal influence of couple dynamics and eating disorder illness and recovery processes. We conducted 51 interviews with 17 couples where one member identified as currently suffering or having recovered from an eating disorder. Using grounded theory analytical methods, findings include the systemic interplay of the eating disorder and relationship, both partners' perspectives on the eating disorder and its role in the relationship, the noneating disorder partner's impact on the eating disorder, and coping strategies for recovery as a couple. Clinical implications for supporting couples experiencing eating disorder illness and recovery are discussed. PMID:26189490

  3. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

  4. Influences on eating: a qualitative study of adolescents in a periurban area in Lima, Peru

    Banna, Jinan C; Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Delormier, Treena; Hilary M Creed-Kanashiro; Penny, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peruvian adolescents are at high nutritional risk, facing issues such as overweight and obesity, anemia, and pregnancy during a period of development. Research seeking to understand contextual factors that influence eating habits to inform the development of public health interventions is lacking in this population. This study aimed to understand socio-cultural influences on eating among adolescents in periurban Lima, Peru using qualitative methods. Methods Semi-structured intervie...

  5. Maternal Influences on Daughters' Restrained Eating Behavior

    Francis, Lori A.; Birch, Leann L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' preoccupation with their own weight and eating was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior. Participants included 173 non-Hispanic, White mother–daughter dyads, measured longitudinally when daughters were ages 5, 7, 9, and 11. Mothers who were preoccupied with their own weight and eating reported higher levels of restricting daughters' intake and encouraging daughters to lose weight over time. Mothers' encouragement of daughters' weight loss was li...

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  7. The influence of marketing communication in eating disorders

    Meisnerová, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis deals with the influence of marketing communication in eating disorders. The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first theoretical part deals with body image, ideal of beauty, eating disorders, marketing communication and communication mix. The second practical part consists of a questionnaire, an interview with a medical doctor and content analysis of stories from patients. The aim is to determine whether there is any influence of marketing communication to the emer...

  8. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.

    Cohen, D A; Babey, S H

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  9. Affective Beliefs Influence the Experience of Eating Meat

    Anderson, Eric C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    People believe they experience the world objectively, but research continually demonstrates that beliefs influence perception. Emerging research indicates that beliefs influence the experience of eating. In three studies, we test whether beliefs about how animals are raised can influence the experience of eating meat. Samples of meat were paired with descriptions of animals raised on factory farms or raised on humane farms. Importantly, the meat samples in both conditions were identical. However, participants experienced the samples differently: meat paired with factory farm descriptions looked, smelled, and tasted less pleasant. Even basic properties of flavor were influenced: factory farmed samples tasted more salty and greasy. Finally, actual behavior was influenced: participants consumed less when samples were paired with factory farm descriptions. These findings demonstrate that the experience of eating is not determined solely by physical properties of stimuli—beliefs also shape experience. PMID:27556643

  10. Utilizing non-traditional research designs to explore culture-specific risk factors for eating disorders in African American adolescents

    Cassidy, Omni; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been an increase in the number of empirical investigations of the phenomenology of eating disorders among African American adolescents. Despite efforts to understand racial/ethnic differences, relatively few eating disorder models address the important sociocultural factors that exert powerful influences on beliefs and behaviors related to weight status and eating patterns in this population. Nevertheless, researchers must be culturally competent in orde...

  11. Weighing in on the Issue: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of Selected Individual Factors and the Sports Context on the Developmental Trajectories of Eating Pathology among Adolescents

    Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain…

  12. Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Secondary School Students

    Thatcher, William; Rhea, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether behavioral differences (exercise, dieting, changing eating habits, taking pills, or vomiting/taking laxatives to lose weight) exist when identifying the major influencing factors (media, family, friends, teacher/coach, and doctor/nurse) among Black and White men's and women's self-perceptions of body weight. Respondents…

  13. Externalizing Behaviors and Eating Disorder Risk Factors in Adolescents

    LIVAZOVIĆ, Goran; Ručević, Silvija

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relative contribution of risk factors from different domains (i.e. family, peers and school) in the explanation of externalizing behaviors (i.e. proactive aggressive behavior and risky sexual behavior) and disordered eating in a community sample of boys (n=429) and girls (n=307), aged 15–20. In order to examine the predictive value of examined variables on types of externalizing behaviors and disordered eating as criterion variables, several hierarchical regress...

  14. Interpersonal difficulties as a risk factor for athletes' eating psychopathology.

    Shanmugam, V; Jowett, S; Meyer, C

    2014-04-01

    The present study sought to determine the predictive role of interpersonal difficulties on eating psychopathology among competitive British athletes (ranging from university to international competition level). A total of 122 athletes (36 males and 86 females) with a mean age of 21.22 years (SD = 4.02), completed a multisection questionnaire that measured eating psychopathology, attachment styles, and quality of relationships with parents, coaches and teammate over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, only the quality of the relationship with coach and closest teammate were related to athletes' eating psychopathology 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that athletes' eating psychopathology was only predicted by perceived levels of interpersonal conflict with the coach. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that conflict within the coach-athlete relationship is a potential risk factor for eating disorders among athletes and thus it would seem appropriate to raise awareness for its potentially toxic role in athletes' eating psychopathology. PMID:23992547

  15. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. PMID:25903236

  16. Perfectionism in Body Dissatisfaction, Sociocultural Influence of the Thinness model and Symptoms of Eating Disorders

    Karina Franco Paredes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD, sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM and symptoms of eating disorders (ED. The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN, 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.

  17. Characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory for children at risk and protective factors for disordered eating in adolescent girls

    Sanna Aila Gustafsson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sanna Aila Gustafsson1, Birgitta Edlund2, Lars Kjellin3, Claes Norring41Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Örebro; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala; 3Psychiatric Research Centre, University of Örebro; 4Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-Child version (EDI-C to find early predictors that might constitute risk and protective factors in the development of disordered eating.Method: Participants were divided into three groups based on eating attitudes at T2: disordered eating (n = 49, intermediate eating concern (n = 260, and healthy eating attitudes (n = 120. EDI-C from T1 (four to five years earlier was then analyzed to find predictors of group classification at T2.Results: Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction emerged as risk factors at T1, while drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and interoceptive awareness emerged as protective factors after controlling for initial eating concerns and body mass index.Discussion: Eating disorders should not be seen as a result of a premorbid personality type. Rather we should take a more social-psychological perspective to explain how individual and sociocultural factors work together in the development of these conditions. Keywords: eating disorders, EDI-C, risk factors, protective factors

  18. The Influence of the media and advertising on eating disorders

    Contreras, Ruth S. (Ruth Sofhía); González Romo, Zahaira Fabiola; García Medina, Irene; Jiménez Morales, Mònika; Carrillo Durán, Victoria; Sánchez Hernández, María

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a literature review of the influence of advertising and the media on Eating Disorders (ED). Research published in scientific journals in various fields of social sciences such as sychology, psychiatry and communication science has enabled us to conclude that the content displayed in the media, including advertising, are enhancers of disorders and contribute significantly to body issatisfaction in relation to the perceived idea of beauty, it also facilitates the developm...

  19. Eating concerns and media influences in an Irish adolescent context.

    McNicholas, Fiona

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes. METHOD: Students were screened using the EAT-26, EDI-III and a study-specific questionnaire. A sub-sample of parents\\' views was included. RESULTS: Three thousand and thirty-one students (mean age 14.74) and 56 parents enrolled. The majority (71.4%) of adolescents felt adversely affected by media portrayal of body weight and shape, with more than a quarter (25.6%) believing it to be \\'far too thin\\'. A significant correlation between media impact and high EAT scores (chi2 = 450.78, df = 2, p < 0.05) and EDI-III scores (chi2 = 387.51, df = 4, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Parents also view media portrayal as too thin (94.7%), less than half are adversely affected by it (49.2%) but the majority (71.9%) believe their children to be. CONCLUSION: Media portrayal of body weight and shape is correlated with eating psychopathology and may affect adolescents more than adults. School psycho-educational programmes and media policies are urgently needed to minimise any detrimental effect.

  20. Sociological Factors in the Development of Eating Disorders.

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews sociocultural, socioeconomic, and sex-related factors which contribute to development of eating disorders. Recommends that professionals help adolescents resist societal pressure to conform to unrealistic standards of appearance and provide guidance on nutrition, realistic body ideals, and achievement of self-esteem, self-efficacy,…

  1. Progress of Influencing Factors of Child’ s Nonorganic Eating Behavior%儿童非器质性进食行为障碍影响因素研究进展

    侯日莹; 吕晴; 王琇

    2016-01-01

    Children eating behavior problem has been the focus of the public and parents.Poor eating behaviors have many negative effects on the physical and mental in growth and development.Good eating behavior is essential to the growth and development of children.Eating behav-ior problems of children are involved in a variety of factors.This article reviews the factors of children's non-organic eating behavior problems, aims to provide a theoretical basis for improving children good eating habits, and develops interventions for the relevant departments, promotes children's healthy growth.%儿童进食行为问题一直以来是社会及家长备受关注的焦点。生长发育中不良的进食行为会造成儿童身心发展及智力发育缓慢等诸多负面影响。良好的进食行为对儿童的成长发育至关重要,进食行为问题的发生源于多方面因素的影响。本文就儿童非器质性进食行为障碍的影响因素进行综述,为改善儿童饮食习惯、相关部门制定干预措施及促进儿童健康成长提供理论依据。

  2. The Possible Influence of Impulsivity and Dietary Restraint on Associations between Serotonin Genes and Binge Eating

    Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Larson, Christine L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2009-01-01

    Although serotonin (5-HT) genes are thought to be involved in the etiology of bulimia nervosa and binge eating, findings from molecular genetic studies are inconclusive. This may be due to limitations of past research, such as a failure to consider the influence of quantitative traits and gene-environment interactions. The current study investigated these issues by examining whether quantitative traits (i.e., impulsivity) and environmental exposure factors (i.e., dietary restraint) moderate 5...

  3. Analysis on Eating Behaviors and Influencing Factors of Healthcare Foods among Resi-dents in Wuhan City%武汉市居民保健食品服用行为及影响因素分析

    戚瑾; 吴晶; 刘欢; 罗庆; 刘军安

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析消费者保健食品服用行为和影响因素,为居民理性消费保健食品提供参考依据。方法在武汉市6个区抽取1530名保健食品消费者进行保健食品服用状况的调查。结果在调查对象中,每天服用保健食品者占3.6%;服用不到3个月的占62.5%,能坚持1年及以上的仅占8.19%;仅服用1种保健食品的比例为53.9%;服用保健食品最主要的原因是为了“提高自身免疫力”(39.7%),其次是“补充营养元素”(38.2%)。影响保健食品服用的因素主要有年龄、是否相信保健食品的疗效、是否有必要了解保健食品知识、购买意愿和服用意愿。结论武汉市居民服用保健食品行为相对较为理性,保健食品消费要考虑居民的消费认知和消费意愿。%Objectives To analyze eating behaviors and the relevant influencing factors of healthcare foods among Wuhan residents,so as to provide reference for rational consumption of healthcare foods.Methods An investigation in six districts of Wuhan was conducted in a cross-sectional survey.1 530 customers were selected and their eating behaviors were surveyed.Results The investigation found that 3.6% of customers had healthcare foods every day;62.5% of customers had healthcare foods in less than three months.Only 8.1 9% of customers could insist on having healthcare foods for at least one year.53.9% of customers had only one kind of healthcare foods.39.7% of customers had healthcare foods for their im-munity enhancement and 38.2% for their supplement of nutritious elements.Factors that affected the eating behaviors of healthcare foods were age,purchasing willingness,taking willingness,necessity of learning healthcare foods knowledge and be-lief in the effect of healthcare foods.Conclusions Wuhan customers had a rational behavior towards healthcare foods,and healthcare foods company should take customers'cognition and willingness into consideration.

  4. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    Allen, Karina L; Gibson, Lisa Y; McLean, Neil J; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Byrne, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body ...

  5. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Flavia Marcele Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 bo...

  6. Eating Disorders and Their Associated Risk Factors among Iranian Population – A Community Based Study

    Garrusi, Behshid; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds: Many socio cultural variables could be affect eating disorders in Asian countries. In Iran, there are few researches regarding eating disorders and their contributing factors. The aim of this study is to explore frequency of eating disorders and their risk factors in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: About 1204 participants were selected aged between fourteen to 55 years. Frequency of eating disorders and effects of variables such as demographic characteristics, Body ...

  7. Social skills: a factor of protection against eating disorders in adolescentes.

    Uzunian, Laura Giron; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the literature on the relationship between eating disorders and social skills in adolescents. A search was made on the Medline, SciELO and Lilacs databases, for items combining the terms 'eating disorders', 'anorexia nervosa', 'bulimia nervosa' and 'food behavior', with the terms 'social psychology' and 'social isolation', and with the keywords 'social competence', 'social skill' and 'interpersonal relations'. The following were included: studies on adolescents; in Portuguese, English and Spanish; published in the years 2007 through 2012. The search resulted in 63 articles, and 50 were included in this review. The majority of the studies were made in Brazil and the United States. Of the total, 43 were original articles. The studies aimed to understand how emotional state could influence the establishment of eating disorders, interpersonal relationships and peer relationship. The articles also discussed the influence of the media and of society in this process. Based on the analysis of the studies, it was observed that the greater an adolescent's repertory of social skills, the greater his or her factor of protection against the development of eating disorders. PMID:26602727

  8. [Structural equation model in the study of risk factors in the maintenance of binge eating].

    Bastianelli, A; Vicentini, M; Spoto, A; Vidotto, G

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated, in a sample of 483 adolescent girls, a number of risk factors associated with Binge Eating (BE) disorder, i.e. negative feelings, dieting behaviour, social influence and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the following questionnaires: Bulimia Test, Depression Questionnaire, Dieting Self-Efficacy Measure, Dieting Success, Dieting Status Measure, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory, Positive and Negative Affect Scale Revised, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Socio-cultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used in the data analysis to verify the hypothesized relations among the variables, with the aim of identifying the main predictors of BE. This methodology explains the correlation between the considered variables, and determines, using quantitative good fit indexes, both the strength of the correlations and the plausibility of the causal links between the hypothesized factors. Our findings confirm that negative feelings (Negative Affect) are the primary predictor for the maintenance of BE and highlight the significant role played by Social Influence. While Dieting Behaviour is not a primary predictor for the maintenance of BE it appears to influence it through its link with Negative Affect. PMID:18575358

  9. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p < 0.05. Among boys, body dissatisfaction, body fat, and nutritional status were associated with RBED (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though body dissatisfaction had the highest odds ratio, other variables were also associated with RBED.

  10. The MABIC project : an effectiveness trial for reducing risk factors for eating disorders

    Sánchez Carracedo, David; Fauquet Ars, Jordi; López Guimerà, Gemma; Leiva Ureña, David; Puntí Vidal, Joaquim; Trepat de Ancos, Esther; Pàmias Massana, Montserrat; Palao Vidal, Diego J.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges in the prevention of disordered eating field include moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under mo...

  11. Factors Influencing Biotite Weathering

    Reed, Ryan R.

    2000-01-01

    Factors Influencing Biotite Weathering by Ryan Reed Lucian W. Zelazny, Chairman Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences (ABSTRACT) Weathering of biotite supplies nutrients such as K+ and weathers into vermiculite/montmorillonite or kaolinite, which have varying influences on soil properties and characteristics. This study was conducted to determine if the weathering mechanisms of biotite are controlled by temperature, or if other factors, such as vegetation or leaching inten...

  12. Does personality influence eating styles and food choices? Direct and indirect effects.

    Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In a random sample (N = 951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. PMID:25308432

  13. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring. PMID:27281376

  14. Eating disorders in elementary and middle school children: risk factors, early detection, and prevention.

    White, J H

    2000-04-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are significant problems that are typically diagnosed during adolescence. However, the risk factors for and early symptoms of EDs often develop in the elementary and middle school years. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, obesity, parental attitudes, and the influence of the media are some of the significant identifiable risk factors. Prevention programs need to be developed that focus on education, consultation, and consciousness-raising. Early detection involves screening, assessment, and referral for appropriate treatment. School nurses are skilled, educated, and positioned to develop programs for the prevention and early detection of EDs. PMID:11151539

  15. Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls' Eating Disorder Risk

    Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...

  16. Influence of perfectionism on variables associated to eating disorders in dance students

    Arcelus, Jon; García-Dantas, Ana; Sánchez-Martín, Milagrosa; Del Río Sánchez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of the main two elements of perfectionism (CM, concern over mistakes and PS, personal standards) on eating disorders risk factors in dancers. Based on the literature, we tested the role of CM and PS over diet and mood related symptoms, and the function of performance anxiety and body dissatisfaction as the main mediators in the model. Two hundreds and eighty one female dancers (M = 15.28; SDage = 2.32) from two Spanish dance conservato...

  17. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

    Forrester-Knauss Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.

  18. Eating Attitudes and Related Factors in Turkish Nursing Students

    Celik, Sevim; Ugur, Bayram Ali; Aykurt, Fethi Ahmet; Bektas, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing eating behaviors might trigger obesity, deficiency, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and reactive eating disorders. Objectives: This study aimed to determine eating attitudes of nursing students in the western Black-Sea region of Turkey as well as to examine the effects of demographic features, self-esteem, body image, income level, and family structure on their eating attitudes. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 310 nursing students bet...

  19. Profiling healthy eaters: determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults

    E. Swan; L. Bouwman; G.J. Hiddink; N. Aarts; M. Koelen

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's sa

  20. Distinguishing Between Risk Factors for Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Purging Disorder.

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-08-01

    Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model

  1. Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: The influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD

    Lucea, Marguerite B.; Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Doris W. Campbell

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N=790) in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands from 2009–2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality f...

  2. Reciprocal Influence of Alliance to the Group and Outcome in Day Treatment for Eating Disorders

    Tasca, Giorgio A.; Lampard, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the alliance-outcome relationship is still emerging. This study examined the reciprocal influence of change in alliance to the group and change in urge to restrict in eating-disordered individuals attending a group-based day treatment. Participants (N = 238) were a transdiagnostic or mixed diagnostic sample of eating-disordered…

  3. Risk factors for disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: prospective evidence from mainland Chinese boys and girls.

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Despite evidence that sociocultural and psychological factors contribute to disordered eating, researchers have yet to examine the extent to which putative risk factors influence vulnerability for girls versus boys within and across phases of adolescence, particularly in non-Western cultures. In this study, early and middle adolescent samples from China (N = 2,909) completed measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and were reassessed 12 months later. Among both younger and older girls, elevations in appearance-focused interactions with friends, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction predicted increases in symptomatology at follow-up. In contrast, there was more discontinuity in risk factors relevant to samples of boys. Although media and friendship influences contributed to later disturbances among early adolescent boys, psychological factors, including body dissatisfaction and negative affect, had stronger effects in the multivariate model for older boys. Implications of finding are discussed in relation to adolescent development and a Chinese cultural context. PMID:21319924

  4. Women and eating disorders, Part I: Significance and sociocultural risk factors.

    White, J H

    1992-01-01

    Eating disorders are a significant health problem for women today and therefore are a concern for the health professionals who work with women. The significance of this problem is addressed through epidemiological data from a Western cultural perspective. Many risk factors contribute to the development of these disorders. Broad categories including sociocultural, developmental, familial, and biological factors have been identified by clinicians and researchers. The sociocultural risk factors are the norms, standards, or values of a society. The sociocultural risk factors explored in this article are (a) the value of a thin physique, (b) the value of perfection, (c) the norm of dieting, (d) the influence of the media on these values, and (e) the choice of certain professions. The role of the health professional in prevention with respect to sociocultural factors is discussed. PMID:1478897

  5. [Eating disorders in men].

    Bak, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Despite of being perceived as 'woman's diseases', eating disorders were described among boys and adult men. This article presents epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in men. The clinical presentation of eating disorders in men was described and compared with similar data from the female population. Moreover, a significance of selected risk factors, specifically those referring to men, was discussed. These are: the disturbance of body perception, personality traits and potential association of eating disorders with sexual orientation. Efficacy of different psychotherapy approaches aimed at eating disorders was summarized. Rules governing psychotherapy of men suffering from eating disorders were described. Specific features of eating disorders' aetiology were taken into account together with characteristic difficulties influencing treatment. PMID:19697523

  6. Cultural Factors in Collegiate Eating Disorder Pathology: When Family Culture Clashes with Individual Culture

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…

  7. Effect of a Dissonance-Based Prevention Program on Risk for Eating Disorder Onset in the Context of Eating Disorder Risk Factors

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Test (a) whether a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program that reduces thin-ideal internalization mitigates the effects of risk factors for eating disorder onset and (b) whether the risk factors moderate the effects of this intervention on risk for eating disorder onset, to place the effects of this intervention within the context of established risk factors. Female adolescents (N=481) with body image concerns were randomized to the dissonance-based program, healthy weight contro...

  8. Association of Eating Behaviors and Obesity with Psychosocial and Familial Influences

    Brown, Stephen L.; Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Wrobleski, Peggy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Overeating is often attributed to emotions and has been linked to psychological challenges and obesity. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of emotional and external cue eating on obesity and the correlation of emotional and external cue eating with positive and negative psychological factors, as well as early familial eating…

  9. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. PMID:20739233

  10. An exploratory study of predisposing factors for eating disorders in adolescent girls

    Mokbel, Carine

    1988-01-01

    Research efforts in the area of eating disorders have been numerous and varied. However, few studies have investigated the existence of specific predisposing factors that could render a young female adolescent more susceptible to developing an eating disorder. The present study was attempted in an effort to fill this knowledge gap. One hundred and fifty nine, 12 to 14 year old female students not known as having an eating disorder, were surveyed at a public school in Roanoke County, Virginia....

  11. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  12. Maternal Eating Disorders Influence Sex Ratio at Birth

    Bulik, Cynthia M.; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-01-01

    We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...

  13. [The epidemiology of eating disorders and the influence of mass media: a literature review].

    Guerro-Prado, D; Barjau Romero, J M; Chinchilla Moreno, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an update of the epidemiology of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa), focusing on incidence and prevalence as well as other factors as age and sex. We made a review of the existing literature in the matter in the last decades. Likewise, we made an extent evaluation of the hypothetical pathogenic impact that exerts mass media (television and printed mass media) in these pathologies. We found an evident increase in incidence as well as prevalence of these disorders though it's far from being considered epidemic. We also found an undeniable influence of mass media in the genesis and maintenance of these disorders. However, mass media would exert a positive influence in the popularization of these entities to the general population that would result in a higher demand in general practice. PMID:11730579

  14. An exploration of the tripartite influence model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among Australian and French college women.

    Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri; Paxton, Susan J

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating and risk factors, and to examine the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance among French and Australian young adult females. Participants were 188 Australian (mean age=19.6 years, SD=1.0) and 190 French (mean age=20.7 years, SD=2.6) students. Media, peer and family influences, internalisation of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimia and self-esteem were assessed. Australian participants reported perceiving more peer and media influence, and higher levels of appearance comparison, internalisation of media ideals and bulimic symptoms than French participants (peating disturbance with a view to prevention. PMID:21664887

  15. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  16. Overeating and Binge Eating in Emerging Adulthood: 10-Year Stability and Risk Factors

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control [LOC]) predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but interrelated constructs during critical developmental transitions. We used a population-based sample (n…

  17. Influence of parent?s eating attitudes on eating disorders in school adolescents

    Canals, J.; Sancho, C.; Arija, M. V.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the relationship between parents? cognitive and behavioural dimensions and the risk of eating disorders (ED) in non-clinical adolescents. Methods From an initial sample of 1,336 boys and girls with a mean age of 11.37, a total of 258 subjects were selected either as being at risk of ED or as controls. These subjects and their paren...

  18. Food rejections in children: Cognitive and social/environmental factors involved in food neophobia and picky/fussy eating behavior.

    Lafraire, Jérémie; Rioux, Camille; Giboreau, Agnès; Picard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia and picky/fussy eating behavior are presented as the two main forms of children's food rejections which are responsible for a reduction of their dietary repertoire. We review the key factors, presented in the literature, that are involved in food rejections during childhood. We first consider a range of "cognitive factors", such as food perception, mental representations, categorization of food items, and emotions and feelings toward food. Next we focus on "social and environmental factors", as these might also significantly influence and modulate children's food rejections. We then summarize the findings to provide a comprehensive view of the factors involved in children's food rejections. Finally, we discuss the need for future studies on food rejections, regarding (i) the distinction between food neophobia and picky/fussy eating, and (ii) the potential link between food categorization abilities and children's food neophobia and pickiness. PMID:26391004

  19. Cultural factors in collegiate eating disorder pathology: When family culture clashes with individual culture

    Tomiyama, AJ; MANN, T.

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2) culturally independent participants, enmeshment will not be a risk factor for (1) participants of Asian descent or (2) culturally interdependent participants. P...

  20. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-01-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335

  1. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    Tilles-Tirkkonen Tanja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58% of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC. Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group.

  2. Preliminary Finnish measures of eating competence suggest association with health-promoting eating patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents.

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-05-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335

  3. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    Mitchison D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs in adults. Method: A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion: More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. Keywords: demographic, environment, abuse, prevalence, socioeconomic status, heritability

  4. Does specialization of treatment influence mortality in eating disorders?

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels; Hørder, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality...... calculated with the confounding variables: body mass index (BMI), age at referral and diagnosis. In the latest cohort the SMR for AN was 2.89 vs 11.16 in the time before our specialization. SMR for bulimia nervosa (BN) and for eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in the latest cohort were 2...

  5. Experiencing the influence of eating disorders on person's biografy

    Šukljan, Ambra

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are a complex phenomenon, which has a negative effect on many areas of individual's life. It's a very complex issue, which hides in the background much more profound reasons, than the person’s wishes of becoming thinner and more beautiful. Although a lot has been said on this topic, I think that society still lacks the awareness and knowledge for a successful fight against this problem in order to diminish it. In theoretical part I defined eating disorders and their types,...

  6. The Heritability of Eating Disorders: Methods and Current Findings

    Thornton, Laura M.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder (BED), and the proposed purging disorder presentation (PD) have consistently demonstrated that genetic factors contribute to the variance in liability to eating disorders. In addition, endophenotypes and component phenotypes of eating disorders have been evaluated and provide further insight regarding genetic factors influencing eating disorders and eating disorder diagnostic criteria. Man...

  7. Parental influence on eating behavior: Conception to adolescence

    The first years of life mark a time of rapid development and dietary change, as children transition from an exclusive milk diet to a modified adult diet. During these early years, children's learning about food and eating plays a central role in shaping subsequent food choices, diet quality, and wei...

  8. Investigation on the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang city%沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题的家庭环境影响因素研究

    李静; 黄彦红; 董颖; 曹春兰; 李荔荔; 张雪娇; 董爽; 倪佳; 马辉

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解影响沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为的家庭环境影响因素,为制定有效的干预措施提供科学依据. [方法]采用多阶段抽样方法随机抽取8个社区和4所幼儿园共1 594名儿童作为调查对象,采用单因素和多因素分析方法进行分析. [结果]多因素分析结果显示,语言鼓励、固定餐桌、使用围嘴为儿童不良饮食行为的保护性因素(P均=0.00),父亲低学历为危险因素(P=0.05). [结论]针对儿童饮食行为家庭环境影响因素,加强父母的健康教育,尤以父亲为重点,提高科学的育儿理念,同时探索有效的干预措施.%[Object] To investigate the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang,and provide the scientific evidence for drawing up effectually intervening measure.[Method] 1 594 healthy children in eight communities and four kindergartens were randomly selected with the method of multiple stage,and analyzed by single factor and multifactor analytical method.[Results] Logistic regression model analysis showed that language encourages and fixed dining table and using bib were these protective factors for the eating behavior problems of children,and the father's low qualifications was the risk factor.[Conclusion] The health education of parents should be enhanced about family environment influencing factors for children's eating behavior problems,especially the father,science philosophy of parents should improve and explore effective interventions.

  9. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  10. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but on...

  11. Personality Pathology and Its Influence on Eating Disorders

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Personality disorders appear to be present in a significant minority of individuals with eating disorders. For example, in contrast to reported rates in the general population of eight percent, obsessive compulsive personality is present in approximately 22 percent of individuals with anorexia, restricting type. Likewise, in contrast to rates in the general population of six percent, borderline personality is present in approximately 25 percent of individuals with anorexia nervosa, binge-eati...

  12. Risk and trigger factors for the development of eating disorders in female elite athletes.

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    1994-04-01

    This study examined risk factors and triggers for eating disorders in female athletes. Subjects included were all of the elite female athletes in Norway (N = 603), ages 12-35 yr, representing six groups of sports: technical, endurance, aesthetic, weight dependent, ball games, and power sports. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used to classify individuals at risk for eating disorders. Of the 117 athletes defined at risk, 103 were administered a structured clinical interview for eating disorders. A comparison group was also interviewed, consisting of 30 athletes chosen at random from a pool not at risk and matched to the at-risk subjects on age, community of residence, and sport. Ninety-two of the at-risk athletes met criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia athletica. The prevalence of eating disorders was higher in sports emphasizing leanness or a specific weight than in sports where these are less important. Compared with controls, eating disordered athletes began both sports-specific training and dieting earlier, and felt that puberty occurred too early for optimal performance. Trigger factors associated with the onset of eating disorders were prolonged periods of dieting, frequent weight fluctuations, a sudden increase in training volume, and traumatic events such as injury or loss of a coach. PMID:8201895

  13. Factors influencing the enterprise innovation

    Yachmeneva, V.; Vol’s’ka, G.

    2014-01-01

    The factors that influenced the enterprise innovation are investigated and summarized in the article. Key factors of impact on the enterprise innovation are grouped. Their relationship and mutual influence are proved. Graphic reflect on the impact of external and internal environment factors of the innovative enterprise characteristics are constructed.

  14. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d = .41, p = .003; dieting (six studies), d = .68, p eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. PMID:26230192

  15. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature. PMID:26941955

  16. Variables influencing presenting symptoms of patients with eating disorders at psychiatric outpatient clinics.

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2016-04-30

    Eating disorders (EDs) have been underdiagnosed in many clinical settings. This study investigates the influence of clinical characteristics on presenting symptoms of patients with EDs. Psychiatric outpatients, aged 18-45, were enrolled sequentially and received a two-phase survey for EDs in August 2010-January 2013. Their primary reasons for seeking psychiatric help were obtained at their first encounter with outpatient psychiatrists. Patients' clinical and demographic characteristics were compared according to presenting symptoms with or without eating/weight problems. Of 2140 patients, 348 (16.3%) were diagnosed with an ED (22.6% of women and 6.3% of men). The three most common reasons for seeking psychiatric help were eating/weight problems (46.0%), emotional problems (41.3%), and sleep disturbances (19.3%). The multivariate analyses suggest that when patients with EDs presented symptoms that were less related to eating/weight problems, they were significantly more likely to be those having diagnoses other than anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa and less severe degree of binge-eating. Further, patients with EDs who demonstrated more impulsive behaviors and poorer functioning were less likely to report their eating problems when visiting psychiatric clinics. Thus, ED should be assessed routinely in patients with complex psychopathology to facilitate comprehensive treatment. PMID:27086254

  17. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... in the clinical management of young children with persistent problems of feeding, eating, and weight faltering....

  18. Is the relationship between binge eating episodes and personality attributable to genetic factors?

    Koren, Rachel; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of disordered eating and personality traits, such as neuroticism are correlated and, individually, heritable. We examined the phenotypic correlation between binge eating episodes and indices of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness and control/impulsivity). For correlations ≥ |0.20|, we estimated the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contributed to this correlation. Participants included 3446 European-American ...

  19. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  20. Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

  1. 喂养困难儿童进食技能的评估及相关因素分析%Evaluation of eating skill development of children with feeding difficulty and analysis of its influencing factors

    李荣; 李风景; 陈银花; 毛春婷; 李晓南

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估喂养困难儿童进食技能和喂养行为的相关因素,为临床干预提供科学依据.方法 采用直接问询法,通过问询父母了解189名6个月~4岁喂养困难儿童的喂养史,对其进行体格检查评估、膳食调查评估、喂养行为及进食技能发育水平评估,并运用多元逐步回归分析喂养困难儿童进食技能发育水平与喂养行为的关系.结果 189名儿童中进食技能发育落后者占50.3%(95/189).儿童进食行为问题依次为:进食不专心占91.0%(172/189),进食时间过长占54.5%(103/189),1~4岁嗜好零食占41.1%(60/146),进食恶心占27.0%(51/189).喂养人喂养行为问题包括:食物质地制备不合理,引入泥糊状或固体食物的时间延迟占36.0%(68/189);强迫进食占77.8%(147/189);长期追喂占78.8%(115/146);未能适时提供餐具训练为27.5%(52/189).经相关分析显示,儿童进食技能发育落后与不同质地食物及其引入时间延迟、未能适时进行餐具训练、进食不专心、家长喂养知识欠缺显著相关(F分别为11.892、10.256、3.601、5.007,均P<0.05).结论 喂养困难儿童存在多种喂养行为问题,食物的引入时间和质地、未能适时进行餐具训练、进食不专心、父母喂养知识欠缺对儿童进食技能发育产生显著影响.%Objective To evaluate eating skills of infants with feeding difficulty and feeding behavior so as to provide scientific basis for clinical interventions. Methods In direct inquiry method,the parents of 189 children aged 6 months to 4 years were investigated for feeding history of their children with feeding difficulty. The physical examination results, physical development, diet investigation results and feeding behavior and eating skill development of the children were evaluated. The relationship between eating skill development and their parents' feeding behaviors was analyzed with multiple stepwise regression analysis. Results In 189 children,50.3% (95

  2. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    Mitchison D; Hay PJ

    2014-01-01

    Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method: A keyword sear...

  3. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  4. The MABIC project: An effectiveness trial for reducing risk factors for eating disorders.

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Leiva, David; Puntí, Joaquim; Trepat, Esther; Pàmias, Montserrat; Palao, Diego

    2016-02-01

    Challenges in the prevention of disordered eating field include moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. This effectiveness trial tested whether this program has effects when previously trained community providers in an integrated approach to prevention implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post-test and 1-year follow-up measures. The sample included girls in the 8th grade from six schools (n = 152 girls) in a city near Barcelona (intervention group), and from eleven schools (n = 413 girls) in four neighboring towns (control group). The MABIC risk factors of disordered eating were assessed as main outcomes. Girls in the intervention group showed significantly greater reductions in beauty ideal internalization, disordered eating attitudes and weight-related teasing from pretest to 1-year follow-up compared to girls in the control group, suggesting that this program is effective under real-world conditions. PMID:26708330

  5. Associated factors of unhealthy eating patterns among Spanish university students by gender.

    Sepulveda, Ana; Carrobles, José Antonio; Gandarillas, Ana M

    2010-05-01

    This study has examined bio-socio-demographic and psychopathological factors probably associated with unhealthy eating patterns among university students and to estimate a multifactorial model following the associated factors by gender. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to describe associations on basis of Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) stratified by gender in a representative sample of Spanish university students (n = 2551). The high EDI scorers for both sexes presented higher prevalence of dieting, body dissatisfaction, levels of psychopathology and lower self-esteem than the low EDI scorers. The results suggest that older students and higher self-esteem scores present lower scores in the EDI. In the female population, depression, paranoid dimension, dieting and body dissatisfaction were associated with population with unhealthy eating patterns. In the male sample, dieting, body dissatisfaction and interpersonal sensibility were also associated with unhealthy eating patterns. The results corroborate that abnormal eating patterns tend to affect specific vulnerable groups. We do not know the precise mechanisms through which these risk behaviors and attitudes, such as dieting or body dissatisfaction, may facilitate the later development of an eating disorder. PMID:20480703

  6. Factors influencing donor return.

    Schlumpf, KS; Glynn, SA; Schreiber, GB; Wright, DJ; Randolph Steele, W; Tu, Y.; Hermansen, S; Higgins, MJ; Garratty, G; Murphy, EL

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To predict future blood donation behavior and improve donor retention, it is important to understand the determinants of donor return. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed in 2003 by 7905 current donors. With data mining methods, all factors measured by the survey were ranked as possible predictors of actual return within 12 months. Significant factors were analyzed with logistic regression to determine predictors of intention and of actual ret...

  7. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  8. Group prevention of eating disorders with fifth-grade females: impact on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and media influence.

    Scime, Melinda; Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Kane, Linda; Watson, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a primary prevention program for eating disorders aimed at fifth-grade females. The curriculum was based on empirically validated risk and protective factors and incorporated interactive discourse, yoga, and relaxation into 10 weekly sessions. Pre- and post-test data from three groups conducted over the course of 13 months were combined for a total of 45 participants. Results indicate completion of the group resulted in a significant decrease on scales measuring body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, as well as media influence. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:16777811

  9. The Tripartite Influence model of body image and eating disturbance: a covariance structure modeling investigation testing the mediational role of appearance comparison.

    van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin; Obremski-Brandon, Karen; Coovert, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Recent theoretical approaches to the etiology of eating disorders and body image disturbances have begun to focus on multifactorial models. In the current study, the Tripartite Influence model was examined in a large sample of college females (ages 18-22). This model proposes that three primary core sources of influence--parents, peers and media--contribute to the development of body image and eating disturbances. Additionally, the model suggests that at least two factors mediate the relationship between influences and disturbance-appearance comparison and internalization of media information. In this study, appearance comparison was examined as a mediational link between peer, family and media influence variables and the outcome disturbance measures of eating dysfunction and body image dissatisfaction. Covariance structure modeling (CSM) was used to test the proposed pathways. The results indicated that appearance comparison mediated the effects of family and media influences on body dissatisfaction, which in turn influenced restrictive and bulimic behaviors. In addition, peer influences had a direct influence on restriction. Perfectionism was hypothesized to relate to body dissatisfaction, but was in fact found to influence appearance comparison. The findings were limited by the necessity of several modifications to the originally proposed models, yet offer replication and extension of previous work with appearance comparison and support for further testing of the Tripartite Influence model. PMID:12445590

  10. Personality prototype as a risk factor for eating disorders

    Antonio J. Sanchez-Guarnido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To establish whether the risk of suffering from an eating disorder (ED is associated with the high-functioning, undercontrolled, or overcontrolled personality prototype groups.Method:The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2 were administered to 69 patients diagnosed as suffering from EDs (cases and 89 people free of any ED symptoms (control group. A cluster analysis was carried out to divide the participants into three groups based on their scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. A logistic regression model was then created.Results:Participants in the undercontrolled group had a risk of suffering from an ED 6.517 times higher than those in the high-functioning group (p = 0.019; odds ratio [OR] = 6.517, while those in the overcontrolled subgroup had a risk of ED 15.972 times higher than those in the high-functioning group.Conclusions:Two personality subtypes were identified in which the risk of EDs was six times higher (the undercontrolled group and almost 16 times higher (the overcontrolled group. Prevention and treatment programs for ED could benefit from focusing on the abovementioned personality profiles.

  11. An examination of the relation of gender, mass media influence, and loneliness to disordered eating among college students.

    Wright, A; Pritchard, M E

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found that mass media influence and loneliness relate to disordered eating behaviors in women, but little is known about this relation in men. The present study examined the relations among disordered eating patterns, gender, mass media influence, and loneliness in male and female college students. Results of a stepwise regression revealed that disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (as measured by the Eating Attitudes Test-26) were predicted by mass media influence, gender, and loneliness, respectively. In the present study both male and female college students appear susceptible to developing disordered eating patterns. Clinicians may wish to address unrealistic comparisons to media and client interpersonal skills when designing treatment plans. PMID:19934629

  12. Brief Report: Direct and Indirect Relations of Risk Factors with Eating Behavior Problems in Late Adolescent Females

    Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine

    2009-01-01

    This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…

  13. The impact of environmental factors in explaining exercise and eating behavior

    Sæternes, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this overview was to determine which local environmental factors had the best predictive capabilities of exercise and eating behavior, and also which ones could be used for possible intervention programs and research. There are too many undefined factors which have made it hard for researchers to know which one to implement; in addition it is hard to interpret the studies that have been conducted. There are promising factors that appear, such as accessibility to supermarkets, c...

  14. Eating Disorders in Female College Athletes: Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    Pearson, Frances C.; Rivers, Tara C.

    2006-01-01

    Female athletes are at risk for developing eating disorders because of the pressures that are placed on them by society, their peers, their coaches, and the sports culture itself. This paper reviews the literature on the risk factors involved and various methods of prevention and treatment. The authors conclude that individual and group approaches…

  15. Social environmental factors in Japan affecting the development of proper eating behaviors.

    Sasaki, H; Benkert, K; Takeuchi, H; Hagiwara, N; Sasaki, K; Kanemoto, H

    1999-11-01

    This article summarizes issues related to myofunctional disorders/dysphagia and focuses upon social and economic changes within Japanese culture affecting eating habits and behaviors in children. The authors suggest that unfavorable environmental factors negatively impact upon the acquisition of mastication and swallowing behaviors. The article includes discussion of prior research. Studies indicate that decreased observation of early childhood eating habits, dietary changes with regard to higher consumption of fast food and changes within the family, i.e. busy work schedules, decrease in family mealtimes, combine to incur negative change with regard to orofacial function. PMID:10863452

  16. Eating Disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: prevalence, risk factors, warning signs.

    Ewa Racicka; Anita Bryńska

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes includ...

  17. Ramadan bazaar and Ramadan buffets: The possible influence on eating behavior and health among Malaysian Muslims

    Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able‐bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.

  18. Ramadan Bazaar and Ramadan Buffets: The Possible Influence on Eating Behavior and Health among Malaysian Muslims

    Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able‐bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.

  19. Home Food Availability, Parental Dietary Intake, and Familial Eating Habits Influence the Diet Quality of Urban Hispanic Children

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K.; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality.

  20. Social support influences on eating awareness in children and adolescents: the mediating effect of self-regulatory strategies.

    Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Palmeira, Antonio L; Gaspar, Tania; De Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier. PMID:26564992

  1. Factors influencing dental decision making.

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1988-01-01

    In clinical decision making, dentists routinely choose between alternative treatments such as crown vs amalgam/composite buildup, root canal vs extraction, fixed bridge vs removable partial denture, and prophylaxis vs subgingival curettage or periodontal scaling. A number of technical and patient factors can influence dentists' choice of treatment in these situations; however, little is known about their relative importance. To address this issue, a list of technical (e.g., periodontal status and caries rate) and patient (e.g., cost and patient preference) factors possibly influencing choice of treatment was developed for each pair of services. Responding to a mail questionnaire, 156 general dentists in Washington State listed the top three factors influencing their choice of service in each pair. Results revealed that dentists took different factors into account in choosing among alternative treatments. Technical factors dominated over patient concerns; only about 33 percent of the dentists considered patient factors important in choosing alternative therapies. The latter group was less preventively oriented, were solo practitioners, worked longer hours, and had lower prices. Results suggest patients may have little influence on prescriptions of therapy among experienced general dentists. PMID:3045303

  2. Identification of Psychological Risk Factors for Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Women

    Daniel B. Fassnacht

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical Background: Individuals suffering from full or partial Eating Disorders (ED) manifestations, experience substantial personal impairment, distress and a loss in quality of life. Although research about risk factors for the development of an ED, has been intensified over the last two decades, to date the empirical evidence is still sparse and inconsistent. Additionally, the temporal course of a risk factor prior to the onset of ED symptomatology has hardly been explored. Both issues...

  3. Eating beyond metabolic need: how environmental cues influence feeding behavior.

    Johnson, Alexander W

    2013-02-01

    Animals use current, past, and projected future states of the organism and the world in a finely tuned system to control ingestion. They must not only deal effectively with current nutrient deficiencies, but also manage energy resources to meet future needs, all within the constraints of the mechanisms of metabolism. Many recent approaches to understanding the control of ingestive behavior distinguish between homeostatic mechanisms concerned with energy balance, and hedonic and incentive processes based on palatability and reward characteristics of food. In this review, I consider how learning about environmental cues influences homeostatic and hedonic brain signals, which may lead to increases in the affective taste properties of food and desire to over consume. Understanding these mechanisms may be critical for elucidating the etiology of the obesity epidemic. PMID:23333343

  4. Effects of gender, media influences, and traditional gender role orientation on disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino adolescents.

    Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie; Halfond, Raquel

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the main and interaction effects of gender, traditional gender role orientation, and media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance in a sample of 96 Latino adolescents controlling for age, country of origin, and BMI. Girls and less traditionally oriented youth reported significantly more disordered eating and appearance concerns than did boys and more traditionally oriented youth. Gender moderated the relationship between traditional gender role orientation and disordered eating and appearance concerns. Contrary to our hypothesis, media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance did not significantly predict disordered eating and appearance concerns. However, the interaction between gender and sociocultural values and ideals about appearance was significant. Our findings highlight the importance of continued research on gender, media, and cultural influences as they relate to disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino youth. PMID:23849667

  5. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  6. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  7. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  8. Role of genetic variants in ADIPOQ in human eating behavior

    Rohde, Kerstin; Keller, Maria; Horstmann, Annette; Liu, Xuanshi; Eichelmann, Fabian; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of adiponectin and its negative correlation with BMI are well described. Adiponectin serum levels are altered in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating. Here, we tested the hypothesis that (1) adiponectin serum levels correlate with human eating behavior factors and (2) that genetic variants of the ADIPOQ locus influence both serum levels and eating behavior. We analyzed 11 SNPs within ADIPOQ and in the 5′ UTR and measured serum adipo...

  9. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  10. Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors: a study with Portuguese athletes.

    Silva, Luiz; Gomes, A Rui; Martins, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith et al., 2006); the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998); the Cognitive Evaluation of Sport-Threat Perceptions (Cruz, 1994; Lazarus, 1991); and the Self-Presentation Exercise Questionnaire (Gammage et al., 2004). Results revealed that: i) no case of clinical significance was detected in the four dimensions of the EDE-Q simultaneously; ii) females scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score, and athletes with the better sport results scored higher on the Restraint subscale; iii) athletes with a higher desire to weigh less scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score; iv) athletes with lower scores on EDE-Q displayed more positive results on the psychological measures; v) several psychological dimensions were identified as predictors of eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, the prevalence of eating disordered behaviors was negligible in this study, yet the relationship of this problem with personal, sport and psychological factors was evident. PMID:21568189

  11. Determination of the obesity prevalence and affecting risk factors, of eating habits among adolescents

    Demet Aktas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412

  12. Binge Eating Proneness Emerges during Puberty in Female Rats: A Longitudinal Study

    Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge...

  13. Stigma and eating and weight disorders.

    Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young

    2015-03-01

    Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders. PMID:25652251

  14. Social support influences on eating awareness in children and adolescents : The mediating effect of self-regulatory strategies

    Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Palmeira, António L; Gaspar, Tânia; John B F De Wit; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countrie...

  15. Eating Disorders

    ... eventually damage a person’s physical and emotional health, self-esteem and sense of control. Factors that may be involved in developing an eating disorder include: Genetics. People with first degree relatives, siblings or parents, with an eating disorder appear to be more ...

  16. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  17. Factors influencing wind energy curtailment

    Burke, Daniel J.; O'MALLEY, MARK, J.

    2011-01-01

    Nonphysically firm wind generation connections (i.e., those to which curtailment can apply) may be necessary for significant wind integration to congested transmission networks. A study of factors influencing this associated wind energy curtailment is, therefore, of timely importance. In this paper, the wind curtailment estimation effects of natural inter-yearly wind profile variability, system demand-profile/fuel-price parameter uncertainty, and minimum system inertial constraints are studie...

  18. Social risk factors related to eating disorders in women

    Alejandro Magallares

    2013-01-01

    La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria está aumentando en los países industrializados y hay evidencia de que son las mujeres jóvenes las que tienen un mayor riesgo para desarrollar este tipo de patologías. Esa es la razón por la que los programas de prevención e intervención son tan importantes. Para desarrollar tales programas es necesario identificar los factores de riesgo relevantes que contribuyen a la aparición de este trastorno. En la presente investigación ...

  19. Behavioral and Physiological Factors Associated With Selective Eating in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Tanner, Kelly; Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating found moderately strong correlations among variables related to food intake and behavior but not among variables related to selective eating and behavior.

  20. Eating Disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: prevalence, risk factors, warning signs.

    Ewa Racicka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM, however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death.

  1. Eating Disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: prevalence, risk factors, warning signs.

    Racicka, Ewa; Bryńska, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death. PMID:26688851

  2. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    Micali, N; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G; Simonoff, E; Treasure, J.; Field, AE

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood bod...

  3. Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: Distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk fact...

  4. Social risk factors related to eating disorders in women

    Alejandro Magallares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria está aumentando en los países industrializados y hay evidencia de que son las mujeres jóvenes las que tienen un mayor riesgo para desarrollar este tipo de patologías. Esa es la razón por la que los programas de prevención e intervención son tan importantes. Para desarrollar tales programas es necesario identificar los factores de riesgo relevantes que contribuyen a la aparición de este trastorno. En la presente investigación se analizan variables sociales relacionadas con el riesgo a desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (comparaciones sociales, actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia y la ansiedad social en una muestra no clínica de 375 mujeres. Los resultados muestran que la comparación social está directa e indirectamente (a través de la ansiedad social relacionada de forma positiva con el riesgo para desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, mientras que las actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia lo hace de forma indirecta (a través de la ansiedad social y positiva con los problemas de la conducta alimentaria. Finalmente, se discute la importancia de incluir estas variables sociales en los programas de prevención e intervención.

  5. The Specificity of Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating in Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra

    2015-11-01

    Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology. PMID:25936287

  6. Emotional intelligence, personality, and gender as factors in disordered eating patterns.

    Zysberg, Leehu

    2014-08-01

    We examined the hypotheses that proposing higher levels of emotional intelligence (ability test and self-report) and lower neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness associate with lower levels of disordered eating. In a correlational study, 126 Israeli college students completed two measures of emotional intelligence, a brief five-factor personality test, demographic data questionnaires, and questionnaires assessing food preoccupation, namely, the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Scale and the Appearance Schema Inventory. Results suggested that ability emotional intelligence is associated with disordered eating beyond gender and personality. Self-reported emotional intelligence did not associate with any of the outcomes after controlling for personality. Implications and applications are briefly discussed. PMID:23682062

  7. Parental influences on adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior: longitudinal findings from Project EAT-II

    Bauer Katherine W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term role that parental encouragement and attitudes about fitness and exercise play in adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits remains unclear. This paper aims to longitudinally examine how parental encouragement to be physically active and parental concern about staying fit are associated with adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits five years later. Methods Project EAT-II adolescent and young adult participants (1130 male, 1386 female completed surveys while in middle school or high school (1998–1999, and again 5 years later. Participants were asked whether their mother and father encourage them to be physically active and care about staying fit and exercising. Adolescent moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA and TV/video watching (hours/week were assessed. Linear regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline behavior were used to examine the association of Time 1 parental factors with behavioral outcomes among adolescents and young adults five years later (Time 2. Results After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline MVPA, adolescent-reported maternal and paternal encouragement to be active, and paternal care for fitness, were positively associated with weekly hours of MVPA after five years in young adult males (p for trend ≤ .01. The positive relationship between maternal encouragement and MVPA approached significance among high-school aged females (p for trend = .06, and paternal encouragement was positively related to MVPA among high-school aged males (p for trend = .02. While maternal encouragement to be active was associated with decreased TV/video time among younger females (p for trend = .02, other parental factors were not associated with lower TV/video time among the other groups. Conclusion Parental encouragement to be active was associated with increased physical activity among males and younger

  8. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  9. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Yong Jun Park; Chang Min Moon; Hwang Jae Yoo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and prese...

  10. Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy

    Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  11. The influence of heritability, neuroticism, maternal warmth and media use on disordered eating behaviors: a prospective analysis of twins.

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Monica E; Winegard, Ben; Winegard, Bo

    2012-09-01

    The relative impact of genetic and social influences on disordered eating behaviors (DEB) including binging, purging, excessive dieting and negative self-evaluations about weight remain an issue of debate. The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and social influences on DEB. A 7-year prospective analysis of 580 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins was conducted. Estimates of heritability of DEB were obtained using the DF Analysis Model. Regression equations revealed the relative predictive value of sibling's DEB, neurotic personality, maternal warmth and television and video game exposure on DEB. Heritability estimates for DEB were 0.40 for females and 0.48 for males. Among MZ and DZ twin pairs, female sex, neurotic personality and a genetic variable component, but not maternal warmth or school related problems, predicted DEB. Contrary to the expectations of media effects theory, greater media use was associated with lower DEB among DZ twins and had no influence on MZ twins. These results indicate that DEB is highly heritable and that personality variables may play an important role in the formation of DEB. This suggests that it is important to control for genetic variables when analyzing risk factors for DEB. PMID:22278805

  12. Adolescents' views of food and eating: identifying barriers to healthy eating

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, G; Barnett, J; Muldoon, Orla; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This is a postprint version of the article. The official published version can be accessed from the link below - © 2006 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents Published by Elsevier Ltd. Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents,...

  13. Factors influencing eating a varied diet in old age

    Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    2009-01-01

    environment. Results: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that income, health status, access to a car and living arrangement affected the level of dietary variety. The perceived level of different food-related resources impacted the consumption of a varied diet over and above actual resource...... levels. Food-related goals contributed to variety of food intake that was not accounted for by the amount of material resources possessed or the social and other resources perceived to be possessed. Conclusions: Older people's variety of food intake depended on material resources (e.g. monthly income......, access to a car, living arrangement, physical and mental health). However, in addition to these variables, the way older peopleperceived other resources, such as their level of appetite, their food knowledge, their perception of the distance to the shops, access to high-quality products, having better...

  14. [The role of family and socio-cultural factors in the development of eating disorders].

    Spanou, E; Morogiannis, F

    2010-01-01

    A great number of publications in the international literature have revealed the possible part of biological factors in eating disorders and as well as characteristics of the patients' personality that favour or contribute in the development of these disorders. The research in etiology, however, includes the examination of family and socio-cultural factors. The aim of the present paper was to concentrate bibliographic data related to the family and socio-cultural factors that form the conditions under which anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa develop, excluding articles about binge-eating disorder. Articles from 1995 to 2005 were included through search in the files of the electronic database Medline (PubMed) on terms of inventory (MESH) for both disorders. About the role of the family environment, it was found that the factors studied more were family dysfunction, overprotection and sexual or physical abuse. As for the socio-cultural factors it is not perfectly clear whether the western standards of life are linked to the development of these disorders or if there is simply a lack of culturally sensitive instruments to detect these disorders in their different possible forms in the non-western world. An important finding is that there are not enough researches to show clearly any negative part played by the mass media. PMID:22214871

  15. Factors associated with dropout from treatment for eating disorders: a comprehensive literature review

    Tomba Elena

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dropout (DO is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs, but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. Methods All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009 were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed. Results The dropout rates ranged from 20.2% to 51% (inpatient and from 29% to 73% (outpatient. Predictors of dropout were inconsistent due to methodological flaws and limited sample sizes. There is no evidence that baseline ED clinical severity, psychiatric comorbidity or treatment issues affect dropout. The most consistent predictor is the binge-purging subtype of anorexia nervosa. Good evidence exists that two psychological traits (high maturity fear and impulsivity and two personality dimensions (low self-directedness, low cooperativeness are related to dropout. Conclusion Implications for clinical practice and areas for further research are discussed. Particularly, these results highlight the need for a shared definition of dropout in the treatment of eating disorders for both inpatient and outpatient settings. Moreover, the assessment of personality dimensions (impulse control, self-efficacy, maturity fear and others as liability factors for dropout seems an important issue for creating specific strategies to reduce the dropout phenomenon in eating disorders.

  16. The interactions of mothers with eating disorders with their toddlers: identifying broader risk factors.

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Arnow, Katherine D; Lock, James D

    2016-08-01

    The connection between maternal eating disorders and feeding and eating problems among their children has been substantially demonstrated. This pilot study focused on the interactions between mothers with eating disorders and their toddlers in non-feeding situations. Twenty-eight dyads of mothers with prenatal eating disorders and their toddlers were compared to a case-matched control group with no eating disorder. Maternal current eating and co-occurring psychopathology, children's symptoms and mother-child interactions were measured. Mothers with eating disorders were less sensitive to their children, tried to control their children's behaviors more, and were less happy during mother-child interactions. The children in the maternal eating disorder group were rated as less responsive to their mothers and their mothers also reported more behavioral problems than those in the control group. Findings imply that maternal eating disorders may be linked with a wide range of adverse maternal and child behaviors beyond those associated with eating. PMID:27264338

  17. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  18. Turning eating psychopathology risk factors into action: the pervasive effect of body image-related cognitive fusion

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A.

    2014-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and unfavourable social comparisons are significant risk factors to eating psychopathology. Nevertheless, the impact of these negative experiences depends on the cognitive and emotional processes involved. Previous research has shown that cognitive fusion is a nuclear process linked to psychological inflexibility, but its role on body image and eating difficulties remains unclear. This study aims to explore a model of the mediational role of body image-related cogni...

  19. Social and psychological factors affecting eating habits among university students in a Malaysian medical school: a cross-sectional study

    Ganasegeran Kurubaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating habits and psychosocial factors. Results Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 22.7 (±2.4 years and (the age ranged from 18 to 30 years. More than half had regular meals and breakfast (57.6% &, 56.1% respectively. Majority (73.5% consumed fruits less than three times per week, 51.5% had fried food twice or more a week and 59.8% drank water less than 2 liters daily. Eating habits score was significantly low among younger students (18–22 years, smokers, alcohol drinkers and those who did not exercise. (ppp Conclusion Most of the students in this study had healthy eating habits. Social and psychological factors were important determinants of eating habits among medical students.

  20. Does specialization of treatment influence mortality in eating disorders?--A comparison of two retrospective cohorts.

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby

    2015-12-15

    Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality rates in a sample of ED patients (n=998) with a mean follow-up of 12 years. This was compared to previous data from the same catchment area before a multidisciplinary centre was established. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated. To compare the two cohorts, adjusted crude ratios were calculated with the confounding variables: body mass index (BMI), age at referral and diagnosis. In the latest cohort the SMR for AN was 2.89 vs 11.16 in the time before our specialization. SMR for bulimia nervosa (BN) and for eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in the latest cohort were 2.37 and 1.14 respectively. When comparing two retrospective cohorts it is not possible to draw a definite conclusion, however the present study supports that integrating a somatic unit in a multidisciplinary centre may have a favourable influence on mortality in AN. PMID:26391650

  1. Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; White, Emily K; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; Iacovino, Juliette M; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-08-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N=236; N=136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

  2. Eating disorders and women's health: an update.

    Mitchell, Anne Marie; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2006-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified have a significant impact on the health care and childbearing outcomes of the female population. Primary care contact for gynecologic care, childbearing, or infertility can serve as a critical entry point for the initial recognition of potentially devastating disorders that may result in permanent impairment and/or chronic debilitation. This review addresses the nature and prevalence of eating disorders and the management of pregnancy complicated by an active eating disorder or a history of an eating disorder. Genetic influences and intergenerational transmission of eating disorders are discussed. Finally, the increased risk for postpartum depression among women with a current or past eating disorder is examined. Factors critical to improving pregnancy outcome and reducing the risk for exacerbation or relapse in the postpartum period are identified. PMID:16647671

  3. Characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory for children at risk and protective factors for disordered eating in adolescent girls

    Sanna Aila Gustafsson; Birgitta Edlund; Lars Kjellin; et al

    2010-01-01

    Sanna Aila Gustafsson1, Birgitta Edlund2, Lars Kjellin3, Claes Norring41Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Örebro; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala; 3Psychiatric Research Centre, University of Örebro; 4Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disor...

  4. Fasting during Ramadan: a religious factor as a possible trigger or exacerbator for eating disorders in adolescents.

    Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray Ö

    2014-12-01

    Culture-based contributors play a role in eating disorders (EDs). Here, we present one such factor that may play a role in triggering ED's in adolescents: Fasting during the holy period of Ramadan. Ramadan is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, and smoking, which starts from dawn lasting until sunset. For the past 2 years, we have noticed an increase in patients with disordered eating patterns that have applied to Hacettepe University, Division of Adolescent Medicine during or shortly after Ramadan. We document six of these patients, three of which were diagnosed with an ED and three that did not meet full criteria. We argue that the possible effects of a drastic change in ones diet such as that which occurs during Ramadan, play an important role in triggering ED's in adolescents with a predisposition or may exacerbate an eating pathology. PMID:24474707

  5. Competitiveness as a moderator of the relation between appearance-related factors and disordered eating behaviors.

    Schleien, Jenna L; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined competitiveness as a moderator of the relationships between appearance-related factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, appearance contingent self-worth) and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, excessive exercise). Participants were 441 undergraduate females for cross-sectional analyses, with 237 also contributing data longitudinally, 1 year later. Results showed that, in a model including thin-ideal internalization and appearance contingent self-worth and their interactions with competitiveness, thin-ideal internalization (but not appearance contingent self-worth) interacted with competitiveness to identify concurrent levels of both dieting and excessive exercise. Individuals high in both thin-ideal internalization and competitiveness exhibited the highest levels of concurrent dieting and excessive exercise. After controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables, neither appearance-related factor interacted with competitiveness to predict dieting or excessive exercise. These findings suggest that individuals who are both competitive and accept and strive to achieve the thin ideal may be at risk for disordered eating behaviors. PMID:26922697

  6. Behavioral and Physiological Factors Associated With Selective Eating in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Tanner, Kelly; Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    Selective eating is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine a new definition of selective eating, compare behavioral measures between children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating, and determine relationships among behavioral measures and measures of selective eating. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of number of foods eaten compared with a population-based sample. Results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance indicated no overall effect of group for challenging behaviors, sensory reactivity, or repetitive behaviors. Between-participant tests indicated that scores for compulsive behaviors were significantly lower (p = .036) for the selective eating group. Correlations were moderately strong among variables relating to food intake and behavioral variables, but were not significant between selective eating and behavioral variables. Further research is needed to validate the definition of selective eating and to identify targets for intervention. PMID:26565096

  7. An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Eating Attitudes among College Students

    Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Disordered eating patterns continue to surface on college campuses. Studies are needed to examine the potential influence of emotional intelligence on disordered eating behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between perceived emotional intelligence factors and eating disorder symptoms among male and…

  8. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell

  9. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  10. Different Patterns of Emotional Eating and Visuospatial Deficits Whereas Shared Risk Factors Related with Social Support between Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Lim, Soo-Jin; Treasure, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although it is thought that eating disorders result from the interplay of personal and sociocultural factors, a comprehensive model of eating disorders remains to be established. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the childhood factors and deficit in visuoperceptual ability contribute to eating disorders. Methods A total of 76 participants - 22 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), 28 women with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 26 healthy women of comparable age, IQ, an...

  11. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  12. The influence of eating disorders on mothers’ sensitivity and adaptation during feeding: a longitudinal observational study

    Squires, Claire; Lalanne, Christophe; Murday, Nasha; Simoglou, Vassiliki; Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents with past and current eating disorders (ED) have been shown to report troubles nourishing their infants. This could increase the risk of infant feeding problems linked to maternal anxiety and depression. It is not clear how mothers’ eating difficulties before pregnancy and at the time of birth can affect infant’s feeding. We aimed to specify the impact of eating disorders on mothers’ adaptation and sensitivity to their offspring during feeding, by comparing a population of ...

  13. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  14. Continuity in Primary School Children's Eating Problems and the Influence of Parental Feeding Strategies

    Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Eating problems are highly prevalent and seem to show continuity in children. Nevertheless, the effect of different maternal and paternal feeding practices on changes in these problems is not fully understood yet. This study examines short-term continuity in primary school children's overeating, loss of control (over eating), restraint and…

  15. Sexuality in eating disorders patients: etiological factors, sexual dysfunction and identity issues. A systematic review.

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity. PMID:26812878

  16. Direct and indirect effects of sociocultural influences on disordered eating among Malaysian male and female university students. A mediation analysis of psychological distress.

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the role of psychological distress in the relationships between sociocultural influences (social pressure to be thin and weight teasing) and disordered eating. Data were collected from 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males), aged 18-24 years old (M=20.6, SD=1.4), selected from four universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Participants completed four standardized questionnaires which measured social pressure to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress and disordered eating. A good fit structural equation modeling (SEM) model was developed for both sexes. For males, the SEM model revealed that sociocultural influences showed an indirect effect on disordered eating through psychological distress. For females, the model showed an indirect effect of sociocultural influences on disordered eating through psychological distress, as well as a direct effect of sociocultural influences on disordered eating. In conclusion, psychological distress mediated the relationships between sociocultural influences and disordered eating in both males and females. Our results suggest that disordered eating intervention programs on reducing psychological distress in university students may be beneficial. PMID:21435366

  17. Enjoyment and Perceived Value of Two School-Based Interventions Designed To Reduce Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    Wade, Tracey D.; Davidson, Susan; O'Dea, Jennifer A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the enjoyment and perceived value associated with two interventions designed to reduce risk factors for eating disorders in young adolescents, a media literacy program or a self-esteem program. Overall, the media literacy program was the intervention preferred by students. Students in both interventions said that they had learnt to…

  18. Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females

    Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.

  19. Emotional Eating: A Virtually Untreated Risk Factor for Outcome Following Bariatric Surgery

    Betty E. Chesler

    2012-01-01

    Empirical investigations implicate emotional eating (EE) in dysfunctional eating behavior such as uncontrolled overeating and insufficient weight loss following bariatric surgery. They demonstrate that EE may be a conscious or reflexive behavior motivated by multiple negative emotions and/or feelings of distress about loss-of-control eating. EE, however, has not been targeted in pre- or postoperative interventions or examined as an explanatory construct for failed treatment of dysfunctional e...

  20. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  1. Does eating while watching television influence children's food-related behaviours?

    Marquis, Marie; Filion, Yves P; Dagenais, Fannie

    2005-01-01

    To assess children's food-related behaviours and their relationships with eating while watching television (TV), data were collected from 534 ten-year-old French-Canadian children. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Almost 18% of girls and over 25% of boys reported eating in front of the TV every day. Although, overall, the boys' eating pattern was less healthy than the girls', all of the children's food choices deteriorated with increased frequency of eating in front of the TV. Compared with girls, boys gave more importance to coloured and attractive foods, and to selecting foods similar to those eaten by others. Over 50% of children reported always receiving negative weight-related comments from family members. For boys, significant correlations were found between the frequency of eating in front of the TV, the importance given to a food's appearance, and their requests to parents for advertised foods. Significance was at the pfood motivations and behaviours. The findings also indicate the need to document children's eating environments, and to inform children and their families about eating behaviours that may be associated with a given environment. PMID:15780151

  2. Eating disorders in women

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our und...

  3. Eating Disorders in girls and boys

    HUDEČKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with eating disorders divided according to International Disease Classification (IDC-10) to two basic disorders {--} anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The theoretical part describes criteria of diagnosis, health complications, treatment possibilities and factors influencing the commencement of these disorders in individuals of both sexes. Also relatively new eating disorders are mentioned here that can be threatening not only for adolescents. The practical part ...

  4. Physical Factors Influencing Beer Overfoaming

    Novák, Pavel; Vitoušová, K.; Poštulková, Michaela; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Vol. Session 1. - : -, 2013, T2:P26. ISBN N. [Conference of European Colloid and Interface Society /27./. Sofia (BG), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer * gushing * physical factors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.ecis2013.org/

  5. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  6. MAIN FACTORS INFLUENCING PROJECT SUCCESS

    Ioana Beleiu; Emil Crisan; Razvan Nistor

    2015-01-01

    The high frequency of using projects in all fields determined the increasing importance of adequate project management. Considering the direct relationship between reaching projects’ objectives and the long term development of an organization, aspects regarding projects’ success and the success factors of projects are topics of great interest in project management literature. Reaching projects’ objectives in compliance with constraints of cost, time and performance is usually not sufficient t...

  7. Review of identified factors influencing contraceptive use

    Bjelica Artur; Trninić-Pjević Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Introduction It is necessary to know the factors that influence contraceptive behavior in order to overcome obstacles of contraceptive use by implementing modern family planning programs that have to be based on logistic management and directed to the client. The factor isolated till now are systematized into the two groups: the socio-demographic factors - to a greater extent associated with developing countries and the psychological factors -mainly related to developed countries. Socio-demog...

  8. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  9. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  10. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

  11. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  12. Orangutan fish eating, primate aquatic fauna eating, and their implications for the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating.

    Russon, Anne E; Compost, Alain; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents new evidence of fish eating in rehabilitant orangutans living on two Bornean islands and explores its contributions to understanding nonhuman primates' aquatic fauna eating and the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating. We assessed the prevalence of orangutans' fish eating, their techniques for obtaining fish, and possible contributors (ecology, individual differences, humans). We identified 61 events in which orangutans tried to obtain fish, including 19 in which they ate fish. All the orangutans were juvenile-adolescent; all the fish were disabled catfish; and most were obtained and eaten in drier seasons in or near shallow, slow-moving water. Orangutans used several techniques to obtain fish (inadvertent, opportunistic and deliberate hand-catch, scrounge, tool-assisted catch) and probably learned them in that order. Probable contributing factors were orangutan traits (age, pre-existing water or tool skills), island features (social density, water accessibility), and local human fishing. Our review of primates' aquatic fauna eating showed orangutans to be one of 20 species that eat aquatic fauna, one of nine confirmed to eat fish, and one of three that use tools to obtain fish. Primate fish eating is also site-specific within species, partly as a function of habitat (e.g., marine-freshwater, seasonality) and human influence (possibly fostered eating fish or other aquatic fauna at most sites, clearly induced it at some). At tropical freshwater sites, fish eating occurred most often in drier seasons around shallow water. Orangutan and primate findings are generally consistent with Stewart's (2010) reconstruction of the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating, but suggest that it, and tool-assisted fish catching, were possible much earlier. PMID:25038033

  13. Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behaviour.

    Scaglioni, Silvia; Salvioni, Michela; Galimberti, Cinzia

    2008-02-01

    The present paper is a review of available data on effects of parental feeding attitudes and styles on child nutritional behaviour. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. There is evidence for existence of some innate, automatic mechanism that regulate appetite. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience. There are mechanisms of taste development: mere exposure, medicine effect, flavour learning, flavour nutrient learning. Parents play a pivotal role in the development of their child's food preferences and energy intake, with research indicating that certain child feeding practices, such as exerting excessive control over what and how much children eat, may contribute to childhood overweight. Mothers are of particular interest on children's eating behaviour, as they have been shown to spend significantly more time than fathers in direct interactions with their children across several familial situations.A recent paper describes two primary aspects of control: restriction, which involves restricting children's access to junk foods and restricting the total amount of food, and pressure, which involves pressuring children to eat healthy foods (usually fruits and vegetables) and pressuring to eat more in general. The results showed significant correlations between parent and child for reported nutritional behaviour like food intake, eating motivations, and body dis- and satisfaction. Parents create environments for children that may foster the development of healthy eating behaviours and weight, or that may promote overweight and aspects of disordered eating. In conclusion positive parental role model may be a better method for improving a child's diet than attempts at dietary control. PMID:18257948

  14. Factors influencing fruit and vegetable intake among urban Fijians: A qualitative study.

    Morgan, E H; Vatucawaqa, P; Snowdon, W; Worsley, A; Dangour, A D; Lock, K

    2016-06-01

    Low fruit and vegetable intake is an important risk factor for micronutrient deficiencies and non-communicable diseases, but many people worldwide, including most Fijians, eat less than the World Health Organization recommended amount. The present qualitative study explores factors that influence fruit and vegetable intake among 57 urban Fijians (50 women, 7 men) of indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) and South Asian (Indian) descent. Eight focus group discussions were held in and around Suva, Fiji's capital and largest urban area, which explored motivation for eating fruit and vegetables, understandings of links to health and disease, availability and sources, determinants of product choice, and preferred ways of preparing and eating fruit and vegetables. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Regardless of ethnicity, participants indicated that they enjoyed and valued eating fruit and vegetables, were aware of the health benefits, and had confidence in their cooking skills. In both cultures, fruit and vegetables were essential components of traditional diets. However, increasing preferences for processed and imported foods, and inconsistent availability and affordability of high-quality, low-priced, fresh produce, were identified as important barriers. The findings indicate that efforts to improve fruit and vegetable intake in urban Fijians should target the stability of the domestic fruit and vegetable supply and access. PMID:26952559

  15. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  16. [Sociocultural Factors and Eating Disorders in Adolescence: Evaluation of a School-Based Programme].

    Warschburger, P; Krentz, E M; Helfert, S

    2015-09-01

    Eating disorders are serious, hard to treat and widely spread. Hence it was the goal of the present project to develop and evaluate a universal preventive concept (Potsdam Prevention at Schools). The POPS programme focuses in an interactive manner on topics such as coping with social pressure, strengthening the media and problem-solving competence and healthy eating. Results from the ITT analysis support its efficacy, even over the course of one year in terms of reduction of body dissatisfaction, perceived media pressure, internalising of the media beauty ideal and disordered eating. PMID:24293024

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  18. ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTHY EATING

    Pedersen, Susanne

    This PhD thesis contributes with knowledge about adolescent healthy eating by studying consumer socialisation, social influence and behavioural change in relation to adolescent healthy eating. The introduction provides the important reasons for studying adolescents and healthy eating and explains...... that a more holistic approach is needed in order to respond to the rising levels of overweight among adolescents. It is important to understand the development of and influences on adolescent healthy eating behaviour and the possibilities for promoting healthy eating through interventions. By reviewing...... relevant literature on consumer socialisation, social influence and behaviour change through interventions employing feedback in relation to adolescent healthy eating, it is argued that a socio-cognitive approach to consumer socialisation and behaviour change provides a richer and more nuanced...

  19. Eating as an Automatic Behavior

    Deborah A. Cohen, MD, MPH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued growth of the obesity epidemic at a time when obesity is highly stigmatizing should make us question the assumption that, given the right information and motivation, people can successfully reduce their food intake over the long term. An alternative view is that eating is an automatic behavior over which the environment has more control than do individuals. Automatic behaviors are those that occur without awareness, are initiated without intention, tend to continue without control, and operate efficiently or with little effort. The concept that eating is an automatic behavior is supported by studies that demonstrate the impact of the environmental context and food presentation on eating. The amount of food eaten is strongly influenced by factors such as portion size, food visibility and salience, and the ease of obtaining food. Moreover, people are often unaware of the amount of food they have eaten or of the environmental influences on their eating. A revised view of eating as an automatic behavior, as opposed to one that humans can self-regulate, has profound implications for our response to the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the focus should be less on nutrition education and more on shaping the food environment.

  20. Različni vidiki motenj hranjenja pri ženskah: 1. del: Different aspects of eating disorders in women:

    Pandel Mikuš, Ruža

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present eating disorders in women as a multiplex phenomenon in society from the sociological, medical and psychosocial aspects. It discusses the influence of contemporary society and mass media on eating patterns, staling that nutrition is a determining factor in shaping of personal identities. The article presents different kinds of eating disorders and their aetiology thoroughly explored. The models of the development of eating disorders are explained in th...

  1. Individual Differences in the Relationship between Ovarian Hormones and Emotional Eating Across the Menstrual Cycle: A Role for Personality?

    Racine, Sarah E.; Keel, Pamela K.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Neale, Michael,; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Within-person changes in estradiol and progesterone predict changes in binge eating tendencies across the menstrual cycle. However, all women have menstrual-cycle fluctuations in hormones, but few experience binge eating. Personality traits may be critical individual difference factors that influence who will engage in emotional eating in the presence of a vulnerable hormonal environment. Women (N=239) provided self-reports of emotional eating and saliva samples for hormone ...

  2. Factors related to depression and eating disorders: self-esteem, body image, and attractiveness.

    Grubb, H J; Sellers, M I; Waligroski, K

    1993-06-01

    To test hypotheses that women suffering from some form of eating disorder would experience lower self-esteem and higher depression and that women with lower self-esteem and greater depression would rate their attractiveness lower and see themselves as heavier than less depressed individuals, 42 college undergraduate women were individually administered the Eating Disorders Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, and a Body Image/Attractiveness Perception Scale. A Pearson correlation indicated a substantial relation between scores on depression and scores on eating disorders, but nonsignificant values between self-esteem scores and scores on either eating disorders or on depression. Depression scores correlated significantly with rated body size, but not attractiveness, while self-esteem scores were significantly correlated with rated attractiveness, not body size. These results contradict literature on the relation between self-esteem and depression. Directions for additional research are discussed. PMID:8332667

  3. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  4. FEATURES OF INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL STRESS DURING PREGNANCY ON THE FORMATION OF EATING BEHAVIOR IN THE CHILD

    J. R. Gardanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the problem of high level of anxiety and the development of psycho-emotional disorders in women during pregnancy currently occupy a leading place in clinical practice. Pregnant "seize" the problem by using a non-adaptive coping and thereby form a similar pattern of behavior in stressful situation and in the fetus, perinatal-formed a similar pattern.Materials and methods. Clinical-descriptive, formulated the concept of the influence psycho-emotional stress and characteristics of the current pregnancy on the background of the formation of patterns of eating behavior in the fetus, followed by implementation after birth under the provisions of the dominant by A. A. Ukhtomsky, the theory of functional systems P. K. Anokhin, the endogeneity of the regularities of pathological processes, the pyramid of needs of A. Maslow.Results. As a result of the establishment of the concept, doctors will be able to identify the maladaptive pattern of eating behavior in pregnant women and to make timely prevention of the formation of this pattern in the fetus.Conclusion. The use of the developed concept could help doctors to identify the maladaptive pattern of eating behavior in pregnant women and make timely prevention of the formation of this pattern in the fetus.

  5. Factors Related to the Eating Habits of Students in Grades 9-12.

    Young, Elizabeth M.; Fors, Stuart W.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of demographics and family factors on adolescent's consumption of healthy meals and fruits and vegetables. Surveys indicated that healthy eaters were more likely to: be white, Asian, and male; communicate well with parents; be monitored by their parents; live with one or both parents; spend less time at home alone; and…

  6. Heredity and Environment in Etiology of Eating Disorders. I. Review of Twin Studies

    Meshkova T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Twin studies of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating) are reviewed. Historically, eating disorders (ED) was viewed as a disorders primarily influenced by sociocultural factors, however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for ED and substantially contribute to the observed association between ED and other disorders and personal traits (major depression, anxiety...

  7. Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria como factor de riesgo para osteoporosis Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis

    Ma Teresa Rivera-Gallardo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgico de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños.Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the

  8. Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399

  9. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating among Undergraduate Females: Mediating Influence of Alexithymia and Distress

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…

  10. „Breasting” father. Father's influence on the eating problems in children. Psychodynamic approach

    Urszula Teresa Turyna

    2015-09-01

    “Breasting” father can affect eating difficulties in children. His role is often mediated by the mother's feeleings as the main child’s feeder. Despite the change in the social role of the father image it appears to be vital to maintain diversity in the roles of mother and father in the first period of a child's life.

  11. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop applicat...

  12. The influence of clinician emotion on decisions in child and adolescent eating disorder treatment: a survey of self and others.

    Lafrance Robinson, Adele; Kosmerly, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorder clinicians from various disciplines participated in one of two surveys: the "self" group (n = 143) completed a survey assessing the negative influence of emotions on their own clinical decisions, while the "other" group (n = 145) completed a parallel version of the survey that assessed their perceptions of the negative influence of emotion in their colleagues. Both groups endorsed this phenomenon to some degree, although differences in reporting were noted between groups. The perceived negative influence of emotion with regards to specific treatment decisions fell within three categories: decisions regarding food and weight, decisions regarding the involvement of the family in treatment, and decisions related to autonomy and control. Decisions regarding the involvement of the family were perceived to be the most emotionally charged, in particular the involvement of a critical or dismissive parent. PMID:25401960

  13. Depression, coping, hassles, and body dissatisfaction: factors associated with disordered eating.

    Ward, Rose Marie; Hay, M Cameron

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to explore what predicts first-year college women's disordered eating tendencies when they arrive on campus. The 215 first-year college women completed the surveys within the first 2weeks of classes. A structural model examined how much the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale, the Brief COPE, the Brief College Student Hassle Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire predicted eating disordered tendencies (as measured by the Eating Attitudes Test). The Body Shape Questionnaire, the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale (inversely), and the Denial subscale of the Brief COPE significantly predicted eating disorder tendencies in first-year college women. In addition, the Planning and Self-Blame subscales of the Brief COPE and the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale predicted the Body Shape Questionnaire. In general, higher levels on the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale and higher levels on the Brief College Student Hassle Scale related to higher levels on the Brief COPE. Coping seems to remove the direct path from stress and depression to disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. PMID:25528718

  14. Considering J.Lo and Ugly Betty: a qualitative examination of risk factors and prevention targets for body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, and obesity in young Latina women.

    Franko, Debra L; Coen, Emilie J; Roehrig, James P; Rodgers, Rachel F; Jenkins, Amy; Lovering, Meghan E; Dela Cruz, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    Latina women are vulnerable to poor body image, eating disorders, and obesity, particularly during the college years. This study sought to identify common cultural antecedents of these concerns in order to inform the development of prevention programs for this population. Six groups of university students who identified as Latina (N=27) discussed cultural aspects of body image, eating disorders, and obesity. Thematic analysis identified four main themes: (a) cultural disparities in body-ideal, including the influence of the media and acculturation issues; (b) messages about body shape and weight received by family, peers, and society; (c) difficulties making healthy eating and physical activity choices as a function of college life; and (d) the influence of peers and potential male partners on body satisfaction and body-ideals. These results have implications for the development of programs targeting body dissatisfaction and risk for eating disorders and obesity in Latina college women. PMID:22609033

  15. Behavioral risk factors for overweight in early childhood; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    Veldhuis Lydian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifestyle-related behaviors having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, playing outside and watching TV have been indicated to have an association with childhood overweight, but research among young children (below 6 years old is limited. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between these four behaviors and overweight among young children. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data on 5-year-old children (n = 7505 collected for the study ‘Be active, eat right’. Age and sex-specific cut-off points for body mass index of the International Obesity Task Force were used to assess overweight/obesity. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results For children whom had breakfast 2 hours/day, the odds ratio (OR for having overweight (obesity included was, respectively, 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.13-1.95, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51. There was a positive association between the number of risk behaviors present and the risk for having overweight. For children with 3 or all of the risk behaviors having breakfast 2 glasses/day, playing outside 2 hs/day, the OR for overweight was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11-2.71 (all models adjusted for children’s sex and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion Given the positive association between the number of behavioral risk factors and overweight, further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral counseling of parents of toddlers in preventing childhood overweight. In the meantime we recommend physicians to target all four behaviors for counseling during well-child visits.

  16. SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors

    Emilo Franzoni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components’ number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population, patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessiveness–compulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. Keywords: psychiatric comorbidity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, SAFA test

  17. Factors Influencing Korean Consumers' Ethical Decision Making

    Jungbok Ha

    2013-01-01

    Ethics studies in business are more popular and their importance is also recognized more than ever. This conceptual study tries to shade light on consumer ethics study especially in cross-cultural context. Based on previous consumer ethics study, factors such as Hofstede's four dimensional cultural typology, Moral Philosophies and Machiavellianism, influencing consumer ethics decision making were identified and several propositions were formulated regarding to these factors.

  18. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...

  19. [Eating disorders (ED) and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD): common factors].

    Bertrand, Audrey; Bélanger, Claude; O'Connor, Kieron

    2011-01-01

    Several similarities exist in the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and eating disorders (ED : anorexia nervosa and bulimia). Both disorders include obsessive thoughts and compulsive or ritualized behaviours. Furthermore, these two disorders frequently present with similar comorbid disorders. In this article, the authors examine similarities between ED and OCD, and whether eating disorders can be conceptualized as a variant of obsessive-compulsive disorders. This raises the possibility that treatments proven effective for OCD could be successfully adapted for ED. The authors consequently further examine both treatments utilized for both disorders. PMID:21983909

  20. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  1. SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors.

    Franzoni, Emilo; Monti, Morena; Pellicciari, Alessandro; Muratore, Carlo; Verrotti, Alberto; Garone, Caterina; Cecconi, Ilaria; Iero, Luisa; Gualandi, Stefano; Savarino, Francesca; Gualandi, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) we have administered a new psychometric instument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI) and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components' number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population), patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessiveness-compulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects) emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. PMID:19557115

  2. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  3. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  4. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  5. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities

    胡天秀

    2012-01-01

    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  6. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  7. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  8. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  9. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  10. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  11. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  12. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits.

    Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H; Foulds Mathes, Wendy; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-04-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

  13. Eating pattern of vegetarian diet

    Patricia Couceiro; Eric Slywitch; Franciele Lenz

    2008-01-01

    This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA) and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil) allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated ...

  14. Review of identified factors influencing contraceptive use

    Bjelica Artur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is necessary to know the factors that influence contraceptive behavior in order to overcome obstacles of contraceptive use by implementing modern family planning programs that have to be based on logistic management and directed to the client. The factor isolated till now are systematized into the two groups: the socio-demographic factors - to a greater extent associated with developing countries and the psychological factors -mainly related to developed countries. Socio-demographic f actors of the contraceptive use The most significant socio-demographic determinants of contraceptive behavior appear to be the age, women's educational level but even the educational level of the husband/partner, occupation, environment (urban/rural, some cultural factors, and high price of contraceptives. Psychological variables as a factor of contraceptive (nonuse In the group of psychological variables that influence contraceptive use it is possible to distinguish: the presence of illusion of fertility control, locus of control, level of Ego maturity, femininity and masculinity, i.e. the accepted gender roles, level of self-acceptance. The majority of the factors show that the presence of personal initiative and assertiveness are associated with higher level of contraception use.

  15. Reconceptualizing causative factors and intervention strategies in the eating disorders: a shift from body image to self-concept impairments.

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen

    2003-04-01

    In this report, we argue that impairments in self-concept development function as a cognitive vulnerability that contributes to the formation of the eating disorders (ED) of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). More specifically we argue that impairments in development of the total collection of identities that comprise the self-concept contribute to body image disturbances which in turn, motivate the eating and body-weight attitudes and behaviors that characterize the disorders. First, we review current understandings of the role of body image disturbances in the ED and discuss limitations of this approach. Then we review theories from psychoanalytic and feminist traditions that suggest that identity disturbances are a key factor in the etiology of the ED. Next, results of studies that examine identity disturbances in the ED are reviewed. Results of a study of women with AN and BN using the schema model of the self-concept as the theoretical framework showed that women with few positive and many negative self-cognitions are particularly vulnerable to cultural messages about body weight and form weight-related cognitions about the self that contribute to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Finally, the implications of these findings for primary and secondary level prevention of ED are addressed. PMID:12701083

  16. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.

  17. Sexual Orientation and Gender as Factors in Socioculturally Acquired Vulnerability to Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disorders.

    Siever, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness based on desire to please men. Findings from 53 lesbian, 59 gay, 62 heterosexual female, and 63 heterosexual male college students generally confirmed…

  18. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances among Children and Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies

    Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…

  19. Stress and eating behavior

    Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.

  20. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  1. Lifestyle interventions in treatment of obese adults:eating behaviour and other factors affecting weight loss and maintenance

    Keränen, A.-M. (Anna-Maria)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of working-aged weight losers is high because of high prevalence of obesity. Unfortunately, the loss of weight is often temporary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of intensive counselling on maintained weight loss and eating behaviour (cognitive restraint, emotional eating, uncontrolled eating and binge eating). Additionally, the associations of eating behaviour with maintained weight loss, discontinuation, dietary intake and anhedonia we...

  2. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  3. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    Bedriye Oncu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

  4. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  5. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Features of objectified body consciousness and sociocultural perspectives as risk factors for disordered eating among late-adolescent women and men.

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Body surveillance and body shame are features of objectified body consciousness (OBC) that have been linked to disordered eating, yet the evidence base is largely cross-sectional and limited to samples in certain Western countries. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these factors contribute to the prediction of eating disturbances independent of conceptually related risk factors emphasized within other sociocultural accounts. In this prospective study, body surveillance, body shame, and features of complementary sociocultural models (i.e., perceived appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons, negative affect, body dissatisfaction) were assessed as risk factors for and concomitants of eating disturbances over time. University-age, mainland Chinese women (n = 2144) and men (n = 1017) completed validated measures of eating-disorder pathology and hypothesized risk factors at baseline (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Among women, elevations on T1 measures of sociocultural-model features predicted more T2 eating disturbances, independent of T1 disturbances. After controlling for other T1 predictors, body surveillance and shame made modest unique contributions to the model. Finally, heightened T2 body dissatisfaction, media, and interpersonal appearance pressure, negative affect, and body shame predicted concomitant increases in T2 eating concerns. For men, T1 features of sociocultural accounts (negative affect, body dissatisfaction) but not OBC predicted T2 eating disturbances, along with attendant elevations in T2 negative affect, interpersonal appearance pressure, and body shame. Implications are discussed for theory and intervention that target disordered eating. PMID:26191981

  8. Risk Factors for Eating Disturbances in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes and Chronic Asthma: The Role of Parenting Style and Self-Esteem.

    Hatton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research indicates that eating disturbances are twice as prevalent among adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to their healthy peers; comparisons with other chronic illness groups are inconclusive. Adolescent self-esteem and parenting factors have been found to be associated with eating disturbances in type 1 diabetes. However, to date the literature is methodologically limited by a lack of comparison group, and has failed to consider the role of parent care and overprotect...

  9. The association between identity style, psychological well-being and factors associated with eating disorders in adolescent females / Fernanda Da Pãz Francisco

    Francisco, Fernanda Da Pãz

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide. adolescents are at risk of dcvdoping eating disorders since they tire in a process of negot ia( ing important developmental tasks and are thus vulnerable to the internalisation of the thin ideal (Polivy 8: Herman, 2002). Body dissatisfaction, bulimia nnd drive for thinness haw been identified as the primary risk factors related to developing eating disorders (Garner, 2004). Despite the heightened vulnerability during adolescence and societal pressures to be thin. som...

  10. Factors influencing the feasibility of laparoscopy colectomy

    He Zhiyun; Zhang Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to review the factors affecting the feasibility of performing successful laparoscopic colectomy.Data sources The literatures about the risk factors closely related to the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy on different surgical diseases of the colon cited in this review were obtained from PubMed published in English from 2006 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the risk factors that affect the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy were selected.Results Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,advanced age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of developing serious complications such as hemorrhage,anastomotic leak,and skin and soft tissue infections following laparoscopic colectomy.These factors also increase the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.In this study,we reviewed the recent original articles about the relationship of laparoscopic colectomy with these risk factors.We also describe some strategies that limit the likelihood of these complications and the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.Conclusions Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of either serious complications or conversion to open operation with laparoscopic colectomy.Evaluation of these risk factors preoperatively should influence the decision to perform colectomy using laparoscopic techniques.

  11. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

  12. Body Image in Eating Disorders: The Influence of Exposure to Virtual-Reality Environments.

    Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Ferrer, Marta; Caqueo-Urízar, A.; Moreno, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the effect of virtual-reality exposure to situations that are emotionally significant for patients with eating disorders (ED) on the stability of body-image distortion and body-image dissatisfaction. A total of 85 ED patients and 108 non-ED students were randomly exposed to four experimental virtual environments: a kitchen with low-calorie food, a kitchen with high-calorie food, a restaurant with low-calorie food, and a restaurant with high-calorie food. I...

  13. Animal models of eating disorders

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet develop...

  14. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university stude...

  15. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  16. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate

  17. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  18. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  19. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  20. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... as outcome predictors. Thus, nerve gap distance and repair type exert their influence through time to muscle reinnervation. These findings emphasize that factors that control early axonal outgrowth influence the final level of recovery attained years later. They also highlight that a time window...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...

  1. Factors influencing warfarin response in hospitalized patients

    Abdel-Aziz, Mahmoud I.; Ali, Mostafa A. Sayed; Hassan, Ayman K.M.; Elfaham, Tahani H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simultaneous factors that potentially keep patients far from achieving target INR range at discharge in hospitalized patients. Prospective cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Cardiology Department and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Assiut University Hospitals. One-hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study from July 2013 to January 2014. Outcome measures were discharge INRs, bleeding and thromboembo...

  2. Factors Influencing Impulse Buying in Retail Stores

    Giorgadze, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Impulse buying is a widely pervasive phenomenon. Statistics shows that more and more shoppers are experiencing irresistible urge to purchase unplanned and in most cases unnecessary product. Existing researches fall short in identifying most suitable tools that marketers can adopt in order to promote impulsive sales. Therefore, this thesis provides deep analysis of those, controllable factors that influence impulse buying. Particularly four external cues are examined: product display, promotio...

  3. Factors influencing corporate governance in Ukrainian companies

    Afanasieva, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    The factors influencing corporate governance in Ukraine have been identified. As a result of the conducted analysis and case studies the essence of each have been revealed. The specificity of Ukrainian corporate governance system have been described. The importance of corporate collaboration within different authority levels have been underlined and the necessity of Ukrainian companies’ adaptation to internationally unified rules, principles and standards of corporate governance have been ...

  4. Factors influencing auditor change: evidence from Malaysia

    Sharifah Nazatul Faiza Syed Mustapha Nazri; Malcolm Smith; Zubaidah Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine two factors which influence auditor change: audit and client firms’ characteristics, for Malaysian listed companies. Given the costs involved, it is important to understand the reasons why companies change their auditor and choose a particular level of audit assurance. Design/methodology/approach – This study evaluates the effects of various independent variables on auditor change behaviour and the sensitivity of results to alternative period ...

  5. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)

  6. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    Chun; Yi

    2008-01-01

      2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.……

  7. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.

  8. Factors influencing customers' choices of online merchants

    Li, Chenghuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: The aim of the research is to define and assess the importance of the factors that influence online shoppers' choices of merchants. The previous literature mainly focuses on loyalty of users to websites and online purchase decision-making process within one website. No literature studies the situation under which the customer has already decided the item to purchase and needs to compare different merchants selling the same item. Since this situation is very common...

  9. A Narrative Review of Binge Eating and Addictive Behaviors: Shared Associations with Seasonality and Personality Factors

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in...

  10. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... the motivation of employees to share knowledge. The model is tested using statistical methods on a sample of 114 respondents in Denmark. Qualitative data is used to elaborate and explain quantitative findings. Findings: Our findings pinpoint towards the general drivers and barriers to knowledge sharing within...... organizations. The significant drivers are: enjoy helping others, monetary rewards, management support, change of knowledge sharing behavior and recognition. The significant identified barriers to knowledge sharing are: change of behavior, lack of trust and lack of time. Practical implications: The proposed...

  11. Factors influencing union formation in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585

  12. The Importance of Eating Behavior in Eating Disorders

    Walsh, B. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the...

  13. Ovarian Hormone Influences on Dysregulated Eating: A Comparison of Associations in Women with versus without Binge Episodes.

    Klump, Kelly L; Racine, Sarah E; Hildebrandt, Britny; Burt, S Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Sisk, Cheryl L; Boker, Steven; Keel, Pamela K

    2014-09-01

    Changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in emotional eating across the menstrual cycle. However, prior studies have not examined whether the nature of associations varies across dysregulated eating severity. The current study determined whether the strength and/or nature of hormone/dysregulated eating associations differ based on the presence of clinically diagnosed binge episodes (BEs). Participants included 28 women with BEs and 417 women without BEs who provided salivary hormone samples, ratings of emotional eating, and BE frequency for 45 days. Results revealed stronger associations between dysregulated eating and ovarian hormones in women with BEs as compared to women without BEs. The nature of associations also differed, as progesterone moderated the effects of lower estradiol levels on dysregulated eating in women with BEs only. Although hormone/dysregulated eating associations are present across the spectrum of pathology, the nature of associations may vary in ways that have implications for etiological models and treatment. PMID:25343062

  14. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  15. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    Öncü, Bedriye; Sakarya, Direnç

    2013-01-01

    Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies within %0 and %5.3 in eating disorder patients. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among patients with eating disorder are subtype of the eating disorder, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses (e.g. depression, alcohol and substabce abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, sui...

  16. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  17. The Level of Competition as a Factor for the Development of Eating Disorders in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    Picard, Christy L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes among 39 female college athletes from National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I schools, 40 from NCAA Division II schools, and 31 nonathletes. Athletes at higher levels of competition showed more signs of pathological eating and were at increased risk of eating disorders. (SLD)

  18. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (Pskin lesions (Pimpact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  19. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  20. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

  1. Factors influencing choice of countermeasure strategy

    There are number of countermeasures that can be used, singly and in combination, to reduce doses in the short-term following a nuclear accident. Which strategy is adopted will depend on local factors, such as the type of accident, local geography and demography, and the resources available, and on the form of national and international guidance is to facilitate a consistent level of response to accidents, wherever they occur, whilst at the same time providing for flexibility of response to suit local circumstances. This paper discusses the influence of all these factors on the choice of protective strategy. The goal of any off-site emergency response strategy should be the protection of the public, not just against radiation, but in the sense of providing overall benefit. To achieve this goal, differing local and national constraint mean that the precise strategy adopted may vary from site to site. (Authors). 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  3. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  4. Influence of Weight on Shared Core Symptoms in Eating Disorders: Support or Challenge for a Transdiagnostic Perspective?

    Schmitz, Catalina; Schnicker, Katja; Legenbauer, Tanja

    2016-09-01

    In terms of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) share the same distinctive psychopathology. However, empirical evidence showing similarities between these eating disorder diagnoses for core symptoms is scarce, and the role of weight status is unclear. Data from a total of 168 female participants were collected between April 2004 and April 2008, at an outpatient unit specialized in eating disorder treatment. Core symptoms of eating disorders were measured via self-report questionnaires. In particular, women with BED and BN showed similar patterns of core symptomatology compared with AN. However, when body mass index (BMI) was considered in the analyses, there were no differences between the three diagnostic groups in relation to body image. Differences in eating behavior are not solely triggered by weight differences, whereas body image disturbances are a transdiagnostic phenomenon among EDs and should also be considered in the treatment of BED. PMID:27118052

  5. Ovarian Hormone Influences on Dysregulated Eating: A Comparison of Associations in Women with versus without Binge Episodes

    Klump, Kelly L.; Racine, Sarah E.; Hildebrandt, Britny; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael,; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Boker, Steven; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in emotional eating across the menstrual cycle. However, prior studies have not examined whether the nature of associations varies across dysregulated eating severity. The current study determined whether the strength and/or nature of hormone/dysregulated eating associations differ based on the presence of clinically diagnosed binge episodes (BEs). Participants included 28 women with BEs and 417 women without BEs who provided salivary hormone sample...

  6. Weight stigma and eating behaviours in elementary school children: A prospective population-based study.

    Jendrzyca, Anna; Warschburger, Petra

    2016-07-01

    The relevance of weight stigma as an important factor in disordered eating has been supported by research. However, because most of the studies were cross-sectional and focussed on older children, the causal relationships could not be fully determined in childhood. The current study explores the role of weight stigma in body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours. The sample consisted of 773 girls and 713 boys, aged 6-11 years, who completed surveys assessing weight stigma experiences, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours at two points of measurement, approximately one year apart. The children's external and disordered eating was rated via parental questionnaires. As expected, the pattern of the associations between weight status, weight stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours differed by gender. Experience of weight stigma in girls led to external and restrained eating one year later, whereas in boys no such association was observed. Body dissatisfaction mediated the association between weight stigma and restrained eating behaviours in girls, whereas in boys, body dissatisfaction directly influenced restrained eating behaviours. However, in both girls and boys weight status predicted body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, while weight stigma did not have a direct effect on disordered eating. Results suggest that interventions involving weight stigma should be a part of eating disorder prevention programmes, and gender-specific pathways should be considered. PMID:26851574

  7. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived

  8. The influence of variations in eating disorder-related symptoms on processing of emotional faces in a non-clinical female sample: An eye-tracking study.

    Sharpe, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Ridout, Nathan

    2016-06-30

    This study aimed to: (i) determine if the attention bias towards angry faces reported in eating disorders generalises to a non-clinical sample varying in eating disorder-related symptoms; (ii) examine if the bias occurs during initial orientation or later strategic processing; and (iii) confirm previous findings of impaired facial emotion recognition in non-clinical disordered eating. Fifty-two females viewed a series of face-pairs (happy or angry paired with neutral) whilst their attentional deployment was continuously monitored using an eye-tracker. They subsequently identified the emotion portrayed in a separate series of faces. The highest (n=18) and lowest scorers (n=17) on the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) were compared on the attention and facial emotion recognition tasks. Those with relatively high scores exhibited impaired facial emotion recognition, confirming previous findings in similar non-clinical samples. They also displayed biased attention away from emotional faces during later strategic processing, which is consistent with previously observed impairments in clinical samples. These differences were related to drive-for-thinness. Although we found no evidence of a bias towards angry faces, it is plausible that the observed impairments in emotion recognition and avoidance of emotional faces could disrupt social functioning and act as a risk factor for the development of eating disorders. PMID:27138825

  9. Organisation of the Influence Factors System for Foodstuffs Lyophilization

    Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Dumitru Mnerie; Dumitru Tucu; Titus Slavici; Alin Vasile Mneri

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying) presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through wh...

  10. Keeping Pace with Your Eating: Visual Feedback Affects Eating Rate in Humans

    Bosworth, Matthew L.; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Deliberately eating at a slower pace promotes satiation and eating quickly has been associated with a higher body mass index. Therefore, understanding factors that affect eating rate should be given high priority. Eating rate is affected by the physical/textural properties of a food, by motivational state, and by portion size and palatability. This study explored the prospect that eating rate is also influenced by a hitherto unexplored cognitive process that uses ongoing perceptual estimates of the volume of food remaining in a container to adjust intake during a meal. A 2 (amount seen; 300ml or 500ml) x 2 (amount eaten; 300ml or 500ml) between-subjects design was employed (10 participants in each condition). In two ‘congruent’ conditions, the same amount was seen at the outset and then subsequently consumed (300ml or 500ml). To dissociate visual feedback of portion size and actual amount consumed, food was covertly added or removed from a bowl using a peristaltic pump. This created two additional ‘incongruent’ conditions, in which 300ml was seen but 500ml was eaten or vice versa. We repeated these conditions using a savoury soup and a sweet dessert. Eating rate (ml per second) was assessed during lunch. After lunch we assessed fullness over a 60-minute period. In the congruent conditions, eating rate was unaffected by the actual volume of food that was consumed (300ml or 500ml). By contrast, we observed a marked difference across the incongruent conditions. Specifically, participants who saw 300ml but actually consumed 500ml ate at a faster rate than participants who saw 500ml but actually consumed 300ml. Participants were unaware that their portion size had been manipulated. Nevertheless, when it disappeared faster or slower than anticipated they adjusted their rate of eating accordingly. This suggests that the control of eating rate involves visual feedback and is not a simple reflexive response to orosensory stimulation. PMID:26828922

  11. Keeping Pace with Your Eating: Visual Feedback Affects Eating Rate in Humans.

    Laura L Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Deliberately eating at a slower pace promotes satiation and eating quickly has been associated with a higher body mass index. Therefore, understanding factors that affect eating rate should be given high priority. Eating rate is affected by the physical/textural properties of a food, by motivational state, and by portion size and palatability. This study explored the prospect that eating rate is also influenced by a hitherto unexplored cognitive process that uses ongoing perceptual estimates of the volume of food remaining in a container to adjust intake during a meal. A 2 (amount seen; 300 ml or 500 ml x 2 (amount eaten; 300 ml or 500 ml between-subjects design was employed (10 participants in each condition. In two 'congruent' conditions, the same amount was seen at the outset and then subsequently consumed (300 ml or 500 ml. To dissociate visual feedback of portion size and actual amount consumed, food was covertly added or removed from a bowl using a peristaltic pump. This created two additional 'incongruent' conditions, in which 300 ml was seen but 500 ml was eaten or vice versa. We repeated these conditions using a savoury soup and a sweet dessert. Eating rate (ml per second was assessed during lunch. After lunch we assessed fullness over a 60-minute period. In the congruent conditions, eating rate was unaffected by the actual volume of food that was consumed (300 ml or 500 ml. By contrast, we observed a marked difference across the incongruent conditions. Specifically, participants who saw 300 ml but actually consumed 500 ml ate at a faster rate than participants who saw 500 ml but actually consumed 300 ml. Participants were unaware that their portion size had been manipulated. Nevertheless, when it disappeared faster or slower than anticipated they adjusted their rate of eating accordingly. This suggests that the control of eating rate involves visual feedback and is not a simple reflexive response to orosensory stimulation.

  12. Keeping Pace with Your Eating: Visual Feedback Affects Eating Rate in Humans.

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Deliberately eating at a slower pace promotes satiation and eating quickly has been associated with a higher body mass index. Therefore, understanding factors that affect eating rate should be given high priority. Eating rate is affected by the physical/textural properties of a food, by motivational state, and by portion size and palatability. This study explored the prospect that eating rate is also influenced by a hitherto unexplored cognitive process that uses ongoing perceptual estimates of the volume of food remaining in a container to adjust intake during a meal. A 2 (amount seen; 300 ml or 500 ml) x 2 (amount eaten; 300 ml or 500 ml) between-subjects design was employed (10 participants in each condition). In two 'congruent' conditions, the same amount was seen at the outset and then subsequently consumed (300 ml or 500 ml). To dissociate visual feedback of portion size and actual amount consumed, food was covertly added or removed from a bowl using a peristaltic pump. This created two additional 'incongruent' conditions, in which 300 ml was seen but 500 ml was eaten or vice versa. We repeated these conditions using a savoury soup and a sweet dessert. Eating rate (ml per second) was assessed during lunch. After lunch we assessed fullness over a 60-minute period. In the congruent conditions, eating rate was unaffected by the actual volume of food that was consumed (300 ml or 500 ml). By contrast, we observed a marked difference across the incongruent conditions. Specifically, participants who saw 300 ml but actually consumed 500 ml ate at a faster rate than participants who saw 500 ml but actually consumed 300 ml. Participants were unaware that their portion size had been manipulated. Nevertheless, when it disappeared faster or slower than anticipated they adjusted their rate of eating accordingly. This suggests that the control of eating rate involves visual feedback and is not a simple reflexive response to orosensory stimulation. PMID:26828922

  13. Fear of negative appearance evaluation: development and evaluation of a new construct for risk factor work in the field of eating disorders.

    Lundgren, Jennifer D; Anderson, Drew A; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The psychometric properties and correlates of a measure designed to assess fear of negative appearance evaluation are presented. In Study 1, 165 college females completed the Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale [FNAES; Thomas, C.M., Keery, H., Williams, R., & Thompson, J. K. (1998, November). The Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale: Development and preliminary validation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Washington, DC] along with measures of body image, eating disturbance, and depression. Results replicated previous analyses indicating the presence of a single factor, good internal consistency, and significant association with measures of body image and eating disturbance. Additionally, the FNAES accounted for unique variance beyond that explained by general fear of negative evaluation, and other measures of body image and eating disturbance, in the prediction of body shape dysphoria, dietary restraint, and trait anxiety. Study 2 further examined the validity of the FNAES, finding it to correlate significantly with measures of social physique anxiety, body image, eating attitude, and mood. The FNAES did not significantly correlate with body mass index (BMI). Regression analyses found the FNAES to predict levels of body image, eating attitude, and mood beyond variance explained by social physique anxiety. The FNAES appears to measure a conceptually unique aspect of body image that has not been indexed by previous measures and may serve a useful role in risk factor and preventive work. PMID:15000956

  14. Eating Disorders

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  15. [Eating disorders].

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  16. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

  17. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  18. Factors influencing the prognosis in bladder cancer

    In the categories T1, T2 and T3NxM0 bladder cancer, with a diameter not exceeding 5 cm, the treatment in the Rotterdam Radio-Therapy Institute consists of interstitial irradiation with needles containing radioactive material. The results of treatment and the role of additional external irradiation are discussed. Category T3NxM0 tumors with a diameter exceeding 5 cm are treated by external irradiation followed by cystectomy; the results are presented here. Factors influencing prognosis appeared to be the degree of differentiation, number of transurethral resections (TURs) prior to definitive treatment, intravenous pyelography (IVP), vascular invasion, T category after preoperative irradiation, and postsurgical histopathologically-assessed T category (pT)

  19. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  20. Factors influencing the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Although predicting that there will be more nuclear weapons in the future is safe enough, predicting how many more countries over what period of time, which ones under what circumstances, and how much more of what kind of nuclear-weapons capability for each is more difficult. Predicting what effect more will have is a related question that is even more difficult. This chapter identifies some of the factors that will determine the answers: including the supply policies of nuclear-exporting counties, the international nuclear-fuel cycle, superpower security policies, the health of the non-proliferation regime, cataclysmic events and international reaction, and preventive and preemptive strikes. The author concludes that more proliferation will only be better if we accept the greater probability of catastrophic wars in exchange for less frequent conventional conflicts, but he tempers this with the observation that the policies of governments can influence the course of proliferation

  1. Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior Among Adolescents.

    Sen, Urmi; Basu, Arindam

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the impact of tobacco advertisements and other social factors on the smoking habits of adolescents in Calcutta, India. Design: Cross sectional, school based survey of students in the IXth and XIth grades. The responses were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Participants: High School students in Calcutta aged 14 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measure: Smoking Status as defined by ever smokers of tobacco products. Results: 1973 students were interviewed (males-73.79% and females-26.21%). Increased tobacco use was associated with older age-groups, male gender, government-run schools, having parents or peers who were smokers, and if the respondent was also a chewer. The likelihood of a respondent being a smoker was 8.5 times greater (95% CI: 5.05-14.43) if he or she had a smoker friend, and about 4.5 times (95% CI: 2.7-7.4) if he or she had a smoker sibling. In the multivariate model, the parents' smoking status did not have a statistically significant association with respondent's smoking status. Television advertisements of tobacco products had no statistically significant association with respondents' smoking status. Conclusions: The finding of tobacco advertisements not having a significant association with smoking habits among adolescents could be due to the fact that, at the time of this survey, tobacco advertisements were not frequent in the prime channels due to Government regulations. Peer influence had the strongest association with adolescent smoking. It is therefore suggested that the peer influence factor should be considered for anti-tobacco regulatory activities that target adolescent smoking in India. PMID:12716305

  2. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  3. Emotional Eating

    ... and plugged-in that we lose out on time to reflect. Instead of eating when you get in the door, take a ... put you on a path to a new, healthier relationship with food. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: September ... Feelings When You're Overweight How Can I Balance My Eating Habits? Can Stress Affect My Weight? Binge Eating ...

  4. Healthy Eating

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Healthy Eating KidsHealth > For Parents > Healthy Eating Print A A A Text Size What's in ... new foods and to be role models for healthy eating. Teens may turn up their noses at the ...

  5. Psychometric Properties of Spanish Version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (Tfeq-Sp and Its Relationship with Some Eating- and Body Image-Related Variables

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP, as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight perception, perception of physical fitness, self-esteem, and food intake, as well as with weight control-related variables. A total of 281 participants (aged 18.38 ± 6.31 were studied. The factor analysis yielded three factors: cognitive restraint (CR, uncontrolled eating (UE, and emotional eating (EE. The internal consistency of the TFEQ-SP was determined by means of Cronbach’s α coefficient, with values ranging between 0.75 and 0.87. Higher scores on CR were found in women (p < 0.5, overweight/obese participants (p < 0.001, participants with lower self-esteem (p < 0.05, participants who overestimated their weight (p < 0.001, participants who weighed themselves frequently (p < 0.001 and those who were about to go on a diet (p < 0.001. Higher EE scores were found in participants with lower self-esteem scores (p < 0.05, among participants with a poorer perception of their physical fitness (p < 0.01 and when participants were about to diet (p < 0.05. Higher scores on UE were observed in case of poorer perception of physical fitness (p < 0.05. The validation study of the TFEQ-SP meets the requirements for measuring the three different facets of eating behavior: CR, UE, and EE.

  6. The influence of olfactory impairment in vital, independently living older persons on their eating behaviour and foodliking

    Kremer, S.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Boesveldt, S.

    2014-01-01

    These two studies investigated eating behaviour and food liking of independently living Dutch older people with and without olfactory impairment. In the first study, an internet survey was conducted in relation to their olfactory status (n = 512; age 55–91). Hyposmic older people reported eating the

  7. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns. PMID:22063690

  8. Push Vs Pull: Factors Influence Student Retention

    Matthew Leone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Student retention becomes one of the most significant issues that administrators of colleges and universities must deal with in today’s highly competitive market. Approach: In fact retaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out its mission. A high rate of attrition is not only a fiscal problem for schools, but a symbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose. Results: There are many ways to keep students retain at the same college until graduation, some easier than people may think but great changes will have to be made in order for schools to complete these transformations. This study is a descriptive study about the factors that influence student retention rate at a higher educational institution. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the previous studies of the similar topic and a random sample survey, this study identifies the possible push and pull factors that promote student leave from a specific college and transfer to other colleges to continue their college studies, it probes the implementable solutions to help the college to maintain and increase the student retention rate.

  9. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  10. Investigating the influence of threat appraisals and social support on healthy eating behavior and drive for thinness.

    McKinley, Christopher J

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived obesity threats, social support, and college students' eating attitudes and behaviors. Results showed that perceived vulnerability to obesity negatively predicted healthy eating behavior. In addition, the perceived severity of obesity-related health problems positively predicted women's drive for thinness. Social support played a significant role in explaining health behaviors. Specifically, appraisal by others indirectly predicted college students' healthy eating behavior through increased self-efficacy. Among women, informational support moderated the relationships between both vulnerability and severity on healthy eating behavior. At low levels of support, vulnerability and severity negatively predicted students' healthy eating behavior. Overall, results suggest that messages designed to increase perceived vulnerability and severity may be detrimental when trying to improve people's dietary habits; however, among women certain types of social support may buffer the defensive responses resulting from obesity threats. PMID:20183382

  11. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  12. Fatores associados ao comportamento alimentar inadequado em adolescentes escolares Factors associated with inappropriate eating behavior in adolescent students

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência do comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Parece que a insatisfação corporal (IC, a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômico (NE, além da etnia, podem ser fatores de risco para o CAI. OBJETIVO: Associar IC, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE, adiposidade corporal (AC, estado nutricional (EN, NE e etnia ao CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar o CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale foram utilizados para mensurar IC e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a AC segundo sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC e classificar o EN. O NE foi avaliado pelo Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário que buscava avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram associação do CAI com IC, GCPE e NE no sexo feminino (p BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that the prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior (CAI among young people has increased in recent years. It seems that body dissatisfaction (IC, the practice of excessive exercise, body composition, the socioeconomic status (NE, and ethnicity may be risk factors for CAI. OBJECTIVE: To associate IC, degree of psychological impairment to exercise (GCPE, adiposity (AC, nutritional status (EN, NE and ethnicity with CAI in adolescents. METHODS: Participants 362 young people of both sexes aged between 10 and 19 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess the CAI. The Body Shape Exercise Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale were used to measure IC and GCPE, respectively. We evaluated skinfold thickness is to classify the AC second sex. Weight and height were measured to

  13. [Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, health consequences, treatment and prevention].

    Márquez, S

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures. PMID:18560693

  14. Concurrent and prospective analyses of peer, television and social media influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in adolescent girls.

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Mónica E; Garza, Adolfo; Galindo, Mariza

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure. PMID:23344652

  15. Binge eating disorder

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  16. Eating practices and diet quality

    Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Niva, Mari

    2015-01-01

    combinations that are found in parts of the populations, the association was substantial. Conclusions: Daily practices related to eating are correlated with diet quality. Practices that are important are in part universal but also country-specific. Efforts to promote healthy eating should address not only...... cognitive factors but also everyday contexts of eating that facilitate or hamper healthy practices.......Background/objectives: Daily practices related to eating are embedded in the social and cultural contexts of everyday life. How are such factors associated with diet quality relative to motivational factors? And, are associations universal or context-specific? We analyze the relationship between...

  17. Comparison in decision-making between bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and healthy women: influence of mood status and pathological eating concerns

    Matsumoto, Junko; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Numata, Noriko; Matzuzawa, Daisuke; Murano, Shunichi; Yokote, Koutaro; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji; Nakazato, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Decision-making is reported to be impaired in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), but the influence of mood status, pathophysiological eating, and weight concerns on the performance of decision-making ability between AN and BN is still unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate differential impairments in the decision-making process between AN, BN, and healthy controls (HC), and secondly, to explore the role of mood status, such as anxiety, depression, patholog...

  18. Heredity and Environment in Etiology of Eating Disorders. I. Review of Twin Studies

    Meshkova T.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin studies of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are reviewed. Historically, eating disorders (ED was viewed as a disorders primarily influenced by sociocultural factors, however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for ED and substantially contribute to the observed association between ED and other disorders and personal traits (major depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, perfectionism. Among environmental factors nonshared (unique environment plays the main role, except of early puberty.

  19. A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE principles into daily living and how these factors change over time

    White Florence

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people's ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

  20. A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time

    Casey, Dympna

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants\\' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people\\'s ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

  1. Factors associated with early childhood education and care service implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    Wolfenden, Luke; Finch, Meghan; Nathan, Nicole; Weaver, Natasha; Wiggers, John; Yoong, Sze Lin; Jones, Jannah; Dodds, Pennie; Wyse, Rebecca; Sutherland, Rachel; Gillham, Karen

    2015-09-01

    Many early childhood education and care (ECEC) services fail to implement recommended policies and practices supportive of healthy eating and physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether certain theoretically-based factors are associated with implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in a sample of ECEC services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with Service Managers of ECEC services. The survey assessed the operational characteristics, policy, and practice implementation, and 13 factors were suggested by Damschroder's Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to impede or promote implementation. Logistic regression analyses found a significant association between implementation factor score and full implementation (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.18-1.61; p = factors. PMID:26327938

  2. Risk Factors for Full- and Partial-Syndrome Early Adolescent Eating Disorders: A Population-Based Pregnancy Cohort Study

    Allen, Karina L.; Byrne, Susan M.; Forbes, David; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 14-year-old boys and girls were studied using previously collected biomedical, familial, antenatal, demographic, and social data to identify prospective predictors of eating disorders. Findings suggest that parents' perceptions on their child's weight were more powerful predictors of the development of eating disorders compared to…

  3. Body Image Disturbance and Perfectionism as Predictor’s Factors of Disordered Eating Behavior among Female Students

    Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, scientific studies should perform for specifying psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image disturbance and perfectionism variables in predicting disordered eating behaviors among female students.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting of 464 female students in Allame Tabatabaie University were selected based on a Morgan formula and multi-stage cluster random sampling. Then, participants responded to the questionnaires of body image disturbance of Reas and et al. (2002, perfectionism scale of Besharat (2004 and eating attitudes test of Garner and Garfinkel (1979. The data were analyzed by correlation techniques and stepwise regression.Results: The results showed that these were internal correlation among body image disturbance and perfectionism and disordered eating behavior. Also, the results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that body image disturbance and perfectionism significantly predicted, respectively, almost 16% and 14% of variances of disordered eating behaviors among female students.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, body image disturbance and perfectionism can predict disordered eating behaviors. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent the development of eating-related diseases and to promote students’ health. Key Words: Body Image Disturbance, Perfectionism, Disordered Eating Behavior, Female Students.

  4. Organisation of the Influence Factors System for Foodstuffs Lyophilization

    Gabriela-Victoria Anghel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through which an organized system was formed was applied. Finally, the values of entropy system and of the organization level of the factors system were determined.

  5. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  6. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  7. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  8. Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy

    Norbert Dahmen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack

  9. 西安市初中生进食行为问题和家庭因素的关系研究%Study of relationship between eating behavior problems and familial factor among middle school students in Xi'an.

    李辉; 田苑; 王亚萍

    2012-01-01

    [目的]调查西安市区初中生进食行为的现状,研究进食行为问题与家庭因素的关系,减少与进食障碍相关的进食行为问题对初中学生的危害.[方法]采用分层整群抽样方法,抽取西安市区631名初中学生作为调查对象,应用进食态度测试26项(EAT-26)、家庭亲密度和适应性量表Ⅲ(FACESⅢ)进行现场调查[结果]西安市区13.47%的初中学生存在进食行为问题,其中女生占9.19%,多于男生;女生EAT-26总分明显高于男生,主要表现在节食维度;初三年级进食行为问题较严重.EAT-26总分显著高于初二年级,主要表现在口腔控制维度;初中男生家庭适应性与口腔控制维度呈正相关,而初中女生家庭亲密度与暴食维度呈正相关.[结论]家庭因素影响初中生的进食行为,对于存在进食行为问题的个体,应适当改变其家庭模式.%[Objective] To investigate the present situation of abnormal eating behaviors related to eating disorders a-mong junior high school students in Xian,China and familial factor having influence on these behaviors in order to reduce the disadvantages of eating behavior problems to middle school students. [Method] Questionnaires including-the 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) were used to measure 631 junior high school students. [Results] 13. 47% of junior high school students (9. 19% for girls, 4. 28% for boys) showed abnormal eating behaviors related to eating disorders. The girls' score of EAT-26 was higher than boys', particularly in subscale dieting. The grade three had more serious eating behavior problems,and its' score of EAT-26 was higher than the grade twos,particularly in subscale oral control. The positive correlation had been found between family cohesion and sub-scale oral control among boys,and family adaptability had distinguished positive correlation with subscale bulimia to girls. [Conclusion

  10. Eating Disorders

    Ahmad Farah; Celasun Nalan; Gucciardi Enza; Stewart Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...

  11. Eating habits and other risk factors: are the future health care service providers really at risk for life style disorders!

    Shreyash Jayantilal Gandhi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence period is crucial position in the life, characterized by rapid rate of growth. It is a need to study risk factors among this group so applicability of primary prevention can be planned. It is essential to know that whether future care providers are having any risk of acquiring life style disorders as they will be the future role models of society. Objectives: To study the dietary and other risk factors for acquiring life style related disorders and to correlate various anthropometry measurements with these risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study. All medical, physiotherapy and nursing students from Government Medical College, Surat having met with age criteria of adolescent (17-19 as per WHO were included in the study. Pre tested structured self-administered questionnaire was used. It was having questions on various risk factors of acquiring life style related disorders and having anthropometry measurements to correlate. Data were entered and analyzed in MS excel. Results: Total 290 participants were enrolled, out of them 240 (82.76% were females and 50 (17.24% were males. Out of those, 153 (52.75% were having a habit of eating outside the home at least once in a week. 80 (27.5% participants reported that they never play outdoor games, 18 (6.21% reported that they never do exercise. 21 (7.24% were having BMI and #8805;25, From this total 21 participants, 17 (5.86% were females and 4 (1.38% were males. Out of total 240 females, 20 were having Waist Hip Ratio (WHR >0.85, while no male is having WHR >1. Conclusion: Primary preventive measures for dietary change should be applied among future care providers. Life style change should also be advised to reduce the risk for life style disorders. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 645-649

  12. Genetics and epigenetics of eating disorders

    Yilmaz Z; Hardaway JA; Bulik CM

    2015-01-01

    Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the developm...

  13. Genetics in eating disorders: extending the boundaries of research

    Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the recent literature relevant to genetic research in eating disorders and to discuss unique issues which are crucial for the development of a genetic research project in eating disorders in Brazil. METHOD: A computer literature review was conducted in the Medline database between 1984 and may 2005 with the search terms "eating disorders", "anorexia nervosa", "bulimia nervosa", "binge eating disorder", "family", "twin" and "molecular genetic" studies. RESULTS: Current research findings suggest a substantial influence of genetic factors on the liability to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Genetic research with admixed populations should take into consideration sample size, density of genotyping and population stratification. Through admixture mapping it is possible to study the genetic structure of admixed human populations to localize genes that underlie ethnic variation in diseases or traits of interest. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a major collaborative genetics initiative of eating disorders in Brazil and South America would represent a realistic possibility of studying the genetics of eating disorders in the context of inter ethnic groups, and also integrate a new perspective on the biological etiology of eating disorders.

  14. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    Bedriye Oncu; Direnc Sakarya

    2013-01-01

    Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal be...

  15. Typical Bamboo Habitat Ecological Factors Influence Evaluation

    He Lu; Zhenran Gao; Guangzhi Di; Hongzhou Qian

    2016-01-01

    Ecological factors is generally refers to only important factor in a variety of biological impact of environmental factors and it is to determine the distribution of habitats. To analyze the Yunnan Bambusoideae affecting habitat distribution ecological factors principal component, first analyze the basic theory and geometric meaning of the Principal Component. Based on this analysis to determine the steps, we selected hollow bamboo genera hollow bamboo as a typical case of bamboo species for ...

  16. Eating behaviors of children in the context of their family environment

    Kral, Tanja V.E.; Rauh, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Both a family history of obesity and early childhood obesity have been identified as strong predictors of adult obesity risk. The finding that parental obesity, maternal obesity in particular, increases a child’s risk for developing obesity suggests that either shared genes, or environment, or likely a combination of both may promote overeating and excessive weight gain in children. Parents not only create food environments for children’s early experiences with food and eating, but they also influence their children’s eating by modeling their own eating behaviors, taste preferences, and food choices. Thus, it is important to identify intermediary behavioral eating traits which promote overeating and obesity in children and to determine the extent to which associations between eating traits and excessive weight gain in children may be influenced by genetic factors, environmental factors, or both. Behavioral genetic methods can be used to help partition genetic and environmental sources of variability in behavioral traits. The focus of this paper is to review and discuss findings from both short-term experimental and prospective cohort studies on eating behaviors of children at various stages in their lives. Select child eating traits and parent-child resemblances in eating will be further examined in the context of children’s home environment and their familial predisposition to obesity. PMID:20457172

  17. Socio-cultural and cognitive predictors of eating disorder symptoms in young girls.

    Bell, C; Cooper, M J

    2005-12-01

    There is some evidence for a relationship between socio-cultural variables and the development of disordered eating or concerns. However, the role of individual cognition in adding to this relationship has not yet been investigated. The current study therefore had two main questions. Firstly, which of the socio-cultural factors investigated (parental, peers and the media) predict girls' eating disorder related symptoms? Secondly, do individuals' cognitions add to this prediction? Thirty-eight girls participated in the study. They completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Eating Disorder Belief Questionnaire (EDBQ), measures of parental, peer and media influence, and a measure of their awareness and internalisation of societal standards of attractiveness. The results indicated that several of the socio-cultural factors were related to girls' EAT score. The belief that being thinner would make boys like them more was the most significant predictor in the whole sample (and in younger girls). Individual cognitions added significantly to this prediction in the whole sample but not in the younger girls. For older girls, the importance of magazines as a source of information about beauty and ideals was the strongest predictor of EAT score, and their cognitions added significantly to this prediction. It is concluded that peer and media influences are important determinants of girls' eating disorder related symptoms. However, individual cognitions add to this relationship, particularly in older girls. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:16682869

  18. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  19. Following family or friends: Social norms in adolescent healthy eating

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-01-01

    outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family......It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical...... what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and...

  20. Following family or friends: Social norms in adolescent healthy eating

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical...... what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and...... outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family...

  1. Exogenous Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior on the Insurance Market

    Petrescu Marian; Ioncic? Diana Eugenia,; Petrescu Eva-Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The insurance services’ consumer behavior is influenced by a series of factors, which can be divided, function of their nature, in endogenous and exogenous factors. The potential insurance client’s behavior is influenced by the following main categories of exogenous factors: situational factors – related to the moment before the sale of the insurance policy (connected, for instance, to the process of communication between the insured and the insurer), the moment of purchase of the insurance p...

  2. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    Matteo Di Segni; Enrico Patrono; Loris Patella; Stefano Puglisi-Allegra; Rossella Ventura

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medica...

  3. Risk factors for disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: a two year longitudinal study of mainland Chinese boys and girls.

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Even though reliable eating disorder risk factors have been identified among adolescent girls, little is known about predictors of increased vulnerability within specific phases of adolescence or among adolescent boys, particularly in highly populated non-Western contexts. In this study, early and middle adolescent boys (n = 1,271) and girls (n = 1,415) from Chongqing, China completed validated measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and 2 years follow-up. Multivariate models for boys of each age group indicated increases in disordered eating at follow-up were predicted by higher initial body mass index, negative affect and body dissatisfaction levels as well as attendant increases in perceived appearance pressure from mass media, body dissatisfaction, negative affect between assessments. High baseline levels of reported appearance pressure from parents and dating partners contributed, respectively, to prediction models of younger and older boys. More distinct constellations of significant predictors emerged in multivariate models of early versus middle adolescent girls. Together, findings indicated body dissatisfaction and negative affect were fairly robust risk factors for exacerbations in disturbances across samples while risk factors such as perceived pressure from desired/prospective dating partners were salient only during particular phases of adolescence. PMID:24221725

  4. Heart risk associated with weight loss in anorexia nervosa and eating disorders: risk factors for QTc interval prolongation and dispersion.

    Swenne, I; Larsson, P T

    1999-03-01

    Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation and dispersion, indicators of an increased risk for cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death, have been investigated in patients with eating disorders (ED) and ongoing weight loss. Patients were characterized with regard to weight, body mass index (BMI; weight/length2), duration of weight loss, rate of weight loss and rate of weight loss immediately preceding examination. At examination, a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) registration and blood samples for analysis of serum electrolytes were obtained. In total, 92 examinations in 58 female patients aged 15.5+/-1.7 (mean +/- SD) y were analysed. Control ECG recordings were obtained from 38 normal-weight teenage girls with no known heart disease. Patients with ED weighed 40.7+/-7.8 kg, corresponding to BMI 15.2+/-2.4 kg/m2 following a weight loss of 11.8+/-6.5 kg. In ED patients, the ECG showed bradycardia, a shift to the right of the QRS axis, diminished amplitudes of the QRS complex and T wave, and prolongation and increased dispersion of the QTc interval. In multiple regression analyses low weight, low BMI and rapid weight loss immediately preceding the examination were the most important independent predictors of QTc interval prolongation and dispersion. It is concluded that an ECG examination is an important part of the assessment of patients with ED and ongoing weight loss, even in the absence of electrolyte disturbances, and especially if the patient is severely underweight or weight loss is rapid. PMID:10229042

  5. Product platforms: influencing factors and effects

    Uddin, Abul Hasnat Md Zakir

    2014-01-01

    The product platform strategy is well known for its several positive effects. However, these effects differ under different market situations. Several product platform projects related decisions can influence these effects. This research work will show how these effects are influenced by decisions under different market situations, findings will help academics in enriching product platform theories and, it will help managers to take proper decisions to enhance the possibility of product platf...

  6. Eating Disorders

    ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too thin, but you don't eat enough because you think you are fat Bulimia nervosa, which involves periods of overeating followed by ...

  7. Accuracy of Self-reported Weight and Height in Binge Eating Disorder: Misreport is Not Related to Psychological Factors

    White, M.A.; Masheb, R.M.; Grilo, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the degree of misreport in weight, height, and BMI among overweight adults (n=392) with binge eating disorder (BED) and tested whether the degree of misreport was associated with eating disorder psychopathology and psychological variables. Male (n=97) and female (n=295) participants self-reported height and weight and were subsequently measured by clinic staff. Participants also completed a series of diagnostic interviews and self-report assessments. Discrepancies between ...

  8. Factor structure and clinical correlates of the Food Thought Suppression Inventory within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Sawaoka, Takuya; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the relations among eating behaviors and thought suppression is limited to a measure of general thought suppression, the White Bear Suppression Inventory. To address this limitation, researchers recently validated the Food Thought Suppression Inventory (FTSI). Analyses using this measure suggest that food thought suppression is distinct from and is more predictive of eating disorder psychopathology than is general thought suppression. The FTSI, however, has not yet been vali...

  9. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto; Mercedes Ezquerra-Cabrera; Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera; Rocío Carbonero-Carreño

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 s...

  10. Body Image Disturbance and Perfectionism as Predictor’s Factors of Disordered Eating Behavior among Female Students

    Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh; Fariba Kiani

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, scientific studies should perform for specifying psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image disturbance and perfectionism variables in predicting disordered eating behaviors among female students.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting ...

  11. Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Female College Students

    Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…

  12. Typical Bamboo Habitat Ecological Factors Influence Evaluation

    He Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors is generally refers to only important factor in a variety of biological impact of environmental factors and it is to determine the distribution of habitats. To analyze the Yunnan Bambusoideae affecting habitat distribution ecological factors principal component, first analyze the basic theory and geometric meaning of the Principal Component. Based on this analysis to determine the steps, we selected hollow bamboo genera hollow bamboo as a typical case of bamboo species for this analysis. The second to standardize ecological factors data, building Habitat distribution Factor correlation matrix to determine y1, y2, y3 as three main components. Evaluate the habitat distribution of hollow bamboo by principal component analysis.

  13. Chapter 6. Radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value. Chapter consistsof next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of plants; (2) Radioactive contamination of plants; (3) Factors influencing radioactivity of biological chain soil - plant; (4) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of agricultural and food products

  14. Analysis of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    Jing; GAO; Fang; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,this article uses the multivariate adjustment regression analysis method,to analyze the factors influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity and the mechanism. The results show that demographic characteristics are still an important factor influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity,but the extent of its influence is weaker than entrepreneurs’ trait. The new trait theory is verified in farmers’ entrepreneurship opportunity behavior; entrepreneurship environment is becoming an important factor influencing entrepreneurial opportunity identification,whose regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ social network and previous experience is stronger than the regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ psychological trait.

  15. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating

    Middlestadt, Susan E.; Stevenson, Laurel D.; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D.; SHEATS, JYLANA L.

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors under...

  16. SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors

    Franzoni, Emilo; Monti, Morena; Pellicciari, Alessandro; Muratore, Carlo; Verrotti, Alberto; Garone, Caterina; CECCONI, Ilaria; Iero, Luisa; Gualandi, Stefano; Savarino, Francesca; Gualandi, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI) and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an inf...

  17. Can we reduce eating disorder risk factors in female college athletes? A randomized exploratory investigation of two peer-led interventions

    Becker, Carolyn Black; McDaniel, Leda; Bull, Stephanie; Powell, Marc; McIntyre, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Female athletes are at least as at risk as other women for eating disorders (EDs) and at risk for the female athlete triad (i.e., inadequate energy availability, menstrual disorders, and osteoporosis). This study investigated whether two evidence-based programs appear promising for future study if modified to address the unique needs of female athletes. Athletes were randomly assigned to athlete-modified dissonance prevention or healthy weight intervention (AM-HWI). ED risk factors were asses...

  18. Social modeling of eating: a review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice.

    Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J

    2015-03-01

    A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571

  19. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    Dumitru Mnerie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.

  20. Get your own mirror. Investigating how strict eating disordered women are in judging the bodies of other eating disordered women.

    Alleva, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Martijn, Carolien; Schepers, Jan; Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has shown that eating disordered women lack a self-serving body image bias and largely make self-defeating social comparisons. These factors influence how eating disordered women feel about their bodies, and may also influence treatment for disordered eating. In group mirror exposure therapy, women inevitably compare their own bodies to other women's bodies. Yet, how eating disordered women view their own bodies in relation to other women's bodies has never been investigated. This study investigated how subjects high in eating disorder symptoms ("high symptomatics") view the bodies of other women and of other high symptomatics specifically. Twelve high symptomatics and 13 low symptomatics viewed photos of, and rated the attractiveness of, their own and other participants' bodies. The results show that low symptomatics rated both other women's bodies and other low symptomatic bodies specifically as less attractive, but not as fatter, than their own bodies. In contrast, high symptomatics rated both other women's bodies and other high symptomatic bodies specifically as equally (un)attractive, but as thinner than their own bodies. These results suggest that high symptomatics lack a self-serving body image bias when it comes to aspects of weight specifically. Considering weight is a self-relevant dimension to eating disordered women, the impact of these self-defeating comparisons may be especially negative and may impede treatment progress. PMID:23623779

  1. Factors associated with eating disorders in university students in Cali, Colombia.

    Andrés Fandiño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Existen pocos estudios de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes en América Latina. Las características sociodemográficas de los estudiantes universitarios permiten suponer que existen casos de trastornos del comportamiento alimentario (TCA en un porcentaje mayor al de la población general. Objetivo: Determinar la cifra relativa de estudiantes con alta probabilidad de padecer algún tipo de TCA, y a partir de los datos, estimar la prevalencia en la población universitaria. Además, evaluar los factores asociados con el resultado positivo en una nueva prueba de filtro para los TCA. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio transversal en un grupo de 174 estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Valle (Cali, Colombia, a quienes se aplicó un cuestionario auto-diligenciado con la encuesta de evaluación del comportamiento alimentario (ECA. Resultados: Hubo 39.7% de estudiantes con puntajes positivos en la prueba (puntaje >24, cifra que indica una alta probabilidad de desarrollar algún TCA; con una relación mujer:hombre de 2:1; y una prevalencia estimada de 44.1% en mujeres y 9.6% en hombres. Los factores asociados con un resultado positivo en la ECA fueron el género femenino (OR: 2.74 IC95%: 1.29.5.85, el querer disminuir más de 10%  del peso corporal (OR: 24.65 IC95%: 1.92-316.91 y la interacción entre este factor y el porcentaje deseado de disminución de peso  (OR: 0.81 IC95%: 0.66-0.98. Existe una interacción cualitativa entre la dirección del deseo de cambio de peso y otras variables del modelo. La ECA identifica diferentes tipos de TCA. Discusión y conclusiones: La ECA identifica diferentes tipos de TCA que se deben diferenciar con preguntas adicionales. La prevalencia estimada indica que los TCA son un problema importante en la comunidad universitaria, que se debe intervenir mediante diferentes estrategias de prevención, detección temprana y tratamiento.

  2. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Petrovici, Dan A.; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decis...

  3. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Ritson Christopher; Petrovici Dan A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individ...

  4. Examining the Factors Influencing Environmental Innovations

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Zoboli, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Technological innovation is a key factor for achieving a better environmental performance of firms and the economy as a whole, to the extent that it helps to increase the material/energy efficiency of production processes and to reduce emission/effluents associated to outputs. Environmental innovation may spur from exogenous driving forces, like policy intervention, and/or from endogenous factors associated to firm market and management strategies. Despite the crucial importance of research i...

  5. Factors influencing attendance in a structured physical activity program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in an urban setting: a mixed methods process evaluation

    Canuto, Karla J; Spagnoletti, Belinda; McDermott, Robyn A; Cargo, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience higher rates of obesity, chronic disease, and are less active than non-Indigenous Australian women. Lifestyle programs designed to increase physical activity and encourage healthy eating are needed to ameliorate this disparity. The aim of this study was to identify participants’ perceived barriers and enablers to attend group exercise classes as part of a 12-week fitness program. Methods To understand the factors that influence...

  6. Influence of 1-MCP treatments on eating quality and consumer preferences of ‘Qinmei’ kiwifruit during shelf life

    Consumers and growers in China sometime complain that Kiwifruits treated with an ethylene action inhibitor 1-MCP are difficult to ripen and show poor eating quality. This study addresses the quality parameters affecting consumer preferences and reevaluates the necessity of 1-MCP application for stor...

  7. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  8. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's…

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATION IN SMES IN ROMANIA

    ONCIOIU FLORIN RAZVAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to organize resources and competence in novel patterns. Enterprises extend their ability to develop new business concepts, their dynamic capability, by accessing external resources. This study proposes to investigate how the use of external resources varies in the course of SMEs innovation processes, and how deployment of external resources is influenced by the nature of the innovation as well as by the context of the innovation process.

  10. Factors influencing EB curing of epoxy matrix

    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated

  11. Factors influencing EB curing of epoxy matrix

    Li Fengmei E-mail: brc@bnu.edu.cn; Bao Jianwen; Chen Xiangbao; Bao Huaying; Wang Huiliang

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated.

  12. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; McCONNELL, ROB; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods charact...

  13. Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat.

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger) × 2 (portion size: small vs. big) × 2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25934089

  14. The Genetics of Eating Disorders

    Berrettini, Wade

    2004-01-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas fo...

  15. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders

    Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

  17. Influencing factors of infrared surveying in roadway

    CAI Kang-xu; GUO Da

    2006-01-01

    The main factors that affect infrared surveying in roadway include that property of rock, electromechanical equipments running, environmental temperature, hydrogeology and support material etc. This paper sums up the expression features of these disturbing factor through theoretical analysis and actual measurement contrasts and considers that some tunnel section does not suit to go on infrared survey, for instance, soft rock meets water to expanse, and surround rock has obviously pouring water. The basic methods had made evading disturbing of electromechanical equipments, environmental temperature and protect material etc to become possible. It is helpful that offers infrared surveying technical service for production safety better in roadway.

  18. Healthy eating among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children: understanding choice using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the role of parental influence.

    Hewitt, Allison M; Stephens, Christine

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intentions, which, in turn, predicted self-reported dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not increase the model's explanatory power. Results support the application of the TPB to the prediction of food choice-related intention and behaviour among children; however, the role of parental influence requires further examination. PMID:17828673

  19. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  20. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that

  1. Factors influencing parameters of laser ion sources

    Láska, Leoš; Badziak, J.; Boody, F. P.; Gammino, S.; Jungwirth, Karel; Krása, Josef; Krouský, Eduard; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Ryč, L.; Skála, Jiří; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Wolowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2007), s. 199-205. ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : highly charged ions * laser -produced plasma * self-focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 4.696, year: 2007

  2. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  3. Role of genetic variants in ADIPOQ in human eating behavior.

    Rohde, Kerstin; Keller, Maria; Horstmann, Annette; Liu, Xuanshi; Eichelmann, Fabian; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of adiponectin and its negative correlation with BMI are well described. Adiponectin serum levels are altered in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating. Here, we tested the hypothesis that (1) adiponectin serum levels correlate with human eating behavior factors and (2) that genetic variants of the ADIPOQ locus influence both serum levels and eating behavior. We analyzed 11 SNPs within ADIPOQ and in the 5' UTR and measured serum adiponectin levels in 1,036 individuals from the German Sorbs population. The German version of the three-factor eating questionnaire (FEV) was completed by 548 Sorbs. For replication purposes, we included an independent replication cohort from Germany (N = 350). In the Sorbs, we observed positive correlations of restraint with adiponectin serum levels (P = 0.001; r = 0.148) which, however, did not withstand adjustment for covariates (P = 0.083; r = 0.077). In addition, four SNPs were nominally associated with serum adiponectin levels (all P  9.3 × 10(-4)). In our replication cohort, we observed similar effect directions at rs1501229 for disinhibition and hunger. A meta-analysis resulted in nominal statistical significance P = 0.036 (Z score 2.086) and P = 0.017 (Z score 2.366), respectively. Given the observed relationship of the SNPs with adiponectin levels and eating behavior, our data support a potential role of adiponectin in human eating behavior. Whether the relationship with eating behavior is mediated by the effects of circulating adiponectin warrants further investigations. PMID:25542302

  4. Eating disorders in women

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  5. Eating disorders in women.

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  6. Eating Disorders and Family Structure: A Review

    Dilek Ertuğ Toker; Çiçek Hocaoğlu

    2009-01-01

    The frequency of eating disorders has been increased over the course of last 50 years. Its history reveals that different forms of eating disorders have actually been existed for a long period of time but the most recognized eating disorders like Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa have only recently been included to the official classification systems. It is being argued that biological genetic load and hypothalamic neuromediator factors are the main causes for the etiology of eating disord...

  7. Eating disorders

    Kontić Olga; Vasiljević Nadja; Trišović Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Lakić Aneta; Jašović-Gašić Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis...

  8. Eating Disorders

    LUKEŠOVÁ, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to create an eating disorder prevention program. The thesis particularly focuses on the eating disorder problems during adolescence and early adulthood along with the explanation and specification of basic terms, history and cause of the disorder. A strong emphasis is placed on the possibilities of the prevention. A qualitative research was carried out within the scope of this thesis and it brought useful data about the students and their knowledge of the ea...

  9. Intussusception: Clinical and radiographic factors influencing reducibility

    Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.)

  10. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. PMID:25521518

  11. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  12. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with...

  13. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

  14. Eating disorders

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  15. Eating disorders.

    Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Trisović, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Gasić, Miroslava Jasović

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  16. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    Chen, Jue; Zhen WANG; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating ...

  17. Axis-I comorbidity is linked to prospective instability of diagnoses within eating disorders

    Milos, Gabriella F; Baur, Volker; Muehlebach, Sabina; Spindler, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating disorders (ED) are classified into Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Prospectively, the diagnostic instability within ED is high, but it is not clear which factors may account for this instability. So far, there is no evidence of whether psychiatric comorbidity may play a role in ED diagnostic crossover. We sought to determine possible influences of comorbidities of axis I and II on diagnostic crossover within ED. Methods Longitu...

  18. The relationship between eating disorder symptoms and obsessive compulsive disorder in primigravida women

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi; Modares-Gharavi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating Disorder Symptoms are among the most common disorders in perinatal period and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors such as anxiety disorders. So, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive disorder in primigravida women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 213 in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers, selected through a two st...

  19. Axis-I comorbidity is linked to prospective instability of diagnoses within eating disorders

    Milos, Gabriella F; Baur, Volker; Muehlebach, Sabina; Spindler, Anja

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (ED) are classified into Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Prospectively, the diagnostic instability within ED is high, but it is not clear which factors may account for this instability. So far, there is no evidence of whether psychiatric comorbidity may play a role in ED diagnostic crossover. We sought to determine possible influences of comorbidities of axis I and II on diagnostic crossover within ED. METHODS:...

  20. Instruments assessing motivation for change in eating disorders and their psychometric properties – a review.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Most patients with an eating disorder are not motivated to change their behavior. Prior research has demonstrated the prognostic value of a stages of change model in predicting outcome. Further, identifying the factors which influence an individual’s decision to change may bolster treatment effectiveness. An instrument with good reliability and validity for assessing motivation in eating disorders is necessary to correctly identify the patient’s motivational state. T...

  1. The factors that influence nuclear nonproliferation credibility

    Most legitimate nuclear activities worldwide that are intended for peaceful purposes are currently conducted within the international nonproliferation regime, established in 1970 on the basis of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This regime was augmented by several consecutive treaties that arose as a result of various world events, rendering it significantly more stringent. The methodology consists of three steps: (1) structuring a criteria-tree that incorporates all the criteria and sub-criteria that influence credibility formation and demonstrates the relationships between the criteria and sub-criteria, (2) defining the weight coefficients of each criteria through pairwise comparisons of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), and (3) assigning numerical scores to a state under each criterion and combining them with weight coefficients in order to provide an overall assessment of the state. Employing the proposed methodology, the paper proceeds to assess the current level of unclear nonproliferation credibility that South Korea has reached

  2. Transtornos alimentares na infância e na adolescência Trastornos alimentares en la infancia y adolescencia y factores de riesgo Eating disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Juliana de Abreu Gonçalves

    2013-03-01

    frequently followed by psychological comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Among the risk factors for eating disorders, social and family environment and the media were the most important ones. The influence of the media and social environment has been related to the worship of thinness. As to family environment, mealtimes appeared to be fundamental in shaping eating behavior and the development of disorders. Eating disorders were associated with nutritional problems (growing impairment and weight gain, oral health (cheilitis, dental erosion, periodontitis, and hypertrophy of salivary glands, and social prejudice.

  3. Factors Influencing Selection of Treatment for Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Cavalli-Björkman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden and elsewhere there is evidence of poorer cancer survival for patients of low socioeconomic status (SES), and in some settings differences in treatment by SES have been shown. The aim of this thesis was to explore factors which influence cancer treatment decisions, such as knowledge reaped from clinical trials, patient-related factors, and physician-related factors. In a register study of colorectal cancer, all stages, patients were stratified for SES-factors. Differences were seen ...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin; Vaidean Viorela-Ligia; Cuceu Ionut-Constantin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/to...

  5. Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa

    Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina

    2011-01-01

    Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in th...

  6. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  7. INFLUENCING FACTORS OF PRICE AND ASSOCIATED STRATEGIES

    Neamtu, Liviu; Neamtu, Adina Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The price is an important element in product position; it is a means of sending signals to consumers about the nature and quality of the product. When, for a certain business environment, the demand curve is known in relation to market (competition) costs and prices, the firm can choose a pricing policy simultaneously with business strategy. This study synthesizes the key-factors occurring in choosing a business strategy and the game of price and cost on the market As an approach to pricing p...

  8. Emotional Factors Influencing Students’ English Writing Competence

    聂勇伟

    2015-01-01

    As an international common language,English becomes more and more important.Students try their best to improve their English writing competence,especially as the social’s requirements for their English writing become higher and higher.However,students’English writing is very poor,fewer and fewer of them can write fluent English.Through the study of this topic,the author hopes it can remove students’emotional obstacles of English writing learning,master the direction of emotional factor,arouse students’interesting in learning oral English,make them practice English writing positively and obtain a better teaching effect

  9. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions. PMID:26857889

  10. Eating Well While Eating Out

    ... desserts. Tips for Eating at the Mall or Fast-Food Place With a little planning, it's easy to ... Food. What Can I Do? Are There Healthy Fast-Food Options? Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and ...

  11. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)

  12. Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.

    Bbaale, Edward

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  13. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

  14. Factors influencing Consumer Behaviour on the Czech Market

    Hasan, Maher Mohamad

    2009-01-01

    The important problems for marketing companies in the Czech Republic are how to exposure determinants that lead consumer to decision of buying certain products and which factors influence the consumer purchasing, Through this, Czech marketing companies can understand deeply their consumer behaviour and issue suitable strategies so they can develop their companies and whole industry more. The objective of the study is: To exploit the factors that influence buying decision when buying certain p...

  15. Factors Influencing the Surgical Success in Patients with Infantile Esotropia

    Fatma Gül Yılmaz Çınar; Deniz Somer; Ayşe Burcu; Züleyha Yalnız Akkaya; Firdevs Örnek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors that influence the surgical success in patients with infantile esotropia and to evaluate the relationship between amount of bilateral medial rectus recession and convergence. Material and Method: We retrospectively investigated the records of 188 patients with infantile esotropia who were operated on. The surgical success rate, the factors that influence the surgical success, and the relationship between amount of bilateral medial rectus recession ...

  16. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE E-LOYALTY OF INTERNET BANKING USERS

    Ameen M Al-Agaga; Khalil Md Nor

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfacti...

  17. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent moth...

  18. A five-year prospective follow-up of longstanding eating disorders : influence from personality disorders and child sexual abuse

    Vrabel, KariAnne R.

    2010-01-01

    Follow-up studies have shown that 20-30% of patients with eating disorders develop longstanding symptoms seriously impairing their daily life. There are very few studies on the course of these patients. This dissertation consists of three papers on patients admitted to a specialized inpatient treatment program at the Modum Bad psychiatric hospital. The participants were assessed upon admission, discharge and at one-, two-, and five-year follow-up. Paper I reports on the course and outco...

  19. Influence of food education in eating habits in students from 2nd and 3rd cycles in viseu schools

    Fernandes, Sofia; Cardoso, Ana Paula; Abrantes, José Luís; Ferreira, Manuela; Guiné, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Food Education as a means of promoting a healthy diet is very important nowadays, given the problems identified in the eating habits of the young’s, resulting in public health problems. The intervention strategies haven’t proved to be very effective and therefore children and young students still reveal inadequate diets and sedentary lifestyles. Objectives: Verify the level of knowledge about food and habits of the students; Analyze how the information provided by educators ...

  20. Parent-child feeding interactions: The Influence of Child Cognitions and Parental Feeding Behaviors on Child Healthy Eating

    Melbye, Elisabeth Lind

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in mind, the main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of preadolescent children’s eating behavior in the context of parent-child food-related interactions. A more long-term objective is to obtain knowledge that might have the potential to inform future family-oriented nutrition interventions. This thesis consists of three empirical studies and an overview presenting the t...

  1. Gender-Related Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms and Disordered Eating in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…

  2. Epigenetics and eating disorders

    Pjetri, Eneda; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kas, Martien J; Campbell, Iain C

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating disorders are complex psychiatric disorders in which genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions (G×E) have a role. Such G×E may occur in adulthood or during development. They may also be modified by factors such as (mal)nutrition or stress and this may result in

  3. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  4. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  5. Binge Eating Disorder

    ... Mental health What is binge eating disorder? What causes binge eating disorder? What are the health consequences of binge eating ... more often than men. Return to top What causes binge eating disorder? Researchers are unsure of the causes and nature ...

  6. Treatment of binge eating disorder.

    Wilson, G Terence

    2011-12-01

    adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight

  7. Predictors of eating disorders outcomes in Polish teenage patients

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Józefik, Barbara; Solecka, Dorota; Cygankiewicz, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the outcome of eating disorders in Polish teenage patients. Material and methods. Analyses covered the data of 47 patients diagnosed with any of the eating disorders according to DSM IV consulted for the first time in the outpatients clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit between 2002/2004 in Krakow (DGN1), Poland and then followed up between 2009/2011 (DGN2). The influence of the number of variabl...

  8. Factors Influencing Dropouts' GED & Diploma Attainment

    Jeffrey C. Wayman

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.

  9. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  10. Factors influencing ring closure through olefin metathesis - A perspective

    Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar

    2006-05-01

    Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.

  11. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  12. Influence of Psychological Factors on the Improvement of Spoken English

    董宁

    2013-01-01

      From learner's innermost feelings,the author attempts to elaborate the influences of psychological factors on improving the spoken language. The study of spoken English is a very complex process, which is affected easily by learner's linguistic environment and character. We can draw a conclusion that psychological factors are an important problem and cannot be neglected.

  13. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an import

  14. Communicating about eating behaviors. A qualitative study of Chilean women and their health-care providers.

    Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara

    2015-01-01

    Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors. PMID:25661846

  15. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

  16. NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE

    Michael Wall

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

  17. A Discussion on Motivation Factor Influencing Second Language Acquisition

    盛芊芊

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics can influence students'second language acquisition and language development, which in-cludes age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these factors mentioned, motivation factor that is categorized into learner factors affects learner's learning effect to a great extent. In this paper, motiva-tion characteristic that influences second language learning are discussed. At last, some strategies on the real classroom teaching application are provided after the discussion, which aims at making contribution to the second language teaching process as well as students'language development.

  18. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  19. Factors Influencing Successful Small-Farm Operations in North Carolina

    Yeboah, Anthony K.; Owens, John Paul; Bynum, Jarvetta S.

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to identify and refine factors influencing successful small farm operations in North Carolina. Small farms account for 91 percent of all farms. Given the importance of small farm viability, this research project focuses on identifying ways to further enhance successful small farming in North Carolina. In an effort to further explain the factors that affect successful small-scale farming, researchers have identified factors that have underpinnings i...

  20. Factors Influencing Trade Area Activity in the Great Basin Area

    George Ebai; Thomas R. Harris

    1997-01-01

    Proper assessment of rural retail sector activity would yield effective and targeted retail extension/outreach programs. Pull factors assess a local retail sector's ability to meet local retail demands and to capture outside trade. If the local retail sector's pull factor vaiue is above the threshold value of one, the local retail sector is capturing local and non-local retail demands. Tobit estimation procedures were used for eight retail sectors to determine factors which influence the capt...

  1. MANAGERIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING SUCCESS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    SIMA SEDIGHADELI; REZA KACHOUIE

    2013-01-01

    New product development is considered as one of the survival strategies for organisations with high risk which is related to extreme failure rate that should not be neglected. Among internal and contextual factors which affect winning or losing in new product development (NPD), the role of top management team as key decision makers is critical. The objective of our research is to explore managerial factors influencing success in new product development. To find out these factors, relevant lit...

  2. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    Naser Azad; Mina Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employ...

  3. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...

  4. Eating Oil

    Woodward, Mr Lawrence; Jones, Andy

    2002-01-01

    The food system is now even more based on cheap crude oil. Every time we eat, we are all essentially ‘eating oil’. Virtually all of the processes in the modern food system are now dependent upon this finite resource which is nearing its depletion phase. Moreover, at a time when we should be making massive cuts in the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in order to reduce the threat posed by climate change, the food system is lengthening its supply chains and increasing emissi...

  5. The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale: confirmatory factor structure and relationship with body dissatisfaction among African American and Anglo American children.

    Harrison, Kristen

    2009-06-01

    The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children. PMID:19447694

  6. Differences from gender about the impact of Eating Behaviour Disorder on personality factors of students at secondary level

    Daniel GARROTE ROJAS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to know the obsession for the thinness or incessant search of the thinness, as essential characteristic of eating Disorders, verify if significant differences exist according to the sex, to analyze the trend of students to have thoughts or to give them heavy meals –or gluttonies– uncontrollable, and verify the degree of dissatisfaction with the general form of their body or with the parts of the same one that more worried those who suffer eating Disorders (stomach, hips, thighs, buttocks, etc. For it, we have used an eclectic methodology. The samples of students who have done the test EPQ-J is 700. The students analyzed in the sample show lacks in some areas at the personal level that they exhibit to suffer an eating Disorders. There would be necessary to underline that, with regard to the «emocionalidad», 7.73% of the men and 9.63% of the women prove to be anxious, worried, with fast changes of humor, frequently depressed, they sleep badly, etc., obtaining their representation, at the age of 13. There has been verified that, 12.26% of the males and 6.85% of the women are unsatisfied with their own body.

  7. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  8. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

  9. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  10. Predictors of eating disorders outcomes in Polish teenage patients

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the outcome of eating disorders in Polish teenage patients. Material and methods. Analyses covered the data of 47 patients diagnosed with any of the eating disorders according to DSM IV consulted for the first time in the outpatients clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit between 2002/2004 in Krakow (DGN1, Poland and then followed up between 2009/2011 (DGN2. The influence of the number of variables collected at DGN1 on outcomes was analysed. Results. The outcomes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are influenced by some aspects of clinical picture, patients’ objective family situation, their self-image and the perception they have of their family relations. The co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and younger age of parents proved to be the most clinically important negative outcome predictors in the whole group of eating disorders. Discussion. The small size of group in the follow-up study is the most important limitating factor. Conclusion. Outcomes in eating disorders are affected by several psycho-bio-social factors common to all patients and specific for the diagnosis type they initially present.

  11. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  12. Eating Out

    2001-01-01

    Hi, my friends! How do you like Chinese food? When you eat out in a restaurant in China, have you ever had any problems because of the language barrier? If so, do not worry. The following words, phrases and dialogues can be of help to you.

  13. Eating disorders

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  14. Empirical Analysis on Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetal Production

    Wenjie; WU

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978- 2013. From the sequential characteristics,China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution,China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of " going down the south" and " marching the west". In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors,this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition,non-agricultural employment,market demand,knowledge spillover,comparative effectiveness,rural road and government policies.

  15. Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees

    Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D.

    2007-01-01

    Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal‐based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a m...

  16. Forest edges in boreal landscapes - factors affecting edge influence

    Jansson, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The boreal forest in Fennoscandia has been subjected to major loss and fragmentation of natural forests due to intensive forestry. This has resulted in that forest edges are now abundant and important landscape features. Edges have documented effects on the structure, function and biodiversity in forests. Edge influence on biodiversity is complex and depends on interactions between many local and regional factors. This thesis focuses on sharp forest edges and their potential to influence biod...

  17. Time in Eating and Food Preparation among Single Adults

    Mark C. Senia; Jensen, Helen H.; Oleksandr Zhylyevskyy

    2014-01-01

    We investigate factors affecting the duration of eating and food preparation among adults in single decision-maker households. Eating time is differentiated into primary and secondary eating time and further differentiated by location: at home vs. away from home. We construct a simple theoretical model, based on Becker's household production approach, to motivate empirical equations for eating and food preparation time. Empirical analysis is performed using data from the 2006–2008 Eating an...

  18. A critique of the literature on etiology of eating disorders

    Rikani, Azadeh A.; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M.; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; Waheed, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J

    2013-01-01

    The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusi...

  19. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Oana Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  20. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  1. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE E-LOYALTY OF INTERNET BANKING USERS

    Ameen M Al-Agaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging were found to have a significant impact on customer e-loyalty in Internet banking.

  2. Eating pattern of vegetarian diet

    Patricia Couceiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.

  3. Influence analysis for the factor analysis model with ranking data.

    Xu, Liang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2008-05-01

    Influence analysis is an important component of data analysis, and the local influence approach has been widely applied to many statistical models to identify influential observations and assess minor model perturbations since the pioneering work of Cook (1986). The approach is often adopted to develop influence analysis procedures for factor analysis models with ranking data. However, as this well-known approach is based on the observed data likelihood, which involves multidimensional integrals, directly applying it to develop influence analysis procedures for the factor analysis models with ranking data is difficult. To address this difficulty, a Monte Carlo expectation and maximization algorithm (MCEM) is used to obtain the maximum-likelihood estimate of the model parameters, and measures for influence analysis on the basis of the conditional expectation of the complete data log likelihood at the E-step of the MCEM algorithm are then obtained. Very little additional computation is needed to compute the influence measures, because it is possible to make use of the by-products of the estimation procedure. Influence measures that are based on several typical perturbation schemes are discussed in detail, and the proposed method is illustrated with two real examples and an artificial example. PMID:18482479

  4. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Maria eRazzoli; Valentina eSanghez; Alessandro eBartolomucci

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  5. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  6. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  7. Factors influencing adolescent whole grain intake: A theory-based qualitative study.

    Kamar, Maya; Evans, Charlotte; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    Whole grain consumption is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. One-fifth of UK adults and children do not consume any whole grains, and adolescents have low consumption rates. Factors affecting whole grain intake among adolescents are not well understood. This study examined the socio-economic, environmental, lifestyle and psychological factors likely to influence consumption and explored whether outcomes aligned with behavioural predictors proposed in the Reasoned Action Approach. Five focus groups explored young people's attitudes towards, knowledge and consumption of wholegrain foods, as well as barriers to, and facilitators of, consumption. Participants were male and female adolescents (n = 50) aged 11-16 years from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds and ethnicities, recruited through schools in the city of Leeds, UK. Focus groups were analysed using thematic analysis. Most participants had tried wholegrain food products, with cereal products being the most popular. Many recognised whole grain health benefits related to digestive health but not those related to heart disease or cancers. Several barriers to eating whole grains were identified including: difficulties in identifying wholegrain products and their health benefits; taste and visual appeal; and poor availability outside the home. Suggested facilitators of consumption were advertisements and educational campaigns, followed by improved sensory appeal, increased availability and choice, and tailoring products for young people. All constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action were identifiable in the data, suggesting that the factors influencing whole grain intake in adolescents are well captured by this model. Study outcomes may inform research and health promotion to increase whole grain intake in this age group. PMID:26921485

  8. The influence of the factors of consumer behavior in tourism

    Cuculeski, Nikola; Cuculeski, Vasko; Taskov, Nako

    2015-01-01

    The consumer behavior in general and especially in tourism is affected of multitude factors. The efforts in this publication are to define and examine the key factors that influence consumer behavior in tourism. Because the marketing aspect is in the focus of the theoretical framework, these aspects and specifics are related to marketing. Consumer behavior is connected to the studying of and for the individual, group or organization and processes that are used to select, secure, usage and ...

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND LOYALTY IN PROFESSIONAL SPORTS FANS

    Yun-Tsan Lin; Chen-Hsien Lin

    2008-01-01

    Many researchers have provided comprehensive definitions for the term of brand loyalty and also examined the factors affecting brand loyalty with many empirical studies. But there is little research focusing on the brand loyalty of professional sports fans. The topic area about factors influencing brand loyalty in professional sports fans was identified because these fans bring significant financial benefits every year and stimulate economic growth in the United States. Although different con...

  10. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli; Hamid Bagheri; Sina Nobahari; Naser Azad; Mohammad Rikhtegar

    2013-01-01

    These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distr...

  11. Factors Influencing Range of Motion after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    H Farahini; Moghtadaei, M; Bagheri, A; Akbarian, E

    2012-01-01

    Background The range of motion after a total knee arthroplasty is an important clinical outcome affecting the life of the patient. The aim of this study was to determine the most important factors influencing the postoperative knee flexion in Tehran, Iran. Methods Between July 2007 and January 2009, on 95 cases of total knee joint replacement (89 patients), who were followed for 1 year postoperatively, the risk factors were assessed. Patient demographics (sex, age, body mass index, previous s...

  12. Factors Influencing Job Choice among Agricultural Economics Professionals

    McGraw, Katherine; Popp, Jennie S. Hughes; Bruce L Dixon; Newton, Doris J.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies factors that influence agricultural economics professionals’ job choice between academic and government employment. Respondents agreed that job responsibilities were the most important factor in choosing their current position. They also agreed that having a positive work environment, good salary, family time, adequate resources, and professional and social interaction were important job attributes. Proportionally more women than men regarded partner opportunities, n...

  13. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi

    2013-01-01

    Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our s...

  14. Influencing factors on postoperative hospital stay after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Chong, Jae Uk; Lee, Jin Ho; Yoon, Young Chul; Kwon, Kuk Hwan; Cho, Jai Young; Kim, Say-Jun; Kim, Jae Keun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Choi, Sae Byeol; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can reduce postoperative pain and recovery time. However, some patients experience prolonged postoperative hospital stay. We aimed to identify factors influencing the postoperative hospital stay after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Patients (n=336) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder pathology at 8 hospitals were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: 2 or less and more than 2 days postoperative stay. Perioperative factors ...

  15. Body image, eating disorders, and the drive for muscularity in gay and heterosexual men: the influence of media images.

    Duggan, Scott J; McCreary, Donald R

    2004-01-01

    This Internet research project examined the relationship between consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and/or various indices of pornography and body satisfaction in gay and heterosexual men. Participants (N = 101) were asked to complete body satisfaction questionnaires that addressed maladaptive eating attitudes, the drive for muscularity, and social physique anxiety. Participants also completed scales measuring self-esteem, depression, and socially desirable responding. Finally, respondents were asked about their consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and pornography. Results indicated that viewing and purchasing of muscle and fitness magazines correlated positively with levels of body dissatisfaction for both gay and heterosexual men. Pornography exposure was positively correlated with social physique anxiety for gay men. The limitations of this study and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:15451703

  16. Disturbed eating behaviors and eating disorders in type 1 diabetes: clinical significance and treatment recommendations.

    Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E

    2009-04-01

    Girls and women with type 1 diabetes have increased rates of disturbed eating behaviors and clinically significant eating disorders than their nondiabetic peers. Type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with several empirically supported eating disorder risk factors (eg, higher body mass index, increased body weight and shape dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and depression, and dietary restraint). It may be that specific aspects of diabetes treatment increase the risk for developing disordered eating. Disturbed eating behaviors and clinical eating disorders predispose women with diabetes to many complex medical risks and increase risk of morbidity and mortality. For this reason, it is critical that diabetes clinicians understand more about eating disorders to improve the likelihood of early risk detection and access to appropriate treatment. This article presents a review of the current scientific literature on eating disturbances in type 1 diabetes and synthesizes the existent findings into recommendations for screening and treatment. PMID:19323958

  17. HabEat: Understanding critical periods and critical factors of the formation and of the modification of food habits

    Nicklaus, Sophie; Issanchou, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Diets of young children in many European countries are not ideal (too many lipids; not enough fruit and vegetables). Early nutrition may have an impact on health in later life (diabetes, obesity, heart problems) and the first two years of life are of crucial importance in the acquisition of food habits. The HabEat project aims at understanding better of how food habits are formed and can be changed, in infants and children (< 5 years). Methods: With 11 beneficiaries from 6 Euro...

  18. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  19. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  20. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  1. Factors Influencing Producers’ Marketing Decisions in the Louisiana Crawfish Industry

    Nyaupane, Narayan P.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing farmer selection of a crawfish marketing outlet were analyzed using 2008 survey data from the Louisiana crawfish industry. Most farmers sell directly to wholesalers. Probit results show farm size, farm income, household income, age, education, and pre-market grading and washing operations significantly affecting farmer selection of an outlet.

  2. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetan

  3. Police Management Training Factors Influencing DWI Arrests. Final Report.

    Bishop, Edward W.

    The development of training material for police management personnel concerning command and supervisory actions appropriate for more effective driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) enforcement is desired. The training is based on two research studies that identified environmental and attitudinal factors influencing a patrolman's arrest decision. These…

  4. INFLUENCE FACTOR ANALYSIS OF CHINESE STUDENTS' LERANING STYLES

    周平

    2009-01-01

    Learning style, aiming at language learner, is a hot issue of second language acquisition. The article first reviews the various definitions of learning style. From the perspective of cognition, three influence factors of Chinese students' learning styles are analyzed. Suggestions are proposed for teachers to help students develop learning styles.

  5. Factors Influencing the College Choice Decisions of Graduate Students.

    Kallio, Ruth E.

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated the relative importance of 31 institutional characteristics in 1,068 graduate students' decisions to enroll or not enroll in the institution. Factors having the greatest influence included residency status, quality and other academic environment characteristics, work-related concerns, spouse considerations, financial aid, and…

  6. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  7. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  8. Improving Performance Appraisals: Confronting Subjective Factors That Influence Ratings.

    Kruger, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores implications of subjective factors that influence rating processes upon which formal performance appraisal systems are based and presents a strategy for addressing this problem which utilizes the critical incident method to focus objectively on employee behavior. A performance feedback worksheet to be utilized with this appraisal method…

  9. Components and Influencing Factors of Transport Costs in Logistics

    Alexandru Burda

    2015-01-01

    Transport systems face the need to increase the capacity of moving materials and goods, while reducing the costs generated in this process. Also transport is an essential function for the operation of any business. However it can be very costly one, if not optimized. To reduce transport costs, knowledge of and action on the factors influencing the transport costs, is needed.

  10. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  11. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  12. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  13. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  14. The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.

  15. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  16. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  17. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC FACTOR ON SPECIFIC CONSUMPTION OF GRAPHITIZED ELECTRODES

    O. M. Grudnitskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that influence of climatic factor on production processes is necessary to be taken into account at planning of enterprise work: to carry out correction of production schedules, and also to vary specific norms of raw and materials consumption.

  18. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Groot, J.M. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses

  19. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  20. The factors that influence CAD/CAM/CAE

    CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)