da Cunha Feio Costa, Larissa; de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos, Francisco; Peres, Karen Glazer
The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-c...
The present dissertation addresses psychological influences on eating behavior.Understanding why people eat what they eat in everyday life, that is, motives for eating behavior, is crucial for the development of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent eating disorders. Furthermore, enhancing knowledge about both, individual and situational factors facilitating (pull factors) or impeding (push factors) healthy eating is essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity and it...
Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Lumbers, Margaret
Objective: To investigate the influences of resources and food-related goals on the variety of food choice among older people. Design: A questionnaire-based survey in eight European countries: Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Italy and Spain. Subjects: Participants (n 3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversit...
Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.
Objective: To investigate the influences of resources and food-related goals on the variety of food choice among older people. Design: A questionnaire-based survey in eight European countries: Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Italy and Spain. Subjects: Participants (n 3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversity of each of the national populations based on education, income and urbanization of living environment. Results: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that income, health status, access to a car and living arrangement affected the level of dietary variety. The perceived level of different food-related resources impacted the consumption of a varied diet over and above actual resource levels. Food-related goals contributed to variety of food intake that was not accounted for by the amount of material resources possessed or the social and other resources perceived to be possessed. Conclusions: Older people's variety of food intake depended on material resources (e.g. monthly income, access to a car, living arrangement, physical and mental health). However, in addition to these variables, the way older peopleperceived other resources, such as their level of appetite, their food knowledge, their perception of the distance to the shops, access to high-quality products, having better kitchen facilities, access to good service providers and support from friends and neighbours, all contributed to how varied a diet they ate.
Mónica del Pilar, Díaz-Beltrán.
Full Text Available La razón por la que los niños tienen determinadas características en el consumo de alimentos es un tema que preocupa tanto a padres, como a profesionales e investigadores cercanos a esta área de estudio. Aquí se buscó comprender los factores que hoy día son reconocidos como influyentes en el consumo [...] de alimentos por parte de la población infantil. Para ello se revisó literatura científica publicada desde enero de 2002 hasta abril de 2013; la revisión se adelantó en las bases de datos: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost y Redalyc. Se obtuvieron 57 documentos acordes a los criterios de inclusión definidos. Dicho ejercicio llevó a clasificar la información encontrada en condiciones individuales, características del entorno y estrategias frecuentes que pueden influir en el consumo. La revisión realizada permite concluir que hoy en día, más que hablar solo de consumo, la mirada se traslada al comportamiento alimentario. Esto incluye las características de los alimentos consumidos, lugares, experiencias, compañías, entre otros aspectos, que forman parte de un patrón de conducta alrededor de los alimentos. De esta manera, se evidencian campos de intervención e investigación en aspectos tales como conducta alimentaria por género, rasgos genéticos y estado nutricional; también se exploran creencias y experiencias alrededor de los alimentos, grupos sociales influyentes, características organolépticas de las preparaciones y estrategias de promoción que involucran mucho más que trasmitir conocimiento acerca de lo saludable, entre otros. Abstract in english Why children have certain characteristics in food consumption is a matter of concern to both parents, as professionals and researchers in their exercise near this age group. This paper aim is to understand factors and mechanisms influencing in the decision of food intake by children. Scientific lite [...] rature published was revised, from January 2002 to April 2013, in the databases: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost and Redalyc. 57 papers were obtained with the inclusion criteria used. This exercise led to classify the information found in individual conditions, characteristics of the setting and common strategies that may influence food consumption. Today, more than just talk about consumption, the works attends the feeding behavior, which includes the characteristics of the food consumed, places, experiences, companies, among others, as part of a pattern of behavior around food. This led to identify areas of intervention and research such as eating behavior by gender, genetic characteristics and nutritional status. And, the beliefs and experiences around food, influential social groups, organoleptic characteristics of recipes and promotion strategies, involve much more than transmit knowledge about how to be healthy, among others.
Toro, J; Gila, A; Castro, J; Pombo, C; Guete, O
The aim was to study differences between male and female adolescents as regards body dissatisfaction, some risk factors for eating disorders, and exposure to social influences that create ideal body figures among these populations. A questionnaire comprising 40 items was administered to 240 male adolescents at 12 public and private schools in Barcelona. Twenty-nine of the questions were the same as those in another study administered to a sample of 675 female adolescents attending similar schools in the same geographical area. The other 11 questions were specifically for males. The differences between boys and girls were highly significant on almost all the items. Girls' scores were significantly higher (p = 0.000) in the following areas: dieting and exercising in order to be thin; feelings of anxiety on seeing or showing the body in public; tendency to focus on the bodies of others and on the amount of food they eat; the belief that thin people are more popular. In addition, the girls were significantly more vulnerable to potentially dangerous social influences. For the most part, males sought a heavier, more muscular body. Though a minority of males also feared being overweight, one out of four ate more than normal to gain weight and two out of three exercised to develop their muscles. The same proportion reported envying the build of certain actors. In adolescence, the ideal body figures of the sexes vary widely. This divergence reflects a greater risk of eating disorders in girls, who are also far more exposed to social situations that cause body dissatisfaction and shape risk attitudes and behaviors. PMID:16114222
Costa, Larrissa Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco Assis Guedes; Peres, Karen Glazer
The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florian6polis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6-12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7-25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions. PMID:20411681
Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher...
McCullum-Gomez, Christine; Barroso, Cristina S; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ward, Jerri L; Kelder, Steven H
The purpose of this research was to evaluate factors influencing the implementation of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program in Texas using data from the CATCH dissemination study. A mail survey was sent to school foodservice personnel (N = 213) who attended a CATCH training from August 2000 through January 2002. A response rate of 40% (n = 85) was achieved. The mean score for the percentage of CATCH Eat Smart guidelines implemented was 80.44. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for age and number of years employed in school foodservice, the following factors were significantly associated with the percentage of CATCH Eat Smart guidelines implemented: utility of CATCH and CATCH Eat Smart in meeting requirements for Coordinated School Health Programs (P = 0.006), school foodservice personnel's satisfaction with food made using the CATCH Eat Smart guidelines (P = 0.008), utility of CATCH in facilitating interschool communication about children's health (P = 0.019), and perceived student satisfaction with food made using the CATCH Eat Smart guidelines (P = 0.046). These results suggest that dissemination approaches for Coordinated School Health Programs should focus on ways to enhance program satisfaction, be consistent with legislated mandates, and increase interschool staff communication to increase program implementation by school foodservice personnel. PMID:17126635
Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…
Cooley, E; Toray, T; Valdez, N; Tee, M
As the empirical literature on maladaptive eating patterns has grown, the importance of longitudinal studies in establishing causal risk factors has become apparent. The current study reports longitudinal data gathered from the first 20 months of college for female students (n=117). Eating pathology was assessed using a composite measure from the Eating Disorders Inventory. Variables examined as potential risk factors included depression, reassurance seeking, perfectionism, impulsiveness, body dissatisfaction, and stressful events. Eating symptoms were quite stable across the 20-month interval (r=0.68). Although all of the potential risk variables showed significant correlations with eating symptoms, hierarchical regressions controlling for eating symptoms at Time 1 indicated that perfectionism, impulsiveness, and body dissatisfaction failed to uniquely add to the prediction of eating symptoms at Time 2. Depression, reassurance seeking and stressful events did add to this prediction. Failure to find support for variables in a longitudinal design may be due to the age of participants and relative stability of eating symptoms. Perfectionism, and body dissatisfaction may play a causal role in developing eating symptoms at earlier ages, but do not continue to influence the course of these symptoms in late adolescence. Negative affect (depression), needing reassurance in social relationships, and having to deal with stressful events seem to be risk factors for increased eating symptoms in late adolescence. PMID:17984637
Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61 and Swedish (n = 31 female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism. Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.
Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.
Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…
Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305
Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms. PMID:25451578
Burton, Pat; Smit, Hendrik J; Lightowler, Helen J
Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eating behaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fast food fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fast food fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fast food fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fast food foods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent. PMID:17349717
Holland, Lauren A.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.
The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eating behaviors in men and women (N=1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-...
Hilbert, A.; Pike, KM; Goldschmidt, AB; Wilfley, DE; Fairburn, CG; Dohm, FA; Walsh, BT; Striegel Weissman, R
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...
Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…
Lachat, C.; Khanh, L. N.; Huynh, T. T.; Verstraeten, R.; Nago, E.; Roberfroid, D.; Kolsteren, P.
Eating out of home (OH) is nutritionally important in some developing countries. This study identifies the factors associated with eating OH in Vietnamese adolescents. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional cluster survey of 502 adolescents in rural and urban areas in Vietnam. Factors associated with eating OH were recorded with a Likert scale and analysed using factor analysis. Data on eating OH was collected using a frequency questionnaire and a 1-day 24h recall. A first pattern "Conveni...
Full Text Available Among early adolescents (10–14 years, poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions.
Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun
Among early adolescents (10-14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384
Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie
Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…
Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary
This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference?=?967?kJ, p?eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference?=?1067?kJ, p?=?.019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. PMID:25903236
Grilo, Carlos M; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A; Crow, Scott J.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E
Despite the widespread use of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) as a primary assessment instrument in studies of eating and weight disorders, little is known about the psychometric aspects of this interview measure. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the EDE interview in a large series of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Participants were 688 treatment-seeking patients with BED who were reliably administered the EDE interview by trained res...
Francis, Lori A.; Birch, Leann L.
This study examined whether mothers' preoccupation with their own weight and eating was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior. Participants included 173 non-Hispanic, White mother–daughter dyads, measured longitudinally when daughters were ages 5, 7, 9, and 11. Mothers who were preoccupied with their own weight and eating reported higher levels of restricting daughters' intake and encouraging daughters to lose weight over time. Mothers' encouragement of daughters' weight loss was li...
Simone Lemieux; Marie-Ève Piché; Marie-Christine Dubé; Jean Bergeron; Marie-Ève Riou; Éric Doucet; Véronique Provencher; S. John Weisnagel
Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity...
Elder, Sonya J.; Michael C. Neale; Fuss, Paul J.; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Greenberg, Andrew S.; McCrory, Megan A.; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B.
This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18–76 years, BMI 17–43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Genetic and environmental variance components were determined for the three eating behavior constructs and their subscales using model-fitting univariate and multivariate analyses. Uniq...
Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol
Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys’ and girls’ symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16–19 years of age (N = 199; 49.75% g...
Harriger, Jennifer A; Witherington, David C; Bryan, Angela D
Although participation in sports that emphasize aestheticism, such as women's gymnastics, are associated with higher rates of eating pathology, little is known about the risk and protective factors involved in this process. We established and tested a model proposing that body surveillance and body shame are processes by which pubertal development and training may uniquely contribute to pathological eating by sampling 100 competitive female gymnasts via questionnaires. We further tested whether self-esteem moderated several model relationships. Results demonstrated that pubertal development was associated with higher levels of body surveillance, body shame and disordered eating; whereas greater time spent training was associated with lower levels of body shame and disordered eating. Finally higher self-esteem was associated with lower levels of disordered eating, less body surveillance, and less body shame. Potential risk and protective factors for the development of eating pathology in female gymnasts are discussed. PMID:25173666
Cohen, D A; Babey, S H
This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473
Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes / Influencia de los Factores Psicológicos, Antropométricos y Sociodemográficos Sobre los Síntomas de los Trastornos Alimentarios en Jóvenes Deportistas / Influência de Fatores Psicológicos, Antropométricos e Sociodemográficos Sobre os Sintomas de Transtornos Alimentares em Jovens Atletas
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião de Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência de fatores psicológicos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares (TAs) em jovens atletas. Participaram 580 adolescentes de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), o [...] Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale para avaliar o comportamento de risco para TAs, a insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC) e o grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos. Os achados da regressão múltipla evidenciaram que somente a IC e o percentual de gordura modularam significativamente ( p Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue analizar la influencia de factores psicológicos, antropométricos y sociodemográficos en los comportamientos de riesgo para TA en atletas jóvenes. Participantes fueron 580 adolescentes de ambos sexos. Se utilizó el Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire y Commitment [...] Exercise Scale para evaluar los comportamientos de riesgo para los TA, la insatisfacción con el imagen corporal (IC) y el grado de compromiso psicológico para ejercer (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, talla y pliegues cutáneos se midieron. Los resultados de regresión múltiple mostraron que sólo el IC y el porcentaje de grasa modula de manera significativa ( p Abstract in english The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED) in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Body Shape Ques [...] tionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD) and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE), respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p
Manwaring, JL; Hilbert, A.; Wilfley, DE; Pike, KM; Fairburn, CG; Dohm, FA; Striegel-Moore, RH
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined risk factors in women with binge eating disorder (BED) who began binging before dieting (binge-first [BF]) compared with women with BED who began dieting before binging (diet-first [DF]). It further aimed to replicate findings regarding eating disorder and general psychopathology among BF versus DF subtypes. METHOD: One hundred fifty-five women with BED completed the Oxford Risk Factor Interview to retrospectively assess risk factors occurring before eati...
Thatcher, William; Rhea, Deborah
This study examined whether behavioral differences (exercise, dieting, changing eating habits, taking pills, or vomiting/taking laxatives to lose weight) exist when identifying the major influencing factors (media, family, friends, teacher/coach, and doctor/nurse) among Black and White men's and women's self-perceptions of body weight. Respondents…
Gelinas, Bethany L; Delparte, Chelsea A; Wright, Kristi D; Hart, Regan
Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, depression) are routinely assessed in bariatric pre-surgical programs, as high levels of psychopathology are consistently related to poor program outcomes (e.g., failure to lose significant weight pre-surgery, weight regain post-surgery). Behavioral factors related to poor program outcomes and ways in which behavioral and psychological factors interact, have received little attention in bariatric research and practice. Potentially problematic behavioral factors are queried by Section H of the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI-H), in which respondents indicate the relevance of certain eating behaviors to obesity. A factor analytic investigation of the WALI-H serves to improve the way in which this assessment tool is interpreted and used among bariatric surgical candidates, and subsequent moderation analyses serve to demonstrate potential compounding influences of psychopathology on eating behavior factors. Bariatric surgical candidates (n =362) completed several measures of psychopathology and the WALI-H. Item responses from the WALI-H were subjected to principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Results revealed a three-factor model including: (1) eating in response to negative affect, (2) overeating/desirability of food, and (3) eating in response to positive affect/social cues. All three behavioral factors of the WALI-H were significantly associated with measures of depression and anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed that depression did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and any eating behavior factor. Although single forms of psychopathology are related to eating behaviors, the combination of psychopathology does not appear to influence these problematic behaviors. Recommendations for pre-surgical assessment and treatment of bariatric surgical candidates are discussed. PMID:25464064
Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.
Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain…
Saha Marja-Terttu; Kautiainen Susanna; Eriksson Tiina; Engblom Janne; Anglé Susanna; Lindfors Pirjo; Lehtinen Matti; Rimpelä Arja
Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire -R18 (TFEQ-R18), a measure of eating behaviour, and to evaluate cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of adolescent and young adult females of different weights. Methods Subjects were 2 997 females, aged 17 to 20 years, who participated in a phase III human papillomavirus vaccination trial in Finland in 2004 – 2009. Self-administered quest...
Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce A; Manfredi, Chiara; Boccaletti, Fabio; Dallari, Giulia; Gandini, Federica; Pinna, Eleonora; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra
In the current study we explored the role of desire thinking in predicting binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A sample of binge eaters (n=77) and a sample of non-binge eaters (n=185) completed the following self-report instruments: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Binge Eating Scale. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that all variable scores were significantly higher for binge eaters than non-binge eaters. A logistic regression analysis indicated that verbal perseveration was a predictor of classification as a binge eater over and above Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A hierarchical regression analysis, on the combined sample, indicated that verbal perseveration predicted levels of binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. These results highlight the possible role of desire thinking as a risk factor for binge eating. PMID:25880044
Ridout, Nathan; Matharu, Munveen; Sanders, Elizabeth; Wallis, Deborah J
The primary aim was to examine the influence of subclinical disordered eating on autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) and social problem solving (SPS). A further aim was to establish if AMS mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. A non-clinical sample of 52 females completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT), where they were asked to retrieve specific memories of events from their past in response to cue words, and the means-end problem-solving task (MEPS), where they were asked to generate means of solving a series of social problems. Participants also completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. After controlling for mood, high scores on the EDI subscales, particularly Drive-for-Thinness, were associated with the retrieval of fewer specific and a greater proportion of categorical memories on the AMT and with the generation of fewer and less effective means on the MEPS. Memory specificity fully mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. These findings have implications for individuals exhibiting high levels of disordered eating, as poor AMS and SPS are likely to impact negatively on their psychological wellbeing and everyday social functioning and could represent a risk factor for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. PMID:26144580
Karina Franco Paredes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD, sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM and symptoms of eating disorders (ED. The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN, 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.
Sanna Aila Gustafsson
Full Text Available Sanna Aila Gustafsson1, Birgitta Edlund2, Lars Kjellin3, Claes Norring41Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Örebro; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala; 3Psychiatric Research Centre, University of Örebro; 4Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-Child version (EDI-C to find early predictors that might constitute risk and protective factors in the development of disordered eating.Method: Participants were divided into three groups based on eating attitudes at T2: disordered eating (n = 49, intermediate eating concern (n = 260, and healthy eating attitudes (n = 120. EDI-C from T1 (four to five years earlier was then analyzed to find predictors of group classification at T2.Results: Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction emerged as risk factors at T1, while drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and interoceptive awareness emerged as protective factors after controlling for initial eating concerns and body mass index.Discussion: Eating disorders should not be seen as a result of a premorbid personality type. Rather we should take a more social-psychological perspective to explain how individual and sociocultural factors work together in the development of these conditions. Keywords: eating disorders, EDI-C, risk factors, protective factors
Fairburn, CG; Doll, HA; Welch, SL; Hay, PJ; Davies, BA; O'Connor, ME
BACKGROUND: Many risk factors have been implicated for eating disorders, although little is known about those for binge eating disorder. METHODS: A community-based, case-control design was used to compare 52 women with binge eating disorder, 104 without an eating disorder, 102 with other psychiatric disorders, and 102 with bulimia nervosa. RESULTS: The main risk factors identified from the comparison of subjects with binge eating disorder with healthy control subjects were certain adverse chi...
OBJECTIVE: EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes. METHOD: Students were screened using the EAT-26, EDI-III and a study-specific questionnaire. A sub-sample of parents\\' views was included. RESULTS: Three thousand and thirty-one students (mean age 14.74) and 56 parents enrolled. The majority (71.4%) of adolescents felt adversely affected by media portrayal of body weight and shape, with more than a quarter (25.6%) believing it to be \\'far too thin\\'. A significant correlation between media impact and high EAT scores (chi2 = 450.78, df = 2, p < 0.05) and EDI-III scores (chi2 = 387.51, df = 4, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Parents also view media portrayal as too thin (94.7%), less than half are adversely affected by it (49.2%) but the majority (71.9%) believe their children to be. CONCLUSION: Media portrayal of body weight and shape is correlated with eating psychopathology and may affect adolescents more than adults. School psycho-educational programmes and media policies are urgently needed to minimise any detrimental effect.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire -R18 (TFEQ-R18, a measure of eating behaviour, and to evaluate cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of adolescent and young adult females of different weights. Methods Subjects were 2 997 females, aged 17 to 20 years, who participated in a phase III human papillomavirus vaccination trial in Finland in 2004 – 2009. Self-administered questionnaires and weight and height measurements were used. The factor structure of the TFEQ-R18 was verified by factor analysis. Connections between measured eating behaviour and Body Mass Index (BMI were tested using analysis of variance. Results The original factor structure of the TFEQ-R18 was replicated: six of the eighteen items measured cognitive restraint, nine measured uncontrolled eating, and three measured emotional eating. On average, higher BMI was associated with higher levels of cognitive restraint (p Conclusion Structural validity of the TFEQ-R18 was good in this sample of young Finnish females with a varying range of body weights. Use of the instrument as a measure of eating behaviour was thus corroborated. Connections of restrained and emotional eating with BMI were in accordance with previous findings from young females.
Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Larson, Christine L.; KLUMP, KELLY L.
Although serotonin (5-HT) genes are thought to be involved in the etiology of bulimia nervosa and binge eating, findings from molecular genetic studies are inconclusive. This may be due to limitations of past research, such as a failure to consider the influence of quantitative traits and gene-environment interactions. The current study investigated these issues by examining whether quantitative traits (i.e., impulsivity) and environmental exposure factors (i.e., dietary restraint) moderate 5...
Herman, C Peter; Fitzgerald, Nicola E; Polivy, Janet
Restrained and unrestrained eaters were exposed to fictitious hunger reports (high-hunger, low-hunger) of ostensible prior participants in the experiment. In the control condition, participants were not exposed to prior-participant reports. Participants rated their own hunger and then consumed cookies during a 'taste-test.' The fictitious hunger ratings of prior participants exerted a strong effect (p<0.001) on actual participants' hunger ratings; however, food intake was not affected by the fictitious hunger ratings (or by the actual participants' hunger ratings). We discuss the disjunction between hunger ratings and eating, specifically whether (a) hunger reports were fabricated in response to social pressure or (b) eating is controlled by factors other than hunger. PMID:12880617
Behshid Garrusi; Mohammad Reza Baneshi
Backgrounds: Many socio cultural variables could be affect eating disorders in Asian countries. In Iran, there are few researches regarding eating disorders and their contributing factors. The aim of this study is to explore frequency of eating disorders and their risk factors in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: About 1204 participants were selected aged between fourteen to 55 years. Frequency of eating disorders and effects of variables such as demographic characteristics, Body ...
Brown, Stephen L.; Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Wrobleski, Peggy P.
Background: Overeating is often attributed to emotions and has been linked to psychological challenges and obesity. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of emotional and external cue eating on obesity and the correlation of emotional and external cue eating with positive and negative psychological factors, as well as early familial eating…
Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri; Paxton, Susan J
The aim of the study was to compare levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating and risk factors, and to examine the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance among French and Australian young adult females. Participants were 188 Australian (mean age=19.6 years, SD=1.0) and 190 French (mean age=20.7 years, SD=2.6) students. Media, peer and family influences, internalisation of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimia and self-esteem were assessed. Australian participants reported perceiving more peer and media influence, and higher levels of appearance comparison, internalisation of media ideals and bulimic symptoms than French participants (pbody image and eating disturbance with a view to prevention. PMID:21664887
White, J H
Eating disorders (EDs) are significant problems that are typically diagnosed during adolescence. However, the risk factors for and early symptoms of EDs often develop in the elementary and middle school years. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, obesity, parental attitudes, and the influence of the media are some of the significant identifiable risk factors. Prevention programs need to be developed that focus on education, consultation, and consciousness-raising. Early detection involves screening, assessment, and referral for appropriate treatment. School nurses are skilled, educated, and positioned to develop programs for the prevention and early detection of EDs. PMID:11151539
Full Text Available SummaryBackground: Treatment for inpatients presenting an eating disorder usually implies a therapeutic contract. However,treatment dropout is frequent, costky and leads to poor prognosis.Aim: To identify predictive factors of dropout in inpatients admitted for an eating disorder.Methods: In all, 916 consecutive female inpatients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and atypical bulimia nervosa were assessed at admission between 1988 and 2004 accordingly to ICD-10 classification. Clinical, sociodemographic, and psychological data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. Descriptive, univariate analyses and two logisticmodels were performed: onefor patients with anorexia or bulimia and the other for patientswith atypical bulimia.Results: Dropout rates were 49.6 % for anorexia, 55.6 % for bulimia and 69.3 % for atypical bulimia. For the anorexia/ bulimiamodel, predictive factors were the following:educational status, age at admission, subtype of eating disorder,minimumBMI and “ideal BMI” (calculated on the basis of the question “According to you, what should be your weight after treatment?”, requested upon admission, and without any medical advice. The atypical bulimia model is the first published on female inpatients to date.Psychological scores were not significant factors in both models.Conclusion: the inpatients’ characteristics seem close to those described in the literature. The results of the multivariate analysis were discussed, especially the fact that the psychometric scales had no predictive value.An innovative variable, the ideal BMI signifies that the more a thin patient declares herself ready to gain weight upon admission, the more likely she is to keep to the contract. This study highlights the importance of pre-hospitalisation preparation,particularly in terms of the patients recognising their illness.Prat Organ Soins 2008;39(1:23-32
Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Mobini, Sirous
Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting. PMID:18069081
Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael
In a random sample (N?=?951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. PMID:25308432
Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control. PMID:11752484
Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine
Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.
Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D
Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model, this significant indirect effect was not moderated by eating disorder group. The results support a prospective model of risk that applies to bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. Common prevention approaches may be possible for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. PMID:25233874
Yong Jun Park
Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.
von Lojewski, Astrid; Abraham, Suzanne
The International Personality Disorder Examination interview (IPDE) was used to examine common features of personality amongst eating disorder (ED) patients. Female inpatients (N=155), aged 18 to 45, BMI<30 kg/m(2), were interviewed. Items present in ? 25% of patients were analysed by factor analysis. Five factors emerged - 'interpersonal anxiety', 'instability', 'self-uncertainty', 'obsessionality' and 'perfectionism' accounting for 62% of the variance. Patients with BMI, <18.5 kg/m(2) had significantly greater 'interpersonal anxiety' factor scores. Patients who purged had higher 'interpersonal anxiety', 'instability', and 'perfectionism' factor scores. Differences between ED diagnostic groups were accounted for by body weight and purging. Increasing age was weakly associated with improvement in 'self-uncertainty' and 'instability' scores. This study separates obsessionality and perfectionism, possibly reflecting ED patients' 'need for control', and introduces a new factor 'self-uncertainty' which reflects their poor self-concept. The contribution of this factor structure to development and duration of illness should be studied. PMID:24411761
Gomes, António Rui; MARTINS Carla; Silva, Luiz
Objective: This study describes eating disordered behaviours in a sample of Portuguese elite athletes and analyses the impact of personal and sports factors on those eating disordered behaviours. Method: Two hundred and ninety athletes (51.7% males) practicing collective (64.8%) and individual sports have been included. The evaluation protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; the Sport Condition Questionnaire; the Sport Anxiety Scale; the Task and Ego Orientation in ...
Stickney, M I; Miltenberger, R G; Wolff, G
This study was designed to examine temporally proximal and remote antecedents as well as immediate and delayed consequences of binge eating behavior. Participants included 16 undergraduate females who reported engaging in binge eating at least two times per week and experiencing a sense of lack of control during binge eating episodes on the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns. Results indicated that the most frequent proximal antecedents to binge eating were negative emotions such as feeling depressed, angry, empty, hopeless, worried, or dissatisfied. The most frequent consequences of binge eating included relief from negative feelings and thoughts and decrease in hunger or craving. The results of this study suggest that the function of binge eating can be identified through assessment of antecedents and consequences with real time recording and retrospective reports. Treatment implications are discussed. PMID:10619542
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci
Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff; Shaw, Heather
Test (a) whether a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program that reduces thin-ideal internalization mitigates the effects of risk factors for eating disorder onset and (b) whether the risk factors moderate the effects of this intervention on risk for eating disorder onset, to place the effects of this intervention within the context of established risk factors. Female adolescents (N=481) with body image concerns were randomized to the dissonance-based program, healthy weight contro...
Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey
The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. PMID:20739233
Hibbs, Rebecca; Rhind, Charlotte; Sallis, Hannah; Goddard, Elizabeth; Raenker, Simone; Ayton, Agnes; Bamford, Bryony; Arcelus, Jon; Boughton, Nicky; Connan, Frances; Goss, Ken; Lazlo, Bert; Morgan, John; Moore, Kim; Robertson, David
Objective: Caring for someone diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED) is associated with a high level of burden and psychological distress which can inadvertently contribute to the maintenance of the illness. The Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale (EDSIS) and Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders (AESED) are self-report scales to assess elements of caregiving theorised to contribute to the maintenance of an ED. Further validation and confirmation of the factor structures for...
Striegel-Moore, RH; Dohm, FA; Pike, KM; Wilfley, DE; Fairburn, CG
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether sexual and physical abuse, bullying by peers, and ethnicity-based discrimination are associated with an increased risk for developing binge eating disorder in black women and in white women and whether any increase in risk is specific for the development of binge eating disorder. METHOD: A community sample of 162 women with binge eating disorder and 251 healthy and 107 psychiatric comparison subjects was interviewed for exposure to the risk factors under...
Bulik, Cynthia M.; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; REICHBORN-KJENNERUD, TED
We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...
Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston
Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…
Eating disorders (ED) constitute a significant source of psychiatric morbidity and are an important public health concern in Western societies. Knowledge about risk factors for ED is crucial for early detection and implementation of preventive interventions. The aim of the present thesis was to examine the prevalence, incidence, correlates, and the risk factors for ED among 1,157 young adult women in the general population. The studies in the thesis used a prospective design with the potentia...
Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline
Within the clinical literature it is accepted that there is a strong connection between eating disorders and depression; however the nature of the casual relationship is somewhat unclear. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the prospective relationship between eating psychopathology and depressive symptoms among competitive British athletes. A total of 122 athletes completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90R over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, athletes' baseline depressive symptoms was not related to their eating psychopathology 6 months later. However, when controlling for baseline depressive symptoms, athletes' initial eating psychopathology was positively and significantly related to depressive symptoms 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed athletes' initial levels of eating psychopathology significantly predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later. The current findings support the assertion that elevated eating psychopathology serves as a potential risk factor for the development of depression in athletes. Thus, National Governing Bodies, athletic clubs, sport organisations and universities need to recognise and be aware that exposure to the factors that increase the risk of eating disorders inadvertently serves to increase athletes' vulnerability for depression. PMID:24839992
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…
Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria
Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n?=?703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p?origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices. PMID:25681292
de Lauzon, Blandine; Romon, Monique; Deschamps, Valérie; Lafay, Lionel; Borys, Jean-Michel; Karlsson, Jan; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, M Aline
A revised version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was developed in an obese population, but its applicability to the general population was not assessed. We aimed to define the relationship between eating behavior and reported food intake. This was a cross-sectional study of 529 middle-aged adults and 358 teenagers and young adults recruited on a geographical basis. The TFEQ-R18 measures 3 aspects of eating behavior: cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating. Reported food intake was calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Girls who scored higher on restrained eating had a lower energy intake than the other girls (9164 kJ vs. 13,163 kJ, P R18 was therefore able to distinguish among different eating patterns in our sample of a French general population. PMID:15333731
Baker, Jessica H.; MAES, HERMINE H.; Lissner, Lauren; Aggen, Steven H.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kendler, Kenneth S
The etiologic role of genetic and environmental factors on disordered eating was examined in a sample of 15- to 17-year-old female–female, male–male, and opposite-sex twin pairs. Also assessed was whether a single factor is underlying 3 facets (body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimia) of disordered eating, including the possible importance of sex differences. Univariate model-fitting analyses indicated that genetic factors are more important for girls and environment more important ...
Mojisola D, Kupolati; Gerda J, Gericke; Una E, MacIntyre.
Full Text Available Qualitative investigation can provide invaluable information towards understanding the influence of school nutrition education (NE). The study explored teachers' perceptions of the immediate impact of NE on learners' eating behaviours. Twenty-four primary school teachers in the Bronkhorstspruit dist [...] rict, Gauteng, South Africa, who taught nutrition topics to grades four to seven learners, participated in three focus group discussions. Transcript data obtained was analysed using the thematic approach of the framework method. Findings indicated that school support for NE was limited, which undermined the capacity of school NE to influence healthy eating behaviours of learners. The need to strengthen teachers' capacity to model positive eating behaviours was identified. Learners were perceived as being not completely ignorant of healthy eating, with limited capacity to effect changes within the resource-constrained environment. Negative influences like unhealthy choices of food from food vendors and peer influences were identified as needing to be discouraged. Positive influences like the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) and the school vegetable garden were to be encouraged. Understanding the prevailing school situation and environment and teachers' perceptions and roles in school NE is important in addressing issues that weaken the influence of NE on learners' eating behaviours.
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Bowker, Julie C.; Hermans, Roel C. J.
Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the “Big Two” contributors to the obesity epidemic, unhealthy eating and physical inactivity . In this article, we synthesize the empirical literature on the influence of peers and friends on youth’s eating and physical activity. Limitat...
Eating disorders are a complex phenomenon, which has a negative effect on many areas of individual's life. It's a very complex issue, which hides in the background much more profound reasons, than the person’s wishes of becoming thinner and more beautiful. Although a lot has been said on this topic, I think that society still lacks the awareness and knowledge for a successful fight against this problem in order to diminish it. In theoretical part I defined eating disorders and their types,...
Ba?, Murat; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül
The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in eating attitudes, self-esteem, social trait anxiety and social physique anxiety of self-reported vegetarian and nonvegetarian Turkish adolescents. The sample for the Turkish University' students is designed to provide the estimates of vegetarian indicators and prevalence. The participants were 608 females and 597 males, in total 1205 adolescents aged between 17 and 21 years. Disturbed eating behaviors (EAT-26> or =20) was found in 45.2% (14 of vegetarian) of the total vegetarian sample; which included two of the male vegetarians and 12 of the female vegetarians. The mean BMI was 19.78+/-1.49 kg/m(2) for female vegetarians and 20.78+/-2.46 kg/m(2) for female nonvegetarians (p<0.05). Male vegetarians had significantly higher score than male nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (17.25+/-11.18 for male vegetarians and 9.38+/-6.60 for male nonvegetarians), dieting (6.50+/-7.65 for male vegetarians and 2.55+/-3.87 for male nonvegetarians) and oral control (6.13+/-4.67 for male vegetarians and 3.20+/-3.19 for male nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). Besides, female vegetarians had significantly higher score than female nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (22.04+/-13.62 for female vegetarians and 11.38+/-8.28 for female nonvegetarians), dieting (10.35+/-9.58 for female vegetarians and 4.41+/-5.30 for female nonvegetarians), oral control (7.78+/-5.13 for female vegetarians and 3.33+/-3.51 for female nonvegetarians) and STAI (51.39+/-7.28 for female vegetarians and 47.29+/-5.13 for female nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). As a conclusion, the present study indicated abnormal eating attitudes, low self-esteem, high social physique anxiety, and high trait anxiety in Turkish vegetarian adolescents. The vegetarian adolescents may be more likely to display disordered eating attitudes and behaviors than nonvegetarians. PMID:15927731
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Deerajen Ramasawmy; Subratty, Anwar H; Mahomoodally, Fawzi M; Stephanie M. Krige
There is currently a dearth of information pertaining to socio-demographic factors and eating practices in a multicultural country like Mauritius. This study was therefore undertaken to probe the different eating practices among an adult sample population in Mauritius in an endeavor to establish significant relationships, if any, with common socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. A self-designed questionnaire, (randomly distributed to n = 387 adults), pertaining to socio-demographic va...
Emma P. Vince; Ian Walker
Objective: To consolidate knowledge from research on associates of disordered eating to guide future research efforts, asking “which factors are associated with the presence of disturbed eating/ anorexia/ bulimia?” Method: We reviewed 232 studies, comprising 87,878 participants, through 74 individual meta-analyses under 12 associative factor category headings.Results: Race had no association (r = .02), whilst anxiety (r = .47) and depression (r = .39) were modestly associated with disordered ...
The first years of life mark a time of rapid development and dietary change, as children transition from an exclusive milk diet to a modified adult diet. During these early years, children's learning about food and eating plays a central role in shaping subsequent food choices, diet quality, and wei...
Laliberté, M; Boland, F J; Leichner, P
More than a decade of research has characterized the families of individuals with bulimia and bulimia anorexia (Anorexia Nervosa, Binge/Purging Type) as less expressive, less cohesive, and experiencing more conflicts than normal control families. This two-part study investigated variables believed more directly related to disturbed eating and bulimia as contributing to a "family climate for eating disorders." In Study 1. a nonclinical sample of 324 women who had just left home for college and a sample of 121 mothers evaluated their families. Principal-components analyses revealed the same factor structure for both students and mothers, with Family Body Satisfaction, Family Social Appearance Orientation, and Family Achievement Emphasis loading together, representing the hypothesized family climate for eating disorders: the remaining variables loaded with the more traditional family process variables (conflict, cohesion, expressiveness), representing a more general family dysfunction. As predicted, the family climate for eating disorders factor score was a more powerful predictor of disturbed eating. Study 2 extended these findings into a clin ical population, examining whether the family climate for eating disorders variables would distinguish individuals with bulimia from both depressed and healthy controls. Groups of eating-disordered patients (n = 40) and depressed (n = 17) and healthy (n = 27) controls completed family measures. The eating-disordered group scored significantly higher on family climate variables than control groups. Family process variables distinguished clinical groups (depressed and eating disordered) from healthy controls, but not from one another. Controlling for depression removed group differences on family process variables, but family climate variables continued to distinguish the eating-disordered group from both control groups. Indications for further research are discussed. PMID:10576318
Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L
Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d?=?.41, p?=?.003; dieting (six studies), d?=?.68, p?eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26230192
Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.
Personality disorders appear to be present in a significant minority of individuals with eating disorders. For example, in contrast to reported rates in the general population of eight percent, obsessive compulsive personality is present in approximately 22 percent of individuals with anorexia, restricting type. Likewise, in contrast to rates in the general population of six percent, borderline personality is present in approximately 25 percent of individuals with anorexia nervosa, binge-eati...
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby
Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality rates in a sample of ED patients (n=998) with a mean follow-up of 12 years. This was compared to previous data from the same catchment area before a multidisciplinary centre was established. The standardi...
Krentz, E M; Warschburger, P
Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0? ±.2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation. PMID:22093018
Carleton, R A; Sennett, L; Gans, K M; Levin, S; Lefebvre, C; Lasater, T M
The Pawtucket Heart Health Program, a research effort testing a process of community activation for cardiovascular risk factor behavior change, risk factor change, and coronary heart disease event rate change, utilizes risk factor behavior change programs for the entire population of a northeastern city. A diversity of nutrition programs designed to teach new skills and to alter the nutrition environment have been delivered. These include group programs, highlighting restaurant menus, labeling grocery shelf items, screening for blood cholesterol levels accompanied by nutritional counseling, and provision of programs in schools. In addition to standard curricula, the Heart Healthy Cook-Off for both junior high school and high school students has been developed. Students select recipes, make substitutions to lower fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol content, analyze original and substitution recipe nutrient content using a microcomputer and nutrient analysis software, and prepare the food. A panel of judges assesses presentation, taste, and health-promoting characteristics. In one junior high school class, cholesterol measure before and after the cook-off decreased by 10.7% among those with elevated cholesterol. The Heart Healthy Cook-Off is an education program that influences the culinary practices of children in an enjoyable, challenging format. PMID:2042840
Grilo, Carlos M; Crosby, Ross D.; White, Marney A
Latino/s face health care disparities in eating/weight disorders but are under-represented in treatment research and this is especially the case for Spanish-speaking-only persons. The development of psychometrically-sound assessment methods for Latino/as is needed to facilitate eating/weight research. The current study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Eating Disorder Examination (S-EDE) interview, one of the primary assessment methods in studies of...
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Ana Carolina Soares, Amaral; Sebastião de Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available Pesquisadores sugerem que o comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI) em jovens pode sofrer influências de diversos fatores. No entanto, os resultados têm sido controversos. Deste modo, o objetivo do presente estudo foi averiguar os efeitos de insatisfação corporal (IC), grau de comprometimento psico [...] lógico ao exercício (GCPE), nível habitual de atividade física (NAF), índice de massa corporal (IMC), percentual de gordura e etnia sobre o CAI de adolescentes. Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. O Eating attitudes test (EAT-26) foi utilizado para avaliar o CAI. Ademais, utilizou-se o Body shape questionnaire, a commitment exercise scale e o International physical activity questionnaire para avaliar IC, GCPE e NAF, respectivamente. Conduziu-se análise multivariada e regressão múltipla para analisar os dados. Os resultados evidenciaram que a IC, o GCPE, IMC e percentual de gordura influenciaram significativamente (p Abstract in english Researchers suggest that inadequate eating behavior (IEB) in young people can be influenced by several factors. However, the results have been controversial. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of body dissatisfaction (BD), the degree of psychological commitment to exerc [...] ise (DPCE), the usual level of physical activity (LPA), the body mass index (BMI), the fat percentage and ethnicity on CAI in adolescents. The participants included 362 young men and women between 10 and 19 years of age. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess IEB. In addition, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Commitment to Exercise Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to assess BD DPCE and LPA, respectively. Multivariate analysis and multiple regression was conducted to analyze the data. The results showed that BD, DPCE, BMI and body fat percentage significantly influenced (p
Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen
Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…
Eating disorders are conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits and behaviors which may involve excessive or insufficient intake along with the individual’s mental and physical health. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa as well as binge eating are the major type of eating disorders. Parental influence has been shown to be a fundamental component in the development process of eating behaviors of children and adolescents, this effect is shaped by a variety of diverse factors including fa...
Carrard, Isabelle; Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Mobbs, Olivia; Van der Linden, Martial
The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to investigate the core features of eating disorders. The EDE-Q is derived from the Eating Disorder Examination, a semi-structured interview considered as the "gold standard" in the assessment of eating disorders. To verify the factor structure of both instruments, originally composed of four subscales, factor analyses have been conducted with various samples. Heterogeneous results were found. Because no study had investigated the factor structure of the EDE-Q in individuals with binge eating disorder, the goal of our study was to fill this gap. We started with a review of the studies on the EDE and EDE-Q factor structure to decide which models to compare. Among 21 studies that were identified, three models had been replicated several times. We compared these three models-a 22-item, 3-factor model, a brief 7-item, 3-factor model and a brief 8-item, 1-factor model-in two samples of participants, one with threshold and subthreshold criteria for binge eating disorder (N = 116) and one without eating disorders (N = 161). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for the brief 7-item, 3-factor model for both populations, whereas other solutions were not acceptable. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the three factors were acceptable to good, ranging between 0.714 and 0.953. The group with binge eating disorder symptoms had significantly higher scores for each factor. This brief 7-item instrument might be useful for screening or short interventions. PMID:25194301
Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn
What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812
Forrester-Knauss Christine; Zemp Stutz Elisabeth
Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eatin...
Rayner, Kathryn E; Schniering, Carolyn A; Rapee, Ronald M; Hutchinson, Delyse M
Although major etiological models highlight the importance of friends in the development of adolescent body image and eating problems, longitudinal research that comprehensively investigates possible direct and mediational relationships between these variables is lacking. Thus, this study aimed to examine prospective interrelationships between perceived friend influence, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in early adolescent girls, and whether these relationships differed across levels of body mass. A large Australian community sample of female high school students (N = 1,094; Time 1 M age = 12.3 years) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived friend influence, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating at 3 yearly intervals. Height and weight were also measured at each time point. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate two separate models, in which Time 2 body dissatisfaction was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between Time 1 perceived friend influence and Time 3 dieting and bulimic behaviors. No significant direct or indirect pathways were found between friend influence and disordered eating. Unexpectedly, however, body dissatisfaction was found to prospectively predict girls' perception of friend influence. These findings were remarkably similar in both healthy and overweight girls. The findings suggest that friends may be more influential for those adolescents who have higher levels of body image concern, rather than contributing directly to the development of body dissatisfaction. The peer environment represents an important consideration in adolescent prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23215623
Andrade Ana M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.
Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd
Obese subjects frequently show an adversely altered eating behaviour. However, little is known on differences in eating behaviour across different degree of obesity. We analysed data on the three factor eating questionnaire assessing cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger that were filled in by 664 obese patients (469 women) who seeked treatment in our Interdisciplinary Obesity Center. Patients were divided in five BMI classes (30 - 50 kg/m(2)). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that sex was significantly related to all three eating behaviour traits (all P BMI (as a continuous variable) was observed. Women in comparison to men showed significantly higher cognitive restraint (9.7 ± 4.3 vs. 7.7 ± 4.4; P BMI classes revealed that cognitive restraint decreased (P = 0.016) while disinhibition (P = 0.010) and hunger (P = 0.044) increased independently of sex with increasing BMI classes. However, above the obesity grade I class (i.e. BMI 30 - BMI classes. Data indicate profound differences in eating behaviour between women and men that persist across a wide range of obesity. Furthermore, data suggest that while grade I obese patients show higher cognitive restraint and less disinhibition and hunger scores than more severe obese patients these dimensions of eating behaviour do not systematically vary across higher BMI classes. PMID:26145273
Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye
Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…
Xochitl, López-Aguilar; Juan Manuel, Mancilla-Díaz; Rosalia, Vázquez-Arévalo; Karina, Franco-Paredes; Georgina Leticia, Alvarez-Rayón; Ma. Trinidad, Ocampo Téllez-Girón.
Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar la consistencia interna, el análisis de factores y la validez de criterio de tipo concurrente y discriminante del Cuestionario de Tres Factores de la Alimentación (TFEQ). Participaron 604 mujeres (x? = 20.28, DE = 5.70), quienes completaron una batería [...] de cuestionarios: TFEQ, Cuestionario de Actitudes ante la Alimentación (EAT-40) y Cuestionario de Bulimia (BULIT). Los resultados señalan un coeficiente de consistencia interna adecuada (? =.87) y una estructura factorial de dos factores (restricción alimentaria y desinhibición), los cuales explican el 30 % de la varianza total. Los análisis de la validez concurrente y discriminante, muestran datos satisfactorios. Por tanto, el TFEQ es un instrumento adecuado para evaluar la patología alimentaria. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the internal consistency, the factor analysis and the concurrent and discriminate validity of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). 604 women (x? = 20.28, SD = 5.70), completed TFEQ, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and Bulimia Test (BULIT). Re [...] sults showed an appropriate internal consistency coefficient (? = .87) and a structure of two factors (dietary restraint and disinhibition), which explain 30% of the total variance. The analysis of concurrent and discriminant validity showing satisfactory data. Therefore, the TFEQ is an appropriate instrument for assessing eating pathology.
Ana Olivia, Ruíz Martínez; Rosalía, Vázquez Arévalo; Juan Manuel, Mancilla Díaz; Carme, Viladrich i Segués; María Elizabeth, Halley Castillo.
Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva multifactorial el presente trabajo es una revisión sobre los factores familiares asociados a los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA), considerando las aportaciones teóricas y empíricas propuestas en artículos nacionales e internacionales. Los resultados de la búsqueda s [...] obre TCA y familia, indican que los principales tópicos investigados son: funcionamiento familiar, relaciones hija-padres, experiencias estresantes, psicopatología familiar, actitudes y conductas hacia el peso, alimentación e imagen corporal en las familias afectadas. Se concluye reconociendo la heterogeneidad de las familias con TCA y la compleja combinación de factores familiares asociados a la psicopatología alimentaria. Se sugiere mayor investigación sobre: funcionamiento familiar de las personas con TCANE, el papel del padre, factores de protección, afrontamiento al estrés, imagen corporal y alimentación familiar. Abstract in english From a multifactorial perspective this study present a review about the family factors associated to eating disorders, considering theoretical and empirical contributions in national and international journals articles . The find of the research about the Eating Disorders and Family, indicate that t [...] he principal topics investigated are: family functioning, daughters and fathers relationships, stressful experiences, family psychopathology, attitudes and behaviors about weigh, eating and body image in the affected families. We conclude recognizing the heterogeneity of the families with Eating Disorders and the complex combination of family factors associated to eating psychopathology. More research is suggested about: family functioning in EDNOS patients, the father's role, protective factors, coping stress, body image and family food.
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed; Nurul Hidayah Nazri; See?Ling Loy
Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals...
Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.
There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…
The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating, and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada. Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight, and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight at 4.5 years than were children who were never overeaters. Conclusion Given the association between eating behaviours and bodyweight among 4.5-year-old children, particularly among those from less educated, lower income families and younger mothers, health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity and underweight with focussed messages and strategies for the management of emerging problematic eating behaviours.
Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M
We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15?years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R(2)???41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. PMID:26032800
Antonio J. Sanchez-Guarnido
Full Text Available Objective:To establish whether the risk of suffering from an eating disorder (ED is associated with the high-functioning, undercontrolled, or overcontrolled personality prototype groups.Method:The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2 were administered to 69 patients diagnosed as suffering from EDs (cases and 89 people free of any ED symptoms (control group. A cluster analysis was carried out to divide the participants into three groups based on their scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. A logistic regression model was then created.Results:Participants in the undercontrolled group had a risk of suffering from an ED 6.517 times higher than those in the high-functioning group (p = 0.019; odds ratio [OR] = 6.517, while those in the overcontrolled subgroup had a risk of ED 15.972 times higher than those in the high-functioning group.Conclusions:Two personality subtypes were identified in which the risk of EDs was six times higher (the undercontrolled group and almost 16 times higher (the overcontrolled group. Prevention and treatment programs for ED could benefit from focusing on the abovementioned personality profiles.
Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad
Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S.; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.
The Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) is an established instrument to assess eating behaviour. Analysis of the TFEQ-factor structure was based on selected, convenient and clinical samples so far. Aims of this study were (I) to analyse the factor structure of the German version of the TFEQ and (II)—based on the refined factor structure—to examine the association between eating behaviour and the body mass index (BMI) in a general population sample of 3,144 middle-aged and older participants (40–79 years) of the ongoing population based cohort study of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Health Study). The factor structure was examined in a split-half analysis with both explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between TFEQ-scores and BMI values were tested with multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and education. We found a three factor solution for the TFEQ with an ‘uncontrolled eating’, a ‘cognitive restraint’ and an ‘emotional eating’ domain including 29 of the original 51 TFEQ-items. Scores of the ‘uncontrolled eating domain’ showed the strongest correlation with BMI values (partial r = 0.26). Subjects with scores above the median in both ‘uncontrolled eating’ and ‘emotional eating’ showed the highest BMI values (mean = 29.41 kg/m²), subjects with scores below the median in all three domains showed the lowest BMI values (mean = 25.68 kg/m²; F = 72.074, pobese individuals. PMID:26230264
Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine
This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…
Álvaro Andrés Cano Correa
Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors for eating disorders instudents of the University of Manizales. Materials andmethods: The total sample was of 165 of 3610 totalregistered students. Each student has completed aquestionnaire composed by a demographic survey, theZung´s scales for depressiono or anxiety, the EatingDisorders Inventory (EDI-2 and the family Apagar; height,weight, mass corporal index and percent fat data also wereobtained. Results: 12.7% of the population presented EDI-2risk factor for eating disorders; 17.3% of women and 3.8% ofmen. The faculty with the highest risk factor betweenwomen was Social Communication and Journalism (24.1%.There is a significant correlation between the variableimpulse by thinness, and anxiety or depression.Conclusions: Almost all of the risk factors associated withthe development of eating disorders present an importantprevalence in this study. The frequency of EDI-2 risk factor inthis study was lower than the expected when compared withother studies made in Bogotá, Medellín and Bucaramanga.The scores on the EDI2 scale were similar to those found inMedellín.
Angelova, Rosa Angelova; Utermohlen, Virginia
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of local culture on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women. Specifically, we focused on two affiliated factors unique to the Bulgarian context: faith and traditional fasting. Findings revealed that women could be divided into two groups who behaved differently based on the severity of their eating disorder symptomatology. For women with higher EAT-40 scores (i.e., vulnerable women), faith seemed to have harmful effects, perhaps by virtue of motivating or reinforcing asceticism and dietary restraint. For these women fasting was likely but one strategy for weight management and the achievement of a desired thin figure consistent with the socio-cultural models. In contrast, among women with lower EAT-40 scores, faith seemed to have a protective effect against excessive dieting. These women were more likely to use fasting in the way intended by religious scripture, for faith-related reasons that have nothing to do with body image. This study contributes to the literature by emphasizing the importance of culturally unique factors that may be implicated in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and overt eating distress in the trans-cultural context. When expanded, this research can be of use in helping formulate custom interventions and public health policies aimed at preventing such conditions in Bulgaria and possibly in similar post-communist cultures. PMID:23910786
Moore, Malcolm A
The major environmental risk factors for cancer are carcinogen and co-carcinogen exposure in tobacco, insufficient exercise and above all an unhealthy diet. What we eat or do not eat is exceedingly important in determining what cancers or other chronic disease we may suffer from. Carcinogens may be integral contaminants of the diet, like nitrosamines in some situations and aflatoxins, or may be generated by cooking processes, as is known to be the case for heterocyclic amine pyrolysis products. Examples of co-carcinogenic agents may include grit in bread products, salt in pickles or betel in chewing quids. Dietary insufficiencies, for example of zinc, may also act to increase sensitivity to genetic damage, for example. Influence on metabolism of carcinogens, like induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione S transferases, further directly impacts on carcinogenicity. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables are typical examples of protective agents acting in this way. In addition we have dietary fibre which can decrease carcinogen exposure through accelerating passage of faeces through the gut. Other types of fibre, the soluble forms, can act to decrease uptake of glucose and thus suppress insulin exposure, an important factor for colon cancer. Natural anti-inflammatory agents like N-3 fatty acids in fish offer another example of preventive factors in the diet. Individual dietary components, like isoflavones in soy products, can interfere with hormone function to exert a beneficial action, as on the breast. Other compounds may act via stimulation of the immune system like lactoferrin and betaglucans. Perhaps the most important influence of diet on cancer, however, in a world of increasing comfort and ease of access to foodstuffs, is through over-eating and consequent obesity. Given the importance of diet to all our lives, we need to focus on all possible interactive effects in providing an evidence base to guide our choices regarding what we should eat in Asia. PMID:20192570
A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)
The purpose of this overview was to determine which local environmental factors had the best predictive capabilities of exercise and eating behavior, and also which ones could be used for possible intervention programs and research. There are too many undefined factors which have made it hard for researchers to know which one to implement; in addition it is hard to interpret the studies that have been conducted. There are promising factors that appear, such as accessibility to supermarkets, c...
This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation
P, Domínguez-Vásquez; S, Olivares; JL, Santos.
Full Text Available La conducta alimentaria es el conjunto de acciones que establecen la relación del ser humano con los alimentos. Se acepta generalmente que los comportamientos frente a la alimentación se adquieren a través de la experiencia directa con la comida, por la imitación de modelos, la disponibilidad de ali [...] mentos, el estatus social, los simbolismos afectivos y las tradiciones culturales. Además de las influencias sociales, se ha señalado que las influencias genéticas y de ambiente familiar compartido, tienen un impacto relevante sobre el patrón de ingesta, la conducta alimentaria y la obesidad infantil. Los estudios sobre ingesta de alimentos en obesidad se han centrado principalmente en determinar la cantidad y tipo de alimentos de la dieta habitual, presentando resultados controversiales. También existe un interés creciente por explorar la relación entre la obesidad y la conducta de alimentación, medida a través de herramientas psicométricas que analizan diferentes dimensiones tales como la alimentación emocional, la alimentación sin control o la restricción cognitiva. Esta revisión aborda la influencia de la familia sobre la conducta alimentaria infantil en relación con la obesidad, tanto desde la perspectiva del ambiente familiar compartido como desde la herencia genética. Abstract in english Eating behavior involves all actions that define the relation between human beings and food. It is accepted that feeding habits are acquired through eating experiences and practices learned from the familiar and social context in early childhood. Besides the role of the social context, it is also as [...] sumed that familiar factors, both common family environment and genetic inheritance, have an important influence on food intake and eating behavior linked with childhood obesity. Research on food intake and childhood obesity has been traditionally focused on the amount and type of foods in the usual diet. However, it is an increasing interest to understand the link between eating behavior and obesity using questionnaires. There are several psychometric tools that have been developed specifically to deal with human eating behavior. This review summarizes the family influences, both genetic and non-genetic, on childhood feeding behavior and their relation to childhood obesity.
Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Dale A. Schoeller
Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality.
Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Oken, Emily; Choi, Anna Lai; Korrick, Susan Abigail; Sunderland, Elsie
Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targete...
Ganasegeran Kurubaran; Al-Dubai Sami AR; Qureshi Ahmad M; Al-abed Al-abed AA; AM Rizal; Aljunid Syed M
Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating ha...
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed
Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.
Carmen Daniela DOMNARIU
Full Text Available The development of eating behaviours is a dynamic process that begins in infancy and continues throughout life, being strongly influenced by the family models. Our study aimed to evaluate the food behaviour in children aged 11, 13 and 15 years old in relation to the family models. We did a cross-sectional study in 206 school children from Sibiu county (rural and urban areas using the Romanian version of HBSC questionnaire. We analysed the frequency of breakfast and dinner with the family, the lunch circumstances, the frequency of snacks during playtime or computer work, the family influence on the consumption of certain unhealthy foods, the frequency of fast-food restaurants attendance and the compliance of family dining rules. High proportions of children were found not to have breakfast with family, to eat snacks during playtime and to receive soft drinks, sweets and chips without restriction. Also a high proportion of children in urban areas use to have the lunch at school (as a snack due to the school program. By opposite, the situation seemed much better in relation to dinner, most of the children having daily dinners with their parents. Also a low percent of children use to visit the fast food restaurants. Moderate compliance was found in relation to family dining rules. This results are quite concerning, showing limited involvement of the parents and moderate influence of family modelling in relation to the children eating behaviour.
Fassnacht, Daniel B.
Theoretical Background: Individuals suffering from full or partial Eating Disorders (ED) manifestations, experience substantial personal impairment, distress and a loss in quality of life. Although research about risk factors for the development of an ED, has been intensified over the last two decades, to date the empirical evidence is still sparse and inconsistent. Additionally, the temporal course of a risk factor prior to the onset of ED symptomatology has hardly been explored. Both issues...
Azanza, F; Tadmor, Y; Klein, B P; Rocheford, T R; Juvik, J A
This study was conducted to ascertain the chromosomal location and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the chemical and sensory properties of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) eating quality. Eighty-eight RFLPs, 3 cloned genes (sh1, sh2, and dhn1), and 2 morphological markers (a2 and se1) distributed throughout the sweet corn genome were scored in 214 F2:3 families derived from a cross between the inbreds W6786su1Se1 and IL731Asu1se1. Kernel properties associated with eating quality (kernel tenderness and starch, phytoglycogen, sucrose, and dimethyl sulfide concentrations) were quantified on F2:3 sib-pollinated ears harvested at 20 days after pollination. Sensory evaluation was conducted on a subset of 103 F2:3 families to determine intensity of attributes associated with sweet corn eating quality (corn aroma, grassy aroma, sweetness, starchiness, grassy flavor, crispness, tenderness, and juiciness) and overall liking. Single factor analysis of variance revealed significant QTL for all these traits, which accounted for from 3 to 42% of the total phenotypic variation. A proportion of the RFLP markers associated with human sensory response were also found to be associated with kernel characteristics. To our knowledge this is the first report of the identification of QTL associated with human flavor preferences in any food crop. Key words : sweet corn, RFLP, quantitative trait loci, eating quality, sensory evaluation. PMID:18469876
Booth, David A.
Contents (headings of main sections of the Chapter). Introduction. Excitation and Inhibition of Ingestion by Level of Sweetness. Learnt Preferences for Levels of Sweetness. The Learnt Peak of Preference for Level of Sweetener. The Peak of Learnt Facilitation by Any Sensory Factor. Missing the [Ideal] Point. Ingestive Appetite and Food Preference Responses. Each Food Has a Different Taste. Cognitive Mechanisms That Convert Sensing into Ingesting. ...
Czyzyk, J K; Jakóbisiak, M
We have examined the influence of cyclosporine A (CsA) on thyroid gland function during development of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in CBA (H-2k) mice, delivering the agent in different regimens and doses, either as commercial intravenous preparation or encapsulated into liposomes. The evaluation of autoimmunity was done by the assessment of serum concentration of thyroxine (T4). We showed that a high dose CsA (360 mg/kg) prevented the development of thyroid deficiency whereas a small dose (25-60 mg/kg) potentiated the decrease of T4 serum level. Moreover, we found that the same dose of CsA enclosed in liposomes and of its commercial preparation can have different effect on T4 level in mice with EAT. PMID:8744686
Rohde, Kerstin; Keller, Maria; Horstmann, Annette; Liu, Xuanshi; Eichelmann, Fabian; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne
The beneficial effects of adiponectin and its negative correlation with BMI are well described. Adiponectin serum levels are altered in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating. Here, we tested the hypothesis that (1) adiponectin serum levels correlate with human eating behavior factors and (2) that genetic variants of the ADIPOQ locus influence both serum levels and eating behavior. We analyzed 11 SNPs within ADIPOQ and in the 5? UTR and measured serum adipo...
Grimm, Eleanor R; Steinle, Nanette I
Understanding why we eat and the motivational factors driving food choices is important to addressing the epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Eating behavior is a complex interplay of physiologic, psychological, social, and genetic factors that influence meal timing, quantity of food intake, and food preference. Here we review the current and emerging knowledge of the genetic influences of eating behavior and how these relate to obesity with particular emphasis on the g...
Suggestions are given to beginners considering the factors which influence the accuracy of radio-immunological assay (RIA). Contrary to some industrial circulars it was deduced from the investigations that the much cheaper glass tube is just so fit for RIA as the plastic one. Possible pH-shift during the incubation may change in a great extent the rate of the immune reactions. These processes can be only slightly influenced by the change of temperature. More possibilities are suggested to eliminate the disturbance derived from the aspecific reaction of proteins in the samples. At last the determination of four indices is discussed which characterize the confidence to the results of RIA: the limited deviation from the mean result of parallel samples: the reproducibility; the dilution and specificity control. (D.E.)
Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad
Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.
KLUMP, KELLY L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Sisk, Cheryl L.
Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge...
Morales Pernalete, Adaucio Ramón; Gordillo Gutierrez, Carlos Alfredo; Pérez Alvarado, Carlos José; Marcano Flores, Daniela Alejandra; Pérez Pérez, Francisco Antonio; Flores Navas, Heymir Lorena; Pérez Navea, Jenifer Marian; Pérez Linarez, Mayela Andreina; Meléndez Flores, Patricia María
Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most frequent alteration in eating behavior and can affect adolescents. The aim was to determine the prevalence of BED, risk factors, and its association with obesity in adolescents in a secondary education institution of Barquisimeto, Venezuela, between September 2013 and February 2014. A sample of 500 adolescents of both sexes (252 male), between 11 and 18 years of age was studied. A questionnaire was applied and anthropometric measurements were performed: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-height index. According to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - V, the prevalence of BED was 7.80%. Risk factors were male gender, age > 14 years, body image dissatisfaction, family dysfunction, depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Binge eating disorder was a risk factor for global obesity and central obesity. The prevalence of BED was higher than internationally found for the general population. Important psychosocial risk factors that should be considered in the implementation of prevention and control strategies were identified. PMID:25643689
Keel, Pamela K.; Forney, K. Jean; Tiffany A. Brown; Heatherton, Todd F.
Research supports both concurrent and prospective associations between peer behaviors and disordered eating levels in late adolescent and young adult men and women. However, no study has examined peer influence after a follow-up duration over which peer groups change dramatically. This study examined how college roommates’ dieting predicted disordered eating levels in women (n=566) and men (n=233) at 10-year follow-up. For women, college roommate dieting significantly predicted Drive for Thin...
Ross, Arlene Anne
Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationships between an adolescent’s weight and parenting style, emotional eating, and emotional regulation and lifestyle behaviours to further develop the understanding of the factors that contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. Design: A cross sectional survey design was used. Method: 112 adolescents, aged between 16 and 18 from three secondary schools in Scotland completed a self-report questionnaire on their m...
Yong Jun Park; Chang Min Moon; Hwang Jae Yoo
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and prese...
The central scientific objective of the current dissertation was to take a multidisciplinary approach to make use of the full potential information, both scientific and clinical to aid prevention and treatment of EDs. In our studies we assessed a.) social and individual risk factors in EDs (Study 1), b.) empirical ED subtypes based on drive for thinness (DT) and depression (Study 2) and c.) the classification based on these four different empirical ED subtypes without cluster analysis and bas...
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) is an established instrument to assess eating behaviour. Analysis of the TFEQ-factor structure was based on selected, convenient and clinical samples so far. Aims of this study were (I) to analyse the factor structure of the German version of the TFEQ and (II)--based on the refined factor structure--to examine the association between eating behaviour and the body mass index (BMI) in a general population sample of 3,144 middle-aged and older participants (40-79 years) of the ongoing population based cohort study of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Health Study). The factor structure was examined in a split-half analysis with both explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between TFEQ-scores and BMI values were tested with multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and education. We found a three factor solution for the TFEQ with an 'uncontrolled eating', a 'cognitive restraint' and an 'emotional eating' domain including 29 of the original 51 TFEQ-items. Scores of the 'uncontrolled eating domain' showed the strongest correlation with BMI values (partial r = 0.26). Subjects with scores above the median in both 'uncontrolled eating' and 'emotional eating' showed the highest BMI values (mean = 29.41 kg/m²), subjects with scores below the median in all three domains showed the lowest BMI values (mean = 25.68 kg/m²; F = 72.074, peating behaviour that are associated with higher BMI values. Such information may help health care professionals to develop and implement more tailored interventions for overweight and obese individuals. PMID:26230264
Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of excess
Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits - associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders [Ref. (1-3) for reviews], it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n?=?412) of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of excessive appetitive behaviors. PMID:24409156
Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S.
Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk fact...
Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Monica E; Winegard, Ben; Winegard, Bo
The relative impact of genetic and social influences on disordered eating behaviors (DEB) including binging, purging, excessive dieting and negative self-evaluations about weight remain an issue of debate. The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and social influences on DEB. A 7-year prospective analysis of 580 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins was conducted. Estimates of heritability of DEB were obtained using the DF Analysis Model. Regression equations revealed the relative predictive value of sibling's DEB, neurotic personality, maternal warmth and television and video game exposure on DEB. Heritability estimates for DEB were 0.40 for females and 0.48 for males. Among MZ and DZ twin pairs, female sex, neurotic personality and a genetic variable component, but not maternal warmth or school related problems, predicted DEB. Contrary to the expectations of media effects theory, greater media use was associated with lower DEB among DZ twins and had no influence on MZ twins. These results indicate that DEB is highly heritable and that personality variables may play an important role in the formation of DEB. This suggests that it is important to control for genetic variables when analyzing risk factors for DEB. PMID:22278805
Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.
Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865
Micali, N; De Stavola, B; Ploubidis, G; Simonoff, E; Treasure, J; Field, A E
BackgroundEating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors.AimsTo investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children.MethodData were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions.ResultsChildhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys.ConclusionsRisk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865
Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward
The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the TFEQ-R18. The project was conducted in Greek population; thus, the questionnaire was translated in Greek language. 495 males and females aged between 12-45 years old participated in the present study. There were used a series of CFA techniques for structure analysis. Confirmatory and exploratory analyses were conducted. Several criteria were used to test the hypotheses factor structures of the AIMS. The results of CFA’s showed that the R-18 item instrument had adequate psychometric properties for measuring three dimensions of eating behavior of the Greek population However these results evealed that an R-16 item instrument was better adapted to the Greek population. The present study provided encouraging preliminary evidence supporting selected psychometric properties of the TFEQ-R18. This instrument seems to be a valid measure of the tendencies of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating of Greek population.
Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra
Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology. PMID:25936287
Full Text Available La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria está aumentando en los países industrializados y hay evidencia de que son las mujeres jóvenes las que tienen un mayor riesgo para desarrollar este tipo de patologías. Esa es la razón por la que los programas de prevención e intervención son tan importantes. Para desarrollar tales programas es necesario identificar los factores de riesgo relevantes que contribuyen a la aparición de este trastorno. En la presente investigación se analizan variables sociales relacionadas con el riesgo a desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (comparaciones sociales, actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia y la ansiedad social en una muestra no clínica de 375 mujeres. Los resultados muestran que la comparación social está directa e indirectamente (a través de la ansiedad social relacionada de forma positiva con el riesgo para desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, mientras que las actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia lo hace de forma indirecta (a través de la ansiedad social y positiva con los problemas de la conducta alimentaria. Finalmente, se discute la importancia de incluir estas variables sociales en los programas de prevención e intervención.
We examined the hypotheses that proposing higher levels of emotional intelligence (ability test and self-report) and lower neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness associate with lower levels of disordered eating. In a correlational study, 126 Israeli college students completed two measures of emotional intelligence, a brief five-factor personality test, demographic data questionnaires, and questionnaires assessing food preoccupation, namely, the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Scale and the Appearance Schema Inventory. Results suggested that ability emotional intelligence is associated with disordered eating beyond gender and personality. Self-reported emotional intelligence did not associate with any of the outcomes after controlling for personality. Implications and applications are briefly discussed. PMID:23682062
Reyna María, Cruz Bojórquez; María Luisa, Ávila Escalante; Héctor Julián, Velázquez López; Damaris Francis, Estrella Castillo.
Full Text Available Los medios de comunicación, el ambiente social y los factores personales desempeñan un papel importante como factores de riesgo de los TCA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación entre las influencias socioculturales del modelo estético corporal con las cogniciones que son caracter [...] ísticas de los TCA, en estudiantes de licenciatura en nutrición. Se contó con 112 participantes (88 mujeres y 24 hombres) estudiantes de la licenciatura en nutrición. 15.9% de las mujeres y el 20.8% de los hombres presentaron insatisfacción corporal. Los hombres presentaron significativamente mayor malestar patológico, influencia de la publicidad y perfeccionismo que las mujeres. Tanto en hombres y mujeres se muestra una correlación significativa entre la interiorización de un cuerpo delgado y la insatisfacción corporal. Casi la mitad de los participantes (48%) presenta una interiorización del modelo estético de delgadez. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre la interiorización de un modelo estético delgado y la insatisfacción corporal, lo cual indica que dicha insatisfacción está mediada por aquellos estándares provenientes de los medios de comunicación. Abstract in english The media, the social environment and personal factors play an important role as risk factors for eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociocultural influences body shape model with cognitions that are characteristic of eating disorders in undergraduate n [...] utrition. Participated 112 students (88 women and 24 men) undergraduate students in nutrition. 15.9% of women and 20.8% of the men had body dissatisfaction. Men showed significantly greater pathological distress advertising influence and perfectionism than women. Both men and women shows a significant correlation between the internalization of a thin body and body dissatisfaction. Almost half of the participants (48%) had an internalization body thin model. Significant correlations were found between the internalization of a thin aesthetic model and body dissatisfaction, which indicates that this dissatisfaction is mediated by those standards from the media.
Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary
Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016
Paulla Guimarães Melo
Full Text Available Objective Investigate binge eating (BE prevalence in women according to the obesity degree and assess the associated factors. Methods Cross-sectional study with female adults presenting body mass index (BMI ? 35 kg/m2. The analyzed variables were: sociodemographics, health status, obesity history, lifestyle, eating behavior and obesity degree. In order to analyse BE it was used the Binge Eating Scale (BES, which is considered positive when BES ? 18 points. Prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated with confidence intervals (CI of 95%. Multivariate analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Results BE prevalence was 53.2%, and the prevalence in super superobese women (BMI ? 60 kg/m2 was 75%. After multivariate analysis, associations were observed between the age group 40-49 years old (PR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2-3.4 and the “snacking habit” (PR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2-2.9. Conclusion The prevalence of BE in severe obese women was high. Association with the “snacking habit” can be a BE marker that should be monitored in the severely obese individuals that fit this profile.
Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others
Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…
Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)
Reynolds, Johnny Sue; Hwang, Jaesun
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of age on customer dining experience levels at Japanese restaurants in the United States and to determine if there are differences in influential factors between customers of different ages when they eat at Japanese restaurants. To address the objectives of the study, customers who patronized Japanese restaurants were asked to rank the importance of 20 dining experience factors. Researchers give recommendations for restaurateurs to bridg...
Johnny Sue Reynolds; Jaesun Hwang
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of age on customer dining experience levels at Japanese restaurants in the United States and to determine if there are differences in influential factors between customers of different ages when they eat at Japanese restaurants. To address the objectives of the study, customers who patronized Japanese restaurants were asked to rank the importance of 20 dining experience factors. Researchers give recommendations for restaurateurs to bridg...
... Antidepressants BDNF - brain-derived neurotophic factor Brain and Neurobiology of Eating Disorders Cortisol Dopamine Drug/food interactions ... Antidepressants BDNF - brain-derived neurotophic factor Brain and Neurobiology of Eating Disorders Cortisol Dopamine Drug/food interactions ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating habits and psychosocial factors. Results Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 22.7 (±2.4 years and (the age ranged from 18 to 30?years. More than half had regular meals and breakfast (57.6% &, 56.1% respectively. Majority (73.5% consumed fruits less than three times per week, 51.5% had fried food twice or more a week and 59.8% drank water less than 2 liters daily. Eating habits score was significantly low among younger students (18–22?years, smokers, alcohol drinkers and those who did not exercise. (ppp Conclusion Most of the students in this study had healthy eating habits. Social and psychological factors were important determinants of eating habits among medical students.
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels
Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality rates in a sample of ED patients (n=998) with a mean follow-up of 12 years. This was compared to previous data from the same catchment area before a multidisciplinary centre was established. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated. To compare the two cohorts, adjusted crude ratios were calculated with the confounding variables: body mass index (BMI), age at referral and diagnosis. In the latest cohort the SMR for AN was 2.89 vs 11.16 in the time before our specialization. SMR for bulimia nervosa (BN) and for eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in the latest cohort were 2.37 and 1.14 respectively. When comparing two retrospective cohorts it is not possible to draw a definite conclusion, howeverthe present study supports that integrating a somatic unit in a multidisciplinary centre may have a favourable influence on mortality in AN.
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby
Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality rates in a sample of ED patients (n=998) with a mean follow-up of 12 years. This was compared to previous data from the same catchment area before a multidisciplinary centre was established. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated. To compare the two cohorts, adjusted crude ratios were calculated with the confounding variables: body mass index (BMI), age at referral and diagnosis. In the latest cohort the SMR for AN was 2.89 vs 11.16 in the time before our specialization. SMR for bulimia nervosa (BN) and for eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in the latest cohort were 2.37 and 1.14 respectively. When comparing two retrospective cohorts it is not possible to draw a definite conclusion, however the present study supports that integrating a somatic unit in a multidisciplinary centre may have a favourable influence on mortality in AN. PMID:26391650
Woodward, Halley E; Rizk, Marianne T; Wang, Shirley S; Treat, Teresa A
We investigated eating- and weight-related correlates of self-evaluation influences (SEIs) and examined the extent to which such SEIs can be both over- and undervalued and the extent to which measurement strategy affects SEIs. A female undergraduate sample (n = 549) completed 3 measures of SEI importance and questionnaires assessing disordered eating (DE), body mass index (BMI), and depression. SEI measures included Likert scale, rank ordering, and pairwise forced choice; a subset (n = 62) also completed the Shape- and Weight-Based Self-Esteem Scale (SAWBS). Only rank ordering, forced choice, and SAWBS constrain choices among SEIs, such that prioritizing one SEI necessarily deprioritizes another, which reflects real-world restrictions on individuals' allotment of time and energy (e.g., spending hours exercising daily necessarily reduces time available for other activities). By any measure, women with DE overvalue body shape and weight. The constraining measures reveal systematic undervaluation of intelligence and achievement among women with DE and an enhanced effect of DE on the overvaluation of weight and on the undervaluation of being a good person among those with higher BMI. Depressed women's self-evaluations overemphasize appearance and underemphasize interpersonal relationships. Self-evaluations of women with DE are marked by both over- and undervaluation of relevant SEIs; the overvaluation of shape and weight in DE may be associated with costs. Future use of constraining measures, such as forced choice or rank ordering, may enhance our understanding of both over- and underemphasized SEIs among women with DE. PMID:24854805
The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: tradução para o português e aplicação em mulheres brasileiras The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: translation and administration to Brazilian women
Lara Cristiane Natacci
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e discutir a relação dos comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar entre si e com os parâmetros antropométricos: índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. MÉTODOS: Tradução para o português e aplicação do The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens, com subsequente comparação aos parâmetros antropométricos de 125 mulheres trabalhadoras do Instituto Central do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, escolhidas casualmente em um grupo de 800 interessados em orientação nutricional. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se associações entre a alimentação emocional e o descontrole alimentar, além de associações entre alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: O The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens mostrou-se um instrumento adequado para identificar os comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, padrões de comportamentos cuja análise pode servir como ponto de partida para a adoção de estratégias de abordagem de orientação nutricional em programas de controle de peso.OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed and discussed how cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors interrelate and relate with the anthropometric parameters BMI and waist circumference. METHODS: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire consisting of 21 items was translated into Portuguese, administered to 125 female employees from the Central Unit of the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine Clinics Hospital and compared with the anthropometric data of these women who had been casually selected from a group of 800 individuals interested in nutrition counseling. RESULTS: Emotional eating was found to be associated with bingeing, body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire with 21 items proved to effectively identify cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors. Analysis of these behavior patterns can be the starting point for the implementation of strategies for approaching nutrition counseling in weight-control programs.
Toro, J; Galilea, B; Martinez-Mallén, E; Salamero, M; Capdevila, L; Mari, J; Mayolas, J; Toro, E
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and risk factors for their development in female athletes. Two hundred and eighty-three elite sportswomen, competing in 20 different sports, were administered the EAT, the CETCA (the Eating Disorders Assessment Questionnaire, based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria), and two other inventories which evaluated 1) the possible influence on eating disorders of exposure of the body in public and 2) pressure from coaches regarding eating habits, weight, physical appearance and performance. More than 11% of subjects had scores above the cut-off point (>30) on the EAT questionnaire, a proportion similar to that found in a general female population in Spain. On the basis of the CETCA score, AN was putatively diagnosed in 2.5% of the sample, and BN in 20.1%. Though some of these cases may have been EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specified), the proportion of athletes suffering from some kind of eating disorder was five times higher than in the general population (22.6% vs. 4.1%). No differences were found between the sportswomen and the general population in terms of specific risk behaviours and attitudes, but a substantial subgroup of athletes presented two or more of these risk behaviours. Exposure of the body in public seems to be a risk factor for eating disorders in general, and pressure from coaches seems to be a risk factor for bulimia. PMID:16158377
Reynolds, Carl L.
A recent study conducted at the University of Illinois on what influences college students to consider the agricultural education curriculum showed that the curriculum choice process is somewhat different for agricultural education majors than for students in the non-agricultural education group. Important influences include vocational agriculture…
Tanner, Kelly; Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R
Selective eating is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine a new definition of selective eating, compare behavioral measures between children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating, and determine relationships among behavioral measures and measures of selective eating. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of number of foods eaten compared with a population-based sample. Results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance indicated no overall effect of group for challenging behaviors, sensory reactivity, or repetitive behaviors. Between-participant tests indicated that scores for compulsive behaviors were significantly lower (p = .036) for the selective eating group. Correlations were moderately strong among variables relating to food intake and behavioral variables, but were not significant between selective eating and behavioral variables. Further research is needed to validate the definition of selective eating and to identify targets for intervention. PMID:26565096
Thiemann, Pia; Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Platen, Petra; Auyeung, Bonnie; Herpertz, Stephan
This study examines putative non-sport-specific and sport-specific risk factors for eating disorders (ED) among groups of professional female athletes versus non-athletes. In detail, societal pressure to be thin, its internalisation, body dissatisfaction, sports pressure and early specialisation were investigated. The cross-sectional study included 46 aesthetic and 62 ball game sports athletes, and 108 age-matched non-athletes. Study methods comprised a clinical interview to detect ED and questionnaires. More athletes from aesthetic (17%) than from ball game sports (3%) and non-athletes (2%) suffered from ED. Aesthetic sports athletes did not differ from non-athletes in non-sport-specific factors but obtained higher levels than ball game sports athletes in sport-specific variables (p?body dissatisfaction as significant predictors. The results confirm ED risk for German aesthetic athletes and indicate the importance of sports pressure and body dissatisfaction in explaining athletes' vulnerability. PMID:25828261
The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: tradução para o português e aplicação em mulheres brasileiras / The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: translation and administration to Brazilian women
Lara Cristiane, Natacci; Mario, Ferreira Júnior.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e discutir a relação dos comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar entre si e com os parâmetros antropométricos: índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. MÉTODOS: Tradução para o português e aplicação do The Three Factor Eatin [...] g Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens, com subsequente comparação aos parâmetros antropométricos de 125 mulheres trabalhadoras do Instituto Central do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, escolhidas casualmente em um grupo de 800 interessados em orientação nutricional. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se associações entre a alimentação emocional e o descontrole alimentar, além de associações entre alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: O The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens mostrou-se um instrumento adequado para identificar os comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, padrões de comportamentos cuja análise pode servir como ponto de partida para a adoção de estratégias de abordagem de orientação nutricional em programas de controle de peso. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed and discussed how cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors interrelate and relate with the anthropometric parameters BMI and waist circumference. METHODS: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire consisting of 21 items was translat [...] ed into Portuguese, administered to 125 female employees from the Central Unit of the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine Clinics Hospital and compared with the anthropometric data of these women who had been casually selected from a group of 800 individuals interested in nutrition counseling. RESULTS: Emotional eating was found to be associated with bingeing, body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire with 21 items proved to effectively identify cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors. Analysis of these behavior patterns can be the starting point for the implementation of strategies for approaching nutrition counseling in weight-control programs.
Resna Nurhantika Sary
Full Text Available AbstractLatar belakang: Anemia masih merupakan masalah kesehatan pada wanita yang dapat mengganggu performa kerja termasuk pramugari. Tujuan penelitian ialah untuk mengidentifiasi faktor-faktor dominan terhadap anemia pada pramugari. Metode: Penelitian potong lintang dengan metode sampling purposif pada pramugari yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan pada 1-15 Mei 2013. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan formulir khusus untuk penelitian ini. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah karakteristik demografi dan pekerjaan, kebiasaan makan, riwayat haid, indeks masa tubuh (IMT, serta kadar hemoglobin. Kadar hemoglobin berasal dari rekam medik di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan. Anemia ialah jika kadar hemoglobin kurang dari 12 g/dl. Hasil: Di antara 225 pramugari yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan, 185 d pramugari berusia 18-46 tahun bersedia untuk berpartisipasi studi ini, dan 28,1% menderita anemia. Frekuensi makan daging merah per minggu, masa kerja total, jenis penerbangan, dan menstruasi merupakan faktor risiko yang dominan yang berhubungan dengan anemia. Faktor risiko yang paling dominan adalah makan daging merah / minggu. Pramugari yang makan daging 3 kali atau lebih dalam per minggu dibandingkan yang kurang dari 3 kali per minggu berisiko 43% lebih kecil mengalami anemia [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 0,57; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 0,32–1,03; P = 0,064]. Pramugari yang mengalami menstruasi berlebihan dibandingkan yang menstruasi normal memiliki risiko 3,5 kali lebih tinggi mengalami anemia (RRa = 3,45; P = 0,000. Kesimpulan: Kebiasaan makan daging kurang dari tiga kali seminggu dan yang mengalami menstruasi berlebihan memiliki risiko lebih tinggi mengalami anemia di antara Pramugari di Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:67-72Kata kunci: anemia, pramugari, daging merah, menstruasi, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Anemia is a health problem in women that can interfere work performance including female flight attendant. This study aimed to identify several dominant risk factors related to anemia in female flight attendants. Method: A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling was conducted to female flight attendant who performing periodic medical check-up at the Civil Aviation Medical Center, Jakarta on May 1-152013. Data collected using structured questionnaire. The data collected were demographic data, job characteristics, the characteristics of eating habits, menstrual history, body mass index, and hemoglobin levels. Hemoglobin levels were taken from flight attendant’s medical records at the Civil Aviation Medical Center, Jakarta. Anemia defined if hemoglobin levels less than12 g/dl. Results: Out of 225 female flight attendants who did medical checkup, 185 of them age 18-46 years old who willing to participate in this study, and 28.1% of them had anemia. Frequency of eating red meat/week, total working period, type of flight, and menstruation were dominant risk factors related to anemia. The most dominant risk factor was of eating red meat/week. Flight attendant who had eat meat for 3 times or more a week compared to less than 3 times a week had 43% less riskof having anemia [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.32 – 1.03; P = 0.064. Flight attendant who had heavy flow menstruation than normal flow menstruation have 3.45 times higher risk of having anemia [RRa = 3.45; P = 0.000].Conclusion: Flight attendant who had eating meat habit less than three times a week and having menstrual heavy flow has a high risk of having anemia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:67-72Key words: anemia, flight attendant, meat, menstruation, Indonesia
Gregory J. Privitera; Kathryn C. Cooper; Cosco, Alexis R.
Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies.To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR).Two samples of college students wh...
Relevancia de Factores de Riesgo, Psicopatología Alimentaria, Insatisfacción Corporal y Funcionamiento Psicológico en Pacientes con TCA / Relevant Risk Factors, Current Eating Psychopathology, Body Shape Concern and Psychological Functioning in Eating Disorders
Anna, Carretero García; Luís, Sánchez Planell; Jordi, Rusiñol Estragués; Rosa M.ª, Raich Escursell; David, Sánchez Carracedo.
Full Text Available Objetivo: El primer objetivo del estudio es evaluar restrospectivamente, la relevancia de factores de riesgo en pacientes con Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA) en función de la categoría diagnóstica. El segundo objetivo, es evaluar la psicopatología alimentaria, la insatisfacción corporal y [...] el funcionamiento psicológico en cada grupo diagnóstico. Método: Se evalúa en el momento previo al tratamiento de TCA, un total de 73 pacientes con diferentes criterios diagnósticos: Bulimia Nerviosa Purgativa (BN-P; n=29), la provisional forma diagnóstica del Trastorno por Atracón (TA; n=6), el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Purgativo (TCANE-P; n=17) y el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Restrictivo (TCANE-R; n=21). Resultados: Se hallan como factores de riesgo de consistencia el antecedente de obesidad y el inicio del TCA en la adolescencia. El inicio de la menarquia en la edad temprana no resulta ser un factor de riesgo. El Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) refleja la sintomatología alimentaria de cada cuadro diagnóstico. El grupo BN-P, se caracteriza por presentar mayor severidad en la sintomatología alimentaria. La mayoría de grupos presenta larga duración de la enfermedad, dificultades en la imagen corporal, el funcionamiento psicosocial y características de personalidad. El sentimiento de ineficacia no fue una característica clínica en casos de TA. Conclusiones: El que los antecedentes de obesidad se hayan mostrado como un factor de riesgo de consistencia en los TCA es un argumento más a favor de la necesidad de su prevención. Las dificultades en el funcionamiento psicosocial encontradas en casos clínicos con TA, avalarían la necesidad de líneas de intervención de tipo más interpersonal en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective: The first aim of this study is a retrospective assessment of relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (ED). The second aim is to study eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning assessment in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evalua [...] tion before intervention of 73 patients with Bulimia Nervosa Purging type (BN-P; n=29), Binge Eating Disorder (BED; n=6), Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Purging type (EDNOS-P; n=17) and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Restrictive type (EDNOS-R; n=21). Findings: Consistent risk factors in the precedent of obesity and the beginning of the ED in adolescence. The young age at which menarche occurred was not a risk factor. The eating symptomatology of each diagnostic category reflected the nutritional state. The BN-P group presented a more severe eating symptomatology. The majority of the groups had long duration illness and had difficulties with body shape, social performance, and personality problems. The feeling of ineffectiveness was not a clinical characteristic in Binge eating cases. Conclusion: The precedent of obesity showed up as a consolidated risk factor in eating disorders, supporting the necessity of prevention. Difficulties found in social performance in binge eating support the necessity of interpersonal intervention.
Gregory J. Privitera
Full Text Available Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies.To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR.Two samples of college students who exhibit HDR, which is a group likely to use behavioral strategies to manage intake, were selected in a prescreening session. Participants were told how fast or slow to eat (Variation 1 or allowed to eat at their own pace (Variation 2. Self-reported satiety during the meal and amount consumed was recorded. The types of foods, macronutrient intakes, weights of foods, order of food intakes, and the dimensions of foods were held constant between groups to control for group differences in the sensory and hedonic qualities of the meals.Eating slower enhanced mid-meal satiety ratings, but only when instructions were given to eat fast or slow (Variation 1. In both variations, eating slower did not reduce amount consumed in the meal, although each variation had sufficient power to detect differences.Eating slower is not likely to be an effective strategy to control intake in a meal among those exhibiting HDR.
In contemporary societies there is a growing need to coordinate and legitimize different perspectives. Instead of a dialogical search for consensus polarizing communication still prevails. The legitimacy of formal political institutions and conventional forms of political participation is in decline; increasingly publicly expressed people’s need for a greater influence on social developments reveals a deficit in approaches how to include them more actively in discussions on complex social pro...
Hábitos alimentares na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares e fatores associados em idosos hipertensos / Eating habits in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and associated factors in elderly hypertensive individuals
Sabrina Dalbosco, Gadenz; Luís Antônio, Benvegnú.
Full Text Available As doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de morte e incapacidade em idosos. Nesta pesquisa, foram identificados hábitos alimentares saudáveis e fatores associados à prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares entre idosos hipertensos. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com coleta de dados primário [...] s em uma unidade de saúde da família pertencente a um município do interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Participaram do estudo 212 idosos hipertensos. Verificou-se maior prevalência de idosos jovens, do sexo feminino, com poucos anos de estudo e de baixa renda. Os hábitos alimentares saudáveis dos idosos hipertensos avaliados estão aquém daqueles preconizados. Fatores socioeconômicos, características de saúde e utilização dos serviços de saúde influenciaram na prática de hábitos alimentares saudáveis. Os resultados desse estudo sugerem que os idosos hipertensos estão encontrando dificuldade para adotar hábitos alimentares saudáveis; contribuem ainda para a definição de estratégias para o trabalho cotidiano de prevenção e controle das doenças cardiovasculares em idosos. Abstract in english Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in the elderly. In this study, healthy eating habits and associated factors in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in elderly hypertensive individuals were identified. It involved a cross-sectional study gathering primary dat [...] a in a family health unit in a city in the interior of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and 212 elderly hypertensive individuals participated in the study. A higher prevalence among the lower age bracket of elderly individuals, female, with little schooling and low income was revealed. Healthy eating habits among the elderly hypertensive individuals assessed are below those recommended in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Social and economic factors, health characteristics and the use of health services influenced the adoption of healthy eating habits. The results of this study suggest that elderly hypertensive individuals find it difficult to adopt healthy eating habits. This contributes further to the definition of strategies for routine prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly.
Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.
Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann
A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)
... Related Factors That Influence Fertility Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content It is currently ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2008). Definitions of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertility and Sterility , 90(5 Suppl), ... [ ...
Novák, Pavel; Vitoušová, K.; Poštulková, Michaela; Brányik, T.; R?ži?ka, Marek
Vol. Session 1. - : -, 2013, T2:P26. ISBN N. [Conference of European Colloid and Interface Society /27./. Sofia (BG), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer * gushing * physical factors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.ecis2013.org/
Goschin, Zizi; Gheorghe ZAMAN
Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...
Courty, Annaig; Godart, Nathalie; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie
Socio-affective difficulties, in particular difficulties in representing, communicating and feeling emotions, may play a critical role in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore the links between alexithymia and two types of difficulties in AN: eating symptoms and social avoidance. Sixty adolescent girls with AN were recruited following hospitalisation in a specialised department. They completed self-administered questionnaires of alexithymia (TAS-20), of central symptoms of the eating disorders (EDI), and of anxious and depressive affects (SCL-90). Anxiety and social avoidance were assessed in the course of a standardised interview (LSAS). These measures were performed at inclusion, and at 6-, 12- and 18-months' follow-up. The relationship between TAS-20 and EDI or LSAS total scale scores across the four time points was assessed using mixed-effects models, including anxiety, depression, BMI, anorexia subtype, and age as co-factors. Partial least square regression was used to refine this multivariate analysis at subscale level, at inclusion and 18 months. Robust associations between TAS-20 and EDI scores were found, independently from anxious and depressive scores, nutritional state and AN subtype. These effects appeared more particularly linked to the implication of the dimensions difficulties identifying and describing feelings, interpersonal mistrust, feelings of inadequacy and interoceptive awareness deficit. There was also a durable association between alexithymia and social anxiety and avoidance, after adjusting for the confounding effects of depression, and anxiety, and the state of starvation. Difficulties in describing feelings appeared particularly involved here. Thus alexithymia does appear as a factor in the persistence of disorders in AN, and difficulties identifying and describing feelings could compound the social difficulties and major the relational isolation of these patients. PMID:25443977
Wade, Tracey D.; Davidson, Susan; O'Dea, Jennifer A.
Investigates the enjoyment and perceived value associated with two interventions designed to reduce risk factors for eating disorders in young adolescents, a media literacy program or a self-esteem program. Overall, the media literacy program was the intervention preferred by students. Students in both interventions said that they had learnt to…
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The 'Fragebogen zum Essverhalten' (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour ('cognitive restraint', 'disinhibition' and 'hunger') as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40-79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p?0.001). Older individuals showed significantly higher mean scores than the younger ones in the domain of cognitive restraint, but lower mean scores in disinhibition and hunger (p?0.001). 45.1% of the males and 69.9% of the females reported specific problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. PMID:25889877
Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim
Eating problems are highly prevalent and seem to show continuity in children. Nevertheless, the effect of different maternal and paternal feeding practices on changes in these problems is not fully understood yet. This study examines short-term continuity in primary school children's overeating, loss of control (over eating), restraint and…
Suzane Mota Marques, Costa; Paula Martins, Horta; Luana Caroline, dos Santos.
Full Text Available Publicidad de los alimentos y la exposición a la televisión: Influencia sobre la conducta alimentaria y el estado nutricional de los niños y adolescentes. El estudio objetivó evaluar la influencia de la publicidad de alimentos y la exposición a la televisión en la conducta alimentaria y estado nutri [...] cional de niños y adolescentes. El estudio es transversal con 116 estudiantes de una escuela privada en Brasil. Información sociodemográfica y de la condición de salud fueron evaluadas. Antropometria, el consumo de alimentos, practica de actividad física, hábitos de ver la televisión y el comportamiento en relación con la publicidad de alimentos también fueron investigados. Entre los resultados, una relación de 1:2 fue identificada entre el número de televisores por hogar y los residentes. El exceso de peso estaba presente en 25,8% de los sujetos y 66,4% de ellos veían la televisión mientras comían las refecciones. Los niños fueron expuestos a la televisión por un promedio de 3,0 horas al día (95% IC: 2,9-3,6). Se observó una asociación directa entre la atracción de los alimentos anunciados y la compra del producto (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were eva [...] luated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p
Ma Teresa Rivera-Gallardo
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgico de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños.Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.
Ma Teresa, Rivera-Gallardo; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Jorge Armando, Barriguete-Meléndez.
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgic [...] o de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños. Abstract in english Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cor [...] tical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.
Slof-Op't Landt, Margarita C T; Bartels, Meike; Middeldorp, Christel M; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Furth, Eric F; Meulenbelt, Ingrid
Genes are involved in eating disorders (EDs) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom of different types of EDs. Perfectionism and impulsivity are potential risk factors for EDs. TPH2 (tryptophan hydroxylase 2) SNP rs1473473 was previously associated with anorexia nervosa and EDs characterized by SV. Could perfectionism or impulsivity be underlying the association between rs1473473 and EDs? Genetic association between TPH2 SNP rs1473473 and perfectionism or impulsivity was first evaluated in a random control group (N = 512). The associations obtained in this control group were subsequently tested in a group of patients with an ED (N = 267). The minor allele of rs1473473 (OR = 1.49) was more frequent in impulsive controls, but also in impulsive patients with an ED (OR = 1.83). The largest effect was found in the patients with an ED characterized by SV (OR = 2.51, p = 0.02). Genetic variation at the TPH2 gene appeared to affect impulsivity which, in turn, might predispose to the SV phenotype. PMID:23239044
Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop applicat...
Baker, R.; Robertson, N.; Farooqi, A.
OBJECTIVE--To identify the factors influencing participation in a single topic audit initiated by a medical audit advisory group. DESIGN--Interview and questionnaire survey of general practitioners who had been invited to take part in an audit of vitamin B-12. SETTING--All 147 general practices in Leicestershire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Aspects of structure, attitude, and behaviour that influenced participation or non-participation. RESULTS--75 practices completed the audit, 49 withdrew after ...
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta
The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...
This PhD thesis contributes with knowledge about adolescent healthy eating by studying consumer socialisation, social influence and behavioural change in relation to adolescent healthy eating. The introduction provides the important reasons for studying adolescents and healthy eating and explains that a more holistic approach is needed in order to respond to the rising levels of overweight among adolescents. It is important to understand the development of and influences on adolescent healthy ea...
Ku, L; Sonenstein, F L; Pleck, J H
Analyses of a nationally representative survey of 1,880 15- to 19-year-old men were conducted to examine factors associated with (a) the age when first sexual intercourse occurred and (b) whether a condom or other contraceptive method was used at first intercourse. Discrete time-event history models assessed factors influencing their age until first intercourse. Black males began sexual activity significantly earlier than white or Hispanic males. Males who had been held back in school also be...
Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi
The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...
Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.
Russon, Anne E; Compost, Alain; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes
This paper presents new evidence of fish eating in rehabilitant orangutans living on two Bornean islands and explores its contributions to understanding nonhuman primates' aquatic fauna eating and the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating. We assessed the prevalence of orangutans' fish eating, their techniques for obtaining fish, and possible contributors (ecology, individual differences, humans). We identified 61 events in which orangutans tried to obtain fish, including 19 in which they ate fish. All the orangutans were juvenile-adolescent; all the fish were disabled catfish; and most were obtained and eaten in drier seasons in or near shallow, slow-moving water. Orangutans used several techniques to obtain fish (inadvertent, opportunistic and deliberate hand-catch, scrounge, tool-assisted catch) and probably learned them in that order. Probable contributing factors were orangutan traits (age, pre-existing water or tool skills), island features (social density, water accessibility), and local human fishing. Our review of primates' aquatic fauna eating showed orangutans to be one of 20 species that eat aquatic fauna, one of nine confirmed to eat fish, and one of three that use tools to obtain fish. Primate fish eating is also site-specific within species, partly as a function of habitat (e.g., marine-freshwater, seasonality) and human influence (possibly fostered eating fish or other aquatic fauna at most sites, clearly induced it at some). At tropical freshwater sites, fish eating occurred most often in drier seasons around shallow water. Orangutan and primate findings are generally consistent with Stewart's (2010) reconstruction of the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating, but suggest that it, and tool-assisted fish catching, were possible much earlier. PMID:25038033
Johnny Sue Reynolds
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of age on customer dining experience levels at Japanese restaurants in the United States and to determine if there are differences in influential factors between customers of different ages when they eat at Japanese restaurants. To address the objectives of the study, customers who patronized Japanese restaurants were asked to rank the importance of 20 dining experience factors. Researchers give recommendations for restaurateurs to bridge the gap between customers of different age groups in order to gain a competitive edge in today’s highly competitive restaurant market.
Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole
Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…
Trastornos alimentarios maternos y su influencia en la conducta alimentaria de sus hijas(os) / Maternal eating disorders and their influence on eating behavior of the children: a review of the literature
Rosa, Behar A; Marcelo, Arancibia M.
Full Text Available Antecedentes: Existe concluyente evidencia de la influencia de madres con trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) en sus hijas (os). Objetivo: Analizar descriptivamente los diversos aspectos de madres con historia de TCA y sus implicancias en la nutrición, crecimiento y desarrollo de sus hijas ( [...] os). Método: Se efectuó una revisión de la literatura disponible en PubMed y textos de consulta especializados. Resultados: Las madres con TCA previo o actual muestran patrones alimentarios restrictivos, un vínculo afectivo deficitario con sus propias madres, exhiben más comorbilidades psiquiátricas, principalmente depresión y ansiedad; además sentimientos de culpa y vergüenza, cese precoz de la lactancia, elevado control del consumo de alimentos de sus hijas (os) y/o presión para comer, horarios irregulares de comidas, dieta desequilibrada y monótona, preferencia por la delgadez y actitud crítica sobre la silueta corporal de sus hijas (os). La lactancia representa un período crítico para la irrupción o recaída de un TCA por la adaptación que implican los cambios característicos de su figura corporal durante el embarazo. Conclusiones: Existe una particular relación entre la presencia de un TCA materno y su ocurrencia en hijas (os), considerándose un factor de riesgo para su desarrollo. Abstract in english Background: There is conclusive evidence about the influence of mothers with eating disorders (ED) on their children. Objective: To describe different aspects about mothers with ED and its implications in the feeding, growing and development in their children. Method: A review of specialized textboo [...] ks and the available literature in PubMed was made. Results: Mothers with previous or present ED show restrictive eating patterns, a deficient affective bond with their own mothers, exhibit more psychiatric comorbidities, mainly depression and anxiety; in addition, feelings of guilt and shame, early cessation of breastfeeding, high control of food consumption of their children, and/or pressure them to eat, irregular mealtimes, unbalanced and monotonous meals, proneness to slimness, a critical attitude about the body shape of their daughters. Breastfeeding implies a critical period for the irruption or relapse of an ED due to the adjustment to the characteristic body shape changes during pregnancy. Conclusions: There is a particular relationship between a maternal ED and its occurrence in their children, and it can be considered a risk factor for its development.
Scaglioni, Silvia; Salvioni, Michela; Galimberti, Cinzia
The present paper is a review of available data on effects of parental feeding attitudes and styles on child nutritional behaviour. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. There is evidence for existence of some innate, automatic mechanism that regulate appetite. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience. There are mechanisms of taste development: mere exposure, medicine effect, flavour learning, flavour nutrient learning. Parents play a pivotal role in the development of their child's food preferences and energy intake, with research indicating that certain child feeding practices, such as exerting excessive control over what and how much children eat, may contribute to childhood overweight. Mothers are of particular interest on children's eating behaviour, as they have been shown to spend significantly more time than fathers in direct interactions with their children across several familial situations.A recent paper describes two primary aspects of control: restriction, which involves restricting children's access to junk foods and restricting the total amount of food, and pressure, which involves pressuring children to eat healthy foods (usually fruits and vegetables) and pressuring to eat more in general. The results showed significant correlations between parent and child for reported nutritional behaviour like food intake, eating motivations, and body dis- and satisfaction. Parents create environments for children that may foster the development of healthy eating behaviours and weight, or that may promote overweight and aspects of disordered eating. In conclusion positive parental role model may be a better method for improving a child's diet than attempts at dietary control. PMID:18257948
Warschburger, P; Krentz, E M; Helfert, S
Eating disorders are serious, hard to treat and widely spread. Hence it was the goal of the present project to develop and evaluate a universal preventive concept (Potsdam Prevention at Schools). The POPS programme focuses in an interactive manner on topics such as coping with social pressure, strengthening the media and problem-solving competence and healthy eating. Results from the ITT analysis support its efficacy, even over the course of one year in terms of reduction of body dissatisfaction, perceived media pressure, internalising of the media beauty ideal and disordered eating. PMID:24293024
Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.
A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…
Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.
Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)
Full Text Available Language learning strategies refer to techniques used by language learners for the purpose of regulating their own learning. Research on learning strategies has always been a complex issue, because many factors come to play a role when learners are developing and using their learning strategies. To investigate the variations in the use of strategies among EFL students, this paper attempts to analyze internal factors (including learners’ age, intelligence, personality and cognitive style and external factors (such as teachers’ teaching approaches and materials that may influence the use of language learning strategies for EFL learners.
Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.
Atria, Catherine Graczyk
Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.
Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.
McFarland, Dan F; Tyson, John T; Van Saun, Robert J
In this article, the important role of the cow's environment is addressed, namely, the facilities that provide opportunities to eat, sleep, drink water, and socially interact. Research and anecdotal observation suggest that cow comfort is a critical factor to success of any nutritional program. PMID:25441540
Silva, Luiz; Gomes, António Rui; MARTINS Carla
This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith...
Burrows, A; COOPER, M
OBJECTIVES: To investigate concerns about weight, shape and eating, dietary restraint, self-esteem and symptoms of depression in overweight girls. To investigate the relationship between concerns and self-esteem and depressive symptoms in this group. METHOD: Eighteen overweight girls and 18 average-weight girls completed the child version of the Eating Disorders Examination, the Harter Self-Perception Profile and the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire. RESULTS: Overweight girls had more c...
Lachat, C.; Khanh, L. N. B.; Khan, N. C.; Dung, N. Q.; Anh, N. D. V.; Roberfroid, D.; Kolsteren, P.
BACKGROUND: Out-of-home (OH) eating in developed countries is associated with suboptimal dietary intakes, but evidence is scarce on the situation in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional contribution of OH eating and related socioeconomic determinants in Vietnamese adolescents. DESIGN: A 24-h recall was used to collect food intake data in a cross-sectional study of 1172 adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Multilevel analysis com...
Purpose: To identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Patients and methods: We performed a follow-up study on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated from 1984 to 1998. 18/38 patients were resected. Irradiated volume included the primary tumor (or tumor bed) and regional lymph nodes. Thirty-seven patients received in addition chemotherapy consisting of mitoxantrone, 5-fluorouracil and cis-platin, either i.v. (14/38) or i.a. (23/38). The influence of treatment related factors on the overall survival was tested. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model (?/?=25 Gy) and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. Results: Treatment factors influencing overall survival were resection (p=0.02), overall treatment time (p=0.03) and biologically effective dose (p<0.002). Total dose and kind of chemotherapy had no significant influence. Treatment volume had a negative correlation (r=-0.5, p=0.06) with overall survival, without any correlation between tumor size, tumor stage, and treatment volume. In multivariate analysis only biologically effective dose remained significant (p=0.02). Conclusions: Among with surgery, biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatic carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatments splits in radiation therapy. (orig.)
Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie
Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625
Silva, Janiara David; Silva, Amanda Bertolini de Jesus; de Oliveira, Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff; Nemer, Aline Silva de Aguiar
The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP). The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet. PMID:23175415
There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.
There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Mehmet Ferit Can
Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and ...
Franko, Debra L; Coen, Emilie J; Roehrig, James P; Rodgers, Rachel F; Jenkins, Amy; Lovering, Meghan E; Dela Cruz, Stephanie
Latina women are vulnerable to poor body image, eating disorders, and obesity, particularly during the college years. This study sought to identify common cultural antecedents of these concerns in order to inform the development of prevention programs for this population. Six groups of university students who identified as Latina (N=27) discussed cultural aspects of body image, eating disorders, and obesity. Thematic analysis identified four main themes: (a) cultural disparities in body-ideal, including the influence of the media and acculturation issues; (b) messages about body shape and weight received by family, peers, and society; (c) difficulties making healthy eating and physical activity choices as a function of college life; and (d) the influence of peers and potential male partners on body satisfaction and body-ideals. These results have implications for the development of programs targeting body dissatisfaction and risk for eating disorders and obesity in Latina college women. PMID:22609033
Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…
Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W
PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399
The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to answer the question: “What are the most common factors influencing effectiveness of internal communications faced by Polish organizations?” This article discusses the role of internal communications practices leading to enhancement of organizational performance. In particular, it concentrates on factors impeding the flow of information inside the organization. Later on, the article presents empirical findings. Methodology: Contemporary public relations, internal communications and employee communications texts have been reviewed to identify how internal communications is defined in literatur? and how it influences organization success. Relevant existing research was reviewed and primary research was conducted. The latter consisted of 29 in-depth interviews with employees from various Polish organizations. Results/findings: The article presents interesting results that can be especially useful for internal communications specialists and managers. It is recommended that to gain a fuller picture of the issues underlying the findings, quantitative research with relevant employees should be undertaken.
Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.
Full Text Available Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components’ number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population, patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessiveness–compulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. Keywords: psychiatric comorbidity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, SAFA test
Ceccon Eliane; Huante Pilar; Rincón Emanuel
Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succes...
Arman, S; Soltani, M.
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...
Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)
Objectives of the Study: The aim of the research is to define and assess the importance of the factors that influence online shoppers' choices of merchants. The previous literature mainly focuses on loyalty of users to websites and online purchase decision-making process within one website. No literature studies the situation under which the customer has already decided the item to purchase and needs to compare different merchants selling the same item. Since this situation is very common...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifestyle-related behaviors having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, playing outside and watching TV have been indicated to have an association with childhood overweight, but research among young children (below 6?years old is limited. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between these four behaviors and overweight among young children. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data on 5-year-old children (n?=?7505 collected for the study ‘Be active, eat right’. Age and sex-specific cut-off points for body mass index of the International Obesity Task Force were used to assess overweight/obesity. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results For children whom had breakfast 2 hours/day, the odds ratio (OR for having overweight (obesity included was, respectively, 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.13-1.95, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51. There was a positive association between the number of risk behaviors present and the risk for having overweight. For children with 3 or all of the risk behaviors having breakfast 2 glasses/day, playing outside 2 hs/day, the OR for overweight was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11-2.71 (all models adjusted for children’s sex and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion Given the positive association between the number of behavioral risk factors and overweight, further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral counseling of parents of toddlers in preventing childhood overweight. In the meantime we recommend physicians to target all four behaviors for counseling during well-child visits.
Hábitos y Trastornos Alimenticios asociados a factores Socio-demográficos, Físicos y Conductuales en Universitarios de Cartagena, Colombia / Eating habits and disorders associated to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors in university students, Cartagena Colombia
Shirly, Sáenz Duran; Farith, González Martínez; Shyrley, Díaz Cárdenas.
Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la prevalencia de hábitos y desórdenes alimenticios en universitarios y relacionarlos con factores socio-demográficos, físicos y conductuales. Diseño. Estudio de corte transversal. Emplazamiento. Municipio de Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participantes. Un total de 1.040 estudia [...] ntes de los programas diurnos y nocturnos de la Universidad de Cartagena. Mediciones principales. Se utilizó una encuesta estructurada para evaluar hábitos alimenticios y aspectos socio-demográficos, EAT-26 y SCOFF para trastornos alimenticios y escala de Holmes and Rahe para la susceptibilidad de enfermar. Se estimó la ocurrencia a través de prevalencias, las relaciones entre variables a través de razones de disparidad y el análisis multivariable mediante regresión logística nominal. Resultados. El motivo más frecuente para no alimentarse bien fue la falta de costumbre y tiempo. La susceptibilidad de enfermar fue del 23,1% y el riesgo de anorexia y bulimia del 14,2%. En el análisis multivariable el mejor modelo con el SCOFF mostró significación estadística con edad (OR: 1,86), susceptibilidad de enfermar (OR: 1,77), dieta (OR: 2,81), problemas de colon (OR: 1,8) y no realizar actividad física (OR: 3,04). Conclusiones. Los hábitos y trastornos de alimentación en estudiantes universitarios están influidos por factores relacionados con el quehacer universitario, siendo necesario considerar este comportamiento alimentario como un problema relevante que interactúa con el buen desarrollo de las actividades académicas. Abstract in english Objective. To describe the prevalence of eating habits and disorders in university students and their relationship with socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors. Design. Cross-sectional study Setting. Municipality of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participants. 1040 students in day and ev [...] ening programmes at the University of Cartagena. Main measurements. A structured questionnaire was used to assess eating habits and socio-demographic factors; EAT-26 and SCOFF for eating disorders and the Holmes and Rahe scale for the susceptibility to disease. Occurrence was estimated by prevalence, assuming confidence 95% intervals. Relationships between variables were evaluated using odds ratios and multivariate analysis using nominal logistic regression. Results. The most common reason for not eating well was the lack of habit and time. Susceptibility to disease was 23.1% and the risk of anorexia and bulimia 14.2%. The best model for logistic regression with SCOFF showed statistical significance with age (OR: 1.86), susceptibility to disease (OR: 1.77), diet (OR: 2.81), colon problems (OR: 1.8), and lack of physical activity (OR: 3.04). Conclusions. Eating habits and disorders in university students are influenced by factors related to university life. This behavior should be considered as a serious problem that one that interferes with the smooth running of academic activities.
Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Andreeva, Valentina A; Sautron, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine
Intuitive eating is an adaptive dietary behavior that emphasizes eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) measures such attitudes and behaviors. The aim of the present study was to adapt the IES-2 to the French context and to test its psychometric properties in 335 women and 297 men participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. We evaluated the construct validity of the IES-2 by testing hypotheses with regard to its factor structure, relationships with scores of the revised 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and differences between "a priori" relevant subgroups. First, the exploratory factor analysis revealed three main dimensions: Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Unconditional Permission to Eat. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis upheld the 3-factor solution influenced by a broader intuitive eating dimension. IES-2 total score was negatively related to cognitive restraint (r?=?-0.31, P?eating (r?=?-0.58, P?eating (r?=?-0.40, P?Eating for Physical Reasons, and Unconditional Permission to Eat subscales. Current or former dieters had lower scores on the IES-2 total scale and on all subscales than did those who had never dieted (all P?eating behaviors in empirical and epidemiological studies in the general population. PMID:25239401
Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J
The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status an...
Patricia Couceiro; Eric Slywitch; Franciele Lenz
This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA) and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil) allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated ...
Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.
Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ? 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264
Low, B L
The main forms of eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia nervosa and obesity. The clinical features, aetiology, treatment and prognosis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa are described to highlight the similarities and differences between these two conditions. Both conditions affect predominantly the young female population with body image disturbance as one of the core symptoms. Whilst the body weight of anorexics are by definition low, most bulimics have normal or near normal body weight. Sufferers of anorexia nervosa tend to deny their illness while those with bulimia are often miserable and acutely aware of their eating difficulties. The aetiological factors in both conditions overlap to a large extent. The outcome of treatment for bulimia is reportedly better than that of anorexia nervosa. Obese people often become depressed and anxious as a result of low self-esteem causing them to seek psychiatric treatment. The severely obese who are placed on very low calorie diets may develop adverse emotional disturbances whilst weight gain may follow a major depressive illness or develop as a side effect of psychotropic medications. A subgroup of the obese population engage in frequent binge eating and preliminary criteria are being developed for this condition called "binge eating disorder". Behaviour therapy is the treatment of choice for obesity. Other forms of treatment include individual and group psychotherapy, use of appetite suppressants and in the severely obese, surgical methods. PMID:7761892
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby
Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality rates in a sample of ED patients (n=998) with a mean follow-up of 12 years. This was compared to previous data from the same catchment area before a multidisciplinary centre was established. The standardi...
Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.
Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada
The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917
Garner, Ashton; Davis-Becker, Kendra; Fischer, Sarah
Compensatory exercise (exercise performed in an effort to control weight/shape or in response to caloric intake) and thinness expectancies (beliefs that thinness will improve the overall quality of life) are strongly linked to the development, maintenance, severity, and outcome of eating disorders. There is little literature, however, examining the relationship between compensatory exercise and thinness expectancies. The goal of the current study was to examine whether thinness expectancies contribute significant variance in the endorsement of excessive exercise over and above binge eating, restraint, and shape and weight concerns. A total of 677 undergraduate women (mean age=18.73) completed self-report measures of thinness expectancies and eating disorder symptoms (TREI and EDE-Q). There was a significant association between thinness expectancies and frequency of compensatory exercise behavior. Restraint and subjective binge episodes accounted for significant variance in compensatory exercise. Frequency of objective binge episodes did not, nor did endorsement of thinness expectancies. These findings suggest a potential profile of individuals engaging in compensatory exercise as individuals who actively restrict their diets, feel as if they have binged when they violate those restrictions, and feel the need to excessively exercise to compensate for the subjective binges. PMID:25064277
Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.
Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih
Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.
Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk
How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.
M. L., Portela de Santana; H., da Costa Ribeiro Junior; M., Mora Giral; R. M.ª, Raich.
Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes [...] acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and ris [...] k factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.
M. L. Portela de Santana
Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones.Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.
Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong
Body surveillance and body shame are features of objectified body consciousness (OBC) that have been linked to disordered eating, yet the evidence base is largely cross-sectional and limited to samples in certain Western countries. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these factors contribute to the prediction of eating disturbances independent of conceptually related risk factors emphasized within other sociocultural accounts. In this prospective study, body surveillance, body shame, and features of complementary sociocultural models (i.e., perceived appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons, negative affect, body dissatisfaction) were assessed as risk factors for and concomitants of eating disturbances over time. University-age, mainland Chinese women (n = 2144) and men (n = 1017) completed validated measures of eating-disorder pathology and hypothesized risk factors at baseline (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Among women, elevations on T1 measures of sociocultural-model features predicted more T2 eating disturbances, independent of T1 disturbances. After controlling for other T1 predictors, body surveillance and shame made modest unique contributions to the model. Finally, heightened T2 body dissatisfaction, media, and interpersonal appearance pressure, negative affect, and body shame predicted concomitant increases in T2 eating concerns. For men, T1 features of sociocultural accounts (negative affect, body dissatisfaction) but not OBC predicted T2 eating disturbances, along with attendant elevations in T2 negative affect, interpersonal appearance pressure, and body shame. Implications are discussed for theory and intervention that target disordered eating. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26191981
Jovanovi? Snežana T.
Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.
Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L
In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182
Young, E M; Fors, S W
This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and selected family factors on consumption of a healthy breakfast and lunch and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was completed by a representative sample (n = 3,155) of students from all high schools in a suburban county near Atlanta, Georgia. Students consuming healthy breakfasts, healthy lunches, and more fruits and vegetables were more likely to be White or Asian (lunch/fruits and vegetables only), better able to communicate with parents or guardians on serious issues, closely monitored by their parents, living with one or both parents, spending less time at home without adults, perceiving themselves at about the right weight or underweight (lunch/breakfast only), male (lunch/breakfast only), and in 9th or 10th grade (breakfast only). These results suggest family factors should be considered in the development and implementation of nutrition interventions. PMID:11816396
Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh
Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.
Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance
Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.
Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Niva, Mari
Background/objectives: Daily practices related to eating are embedded in the social and cultural contexts of everyday life. How are such factors associated with diet quality relative to motivational factors? And, are associations universal or context-specific? We analyze the relationship between diet quality and the following practices: social company while eating, the regularity and duration of eating and the activity of watching TV while eating. Subjects/methods: A cross-sectional, questionnai...
... in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. People with eating disorders typically become obsessed with ... expect eating disorder rates to have increased as obesity has in the past few decades, yet anorexia ...
Adriana, Amaya Hernández; Juan Manuel, Mancilla Díaz; Georgina L., Alvarez Rayón; Mayaro, Ortega Luyando; Ma. Leticia, Bautista Díaz.
Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue conocer las propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Influencia de Pares sobre la Preocupación Alimentaria en mujeres y hombres mexicanos de entre 10 y 19 años de edad. La muestra fue no probabilística de tipo intencional, conformada por 917 participantes (49 [...] 8 mujeres y 419 hombres). Se realizaron tres piloteos, a partir de estos se consideró necesario derivar dos versiones, una para cada sexo. Se obtuvo un alpha de Cronbach de .94 y .92 para la versión femenina y masculina, respectivamente. El análisis factorial exploratorio arrojó tres factores, los cuales son: mensajes, popularidad con el sexo opuesto e interacción con pares del mismo sexo, es preciso señalar que a pesar de ello ambas versiones no son equiparables. Finalmente, se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio para cada versión, femenina y masculina, que corroboró el modelo factorial propuesto en el análisis exploratorio. A partir de los resultados obtenidos es posible concluir que ambas versiones del inventario constituyen una herramienta útil para evaluar la influencia de pares sobre la preocupación alimentaria. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to know the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns in Mexican female and male population among 10 and 19 years old. The sample was non-probabilistic, composed by 917 participants (females 498 and males 419). After three testing pilo [...] ts it was necessary to carried out two versions, one for each gender. Cronbach's alpha of .94 was obtained for female and .92 for male version. The exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors, which are: messages, likability with peers of the opposite sex and interaction with peers of the same sex, however it is worthy to note that these two versions are not comparable. Finally, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for each version, female and male, which confirmed the factorial model proposed in the exploratory analysis. Based on these results it is possible to conclude that both versions of this inventory are a useful tool to evaluate peer influence on eating concerns.
Antonette, Owen; Fasloen, Adams; Denise, Franszen.
Full Text Available STUDY AIM: To determine which models are used by occupational therapists who attended a workshop on the Kawa Model, in their practice, the demographic factors related to the use of these models and the reasons why they use various models in their practice. METHOD: A descriptive, single case study me [...] thod was used with embedded units. The research instrument consisted of a survey questionnaire with closed and some semi-structured questions. RESULTS: The characteristics of therapists influenced their use of models. This was determined by their educational background, their level of experience and exposure in the clinical field and their work setting. Time constraints and the nature of the presenting clients also played a role. The clinicians' overall attitude towards new theory and their habituated ways were highlighted as constant factors influencing model use. The use of models provides structure and assists occupational therapists to produce proper, profession-specific, scientifically-based intervention. Models taught during undergraduate studies need to be relevant to address clients' needs in their specific context.
S., Kraatz; W., Berg; R., Brunsch.
Full Text Available The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of [...] dairy farming is assessed on the basis of direct and indirect energy inputs. The comparison of different replacement rates and milk yields shows clearly that both have a considerable influence on the energy intensity of dairy farming. The feed energy requirement/kg milk produced is decreased with an increase in individual performance of the animals. Nevertheless, this effect diminishes gradually with milk yields higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year. Additionally, energy demand increases with higher replacement rates of cows. Milk yields higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year can clearly not compensate for the increase in the cumulative energy demand. Therefore milk yields considerably higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year are not advisable from the view-point of the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply. A decreasing service life of the dairy cows (increasing replacement rate) causes a higher energy demand per kg milk, but its influence is only marginal.
Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Ferrer, Marta; Caqueo-Urízar, A.; Moreno, E.
The aim of this article was to study the effect of virtual-reality exposure to situations that are emotionally significant for patients with eating disorders (ED) on the stability of body-image distortion and body-image dissatisfaction. A total of 85 ED patients and 108 non-ED students were randomly exposed to four experimental virtual environments: a kitchen with low-calorie food, a kitchen with high-calorie food, a restaurant with low-calorie food, and a restaurant with high-calorie food. I...
Kim, Sangwon F.
Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet develop...
... helplessness, worthlessness, and poor self-image often accompany eating disorders. Other emotional disorders. Other mental health problems, like depression or anxiety, occur along with eating disorders. Stressful ...
Popadi? Silvija M.
Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13, operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1, the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS, and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05 influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.
Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in...
Wilson, G Terence
The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire
de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Romon, Monique; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Heude, Barbara; Basdevant, Arnaud; Charles, Marie Aline
The purpose of this study was to examine, in a general population, the resemblance in eating behaviour between adolescents and their parents. This study was based on the first examination of a community-based epidemiological study in Northern France. Subjects were offspring aged 14-22 years (135 boys and 125 girls) and their parents (174 fathers and 205 mothers). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18) identified three aspects of eating behaviour: cognitive restraint of eating, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating. Familial resemblance in eating behaviour was measured by partial Spearman's correlations, adjusted for age and body mass index. Sons' uncontrolled eating was positively related to fathers' cognitive restraint of eating (r = 0.36), but not to fathers' uncontrolled eating (r = 0.07), nor to mothers' eating behaviour. Sons' cognitive restraint of eating was related to no parental eating behaviour scores. In daughters, cognitive restraint of eating was positively related to mothers' uncontrolled eating (r = 0.26), but not to mothers' cognitive restraint of eating (r = 0.13). Daughters' uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were positively associated with the same scores in mothers. Finally, daughters' eating behaviour was not related to fathers' eating behaviour. In conclusion, correlations in eating behaviour were higher with the parent of the same gender, and eating behaviours in adolescents seem to reflect opposition to parents' behaviour more than familial resemblance. PMID:19292751
Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A
Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (Pmeat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (Pmeat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582
Reina, Samantha A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Mooreville, Mira; Courville, Amber B; Brady, Sheila M.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A
Parental feeding practices and sociocultural pressures theoretically influence eating behavior. Yet, whether these factors relate to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is unknown. We assessed if sociocultural pressures were associated with EAH among 90 adolescents (Mage = 15.27, SD = 1.39; 48% female). Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Adolescents completed the Perceived Sociocultural Pressures Scale, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Multidim...
Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student?s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky?s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky?s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor?patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student?s personality.
Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; de Jersey, Susan J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ) in an Australian community sample of mother-infant dyads. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between the BEBQ subscales and infant gender, weight and current feeding mode. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) utilising structural equation modelling examined the hypothesised four-factor model of the BEBQ. Only mothers (N=467) who completed all items on the BEBQ (infant age: M=17 weeks, SD= weeks) were included in the analysis. The original four-factor model did not provide an acceptable fit to the data due to poor performance of the Satiety responsiveness factor. Removal of this factor (three items) resulted in a well-fitting three-factor model. Cronbach's ? was acceptable for the Enjoyment of food (?=0.73), Food responsiveness (?=0.78) and Slowness in eating (?=0.68) subscales but low for the Satiety responsiveness (?=0.56) subscale. Enjoyment of food was associated with higher infant weight whereas Slowness in eating and Satiety responsiveness were both associated with lower infant weight. Differences on all four subscales as a function of feeding mode were observed. This study is the first to use CFA to evaluate the hypothesised factor structure of the BEBQ. Findings support further development work on the Satiety responsiveness subscale in particular, but confirm the utility of the Enjoyment of food, Food responsiveness and Slowness in eating subscales. PMID:25009080
Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.
Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.
Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)
Dennehy John J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible ? lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of ? lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.
Walsh, B. Timothy
A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the...
Stein, A.; Woolley, H; Murray, L.; COOPER, P; Cooper, S.; Noble, F; Affonso, N; Fairburn, CG
BACKGROUND: Certain styles of parental controlling behaviour influence child development. Work with mothers with eating disorders suggests that they may be particularly controlling of their infants. AIMS: To examine the nature and specificity of maternal controlling behaviour in mothers with eating disorders compared with mothers who had experienced postnatal depression and a healthy comparison group. METHOD: Mothers with eating disorders (n=34), postnatal depression (n=39) and a healthy comp...
Full Text Available The health consideration of microwave radiation has been the subject of scientific investigations particularly in the last decades. But there is a few information about the health effect of micro waved food consuming for a long time. The aim of this trial is to evaluate blood iron and also plasma transferrin as a protein transporter of iron in rat after eating microwaved food for a period of 1 year. For this study 64 young Sprague Dawley rats in 4 groups, each 16 (8 males and 8 females, 2 treated and 2 controls, were used under the standard conditions with free access to tap water and standard food. The 2 treated groups were consuming standard rat food pellets heated by 2450 MHz microwave radiation in 30 min for group (A and 5 min for group (B. One of the control group (C were consuming same pellets heated by electric oven at 200°C for 30 min and another control group (H were eating the food pellets without any heating by microwave or electric oven. Animals were observed daily and the body weight and food and water consumption were assessed weekly too. In the end of the study the blood samples were taken from the heart of animals after 12 h fasting under ether anesthesia and the serum iron and transferrin analysis was performed on the blood samples. According to the statistical analysis, the level of iron was significantly decreased in all treated groups in comparison with control group of (C and significant decreasing of iron, in female groups of B and male groups of A, in comparison with control (H. But transferrin level was significantly increased in female groups of A and B and male group of A in comparison with control (C and only male group of A in comparison with control (H.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Student retention becomes one of the most significant issues that administrators of colleges and universities must deal with in today?s highly competitive market. Approach: In fact retaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out its mission. A high rate of attrition is not only a fiscal problem for schools, but a symbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose. Results: There are many ways to keep students retain at the same college until graduation, some easier than people may think but great changes will have to be made in order for schools to complete these transformations. This study is a descriptive study about the factors that influence student retention rate at a higher educational institution. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the previous studies of the similar topic and a random sample survey, this study identifies the possible push and pull factors that promote student leave from a specific college and transfer to other colleges to continue their college studies, it probes the implementable solutions to help the college to maintain and increase the student retention rate.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.
Striegel-Moore, RH; Fairburn, CG; Wilfley, DE; Pike, KM; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify in white women risk factors specific to binge-eating disorder (BED) and for psychiatric disorders in general, and to compare black and white women on risk factors for BED. METHOD: A case-control design was used. Participants were recruited from the community and included 162 women who met DSM-IV criteria for BED and two comparison groups of women with no history of clinically significant eating disorder symptoms. The comparison women were matched to B...
Influência da periodização do treinamento sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares em nadadoras / Influence of training periodization on risk behaviors to eating disorders in female swimmers
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar a influência da periodização do treinamento sobre os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares (TA) em atletas do sexo feminino. Participaram 28 nadadoras com idade entre 12 e 16 anos. Utilizaram-se as subescalas do Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para avaliar co [...] mportamentos de risco para os TA. As nadadoras foram avaliadas ao longo de um macrociclo de treinamento, contendo as etapas: preparatório geral, preparatório específico, competitivo e polimento. Os achados demonstraram aumento da frequência dos comportamentos restritivos (p Abstract in english The objective was to analyze the influence of the periodization of training on risk behaviors to eating disorders (ED) in female athletes. Participated 28 swimmers aged between 12 and 16 years. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess risk behaviors to ED. The swimmers w [...] ere evaluated over a macro-cycle, comprising the following steps: overal preparation, specific preparation, competitive and tapering. The findings showed that frequency of restrictive (p
Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)
Shafran, Yigal; Wolowelsky, Joel B
The relationship between religion and eating concerns is receiving increasing empirical attention; and because religion seems to be important to many women with eating concerns, there is an interest in investigating the role religion plays and ways that religion might be employed therapeutically. Research has indicated that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors. An aspect of religiosity that is unique to Judaism is Halakhah, the system of Jewish Law and Ethics which informs the life of a religiously observant orthodox Jew. In this note, we briefly describe how Halakhah approaches the issues of appetite and satiety in eating meals. These might well contribute to the protective influence regarding tendencies for eating disorders in a person whose culture demands an awareness of and commitment to halakhic norms. Some of the most significant characteristics of disordered eating-lack of appetite, disturbed satiated response, withdrawal from community and decreased spirituality-correlate inversely with the halakhic requirements of eating a meal. We suggest that future studies of orthodox Jewish women measuring eating-order symptomatology and its correlation with religiosity might focus not only on well-known indicators of halakhic adherence such as kashrut and Sabbath observance, but also on the specifics of how their kosher meals are eaten, including ritually washing one's hands before eating, saying the appropriate blessing before and after eating, eating the required two meals on the Sabbath, and fully participating in the Passover Seder meal. PMID:23757253
Kuzmin Oleg Ye.
Full Text Available The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? – ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.
Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck FIATES
Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou identificar, em mulheres universitárias, aquelas que apresentavam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbios alimentares. Aplicou-se o questionário Eating Attitudes Test em 221 mulheres (114 estudantes de nutrição e 107 estudantes de outras áreas não relacionadas à saúde. Os resultados indicaram que 22,17% das estudantes apresentaram fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbio alimentar, sendo que no grupo de alunas da nutrição o percentual foi maior (25,43% do que no grupo de estudantes de outros cursos (18,69%. Embora a diferença não tenha sido significativa, as futuras nutricionistas podem estar inseridas em um ambiente mais favorável ao desenvolvimento de distúrbios alimentares.This work studied a group of 221 college women, to identify those who presented risk factors compatible with the development of eating disorders. The Eating Attitudes Test was applied to 221 women (114 nutrition students and 107 students from other areas, unrelated to the health field. Results indicated that 22.17% of the group presented risk factors in the development of an eating disorder. Nutrition students presented a higher percentage (25.43% than the other students (18.69%, but this difference was not significant. However, women who study nutrition may be exposed to an environment more propitious to the development of eating disorders.
Gelar Satya Budhi
Full Text Available This article attempts to identify factors affecting participation in payment of irrigation service fees. There are five variables comprising demographic and economic of land variables were tested to find the variables that influenced the participation significantly. The five variables tested consisted of age and formal education as demographic variables; land productivity, land size, and land tenure as the economic of land variables. The results showed that formal education (demographic variable had positive relationship and land size (economic of land variable had negative relationship with the participation. Positive relationship between formal education and participation in payment of irrigation service fees meant that the participation increased as farmers’ education increased. Meanwhile, negative relationship between land size and the participation in payment of irrigation service fees showed that the farmers’ participation wouldincrease as the land size owned by farmers decreased. In other words, participation in payment of irrigation service fees was higher among farmers with small lands rather than that among farmers with large lands.
Hannah M. W., Salim; Andre R. O., Cavalcanti.
Full Text Available O código genético é degenerado, isto é, o mesmo amino ácido pode ser codificado por vários codons. Apesar de codificarem o mesmo amino ácido, estes codons sinônimos não são utilizados da mesma forma em genomas diferentes, e mesmo em um único genoma o padrão de uso dos codons sinônimos pode variar mu [...] ito entre os genes, ou ainda ao longo de um único gene. Com a recente introdução de seqüências genômicas completas as razões destes desvios no uso de codons estão começando a ser entendidas. Neste artigo nós vamos apresentar alguns dos fatores propostos para as variações no uso de codons sinônimos e as forças seletivas que podem influenciar tais variações. Abstract in english The genetic code is degenerate, i.e. some amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. Although coding for the same amino acid, synonymous codons are not equally used in different genomes, and even in a single genome the synonymous codon usage can vary widely among genes, or even along the gene [...] sequences. With the recent advent of full genome sequences we are starting to unravel the reasons for these deviations. In this review we will cover some of the proposed factors that might cause different codon usage bias and the selective forces influencing it.
Full Text Available La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria está aumentando en los países industrializados y hay evidencia de que son las mujeres jóvenes las que tienen un mayor riesgo para desarrollar este tipo de patologías. Esa es la razón por la que los programas de prevención e interven [...] ción son tan importantes. Para desarrollar tales programas es necesario identificar los factores de riesgo relevantes que contribuyen a la aparición de este trastorno. En la presente investigación se analizan variables sociales relacionadas con el riesgo a desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (comparaciones sociales, actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia y la ansiedad social) en una muestra no clínica de 375 mujeres. Los resultados muestran que la comparación social está directa e indirectamente (a través de la ansiedad social) relacionada de forma positiva con el riesgo para desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, mientras que las actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia lo hace de forma indirecta (a través de la ansiedad social) y positiva con los problemas de la conducta alimentaria. Finalmente, se discute la importancia de incluir estas variables sociales en los programas de prevención e intervención. Abstract in english Eating disorders prevalence's rates are increasing in Western countries and there is evidence to suggest that young women are at the highest risk of developing this kind of disorders. That is the reason why prevention and intervention programs are so important. To develop these types of programs it [...] is necessary to identify relevant risk factors contributing to this disorder. In the current research social risk variables to develop eating disorders (social comparisons, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance and social anxiety) have been measured in a 375 women non clinical sample. Results have shown that social comparisons are direct and indirect (trough social anxiety) positively related with the risk to develop eating disorders and that sociocultural attitudes toward appearance are just indirect (trough social anxiety) and positively related to eating disorders. Finally, the importance of including these social variables in prevention and intervention programs is discussed.
Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate eating behavior is high in athletes. However, little is known about the factors that affect this phenomenon in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction and level of psychological commitment to exercise (LPCE with inadequate eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports. Forty-seven female athletes practicing aesthetic sports (artistic gymnastics, synchronized swimming and high diving, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years, participated in the study. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to evaluate the risk behavior for eating disorders, body dissatisfaction and LPCE, respectively. Skinfold thickness was measured to calculate body fat percentage of the athletes. The results revealed a significant association between body dissatisfaction and eating behavior and between LPCE and risk behavior for eating disorders. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all variables, except for fat percentage, influenced the eating behavior of young athletes. This analysis also indicated an influence of body fat percentage and body dissatisfaction on CES scores. It was concluded that body dissatisfaction and LPCE are factors that predispose to risky eating behaviors in athletes from aesthetic sports.
Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; García-Cruz, Patricia; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Magallares, Alejandro; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada
The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP), as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight perception, perception of physical fitness, self-esteem, and food intake, as well as with weight control-related variables. A total of 281 participants (aged 18.38 ± 6.31) were studied. The factor analysis yielded three factors: cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE). The internal consistency of the TFEQ-SP was determined by means of Cronbach's ? coefficient, with values ranging between 0.75 and 0.87. Higher scores on CR were found in women (p obese participants (p < 0.001), participants with lower self-esteem (p < 0.05), participants who overestimated their weight (p < 0.001), participants who weighed themselves frequently (p < 0.001) and those who were about to go on a diet (p < 0.001). Higher EE scores were found in participants with lower self-esteem scores (p < 0.05), among participants with a poorer perception of their physical fitness (p < 0.01) and when participants were about to diet (p < 0.05). Higher scores on UE were observed in case of poorer perception of physical fitness (p < 0.05). The validation study of the TFEQ-SP meets the requirements for measuring the three different facets of eating behavior: CR, UE, and EE. PMID:25486370
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP, as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight perception, perception of physical fitness, self-esteem, and food intake, as well as with weight control-related variables. A total of 281 participants (aged 18.38 ± 6.31 were studied. The factor analysis yielded three factors: cognitive restraint (CR, uncontrolled eating (UE, and emotional eating (EE. The internal consistency of the TFEQ-SP was determined by means of Cronbach’s ? coefficient, with values ranging between 0.75 and 0.87. Higher scores on CR were found in women (p < 0.5, overweight/obese participants (p < 0.001, participants with lower self-esteem (p < 0.05, participants who overestimated their weight (p < 0.001, participants who weighed themselves frequently (p < 0.001 and those who were about to go on a diet (p < 0.001. Higher EE scores were found in participants with lower self-esteem scores (p < 0.05, among participants with a poorer perception of their physical fitness (p < 0.01 and when participants were about to diet (p < 0.05. Higher scores on UE were observed in case of poorer perception of physical fitness (p < 0.05. The validation study of the TFEQ-SP meets the requirements for measuring the three different facets of eating behavior: CR, UE, and EE.
Pedersen, Susanne; GrØnhØj, Alice
It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study hasa number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on children's healthy eating should be reinforced.
A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time
Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants\\' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people\\'s ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174
A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE principles into daily living and how these factors change over time
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people's ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174
Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bishop, Hillary L; Greaney, Mary L; Whiteley, Jessica A
Nontraditional college students (older, part-time, and/or working) have less healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors compared to traditional students, yet few health promotion efforts focus on nontraditional students. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore factors affecting nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional students. Fourteen semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nontraditional undergraduate students attending a large university. The sample had a median age of 25 (range, 21-64), 57% were men, 43% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 57% were employed (mean 22 hours/week). Data were coded using a systematic team-based approach. Consistent themes (mentioned by 4+ students) were identified and categorized into three domains: home, work, and school. Home (themes: neighborhood characteristics, family, partners), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: cafeteria, vending machines) factors consistently influenced positive nutrition behaviors. Similarly, home (themes: neighborhood including safety, friends from home, partner,), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: not having a car, campus structure, campus gym, friends at school) factors consistently influenced positive physical activity. Financial resources and perceptions of autonomy had influence across domains. Results indicate consistent influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors across home, work, and school domains for nontraditional college students. Study findings suggest possible, and sometimes unconventional, intervention strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity. For example, when cafeteria meal plans are not offered and financial constraints limit eating at the cafeteria, encouraging healthful choices from vending machines could be preferable to not eating at all. PMID:23146772
Full Text Available Twin studies of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are reviewed. Historically, eating disorders (ED was viewed as a disorders primarily in?uenced by sociocultural factors, however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for ED and substantially contribute to the observed association between ED and other disorders and personal traits (major depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, perfectionism. Among environmental factors nonshared (unique environment plays the main role, except of early puberty.
Farstad, Sarah M; von Ranson, Kristin M; Hodgins, David C; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Schopflocher, Don P
This study investigated the degree to which facets of impulsiveness predicted future binge eating and problem gambling, 2 theorized forms of behavioral addiction. Participants were 596 women and 406 men from 4 age cohorts randomly recruited from a Canadian province. Participants completed self-report measures of 3 facets of impulsiveness (negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of persistence), binge-eating frequency, and problem-gambling symptoms. Impulsiveness was assessed at baseline, and assessments of binge eating and problem gambling were followed up after 3 years. Weighted data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found evidence of transdiagnostic and disorder-specific predictors of binge eating and problem gambling. Negative urgency emerged as a common predictor of binge eating and problem gambling among women and men. There were disorder-specific personality traits identified among men only: High lack-of-persistence scores predicted binge eating and high sensation-seeking scores predicted problem gambling. Among women, younger age predicted binge eating and older age predicted problem gambling. Thus, there are gender differences in facets of impulsiveness that longitudinally predict binge eating and problem gambling, suggesting that treatments for these behaviors should consider gender-specific personality and demographic traits in addition to the common personality trait of negative urgency. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25961146
Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Mónica E; Garza, Adolfo; Galindo, Mariza
The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure. PMID:23344652
Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...
... physically and emotionally. They can also lead to compulsive behaviors (ones that are hard to stop). To have ... a new term that some people think just means "picky eating," but a number of other eating ...
This PhD thesis contributes with knowledge about adolescent healthy eating by studying consumer socialisation, social influence and behavioural change in relation to adolescent healthy eating. The introduction provides the important reasons for studying adolescents and healthy eating and explains that a more holistic approach is needed in order to respond to the rising levels of overweight among adolescents. It is important to understand the development of and influences on adolescent healthy eating behaviour and the possibilities for promoting healthy eating through interventions. By reviewing relevant literature on consumer socialisation, social influence and behaviour change through interventions employing feedback in relation to adolescent healthy eating, it is argued that a socio-cognitive approach to consumer socialisation and behaviour change provides a richer and more nuanced understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents and friends compared to personal factors impact adolescents’ healthy eating? 3. How can a feedback intervention based on socio-cognitive theory and using text messaging improve adolescent healthy eating and why? The first research question is answered in research paper 1. Since the area of family interaction and family members’ roles regarding healthy eating socialisation is underexposed, the study aimed at exploring adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of and involvement in healthy eating and investigated how they related it to their roles in the healthy eating socialisation taking place within the family. As a follow-up on a healthy eating intervention, 38 adolescents and their respective families participated in depth-interviews and a practical exercise on daily fruit and vegetable intake. Results demonstrated that adolescentswere found to adopt two strategies: a direct one placing demands on parents or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents’ demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating, but with adolescents as active players confirming the notion of consumer socialisation as bidirectional processes. The study supplements previous research by including adolescents’ immediate family as a unit of analysis. By taking an intra-familiar systemic approach to studying family socialisation, this paper contributes with identifying and understanding barriers and facilitators of adolescents’ healthy eating. The second research question is answered in research paper 2. The paper aimed at testing whether the common belief that children become increasingly influenced by friends at the expense of parents during adolescence is also true for healthy eating. Surveys were completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. The paper draws on Social Cognitive Theory and The Focus Theory of Normative Conduct and finds that parents remain the main influencer with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating by comparing the influence of entangled social spheres (parents and friends) while also controlling for personal factors such as the adolescent’s self-efficacy and outcome expectations. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The implications of the study are that (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions, and (3) parents’ awareness of their influence on adolescents’ healthy e
Fairburn, CG; Harrison, PJ
Eating disorders are an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity in adolescent girls and young adult women. They are much less frequent in men. Eating disorders are divided into three diagnostic categories: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and the atypical eating disorders. However, the disorders have many features in common and patients frequently move between them, so for the purposes of this Seminar we have adopted a transdiagnostic perspective. The cause of eating disorder...
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência do comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Parece que a insatisfação corporal (IC, a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômico (NE, além da etnia, podem ser fatores de risco para o CAI. OBJETIVO: Associar IC, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE, adiposidade corporal (AC, estado nutricional (EN, NE e etnia ao CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar o CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale foram utilizados para mensurar IC e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a AC segundo sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC e classificar o EN. O NE foi avaliado pelo Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário que buscava avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram associação do CAI com IC, GCPE e NE no sexo feminino (p BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that the prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior (CAI among young people has increased in recent years. It seems that body dissatisfaction (IC, the practice of excessive exercise, body composition, the socioeconomic status (NE, and ethnicity may be risk factors for CAI. OBJECTIVE: To associate IC, degree of psychological impairment to exercise (GCPE, adiposity (AC, nutritional status (EN, NE and ethnicity with CAI in adolescents. METHODS: Participants 362 young people of both sexes aged between 10 and 19 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess the CAI. The Body Shape Exercise Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale were used to measure IC and GCPE, respectively. We evaluated skinfold thickness is to classify the AC second sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the index of mass (BMI and classify the EN. The NE was evaluated by Brazil Economic Classification. Questionnaire was used that sought to assess ethnicity, age and sex. RESULTS: The results showed association of CAI with IC, GCPE and NE in females (p < 0.05. Among boys, IC, AC and EN were associated with CAI (p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: It was concluded that IC was the main predictor of risk for the CAI.
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Fabiane Frota da Rocha, Morgado; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência do comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Parece que a insatisfação corporal (IC), a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômico (NE), além da etnia, podem ser fatores [...] de risco para o CAI. OBJETIVO: Associar IC, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), adiposidade corporal (AC), estado nutricional (EN), NE e etnia ao CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar o CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale foram utilizados para mensurar IC e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a AC segundo sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e classificar o EN. O NE foi avaliado pelo Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário que buscava avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram associação do CAI com IC, GCPE e NE no sexo feminino (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that the prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior (CAI) among young people has increased in recent years. It seems that body dissatisfaction (IC), the practice of excessive exercise, body composition, the socioeconomic status (NE), and ethnicity may be risk factors for [...] CAI. OBJECTIVE: To associate IC, degree of psychological impairment to exercise (GCPE), adiposity (AC), nutritional status (EN), NE and ethnicity with CAI in adolescents. METHODS: Participants 362 young people of both sexes aged between 10 and 19 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess the CAI. The Body Shape Exercise Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale were used to measure IC and GCPE, respectively. We evaluated skinfold thickness is to classify the AC second sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the index of mass (BMI) and classify the EN. The NE was evaluated by Brazil Economic Classification. Questionnaire was used that sought to assess ethnicity, age and sex. RESULTS: The results showed association of CAI with IC, GCPE and NE in females (p
Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; García-Cruz, Patricia; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Magallares, Alejandro; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada
The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP), as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight perception, perception of physical fitness, self-esteem, and food intake, as well as with weight control-related variables. A total of 281 participants (aged 18.38 ± 6.31) were studied. The factor analysis yiel...
Masud, E. [ed.
This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)
Wolfenden, Luke; Finch, Meghan; Nathan, Nicole; Weaver, Natasha; Wiggers, John; Yoong, Sze Lin; Jones, Jannah; Dodds, Pennie; Wyse, Rebecca; Sutherland, Rachel; Gillham, Karen
Many early childhood education and care (ECEC) services fail to implement recommended policies and practices supportive of healthy eating and physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether certain theoretically-based factors are associated with implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in a sample of ECEC services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with Service Managers of ECEC services. The survey assessed the operational characteristics, policy, and practice implementation, and 13 factors were suggested by Damschroder's Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to impede or promote implementation. Logistic regression analyses found a significant association between implementation factor score and full implementation (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.18-1.61; p?=?obesity prevention interventions in this setting by developing interventions that address such factors. PMID:26327938
The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly...
The diploma thesis Pedagogical factors influencing pupil achievement at the primary education level aims to establish the pedagogical factors which could improve the learning outcomes of Slovenian pupils. The Slovenian educational system has been thus compared to the Finnish educational system since the latter is very successful and ranked top in international research. I have been dealing with the factors which have influence on the majority of the class and the students who are achieving po...
Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; van der Lans, I A; Frewer, L.J.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...
Allen, Karina L.; Byrne, Susan M.; Forbes, David; Oddy, Wendy H.
A sample of 14-year-old boys and girls were studied using previously collected biomedical, familial, antenatal, demographic, and social data to identify prospective predictors of eating disorders. Findings suggest that parents' perceptions on their child's weight were more powerful predictors of the development of eating disorders compared to…
Leslie, Jodi H; Braun, Kathryn L.; Novotny, Rachel; Mokuau, Noreen
Worksite health promotion programs can reduce prevalence of chronic disease among employees, but little research has been done to discern whether they meet the needs and incorporate the preferences of workers of different occupational types. The objective of this study is to examine differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity and preferences for programs among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers in Hawai‘i. A total of 57 employees from a major health care corporat...
Patton, G C
Concepts of eating disorders have altered so that anorexia nervosa is now recognized as an important but uncommon syndrome within a spectrum of disordered eating. Behaviours used by dieters constitute the mild end of the eating disorder spectrum. Dieting in young women is for the most part a transient and benign activity without longer-term consequences. However, a group of dieters do progress to develop the symptoms and behaviour of eating disorders, so that dieting has been associated with an eight-fold rise in the risk of later eating disorder. Dieting or factors closely associated may account for most eating disorders in young women. Many antecedents of eating disorder appear to operate through increasing the risk of dieting rather than determining eating disorders specifically. Only the development of further neurotic and depressive symptoms characterizes dieters progressing to eating disorders. As the evidence implicating dieting in the origin of eating disorders becomes stronger so strategies for primary prevention become clearer. PMID:1389090
du Plessis, Karin
To date there has been a theoretical and empirical gap in workplace-centered health promotion research-particularly as it applies to blue-collar men's diets. To begin addressing the paucity of research, five qualitative focus groups (N = 53) were conducted in Australian training colleges to explore the dietary behaviors of apprentices. Thematic analysis was used by the researcher who concludes that although some apprentices were health conscious and attempted to eat healthy foods, many had diets high in saturated fats and sugar. These types of diets are associated with increased risks for developing chronic disease and are associated with decreased life expectancy. As such it poses a serious challenge for health promoters. Apprentices' dietary practices were also found to be moderated by convenience, availability, and cost of foods in their environment. Their nutritional beliefs, significant others, colleagues in the workplace, and their body image also influence their food choices. PMID:21862566
El papel del perfeccionismo en la insatisfacción corporal, la influencia sociocultural del modelo de delgadez y los síntomas de trastorno del comportamiento alimentario / Perfectionism in body dissatisfaction, sociocultural influence of the thinness model and symptoms of eating disorders
KARINA, FRANCO PAREDES; JUAN MANUEL, MANCILLA DÍAZ; ROSALÍA, VÁZQUEZ ARÉVALO; GEORGINA, ÁLVAREZ RAYÓN; XÓCHITL, LÓPEZ AGUILAR.
Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue analizar si los componentes de la conducta perfeccionista explican la insatisfacción corporal (IC), la influencia socio-cultural del modelo de delgadez (ISMD) y los síntomas de Trastorno del Comportamiento Alimentario (TCA). Participaron 30 mujeres con Bulimia Nervio [...] sa (BN), 35 con Trastorno Alimentario no Especificado (TANE) y 63 sin TCA. El análisis de regresión mostró que la Preocupación por los Errores (PE) y la Indecisión de Acción explicaron la IC y la ISMD en BN; mientras que PE solo explicó la ISMD en TANE. Se concluye que solo dos componentes del perfeccionismo explican significativamente la interiorización del ideal de delgadez y la IC, las cuales son consideradas factores de riesgo importantes para los TCA. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD), sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM) and symptoms of eating disorders (ED). The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Spec [...] ified (EDNOS) and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM) and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.
Shreyash Jayantilal Gandhi
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence period is crucial position in the life, characterized by rapid rate of growth. It is a need to study risk factors among this group so applicability of primary prevention can be planned. It is essential to know that whether future care providers are having any risk of acquiring life style disorders as they will be the future role models of society. Objectives: To study the dietary and other risk factors for acquiring life style related disorders and to correlate various anthropometry measurements with these risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study. All medical, physiotherapy and nursing students from Government Medical College, Surat having met with age criteria of adolescent (17-19 as per WHO were included in the study. Pre tested structured self-administered questionnaire was used. It was having questions on various risk factors of acquiring life style related disorders and having anthropometry measurements to correlate. Data were entered and analyzed in MS excel. Results: Total 290 participants were enrolled, out of them 240 (82.76% were females and 50 (17.24% were males. Out of those, 153 (52.75% were having a habit of eating outside the home at least once in a week. 80 (27.5% participants reported that they never play outdoor games, 18 (6.21% reported that they never do exercise. 21 (7.24% were having BMI and #8805;25, From this total 21 participants, 17 (5.86% were females and 4 (1.38% were males. Out of total 240 females, 20 were having Waist Hip Ratio (WHR >0.85, while no male is having WHR >1. Conclusion: Primary preventive measures for dietary change should be applied among future care providers. Life style change should also be advised to reduce the risk for life style disorders. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 645-649
A multitude of empirical studies clearly demonstrates that the origin and course of eating disorders is closely linked to family factors. The influence is exerted in a direct way by conveying attitudes towards food, eating, weight, shape and appearance within the family and in a more indirect way by the family relationships. Families of bulimics differ from those of anorexics by a higher degree of conflict, impulsivity, expressiveness and by lower affective resonance and cohesion. Family therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of eating disorders. A sketch of a family therapy describes the conflict oriented approach which includes behavioral elements in oder to stabilize the eating behavior and the weight. PMID:15918543
O papel dos factores socioculturais no desenvolvimento das perturbações do comportamento alimentar: Uma revisão da literatura / The role of social and cultural factors in the development of eating disorders: A literature review
Sónia F., Gonçalves; Bárbara C., Machado; Paulo P.P., Machado.
Full Text Available As perturbações do comportamento alimentar são perturbações graves que se caracterizam por alterações significativas ao nível do comportamento alimentar associadas a uma preocupação extrema com o peso e forma corporais. Estas perturbações são mais frequentes em sociedades ocidentais, que enfatizam u [...] ma imagem corporal feminina magra. Talvez por esta razão, os factores socioculturais têm sido, muitas vezes, apontados, como os factores responsáveis pelo aumento da incidência das perturbações do comportamento alimentar. No entanto, a discrepância entre os valores de prevalência das perturbações do comportamento alimentar e o número total de pessoas expostas à pressão social para um corpo magro e tubular, questiona a importância desta exposição no desenvolvimento das patologias alimentares. O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão de estudos que procuram mostrar o papel etiológico dos factores socioculturais no desenvolvimento das perturbações do comportamento alimentar e a razão destas patologias, serem denominadas de culture-bound syndromes, bem como algumas perspectivas alternativas a estes modelos conceptuais que procuram revelar a fragilidade dos modelos etiológicos que enfatizam a importância destes factores na complexa etiologia das perturbações do comportamento alimentar. Abstract in english Eating disorders are serious disorders characterized by major changes in eating behaviour associated with extreme preoccupations with weight and physical shape. The aetiology of these disorders is, like other psychopathologies, considered to be complex and multifactorial. Eating disorders are more c [...] ommon in western societies that value a female thin body image as beauty ideal. Perhaps for that reason, sociocultural factors are often seen as responsible for the increase of the incidence of eating disorders. However, the discrepancy between the values of the prevalence of eating disorders and the total number of people submitted to the social pressure to thinness related to personal and interpersonal success, questioned the importance of that exposure in the development of eating disorders. The present paper presents a review of studies that shows the role of sociocultural factors in the development of eating disorders and the reason why these disorders are called culture-bound syndromes, as well some alternative perspectives that show the fragility of aetiologic models that emphasize the importance of these factors in the complex etiology of eating disorders.
Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline
There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…
Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack
Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.
The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…
Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta
Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...
Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha
The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. PMID:25521518
Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J
The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status and change in weight status in children from preschool (baseline) to preadolescence as a function of eating attitudes and PROP phenotype. Other measures included self-reported food intakes and physical activity by activity monitor. Seventy-three lean (BMI percentile=57.7±3.2%) children with mean age=10.3±0.5yrs, participated in the follow up. There were no group differences in energy intake, current BMI-percentile or change in BMI percentile from baseline by PROP phenotype in either boys or girls. However, there was a trend for non-taster girls to show a downward shift in BMI-percentile at follow up. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that baseline BMI percentile and physical activity energy expenditure were the strongest predictors of current weight (28.5% variance),followed by child restraint, the taster×gender interaction, and the maternal BMI×maternal emotional eating interaction, accounting for 7.1%, 6.0% and 4.8% of variance in the model, respectively. These findings suggest that PROP status and eating attitudes are modest predictors of weight status in preadolescent children. PMID:23680431
Middlestadt, Susan E.; Stevenson, Laurel D.; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D.; Sheats, Jylana L
Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors under...
Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong
Even though reliable eating disorder risk factors have been identified among adolescent girls, little is known about predictors of increased vulnerability within specific phases of adolescence or among adolescent boys, particularly in highly populated non-Western contexts. In this study, early and middle adolescent boys (n?=?1,271) and girls (n?=?1,415) from Chongqing, China completed validated measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and 2 years follow-up. Multivariate models for boys of each age group indicated increases in disordered eating at follow-up were predicted by higher initial body mass index, negative affect and body dissatisfaction levels as well as attendant increases in perceived appearance pressure from mass media, body dissatisfaction, negative affect between assessments. High baseline levels of reported appearance pressure from parents and dating partners contributed, respectively, to prediction models of younger and older boys. More distinct constellations of significant predictors emerged in multivariate models of early versus middle adolescent girls. Together, findings indicated body dissatisfaction and negative affect were fairly robust risk factors for exacerbations in disturbances across samples while risk factors such as perceived pressure from desired/prospective dating partners were salient only during particular phases of adolescence. PMID:24221725
MILTIADIS PROIOS; ELENI KAVAZIDOU; IOANNIS LIOLIOS; GEORGE DOGANIS; KATERINA PETROU; AGATHOKLIS TSATSOULIS; ANNA TSILIGIROGLOU-FACHANTIDOU
The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the TFEQ-R18. The project was conducted in Greek population; thus, the questionnaire was translated in Greek language. 495 males and females aged between 12-45 years old participated in the present study. There were used a series of CFA techniques for structure analysis. Confirmatory and exploratory analyses were conducted. Several criteria were used to test the hypotheses factor structures of the AIMS. The results of CFA’s s...
Jon, Arcelus; Jonathan, Baggott; Debbie, Whight; Lesley, McGrain; Lesley, Meadows; Christopher, Langham.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores de pronóstico del tratamiento de la bulimia nerviosa con terapia interpersonal. Diseño: 80 pacientes con el diagnostico de Bulimia Nerviosa (BN) o trastornos del comportamiento alimentario no especificados con características de BN (TCANE) fueron tratados con 16 ses [...] iones de terapia interpersonal. Los pacientes fueron evaluados utilizando una entrevista semi-estructural (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC). También completaron una batería de cuestionarios para evaluar los niveles de estima personal (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale -RSE), la psicopatología de los trastornos de la alimentación (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), la función interpersonal (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning-IIP-32) y los niveles de depresión (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Método: El pronóstico de interés fue definido por la variable de remisión y recuperación. Para el análisis del estudio se realizaron una serie de regresiones logísticas. Resultado: Baja estima personal, y una menor patología en la función interpersonal fueron los factores de peor pronóstico. Conclusión: Aunque la terapia interpersonal es un tratamiento efectivo para las personas que sufren de bulimia nerviosa, los pacientes con estas patologías con baja estima personal y menos problemas interpersonales deberían de ser tratados con otro tipo de terapia. Abstract in english Objective: To determine predictors of treatment outcomes in patients with Bulimic Eating Disorders treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). Design: Following initial assessment, 80 patients with diagnoses of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), entered treatmen [...] t in the form of 16 sessions of IPT. Patients were assessed using a validated semi-structure interview (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC) and completed measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale-RSE), eating psychopathology (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning- IIP-32), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Method: Remission and recovery after 16 sessions of IPT were the two outcomes of interest. Univariate analysis and a series of backwards stepping logistic regressions were performed to determine the variables associated with remission and recovery. Result: Low self-esteem and less interpersonal problems were the main predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: As patients with Bulimic Disorders with low levels of interpersonal problems and high levels of low self-esteem are likely to do less well with IPT, different type of treatment should be offered to them. A randomized controlled trial could explore this hypothesis in more detail.
SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA
Full Text Available This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking while Primary and Secondary Influence was rated the least impacting factor. Both Utilitarian Outcomes and Availability of Internet were rated as second most impacting factor followed by Availability, Cost, Ease of Use, Security, Trust and Self Confidence.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences is pleased to announce the May 2012 Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI) Special Issue, Understanding and Influencing Multilevel Factors Across the Cancer Care Continuum.
Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael
In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life. PMID:24028035
Ahmad Farah; Celasun Nalan; Gucciardi Enza; Stewart Donna E
Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...
Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet
Recent research by Herman, Polivy, and their colleagues has been concerned with the determinants of self-control and disinhibition in dieters. The present paper summarizes a number of studies in which the reactions of dieters and nondieters to a variety of disinhibitory factors (preloading, emotional arousal, intoxication) were investigated. The…
One third of undergraduate students enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities are considered nontraditional as defined by the single criterion of being aged 25 years and older. Nontraditional students have significantly lower graduation rates than traditional students. Using a role theory perspective this mixed-methods study examines the factors…
Seyfried, Shirley Halpin; And Others
Describes a replication study in which the following factors were found to be significant in recruiting and retaining faculty: opportunity to utilize own knowledge in area of choice, nature of teaching load and assignment, available clinical facilities for student experiences, curriculum of program to which appointment was sought and opportunities…
K. R. Sowmya; N. Panchanatham
Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the...
McDowell, N.; McKenna, J; Naylor, P J
OBJECTIVE: To investigate what factors may influence practice nurses to promote physical activity. METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent to all practice nurses in the county of Avon, UK in 1994. Specifically, the questionnaire survey explored whether patient, provider, and practice factors influenced practice nurses promotion behaviour. In addition, the stages of change model was used to measure current levels of promoting behaviour. RESULTS: A response rate of 80.9% was achieved. Over 80%...
Yulihasri Eri; Md Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud
On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing student’s buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence student’s buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public institution of higher l...
Ameen M Al-Agaga; Khalil Md. Nor
The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfacti...
Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...
Lawver, Rebecca Grace
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence senior level agricultural education students' choice to become secondary agriculture teachers. This study focused on the extent to which beliefs and attitude influenced students' intent to select a teaching secondary agricultural education as a career. The Agricultural…
Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.
Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…
Franzoni, Emilo; Monti, Morena; Pellicciari, Alessandro; Muratore, Carlo; Verrotti, Alberto; Garone, Caterina; Cecconi, Ilaria; Iero, Luisa; Gualandi, Stefano; Savarino, Francesca; Gualandi, Paola
In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI) and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an inf...
Becker, Carolyn Black; McDaniel, Leda; Bull, Stephanie; Powell, Marc; McIntyre, Kevin
Female athletes are at least as at risk as other women for eating disorders (EDs) and at risk for the female athlete triad (i.e., inadequate energy availability, menstrual disorders, and osteoporosis). This study investigated whether two evidence-based programs appear promising for future study if modified to address the unique needs of female athletes. Athletes were randomly assigned to athlete-modified dissonance prevention or healthy weight intervention (AM-HWI). ED risk factors were asses...
Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio (S.I.); Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; Olalla, Patricia García de; Joan A. Caylà
According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with...
Proto, V.; F. Gioffré; M.T. Maresca di Serracapriola; F. Masucci; A. Di Francia
Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU) content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995). In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........
Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto; Mercedes Ezquerra-Cabrera; Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera; Rocío Carbonero-Carreño
The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 s...
White, M.A.; Masheb, R. M.; Grilo, C. M.
This study examined the degree of misreport in weight, height, and BMI among overweight adults (n=392) with binge eating disorder (BED) and tested whether the degree of misreport was associated with eating disorder psychopathology and psychological variables. Male (n=97) and female (n=295) participants self-reported height and weight and were subsequently measured by clinic staff. Participants also completed a series of diagnostic interviews and self-report assessments. Discrepancies between ...
VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN PÚBERES MEXICANOS / VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS
Teresita de Jesús, Saucedo-Molina; Claudia, Unikel-Santoncini.
Full Text Available Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para púberes mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que evalúe factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y método: El cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra no probabilística, de púberes estudiantes de la [...] ciudad de México (504 hombres y 511 mujeres), con edades de 11 a 15 años de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realizó un análisis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y un análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación oblimin por el método de máxima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada) y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada). Conclusión: El instrumento resultó válido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal. Abstract in english Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female student [...] s in México City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha) and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %), and females 0,83 (57,6%) of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.
VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN PÚBERES MEXICANOS VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS
Teresita de Jesús Saucedo-Molina
Full Text Available Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para púberes mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que evalúe factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y método: El cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra no probabilística, de púberes estudiantes de la ciudad de México (504 hombres y 511 mujeres, con edades de 11 a 15 años de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realizó un análisis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach y un análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación oblimin por el método de máxima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada. Conclusión: El instrumento resultó válido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal.Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female students in México City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %, and females 0,83 (57,6% of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.
Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.
Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J
A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571
Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar
Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.
The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…
In the modern energy carriers producion is very important to know the impacts of several factors which influence the final quality of briquets. In our department we realized opening measurements of some factors’ impact on the briquet quality. I monitored the impact of compacting pressure, fraction largeness and the material humidity. In this contribution, I would like to describe this opening experimental research.
In the modern energy carriers production is very important to know the impacts of several factors which influence the final quality of briquets. In our department we realized opening measurements of some factors' impact on the briquette quality. I monitored the impact of compacting pressure, fraction largeness and the material humidity. In this contribution, I would like to describe this opening experimental research. (authors)
The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)
J., Aschemann-Witzel; F.J.A., Pérez-Cueto; M., Strand; W., Verbeke; T., Bech-Larsen.
Full Text Available Introducción: Rara vez se ha evaluado la efectividad de las campañas e intervenciones de información pública. Por ello, el estudio de actividades exitosas podría contribuir al desarrollo y puesta en práctica en el futuro de campañas e intervenciones a favor de una alimentación saludable Objetivos: E [...] l objetivo del presente estudio de campañas de información sobre alimentación saludable fue primeramente la identificación de los factores de éxito de las mismas, y seguidamente la descripción de sus inter-relaciones. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 11 representantes de industrias alimentarias cuyas campañas fueron identificadas como exitosas en una etapa previa del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron luego analizadas con respecto a los factores de éxito potenciales. Estos últimos fueron posteriormente utilizados para desarrollar un modelo de factores de éxito y sus interrelaciones. Resultados: El éxito de los casos estudiados fue atribuido primeramente a las características del ambiente macro, o a una colaboración entre los sectores público y privado. Segundo, se identificó al compromiso de las comunidades, elementos de empoderamiento del grupo objetivo y a la ejecución de medidas de marketing social. Tercero, el éxito puede atribuirse a la adopción por parte de la ciudadanía de las campañas y los cambios estructurales consecuentes. Conclusiones: El modelo y los factores de éxito identificados resaltan que el éxito puede originarse en tres fases cruciales, el diseño y montaje de la campaña, su ejecución y finalmente, su interacción con la ciudadanía. El modelo puede servir como guía para el desarrollo de campañas en el futuro. Abstract in english Introduction: Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. Objectives: The study of public campaigns and in [...] terventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. Results: It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. Conclusions: The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.
Shephard, R J
The sports physician faces major practical problems in stimulating the activity of sedentary patients, and also ensuring their subsequent adherence to a prescribed exercise regimen. Both individual and society bear some responsibility for poor exercise compliance. Patients are most likely to persist with programmes which are well-adapted to their physical, physiological, psychological and socioeconomic characteristics. The quality of leadership is also an important variable. Open-ended and structured questionnaires suggest that motivations to exercise include the improvement of health, the development of fitness, the control of bodyweight as well as an improvement in personal appearance, socialising, and simply a wish to 'feel better'. The main perceived reason why people 'drop out' of formal exercise classes is through lack of time, although often the individuals making this complaint appear to have substantial free time. Personality characteristics of the adherent depend on the type of programme that is offered and the degree of social support that is provided; extraversion, a high self-esteem and self-motivation are common findings. Modelling of exercise behaviour has drawn upon the concepts of Skinner, Becker and most recently Fishbein. Beliefs and their evaluation seem more influential than subjective norms, although exercise behaviour is also heavily influenced by past experience of physical activity. Programmes should be designed to maximise external reinforcement of the exercise habit until the early discomforts of training are overcome, and the patient discovers the internal rewards of a more active lifestyle. PMID:3901174
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.
Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research
Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami
The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...
Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.
Loreni Augusta, Pivetta; Regina M. V., Gonçalves-Silva.
Full Text Available O episódio de compulsão alimentar é caracterizado pela ingestão de grande quantidade de alimentos em tempo delimitado acompanhada de perda de controle sobre o que/quanto se come. O estudo objetivou estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos episódios de compulsão alimentar. Estudo transversal [...] com 1.209 adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos. Para o diagnóstico dos episódios de compulsão alimentar utilizou-se o Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso - Revisado (QEWP-R). Foi realizada análise através da regressão de Poisson com abordagem hierárquica. A prevalência de episódios de compulsão alimentar foi 24,6% (IC95%: 22,3-27,2) e os fatores que permaneceram associados foram: sexo feminino (RP = 1,93; IC95%: 1,47-2,53), idade de 15 a 18 anos (RP = 1,54; IC95%: 1,01-2,37) e 19 anos (RP = 2,60; IC95%: 1,15-5,86), uso de bebidas alcoólicas mais de três vezes por mês (RP = 1,54; IC95%: 1,03-2,33) e flutuações de peso (RP = 1,76; IC95%: 1,33-2,31). Conclui-se que a prevalência de episódios de compulsão alimentar foi alta e associada ao sexo feminino, idade, uso de bebidas alcoólicas e flutuação de peso. Abstract in english Binge eating means ingesting a large amount of food during a certain period of time, followed by a sensation of lack of control over what and how much has been eaten. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of binge eating episodes and associated factors in teenagers. The cross-sectional study in [...] cluded 1,209 teenagers (14 to 19 years old). Diagnosis of binge eating was based on the revised Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. The analysis used Poisson regression with a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of binge eating episodes was 24.6% (95%CI: 22.3-27.2), and factors that remained associated were: female gender (HR = 1.93; 95%CI: 1.47-2.53); age 15 to 18 (HR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.01-2.37) and age 19 (HR = 2.60; 95%CI: 1.15-5.86); alcohol consumption more than 3 times a month (HR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.03-2.33); and current weight oscillation (HR = 1.76; 95%CI: 1.33-2.31). In conclusion, prevalence of binge eating episodes was high and associated with female gender, age, alcohol consumption, and weight oscillation.
Magistris, Tiziana de; Gracia Royo, Azucena; Barreiro Hurlé, Jesús
This study aims at testing a theoretical model explaining why people follow healthy eating habits and in particular to identify how the nutritional labels use influences this behavioural pattern. The results indicate that the individuals who utilise more often the nutritional labels follow healthier eating habits, such as avoiding snacking between meals, a lower intake of salt and avoiding the fat intake. According the factors explaining the label use, the health knowledge, the bad heal...
Milos, Gabriella F; Baur, Volker; Muehlebach, Sabina; SPINDLER, ANJA
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (ED) are classified into Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Prospectively, the diagnostic instability within ED is high, but it is not clear which factors may account for this instability. So far, there is no evidence of whether psychiatric comorbidity may play a role in ED diagnostic crossover. We sought to determine possible influences of comorbidities of axis I and II on diagnostic crossover within ED. METHODS:...
Rolland, Jannick Paule Yvette
An important goal in medical imaging is the assessment of image quality in a way that relates to clinical efficacy. An objective approach is to evaluate the performance of diagnosis for specific tasks, using ROC analysis. We shall concentrate here on classification tasks. While many factors may confine the performance achieved for these tasks, we shall investigate two main limiting factors: image blurring and object variability. Psychophysical studies followed by ROC analysis are widely used for system assessment, but it is of great practical interest to be able to predict the outcome of psychophysical studies, especially for system design and optimization. The ideal observer is often chosen as a standard of comparison for the human observer since, at least for simple tasks, its performance can be readily calculated using statistical decision theory. We already know, however, of cases reported in the literature where the human observer performs far below ideal, and one of the purposes of this dissertation is to determine whether there are other practical circumstances where human and ideal performances diverge. Moreover, when the complexity of the task increases, the ideal observer becomes quickly intractable, and other observers such as the Hotelling and the nonprewhitening (npw) ideal observers may be considered instead. A practical problem where our intuition tells us that the ideal observer may fail to predict human performance occurs with imaging devices that are characterized by a PSF having long spatial tails. The investigation of the impact of long-tailed PSFs on detection is of great interest since they are commonly encountered in medical imaging and even more generally in image science. We shall show that the ideal observer is a poor predictor of human performance for a simple two-hypothesis detection task and that linear filtering of the images does indeed help the human observer. Another practical problem of considerable interest is the effect of background nonuniformity on detectability since, it is one more step towards assessing image quality for real clinical images. When the background is known exactly (BKE), the Hotelling and the npw ideal observers predict that detection is optimal for an infinite aperture; a spatially varying background (SVB) results in an optimum aperture size. Moreover, given a fixed aperture size and a BKE, an increase in exposure time is highly beneficial for both observers. For SVB, on the other hand, the Hotelling observer benefits from an increases in exposure time, while the npw ideal observer quickly saturates. In terms of human performance, results show a good agreement with the Hotelling-observer predictions, while the performance disagrees strongly with the npw ideal observer.
Jeffrey C. Wayman
Full Text Available This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.
Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio
The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger)?×?2 (portion size: small vs. big)?×?2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25934089
Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon
Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's…
Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.
The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…
Juliana de Abreu Gonçalves
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crianças e adolescentes quanto às suas características e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combinação dos termos 'crianças', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'transtorno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas português e inglês. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisaram o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares não especificados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os não especificados, mostraram-se comuns na infância e na adolescência. Sua presença foi atribuída principalmente ao ambiente familiar e à exposição aos meios de comunicação. As comorbidades psicológicas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagnóstico do transtorno. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a mídia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influência da mídia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto à magreza. Já no âmbito familiar, o momento das refeições mostrou-se fundamental na determinação do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (déficit no crescimento e ganho de peso, à saúde bucal (queilose, erosão dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das glândulas salivares e aos prejuízos sociais.OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en niños y adolescentes respecto a sus características y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinación de los términos "niños", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alimentar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Se consideraron los artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccionados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposición a los medios de comunicación. Las comorbilidades psicológicas muchas veces acompañan el diagnóstico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el ámbito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostró fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (déficit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso, a la salud oral (queilosis, erosión dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las glándulas salivares y a los perjuicios sociales.OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia', both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to the media. Eating disorders were frequently followed by psychological comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Among the risk factors for eat
The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children. PMID:19447694
Rohde, Kerstin; Keller, Maria; Horstmann, Annette; Liu, Xuanshi; Eichelmann, Fabian; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne
The beneficial effects of adiponectin and its negative correlation with BMI are well described. Adiponectin serum levels are altered in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating. Here, we tested the hypothesis that (1) adiponectin serum levels correlate with human eating behavior factors and (2) that genetic variants of the ADIPOQ locus influence both serum levels and eating behavior. We analyzed 11 SNPs within ADIPOQ and in the 5' UTR and measured serum adiponectin levels in 1,036 individuals from the German Sorbs population. The German version of the three-factor eating questionnaire (FEV) was completed by 548 Sorbs. For replication purposes, we included an independent replication cohort from Germany (N = 350). In the Sorbs, we observed positive correlations of restraint with adiponectin serum levels (P = 0.001; r = 0.148) which, however, did not withstand adjustment for covariates (P = 0.083; r = 0.077). In addition, four SNPs were nominally associated with serum adiponectin levels (all P three variants were exclusively associated with hunger (rs2036373, P = 0.049) and disinhibition (rs822396; rs864265, all P 9.3 × 10(-4)). In our replication cohort, we observed similar effect directions at rs1501229 for disinhibition and hunger. A meta-analysis resulted in nominal statistical significance P = 0.036 (Z score 2.086) and P = 0.017 (Z score 2.366), respectively. Given the observed relationship of the SNPs with adiponectin levels and eating behavior, our data support a potential role of adiponectin in human eating behavior. Whether the relationship with eating behavior is mediated by the effects of circulating adiponectin warrants further investigations. PMID:25542302
... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a change - Use this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Test-Taking Tips Bedbugs Taking Care of Your Teeth Myths About Acne Peer Pressure Eating Well While Eating Out KidsHealth > Teens > Food & ...
Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.
This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…
Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.
Full Text Available Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.
Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.
Perfeccionismo y factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros / Perfectionism and risk factors for the development of eating disorders in Spanish adolescents of both genders
Lidia, Pamies; Yolanda, Quiles.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las dimensiones del perfeccionismo que estaban relacionadas con conductas alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros, así como analizar si existían diferencias significativas en estas dimensiones entre los adolescentes con mayor y menor [...] riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria. Método: se administró la adaptación española de The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) y el EAT- 40 a una muestra representativa de 2142 adolescentes de la provincia de Alicante(1130 chicas y 1012 chicos), con una media de edad de 13.96 años (DT = 1.34). Resultados: el perfeccionismo auto-orientado y el prescrito socialmente estaban relacionados de forma positiva con la puntuación total en el EAT-40 y los diferentes factores que lo componen, en ambos géneros. Los adolescentes con mayor riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno alimentario presentaban un mayor perfeccionismo auto-orientado y prescrito socialmente que los adolescentes con menor riesgo de desarrollar el problema. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de identificar estas tendencias perfeccionistas en los adolescentes antes de que se conviertan en conductas patológicas, como un medio para prevenir el desarrollo de un trastorno alimentario. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the dimensions of perfectionism that are linked to risk eating behaviors in a representative sample of Spanish adolescents of both genders, and analyze the differences in these dimensions between adolescents with high and low eating disorder risk. Method: 2142 ado [...] lescents from Alicante (1130 girls and 1012 boys), mean age 13.96 years (SD = 1.34), completed the Spanish version of the The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) and the EAT-40.Results: Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism were positively associated with EAT-40 total score, and with the different factors that comprise it, in both genders. Adolescents with high risk of developing an eating disorder showed higher Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism than adolescents with low risk of developing the disorder. Conclusion: These results suggest that it is necessary to identify these perfectionist tendencies in adolescents before they become pathological behaviors, in order to prevent the development of an eating disorder.
Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.
Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J
There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area. PMID:25663236
Schuppli, C A; FRASER D.
Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal?based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a m...
Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam
Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.
Full Text Available Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate-gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, animal models, genome-wide association studies, high-throughput sequencing
Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.
Mojtaba Khalesi Ardakani
Full Text Available Tourism industry plays an essential role on development of economy and it is considered as one of green industries. Many countries try to promote investment on tourism to create various job opportunities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on tourism industry in city of Yazd, Iran. The proposed study uses three multiple criteria decision making techniques namely, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW and Taxonomy to rank 40 factors. The results indicate that factors such as Being located in the center axis of communication, Strengths in transportation, The ease of access to tourism destinations and Sufficient knowledge of some historical attractions are among important factors influencing tourism industry.
Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara
Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors. PMID:25661846
... individual or group-based. Some antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac), which is the only medication approved by the ... help patients who also have depression or anxiety. Fluoxetine also appears to help reduce binge-eating and ...
... fine" and head to the freezer for the ice cream. But can that pint of Rocky Road really ... eat things like pizza, while sad people prefer ice cream and cookies. Bored people crave salty, crunchy things, ...
Fernandes, Sofia; Cardoso, Ana Paula; Abrantes, José Luís; Ferreira, Manuela; Guiné, Raquel, co-orient.
Introduction: Food Education as a means of promoting a healthy diet is very important nowadays, given the problems identified in the eating habits of the young’s, resulting in public health problems. The intervention strategies haven’t proved to be very effective and therefore children and young students still reveal inadequate diets and sedentary lifestyles. Objectives: Verify the level of knowledge about food and habits of the students; Analyze how the information provided by educators ...
Input data from Students Food Behavior, Preference and Lifestyle Questionnaire conducted with 376 students from University “Dunarea de Jos” Galati (UDJG) were analyzed from socio-demographic criteria. The sample socio-demoraphic characteristics of the student population were investigated beside the general food & eating habits by gender. In the current study, most than three quart of students (76.06%) was of correct (normal) weight. Nearly 65.15% of the students reported having regular daily ...
Abbas Saleh Ardestani; Kaveh Teymournezhad; Sajad Ahmadvand
This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran...
Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; LI, XINGANG
Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new...
Majid Zamiri; Shadiya Mohamed S; Baqutayan
This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS) University Technology Malaysia (UTM) to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the ...
Majid Zamiri; Dr. Shadiya Mohamed S. Baqutayan
This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS) University Technology Malaysia (UTM) to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the rel...
M.Z. Goldani; L.S.B. Haeffner; Agranonik, M.; Barbieri, M.A.; Bettiol, H.; Silva, A A M
The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class) on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of th...
Dejie Li; Qingjing Liu; Hongbo Xu; Jiangping Wan
Knowledge transfer model of software process improvement (SPI) and the conceptual framework of influencing factors are established. The model includes five elements which are knowledge of transfer, sources of knowledge, recipients of knowledge, relationship of transfer parties, and the environment of transfer. The conceptual framework includes ten key factors which are ambiguity, systematism, transfer willingness, capacity of impartation, capacity of absorption, incen-tive mechanism, culture,...
Dan Shen; Yi (Leaf) Zhang
The single yarn strength CV value is one important index to measure the quality of yarn. Taking pure cotton and polyester cotton blended yarn as research objects, in this article, we systematically analyze the effects of some factors such as raw material blended ratio, yarn unevenness and twist unevenness on single yarn strength CV value, and use the mathematic analysis method to obtain the relationships between various influencing factors with single yarn strength value, and the result posse...
Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study were to investigate microtransaction based monetization models in games, and to find factors that influence their success and suitability. The research goal was to interview players, in order to get answers regarding their motivations behind microtransaction purchasing in games. Academic background and methodology The literature review focused on virtual goods research. Overall, there were many factors identified that impact ...
SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA; M. V. SURYANARAYANA
This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking w...
Ahmad Kabir; Mohammad Shahidul Islam; Muhammad Shibbir Ahmed; M. A. Khalique Barbhuiya
This study, based on 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), attempts to identify important factors influencing infant and child mortality. Application of Cox`s proportional hazard model suggest that socio-economic status of the parents are associated with child survival. The factors that have received the most attention are maternal education, sanitation and access to safe drinking water. For instance, risk of infant mortality is 13% lower among the women having primary educ...
Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee
Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials). We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique ...
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…
The aim of this study was to understand the components of eating quality of several strawberry genotypes grown in Florida, over two harvest seasons. Six genotypes of the University of Florida Breeding program, as well as two new cultivars from Australia, 'Rubygem' and 'Sugarbaby', harvested on diffe...
Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.
Factores de riesgo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en jóvenes escolarizados en Cundinamarca (Colombia) / Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among School-Aged Young People in Cundinamarca (Colombia)
Sandra, Piñeros Ortíz; Jenny, Molano Caro; Clara, López de Mesa.
Full Text Available Introducción: El diagnóstico precoz de un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) es determinante para evitar complicaciones graves a lo largo de la vida. Pocos estudios en Colombia han examinado sus características clínicas y comorbilidad en la población escolar. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuenc [...] ia de TCA, sus factores de inicio y mantenimiento, así como sus subtipos clínicos y comorbilidad en una población escolarizada. Método: Estudio de base comunitaria y corte transversal con 937 estudiantes entre 12 y 20 años de edad, de Bogotá y la sabana centro de Cundinamarca, que respondieron la EAT-26, encuesta de factores de inicio y mantenimiento de TCA, y la Zung de ansiedad y depresión. Los casos probables fueron contactados para entrevista clínica psiquiátrica. Resultados: Se detectaron 141 casos probables de TCA, la mayoría en mujeres (p Abstract in english Introduction: The early diagnosis of Eating Disorders (ED) is decisive in order to prevent serious complications during lifetime. In Colombia, few studies have assessed the clinical characteristics and comorbidity of ED in students. Objective: To determine the frecuency of ED, its onset and maintena [...] nce factors, as well as its clinical subtypes and comorbidity in student population. Method: Cross sectional and community based study with 937 students, ages 10 to 12, from Bogotá and Sabana Centro-Cundinamarca, who answered the EAT- 26, a survey on onset and maintenance factors for ED, and the Zung depression and anxiety scales. Results: 141 probable cases of ED were detected, predominantly among women (p
Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.
Nina Nevanperä; Raimo Lappalainen; Eeva Kuosma; Leila Hopsu; Jukka Uitti; Jaana Laitinen
Background: Occupational burnout is associated with diminished psychological flexibility and higher emotional (EE) and uncontrolled eating (UE). Psychological flexibility could be a mediating factor between burnout and eating behaviour. Objectives: To investigate differences in eating behaviour between those with different levels of psychological flexibility, and the association of the interaction between psychological flexibility and occupational burnout with eating behaviour. Design: The pa...
Juliana de Abreu, Gonçalves; Emilia Addison M., Moreira; Erasmo Benício S. de M., Trindade; Giovanna Medeiros R., Fiates.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crianças e adolescentes quanto às suas características e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combinação dos termos 'crianças', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'trans [...] torno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas português e inglês. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisaram o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares não especificados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os não especificados, mostraram-se comuns na infância e na adolescência. Sua presença foi atribuída principalmente ao ambiente familiar e à exposição aos meios de comunicação. As comorbidades psicológicas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagnóstico do transtorno. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a mídia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influência da mídia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto à magreza. Já no âmbito familiar, o momento das refeições mostrou-se fundamental na determinação do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (déficit no crescimento e ganho de peso), à saúde bucal (queilose, erosão dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das glândulas salivares) e aos prejuízos sociais. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en niños y adolescentes respecto a sus características y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinación de los términos "niños", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alim [...] entar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Se consideraron los artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccionados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposición a los medios de comunicación. Las comorbilidades psicológicas muchas veces acompañan el diagnóstico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el ámbito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostró fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (déficit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso), a la salud oral (queilosis, erosión dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las glándulas salivares) y a los perjuicios sociales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia' [...] , both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to the media. Eating disorders were frequently followed by psych
Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen
The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…
Two studies examined factors influencing the study approach of Australian college freshmen and seniors from a traditional psychometric perspective, supported by student comments. The first found that student interest, grades, and essay examinations encourage serious study; the second, that serious students see courses as encouraging independence…
Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…
Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.
Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A
A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101
Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans
When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…
Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas
The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…
Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli
This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…
Stewart, David A.
The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)
Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…
Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah
Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…
Gurak, Douglas T.; Dean, Gillian
Examines the influence of factors associated with the remarriage market on two outcome areas: (1) the probability of remarriage and the interval between marital events; and (2) the selectivity of spouse characteristics. Findings are consistent with a remarriage market perspective. (Author)
Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…
CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)
Siddalingappa, Hugara; Murthy M.R, Nrayana; Kulkarni, Praveen; N.C, Ashok
Background: With decreasing Infant Mortality Rate, Perinatal Mortality is gaining importance as it takes into consideration most of the factors influencing child birth and its survival, mortality during this period is a better indicator of quality of Maternal and Child Health services.
The discussion in this paper is based on the assumption that international education is equated to recruiting and educating international students, even though its true concept goes far beyond this narrow understanding. The purpose of this research is to look at the key factors that influence recruiting young Chinese students, and make sure all…
Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.
General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…
Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.
Snelling, W. Rodman; Boruch, Robert
Relates results of a longitudinal study (1958-67) of 16,395 science majors, revealing what grade level (prior to 9th grade through college-6th year) science was chosen as their major interest, when final major was selected, and when highest degree aspiration was decided. Presents discussion of factors influencing students' choice of liberal arts…
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.
Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu
Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.
Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.
Capacidad Discriminante y Clasificación Correcta de la Escala de Factores de riesgo Asociados con Trastornos de la alimentación (EFRATA-II) / Discriminatory power and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disorders (EPHRATA-II)
Romana Silvia, Platas Acevedo; Gilda, Gómez-Peresmitré; Rodrigo, León Hernández; Gisela, Pineda García; Rebeca, Guzmán Saldaña.
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue establecer la capacidad discriminante y de clasificación correcta de la Escala de Factores de Riesgo Asociados con Trastornos Alimentarios (EFRATA-II), para niños y niñas. La muestra no aleatoria quedó formada por 934 estudiantes de escuelas públicas: 474 niñas y 460 niño [...] s con edad promedio de 10.6 años (DE = .80). El análisis discriminante, con el método D de Mahalanobis, arrojó una clasificación correcta de 100% de los casos en alto y bajo riesgo. La dimensión de sobre ingesta alimentaria por compensación psicológica fue la más relevante, seguida por la de dieta crónica y restringida. La EFRATA-II es un indicador adecuado para la estimación de factores de riesgo en la conducta alimentaria de preadolescentes, y representa una aportación valiosa en el desarrollo de programas preventivos para trastornos de la alimentación. Abstract in english The increased frequency of binge eating behavior, and its relationship to overweight and obesity, expressed a national and international real health problem. The aim of the study was to establish the discriminatory and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disord [...] ers (Ephrata-II), for boys and girls. The non random sample was formed by 934 public school students: 474 girls and 460 boys with a mean age of 10.6 years (SD=.80). Discriminant analysis with Mahalanobis D method, yielded a correct classification of 100% of cases at high and low risk. The food overeating dimension of psychological compensation was the most relevant, followed by chronic restricted diet. The Ephrata-II is a suitable indicator for estimation of risk factors in eating behavior of tweens, and represents a valuable contribution in the development of prevention programs for eating disorders.
Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žuni?, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M
Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. PMID:26409145
Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang
Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.
... NHLBI on Twitter. Description of the DASH Eating Plan DASH is a flexible and balanced eating plan that helps creates a heart-healthy eating style for life. The DASH eating plan requires no special foods and instead provides daily ...
Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech
Full Text Available Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the outcome of eating disorders in Polish teenage patients. Material and methods. Analyses covered the data of 47 patients diagnosed with any of the eating disorders according to DSM IV consulted for the first time in the outpatients clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit between 2002/2004 in Krakow (DGN1, Poland and then followed up between 2009/2011 (DGN2. The influence of the number of variables collected at DGN1 on outcomes was analysed. Results. The outcomes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are influenced by some aspects of clinical picture, patients’ objective family situation, their self-image and the perception they have of their family relations. The co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and younger age of parents proved to be the most clinically important negative outcome predictors in the whole group of eating disorders. Discussion. The small size of group in the follow-up study is the most important limitating factor. Conclusion. Outcomes in eating disorders are affected by several psycho-bio-social factors common to all patients and specific for the diagnosis type they initially present.
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Flavia Marcele, Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência de comportamentos de risco para condutas de alimentação inapropriada (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Tem sido proposto que a insatisfação corporal, a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômi [...] co e a origem étnica podem ser fatores de risco para CAI. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de insatisfação corporal, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), adiposidade corporal, estado nutricional, nível econômico e etnia com CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 562 jovens, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 15 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para avaliar CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) e a Commitment Exercise Scale (CES) foram utilizadas para mensurar insatisfação corporal e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a adiposidade corporal segundo o sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e determinar o estado nutricional. Nível econômico foi avaliado de acordo com o Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário para avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. Conduziu-se regressão logística binária para determinar associações entre as variáveis da pesquisa. RESULTADOS: Houve associação de CAI com insatisfação corporal, GCPE e nível econômico no sexo feminino (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the a [...] ssociation of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES) were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI) and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p
Daniel GARROTE ROJAS
Full Text Available This paper tries to know the obsession for the thinness or incessant search of the thinness, as essential characteristic of eating Disorders, verify if significant differences exist according to the sex, to analyze the trend of students to have thoughts or to give them heavy meals –or gluttonies– uncontrollable, and verify the degree of dissatisfaction with the general form of their body or with the parts of the same one that more worried those who suffer eating Disorders (stomach, hips, thighs, buttocks, etc. For it, we have used an eclectic methodology. The samples of students who have done the test EPQ-J is 700. The students analyzed in the sample show lacks in some areas at the personal level that they exhibit to suffer an eating Disorders. There would be necessary to underline that, with regard to the «emocionalidad», 7.73% of the men and 9.63% of the women prove to be anxious, worried, with fast changes of humor, frequently depressed, they sleep badly, etc., obtaining their representation, at the age of 13. There has been verified that, 12.26% of the males and 6.85% of the women are unsatisfied with their own body.
The purpose of this study is to find the factors that influence the working capital requirements (wcr) in canada. a sample of 166 canadian firms listed on toronto stock exchange for a period of 3 years from 2008-2010 was selected. this study applied co-relational and non-experimental research design. overall results indicate that operating cycle (oc), return on assets (roa), internationalization of firm, firm’s growth, and firm size influence the wcr in canada. the study also found that oc, r...
Sylvie, Amanda K; Jiang, Qianzhi; Cohen, Nancy
Many environmental settings and influences can affect food choices and eating behaviors in the growing population of community-dwelling older adults. Using the Social Ecological model, an expert panel participated in online discussions and an Analytic Hierarchy Process survey to identify the most important and changeable environmental settings and enabling factors that promote healthy eating in older adults. Food stores were rated most important when considering accessibility and affordability. Congregate nutrition sites were important for social support along with supporting access and affordability of healthful foods and living accommodations. Senior housing, health care, and religious settings also contributed to the goal of promoting healthful eating in aging adults. Restaurants were rated of lower importance. Based on these results, it is recommended that community food policies include the nutritional needs of older adults by addressing food accessibility and affordability, social support, and living accommodations, with a focus on congregate nutrition sites, food stores, senior housing, health care, and religious organizations. PMID:23663214
Juana Robledo Martín
Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.
Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22822302
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.
Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: email@example.com; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.
Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.
Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor
Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.
Irmgard M.J.G. Eijkelberg
Full Text Available Background: In order to improve the quality of care of chronically ill patients the traditional boundaries between primary and secondary care are questioned. To demolish these boundaries so-called ‘shared care’ projects have been initiated in which different ways of substitution of care are applied. When these projects end, disease management may offer a solution to expand the achieved co-operation between primary and secondary care. Objective: Answering the question: What key factors influence the development and implementation of shared care projects from a management perspective and how are they linked? Theory: The theoretical framework is based on the concept of the learning organisation. Design: Reference point is a multiple case study that finally becomes a single case study. Data are collected by means of triangulation. The studied cases concern two interrelated Dutch shared care projects for type 2 diabetic patients, that in the end proceed as one disease management project. Results: In these cases the predominant key-influencing factors appear to be the project management, commitment and local context, respectively. The factor project management directly links the latter two, albeit managing both appear prerequisites to its success. In practice this implies managing the factors' interdependency by the application of change strategies and tactics in a committed and skilful way. Conclusion: Project management, as the most important and active key factor, is advised to cope with the interrelationships of the influencing factors in a gradually more fundamental way by using strategies and tactics that enable learning processes. Then small-scale shared care projects may change into a disease management network at a large scale, which may yield the future blueprint to proceed.
Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng
Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102
Full Text Available Buyer behavior is the study of individuals, group, or select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these process have on the consumer and society. Buyer behavior is widely understood as a problem solving and decision making sequence, the outcome of which is determined by the buyer goal directed processing of information. The aim of this paper is to show that to identify reasons for buying laptop, factors influencing for buying laptop, and decision making for product attributes factors in this factors motivated based on Buyer behaviour in Dindigul district general people. The sample included 150 of general people based on laptop buyers. The collected data were coded, calculated and analyzed with the help of statistical tools like t-test, ANOVA, Regression analysis. The result shows that there is no significant difference between products attributes with gender and Occupation, and Buyer behaviour factors contributed in reasons for buying laptop, Influencing factors, and product attributes.
Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG
The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie
This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration. PMID:25980512
Terang Uli Sembiring
Full Text Available About 80% of Indonesia populations lived in malaria endemic areas. AMI reported to date is still high, on the other side of the MDG targets is to reduce AMI (38 ° C, chills, cold sweating, headache, and muscle pain or splenomegaly at 4 health centers in January to April 2011. Interview was assigned to 220 respondents; 53.2% of respondents aged over 40 years, predominantly female (52.7%. In general, respondents have a job (66.4% with low educational level (81.8%, and 67.7% get a pain less than 4 days. Results shows that occupation factor is significantly related to drug purchasing behavior (p = 0.003. Model of risk factors that influencing malaria drug purchases in the stall is the kind of work that is influenced by the low education level (p-value = 0.003 with odds ratio is 15.5%.
Kamuzora, Peter; Gilson, Lucy
Although prepayment schemes are being hailed internationally as part of a solution to health care financing problems in low-income countries, literature has raised problems with such schemes. This paper reports the findings of a study that examined the factors influencing low enrollment in Tanzania's health prepayment schemes (Community Health Fund). The paper argues that district managers had a direct influence over the factors explaining low enrollment and identified in other studies (inability to pay membership contributions, low quality of care, lack of trust in scheme managers and failure to see the rationale to insure). District managers' actions appeared, in turn, to be at least partly a response to the manner of this policy's implementation. In order better to achieve the objectives of prepayment schemes, it is important to focus attention on policy implementers, who are capable of re-shaping policy during its implementation, with consequences for policy outcomes. PMID:17299023
Full Text Available The study explores graduate students' attitudes toward authorizing digitization rights to their theses. The investigation primarily focused on factors that might influence students' consent. Current domestic copyright management practices of thesis digitization were briefly described. Study methods included questionnaire survey and indepth interviews. Two sets of questionnaires were administrated: one for librarians and the other for graduate students. In addition to payment of royalties, the results identified a number of factors that influence students' willingness to authorize digitization. The results led to suggestions regarding revision of related laws and regulations, cooperation of library professionals, and promotion and better management of thesis digitization, with the intention of improving the effectiveness of thesis digitization.
Full Text Available E-government initiatives are in their infancy in many developing countries. The success of these initiatives is dependent on government support as well as citizens’ adoption of e-government services. This research identified the attitudes and perceptions of the citizens of Kuwait, a developing country, towards the adoption of e-government services. Based on previous research exploring the determinants of the adoption of e-government services using an amended version of the UTAUT model, the study reported here investigates the factors that influence the take-up of such services. These factors are related to usefulness, ease of use, reforming bureaucracy, cultural and social influences, technology issues and lack of awareness. Conclusions and implication for decision makers are also considered in this paper.
Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.
Rikani, Azadeh A; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M.; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; Waheed, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J
The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusi...
Full Text Available ... Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat can ... Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video (MP4) Keywords: self-management , healthy eating , National Diabetes ...
Full Text Available ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...
Sabina Nwenyi; Timothy Baghurst
Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions, as they must identify factors influencing students’ satisfaction in order to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of doctoral student satisfaction from demographics and attitudes concerning the campus environment. Participants were 132 (33 male, 99 fe...
Di Rong; Xu Ming
With the rapid development of economy, service industry plays a significant role in world. Innovation in service enterprises has become an important competitive concern in many service industries. In order to reasonably analysis the radical service innovation in this area, this paper explores the influencing factors of radical service innovation by using literature analysis method. And an evaluation index system is established in this paper at same time, which is based on the investigation of...
The purpose of this review has been to discuss human and environmental factors which may influence the acute irritative and neurotoxic effects of organic solvents. The review is based on a field study and on four human experimental studies. Several studies have shown that printers and other workers exposed to mixtures of solvents experience an increased frequency of work related irritative and neurological symptoms although the exposure has been far below the occupational exposure limits. A seri...
This work addresses the influences of the transcription factor SRF, actin treadmilling and cofilin activity on mitochondrial dynamics with regard to size, (ultra)structure and trafficking. In vivo experiments showed that SRF loss-of-function (LOF) resulted in multi-vesiculated mitochondria in corpus-callosal cross-sections and impairment of mitochondrial distribution in cortical neurons. Furthermore, ATP-content of Srf mutant brain was reduced as well as ATP-production capacity. In vitr...
Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi; Abdollah Naami; Naser Azad
During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts wh...
Hamidreza Kheirkhah; Seyed Mohsen SeyedAliAkbar; Kiamars Fathi
Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed st...
Mojtaba Khalesi Ardakani
Tourism industry plays an essential role on development of economy and it is considered as one of green industries. Many countries try to promote investment on tourism to create various job opportunities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on tourism industry in city of Yazd, Iran. The proposed study uses three multiple criteria decision making techniques namely, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), Simpl...
The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in production. In principle the welding process is rather simple, the materials to be joined are clamped between two electrodes and pressed together. Because there is an interface present with a higher res...
Lee Chai Har; Uchenna Cyril Eze
The Internet revolution has created more opportunities for businesses and individuals to explore new ways of life, and online business is a key aspect of these new forms of living. Online transaction systems enable users to buy and make payments for products and services using the Internet platform. While there is increasing research about online business, little research has focused on specific repurchase perspectives in the Malaysian context. This study examines the factors that influence c...
Transport pricing policies are often assumed to be effective strategies to affect people’s car use, but, due to a lack of public support, these policies are often not implemented. Therefore, we examined which factors influence the acceptability of these pricing policies. First, the acceptability of transport pricing policies was shown to be strongly related to the revenue allocation: acceptability increased when revenues were allocated to car users. Second, the acceptability was also shown to...
V. B. Thomas; S. Selvadurai; A. C. Er; N. Lyndon; Moorthy, R
Problem statement: Social ties become less cohesive as society becomes urbanized. The need for social institutions to redress this state of affairs is crucial. There are two objectives of this research: (i) to examine the commitment level of volunteer residents participation in neighborhood watch organization and (ii) to identify attitudinal and motivational factors that influence their level of commitment. Approach: The study was carried out on a neighborhood watch organization called Rukun ...
Stoll, Pia; Wall, Anders; Norström, Christer
The Influencing Factors (IF) method guides the architect through stakeholders’ concerns to architectural decisions in line with current business goals. The result is a set of requirements on software quality attributes and business goals and highlighted trade-offs among software quality attributes and among business goals. The IF method is suitable for sustainable software systems since it allows new concerns, resulting from changes in business goals, stakeholder concerns, technical environme...
Tjosevik, Ragnhild; Refsland, Birgitte
This study considers small Norwegian high-technology firms, with characteristics similar to those of Born Global firms. These types of firms have received an increasing amount of attention in research the last decade, but the specific field of how different factors affect their international entry strategies is scattered. With a basis of a multiple-case study, this thesis contributes with an assessment of how founder-, market- and product characteristics influence the international entry stra...
Marilyn Wright; Angie Bryans; Kaylin Gray; Leah Skinner; Amanda Verhoeve
The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a “mixed methods” design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale—Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study—Student Survey. Q...
Communication is a complex process of transmitting messages, according to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel to a receiver who ultimately is going to decode it. At an ordinary level, communication as a message exchange between individuals is understood as a verbal or written transmission of information. The success of any communication is dependent on several factors that exert their influence both upon the emitter and the receiver. Business commu...
Hoda Nosouzi; Naser Azad; Abdollah Naami
During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was als...
Mona Yaghoubi; Ali Alikhani
This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011) [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011). Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME perf...
Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan
Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a framework, based on existing literature, for factors influencing the formation and success of product development alliances, and relate this specifically to the food industry. Design/methodology/approach - Case study of a product development alliance, with four partners and an interview survey, with 19 key informants in the Danish food industry. Findings - The nature of the differences between the developed framework for product development a...
Abdelrahman, K; Marot, A; Deltenre, P
Only a minority ot excessive drinkers develop cirrhosis. The main cofactors implicated in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease are obesity, diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Several genetic polymorphisms have been associated with a higher risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Recent data indicate that gut microbiota could play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors that influence development and progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26502621
M.Ghorbani; H. Zare Mirakabad
This research carried out to study of factors influencing on trout production in Khorasan Razavi Province using a cross sectional data of 105 trout producers and estimation of trout production function in 2008. Results showed that farms' area, number of fry, feed, fish farming period and water flow have positive effect on trout production and water temperature and fish losses have negative effect on it. Farms area, water temperature degree, number of fry, feed, fish farming period, water flow...
Uyeturk, Ugur; Gucuk, Adnan; Kemahli, Eray; Dagistan, Emine; Yildiz, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Burak; Metin, Ahmet
Purpose. The duration of urine leakage following the removal of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) shows significant variations depending on the techniques used. We aimed to assess the factors likely to influence the duration of urine leakage. Material and Methods. In total, 103 patients who underwent PCNL were reviewed retrospectively. DUL was evaluated regarding patient characteristics, thickness of the access line, presence of hydronephrosis, and residual stones...
Li, Ning; Zhang, Jie
One hundred and nine suicide survivors and 128 informants of community controls were investigated in this study to explore how Chinese suicide survivors were affected by the suicide deaths. Variables measured in the survey included demographic status, mental health status, personality, etc. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed in data analyses to explore possible influencing factors for depression among Chinese suicide survivors. ‘Lived with suicide victim’ was found to be the m...
While the average level of income per capita has increased in China rapidly, income inequality is becoming a more serious problem that may threaten social stability and the sustainability of economic development. This paper examines the existence in China of an inverted U-shaped curve for income inequality and economic development (known as the Kuznets curve), and tests for the effects of a series of hypothesized factors influencing income inequality. Panel data modelling based on provincial ...
Muhammad Khalilur Rahman; Md Abdul Jalil; Abdullah-Al-Mamun; S.D. Robel
E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experienc...
Korityak, Anton; Fichtel, Tomasz
This paper focuses on identifying factors influencing the financing decisions of growth-oriented start-ups. A sample of 8 business incubator start-ups has been studied within a qualitative research so as to reach that goal. Their fundraising choices are analyzed using supporting financial and psychological theories. Also, the thesis examines the start-ups’ interaction with a business incubator and investors.It is found that growth oriented start-ups use internal funds in the first instance, t...
11C methylation was very important methods for synthesis of PET radiopharmaceuticals. It included C-N, C-O, C-S methylation and so on. There are many influence factors for 11C methylation, such as methylation agents, the base of reagents, the polarity of solvent, the space obstruct. The authors can adjust the methylation agent or change solvent in order to make one reaction as main reaction when a compound had two activity atoms. (authors)
Jee, Young Ju; Lee, Yun Bok
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among elderly patients and identify the factors influencing depression in a geriatric hospital in Korea. [Subjects] A self-report questionnaire was administered to the patients in community geriatric hospitals. Participants were 195 elderly patients. [Methods] The instruments utilized in this study were the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea (GDSSF-K), an activity of daily living scale,...
Influência do estado nutricional no risco para transtornos alimentares em estudantes de nutrição / Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status
Janiara David, Silva; Amanda Bertolini de Jesus, Silva; Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff de, Oliveira; Aline Silva de Aguiar, Nemer.
Full Text Available Avaliar a relação entre a alteração do comportamento alimentar, associado à insatisfação com a imagem corporal, e o estado nutricional de universitárias de Nutrição. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 175 universitárias do Curso de Nutrição (ENUT/UFOP). Foram aplicados os questionários Eating Att [...] itudes Test-26 (EAT-26) e o Body Shape Questionare (BSQ) e realizadas medidas antropométricas. 21,7% das estudantes apresentaram alto risco para transtornos alimentares e 13,7% apresentaram insatisfação com a imagem corporal. A maioria das estudantes com BSQ e EAT-26 positivos estava eutrófica. As estudantes com excesso de peso, aumento do percentual de gordura corporal (% GC) e do perímetro da cintura (PC) apresentaram risco 5 a 9 vezes maiores de alteração do comportamento alimentar. Houve associação positiva entre os parâmetros antropométricos com a pontuação dos questionários EAT-26 e BSQ. Futuras nutricionistas com excesso de peso apresentaram maior risco de estarem insatisfeitas com a sua imagem corporal e de desenvolverem transtornos alimentares. A utilização de outros parâmetros antropométricos, além do IMC, pode ser útil na triagem de indivíduos suscetíveis ao surgimento de preocupações excessivas com o peso corporal e a alimentação. Abstract in english The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP) [...] . The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.
Influência do estado nutricional no risco para transtornos alimentares em estudantes de nutrição Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status
Janiara David Silva
Full Text Available Avaliar a relação entre a alteração do comportamento alimentar, associado à insatisfação com a imagem corporal, e o estado nutricional de universitárias de Nutrição. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 175 universitárias do Curso de Nutrição (ENUT/UFOP. Foram aplicados os questionários Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 e o Body Shape Questionare (BSQ e realizadas medidas antropométricas. 21,7% das estudantes apresentaram alto risco para transtornos alimentares e 13,7% apresentaram insatisfação com a imagem corporal. A maioria das estudantes com BSQ e EAT-26 positivos estava eutrófica. As estudantes com excesso de peso, aumento do percentual de gordura corporal (% GC e do perímetro da cintura (PC apresentaram risco 5 a 9 vezes maiores de alteração do comportamento alimentar. Houve associação positiva entre os parâmetros antropométricos com a pontuação dos questionários EAT-26 e BSQ. Futuras nutricionistas com excesso de peso apresentaram maior risco de estarem insatisfeitas com a sua imagem corporal e de desenvolverem transtornos alimentares. A utilização de outros parâmetros antropométricos, além do IMC, pode ser útil na triagem de indivíduos suscetíveis ao surgimento de preocupações excessivas com o peso corporal e a alimentação.The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF and waist circumference (WC had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.
Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R
Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety. PMID:23551380
Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.
Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro
Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...
Davis Roger B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65–79. Methods Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65–79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in English (60% response rate. The survey addressed the following factors in regards to older women's mammography screening decisions: perceived importance of a history of breast disease, family history of breast cancer, doctor's recommendations, habit, reassurance, previous experience, mailed reminder cards, family/friend's recommendations or experience with breast cancer, age, health, and media. The survey also assessed older women's preferred role in decision making around mammography screening. Results Of the 200 women, 65.5% were non-Hispanic white and 82.8% were in good to excellent health. Most (81.3% had undergone mammography in the past 2 years. Regardless of age, older women ranked doctor's recommendations as the most important factor influencing their decision to get screened. Habit and reassurance were the next two highly ranked factors influencing older women to get screened. Among women who did not get screened, women aged 80 and older ranked age and doctor's counseling as the most influential factors and women aged 65–79 ranked a previous negative experience with mammography as the most important factor. There were no significant differences in preferred role in decision-making around mammography screening by age, however, most women in both age groups preferred to make the final decision on their own (46.6% of women aged 80+ and 50.5% of women aged 65–79. Conclusion While a doctor's recommendation is the most important factor influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions, habit and reassurance also strongly influence decision-making. Interventions aimed at improving clinician counseling about mammography, which include discussions around habit and reassurance, may result in better decision-making.
Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia rítmica, patinaje artístico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifestándose con frecuencia una baja autoestima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de pérdida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejercido a través de la manipulación de la comida y la utilización de métodos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducción de la densidad mineral ósea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tríada de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y pérdidas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparición se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendación del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas pérdidas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupación excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participación de médicos, psicólogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas.Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.
Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención / Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia rítmica, patinaje artístico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifestándose con frecuencia una baja autoe [...] stima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de pérdida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejercido a través de la manipulación de la comida y la utilización de métodos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducción de la densidad mineral ósea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tríada de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y pérdidas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparición se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendación del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas pérdidas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupación excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participación de médicos, psicólogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas. Abstract in english Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess [...] of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.
Full Text Available Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on adoption decision from view point of management decision making. The variable that evaluate in this study include: Cost effectiveness, Need for cloud computing, Security effectiveness, and reliability on cloud computing as independent variable and Adoption decision as dependent variable. The scope of this research is IT companies in Malaysia, and target population is member of organization that want to make decision to adopt the cloud computing. The Correlation and Multi Regression analysis show that all factor s have a positive and significant effect on organization adoption decision to cloud computing.
Muhammad Khalilur Rahman
Full Text Available E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experience on e-shopping. Descriptive statistics was employed to identify the respondents’ demographic information. The data were examined using the associated principal components and exploratory factor analysis as well as computation on correlations to identify the factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers on e-shopping, to determine the underlying dimensionality, convergent validity and discriminant validity. Importantly, this study employs the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM technique to perform a confirmatory factor analysis and test the hypothesized positive correlation between the exogenous and the endogenous constructs. Based on the statistical analyses, the resultant findings revealed that cognitive, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had a positive impact on the e-shopping under the Malaysian context. The main contribution of this study is that it recommends a way to assess the integrity of the online vendors in order to frame further strategies that can conducively attract the Malaysian consumers to interact in the e-shopping activities. This study has proposed a hypothesized model that needs further investigation for future researches.