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1

Factors influencing unhealthy eating behaviour in US adolescents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research explores the simultaneous effects of key variables on unhealthy eating behaviour. Specifically, this study focuses on the relative effects of advertising, parental and peer influence, and self?efficacy on the unhealthy eating behaviour of US adolescents. The results suggest that: (1) parental influence, peer influence and self?efficacy significantly predict unhealthy eating behaviour; (2) self?efficacy is the strongest predictor of unhealthy eating behaviour; and (3) advertising effects are largely neutralized by parental influence, peer influence and self?efficacy.

Kinard BR; Webster C

2012-01-01

2

Factors influencing eating a varied diet in old age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To investigate the influences of resources and food-related goals on the variety of food choice among older people. Design: A questionnaire-based survey in eight European countries: Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Italy and Spain. Subjects: Participants (n 3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversity of each of the national populations based on education, income and urbanization of living environment. Results: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that income, health status, access to a car and living arrangement affected the level of dietary variety. The perceived level of different food-related resources impacted the consumption of a varied diet over and above actual resource levels. Food-related goals contributed to variety of food intake that was not accounted for by the amount of material resources possessed or the social and other resources perceived to be possessed. Conclusions: Older people's variety of food intake depended on material resources (e.g. monthly income, access to a car, living arrangement, physical and mental health). However, in addition to these variables, the way older peopleperceived other resources, such as their level of appetite, their food knowledge, their perception of the distance to the shops, access to high-quality products, having better kitchen facilities, access to good service providers and support from friends and neighbours, all contributed to how varied a diet they ate.

Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.

2009-01-01

3

The influence of sociocultural factors on the eating attitudes of Lebanese and Cypriot students: a cross-cultural study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The present comparative cross-cultural study aimed to explore the relationship between eating behaviour and sociocultural influences with respect to appearance and body image in female university students from two cultural contexts, namely Cyprus and Lebanon. METHODS: The Dutch Eating Behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire were used to assess sociocultural influences and body image, respectively, in 200 students from each country. RESULTS: The results indicated that the Lebanese students were more likely to engage in emotional and external eating and their body image was impacted to a larger extent by sociocultural agents, including media influences, compared to the Cypriot students. Also, a positive relationship was found between emotional and external eating in both cultures. Finally, sociocultural influences correlated positively with external eating only in the Cypriot sample. CONCLUSIONS: Culture-specific factors, such as the societal values and norms, as well as the Westernisation history of each country, are discussed as underpinnings for the differences found. These findings are significant for understanding the rise of eating pathology in these two cultures and provide evidence for a need to consider cultural environment when designing public health policies addressing the negative aspects of nutrition transition.

Zeeni N; Gharibeh N; Katsounari I

2013-07-01

4

Body image, risk factors for eating disorders and sociocultural influences in Spanish adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim was to study differences between male and female adolescents as regards body dissatisfaction, some risk factors for eating disorders, and exposure to social influences that create ideal body figures among these populations. A questionnaire comprising 40 items was administered to 240 male adolescents at 12 public and private schools in Barcelona. Twenty-nine of the questions were the same as those in another study administered to a sample of 675 female adolescents attending similar schools in the same geographical area. The other 11 questions were specifically for males. The differences between boys and girls were highly significant on almost all the items. Girls' scores were significantly higher (p = 0.000) in the following areas: dieting and exercising in order to be thin; feelings of anxiety on seeing or showing the body in public; tendency to focus on the bodies of others and on the amount of food they eat; the belief that thin people are more popular. In addition, the girls were significantly more vulnerable to potentially dangerous social influences. For the most part, males sought a heavier, more muscular body. Though a minority of males also feared being overweight, one out of four ate more than normal to gain weight and two out of three exercised to develop their muscles. The same proportion reported envying the build of certain actors. In adolescence, the ideal body figures of the sexes vary widely. This divergence reflects a greater risk of eating disorders in girls, who are also far more exposed to social situations that cause body dissatisfaction and shape risk attitudes and behaviors.

Toro J; Gila A; Castro J; Pombo C; Guete O

2005-06-01

5

Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of abattoir, carcase weight (60 or 80kg HCW), hanging method (Achilles or aitchbone) and ageing period (2 or 7day post-slaughter) on eating quality attributes of pork were investigated in this 3󫎾2 factorial study. A total of 144 Large White譒andrace female pigs were slaughtered at one of three abattoirs and sides hung from either the Achilles tendon or the aitchbone. After 24h chilling, loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and topside (M. semimembranosus) muscles were individually vacuum packaged and aged for 2 or 7days post-slaughter. Consumers (n=852) evaluated eating quality. Neither abattoir nor carcase weight influenced tenderness, flavour or overall liking of pork. Improvements in tenderness, flavour and overall liking were found due to aitchbone hanging (Pquality, but these effects were additive as the interaction term was not significant. PMID:24013699

Channon, H A; Taverner, M R; D'Souza, D N; Warner, R D

2013-08-14

6

Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of abattoir, carcase weight (60 or 80kg HCW), hanging method (Achilles or aitchbone) and ageing period (2 or 7day post-slaughter) on eating quality attributes of pork were investigated in this 3󫎾2 factorial study. A total of 144 Large White譒andrace female pigs were slaughtered at one of three abattoirs and sides hung from either the Achilles tendon or the aitchbone. After 24h chilling, loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and topside (M. semimembranosus) muscles were individually vacuum packaged and aged for 2 or 7days post-slaughter. Consumers (n=852) evaluated eating quality. Neither abattoir nor carcase weight influenced tenderness, flavour or overall liking of pork. Improvements in tenderness, flavour and overall liking were found due to aitchbone hanging (P<0.001) and ageing (P<0.001) for 7days compared with Achilles-hung carcases and pork aged for 2days, respectively. This study demonstrated that aitchbone hanging and 7day ageing can improve eating quality, but these effects were additive as the interaction term was not significant.

Channon HA; Taverner MR; D'Souza DN; Warner RD

2013-08-01

7

Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of abattoir, carcase weight (60 or 80kg HCW), hanging method (Achilles or aitchbone) and ageing period (2 or 7day post-slaughter) on eating quality attributes of pork were investigated in this 3󫎾2 factorial study. A total of 144 Large White譒andrace female pigs were slaughtered at one of three abattoirs and sides hung from either the Achilles tendon or the aitchbone. After 24h chilling, loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and topside (M. semimembranosus) muscles were individually vacuum packaged and aged for 2 or 7days post-slaughter. Consumers (n=852) evaluated eating quality. Neither abattoir nor carcase weight influenced tenderness, flavour or overall liking of pork. Improvements in tenderness, flavour and overall liking were found due to aitchbone hanging (P<0.001) and ageing (P<0.001) for 7days compared with Achilles-hung carcases and pork aged for 2days, respectively. This study demonstrated that aitchbone hanging and 7day ageing can improve eating quality, but these effects were additive as the interaction term was not significant.

Channon HA; Taverner MR; D'Souza DN; Warner RD

2014-01-01

8

Factors That May Contribute to Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... to Eating Disorders Factors That May Contribute to Eating Disorders Eating disorders are complex conditions that arise from a combination ... issues that can contribute to the development of eating disorders. NEDA acknowledges that there may be a difference ...

9

Genetic influences on adolescent eating habits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed significant genetic influences on variance in an unhealthy eating habits scale (h(2) = .42), a healthy eating habits scale (h(2) = .51), the number of meals eaten at a fast-food restaurant (h(2) = .33), and the total number of meals eaten per week (h(2) = .26). Most of the remaining variance was due to nonshared environmental factors. Additional analyses conducted separately for males and females revealed a similar pattern of findings. The authors note the limitations of the study and offer suggestions for future research.

Beaver KM; Flores T; Boutwell BB; Gibson CL

2012-04-01

10

Psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: One goal in identifying psychosocial risk factors is to discover opportunities for intervention. The purpose of this review is to examine psychosocial risk factors for disordered eating, placing research findings in the larger context of how etiological models for eating disorders can be transformed into models for intervention. METHOD: A qualitative literature review was conducted focusing on psychological and social factors that increase the risk for developing eating disorders, with an emphasis on well-replicated findings from prospective longitudinal studies. RESULTS: Epidemiological, cross-cultural, and longitudinal studies underscore the importance of the idealization of thinness and resulting weight concerns as psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders. Personality factors such as negative emotionality and perfectionism contribute to the development of eating disorders but may do so indirectly by increasing susceptibility to internalize the thin ideal or by influencing selection of peer environment. During adolescence, peers represent self-selected environments that influence risk. DISCUSSION: Peer context may represent a key opportunity for intervention, as peer groups represent the nexus in which individual differences in psychological risk factors shape the social environment and social environment shapes psychological risk factors. Thus, peer-based interventions that challenge internalization of the thin ideal can protect against the development of eating pathology.

Keel PK; Forney KJ

2013-07-01

11

[The influence of eating behavior factors on the satisfaction in dietary life and in life among elderly women living in rural areas].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined eating behaviors, among other variables, and aimed to identify the factors that influence "satisfaction in dietary life" and "satisfaction in life" among elderly women living in rural areas of Hokkaido, Japan. METHODS: We recruited 165 women aged 65 and older from five day-care centers in three small towns within rural areas in Hokkaido and interviewed them using a survey, along with a questionnaire to collect data on basic attributes, health conditions, eating behavior, satisfaction in dietary life, and satisfaction in life. First, we conducted factor analysis for the dietary behavior items, then correlation analysis for dietary behavior factors, satisfaction in dietary life scores, and satisfaction in life scores. In addition, we performed a path analysis on the "satisfaction in life" score as a dependent variable, with "age," "degree of independence," "family form," "economic status," "dietary behavior factors score," and "satisfaction in dietary life score" as independent variables. RESULTS: Out of the analyzed data for 165 subjects, only 22 items regarding dietary behavior factors were selected; 6 factors were extracted and labeled as "inconvenience of cooking and eating," "practice of cooking," "quality of meal," "interest in obtaining food," "reason for eating," and "eating with someone." The "satisfaction in dietary life" scores had a positive correlation with the "satisfaction in life" scores (p = 0.58, P < 0.01) . The path analysis revealed that the factors "quality of meal" (beta = 0.36, P < 0.01), "eating with someone" (beta = 0.19, P < 0.05), and "age" (beta = 0.19, P < 0.05) influenced the "satisfaction in dietary life" score directly. Additionally, "interest in obtaining food" (beta = 0.23, P < 0.05) influenced the "quality of meal." The path analysis showed that 34% of the variance of "satisfaction in life" could be explained by "satisfaction in dietary life" (beta = 0.57, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that improving "satisfaction in dietary life" is important in enhancing "satisfaction in life" among elderly women. In addition, improving "quality of meal" and creating an environment for "eating with someone" influenced "satisfaction in dietary life." The results also suggest that providing health and welfare services focused on enhancing elderly women's dietary life is very important to improve their overall quality of life.

Yoshida R; Hasebe Y; Shirai E

2012-03-01

12

Risk factors for eating disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED) are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4%) complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2):300-305

Monterrosa-Castro 羖varo; Ruiz-Mart韓ez Juan Jos; Cuesta-Fern醤dez Glendys Carolina

2012-01-01

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Eating-related environmental factors in underweight eating disorders and obesity: are there common vulnerabilities during childhood and early adolescence?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between individual, social and family influences and dysfunctional eating patterns early in life and the likelihood of developing a subsequent underweight eating disorder (ED) or obesity. METHOD: The total sample comprised 152 individuals (underweight ED, n = 45; obese patients, n = 65; healthy controls; n = 42) from Barcelona, Spain. The Cross-Cultural Questionnaire (CCQ) was used to assess early eating influences as well as individual and family eating patterns and attitudes towards food. RESULTS: Even though a few shared eating influences emerged for both groups, unique factors were also observed. Whereas relationship with friends, teasing about eating habits by family members and the mass media were of specific relevance to the underweight ED group, the patient's own physical appearance, body dissatisfaction, teasing about eating habits by friends, teasing about body shape by family members and dysfunctional eating patterns were unique to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Overlapping environmental risk factors provide evidence for integral prevention and intervention approaches that simultaneously tackle a range of weight-related problems. The unique factors might be important for targeting high-risk individuals.

Krug I; Villarejo C; Jim閚ez-Murcia S; Perpi襻 C; Vilarrasa N; Granero R; Cebolla A; Botella C; Montserrat-Gil de Bernabe M; Penelo E; Casella S; Islam MA; Orekhova E; Casanueva FF; Karwautz A; Mench髇 JM; Treasure J; Fern醤dez-Aranda F

2013-05-01

14

Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of

Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

2010-01-01

15

Psychological factors predict eating disorder onset and maintenance at 10-year follow-up.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eating behaviours in men and women (N = 1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-up. Multivariate models indicated higher Perfectionism (p = .025), lower Interpersonal Distrust (p < .001), and higher Maturity Fears (p = .037) predicted increased risk for eating disorder onset at 10-year follow-up, but only Perfectionism (p = .004) predicted eating disorder maintenance. Differential prediction of eating disorder onset versus maintenance highlights potentially different psychological foci for prevention versus treatment efforts.

Holland LA; Bodell LP; Keel PK

2013-09-01

16

Do Preoperative Eating Behaviors Influence Weight Loss After Biliopancreatic Diversion?  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The presence of disturbed eating patterns can affect the short- and long-term outcomes after bariatric surgery. Data about the influence of preoperative eating patterns on outcomes after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) are lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of preoperative eating behavior in patients' selection for biliopancreatic diversion. METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive patients who underwent BPD were evaluated for the present study. For each patient, the following preoperative eating patterns were evaluated: sweet eating, snacking, hyperphagia, and gorging. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at 3, 6, and 12爉onths in the groups of patients with different eating patterns at the preoperative evaluation. RESULTS: At the preoperative evaluation, snacking was found in 31 patients (50.8%), sweet eating in 15 patients (24.6%), hyperphagia in 48 patients (78.7%), and gorging in 45 patients (73.8%). For each eating behavior, there was no significant difference in mean preoperative BMI and weight loss at 3, 6, and 12爉onths between the group of patients with and the group of patients without the eating pattern considered. At the analysis of variance in the four groups of patients presenting the eating patterns considered, there was no difference in mean preoperative BMI (P?=?0.66), %EWL at 3爉onths (P?=?0.62), %EWL at 6爉onths (P?=?0.94), and %EWL at 12爉onths (P?=?0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative eating behaviors do not represent reliable outcome predictors for BPD, and they should not be used as a selection criterion for patients who are candidates to this operation. PMID:23546651

Facchiano, Enrico; Scaringi, Stefano; Quartararo, Giovanni; Alpigiano, Giovanna; Liscia, Gadiel; Pavoni, Vittorio; Lucchese, Marcello

2013-04-01

17

Do Preoperative Eating Behaviors Influence Weight Loss After Biliopancreatic Diversion?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The presence of disturbed eating patterns can affect the short- and long-term outcomes after bariatric surgery. Data about the influence of preoperative eating patterns on outcomes after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) are lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of preoperative eating behavior in patients' selection for biliopancreatic diversion. METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive patients who underwent BPD were evaluated for the present study. For each patient, the following preoperative eating patterns were evaluated: sweet eating, snacking, hyperphagia, and gorging. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at 3, 6, and 12爉onths in the groups of patients with different eating patterns at the preoperative evaluation. RESULTS: At the preoperative evaluation, snacking was found in 31 patients (50.8%), sweet eating in 15 patients (24.6%), hyperphagia in 48 patients (78.7%), and gorging in 45 patients (73.8%). For each eating behavior, there was no significant difference in mean preoperative BMI and weight loss at 3, 6, and 12爉onths between the group of patients with and the group of patients without the eating pattern considered. At the analysis of variance in the four groups of patients presenting the eating patterns considered, there was no difference in mean preoperative BMI (P?=?0.66), %EWL at 3爉onths (P?=?0.62), %EWL at 6爉onths (P?=?0.94), and %EWL at 12爉onths (P?=?0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative eating behaviors do not represent reliable outcome predictors for BPD, and they should not be used as a selection criterion for patients who are candidates to this operation.

Facchiano E; Scaringi S; Quartararo G; Alpigiano G; Liscia G; Pavoni V; Lucchese M

2013-04-01

18

Factors associated with eating out of home in Vietnamese adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating out of home (OH) is nutritionally important in some developing countries. This study identifies the factors associated with eating OH in Vietnamese adolescents. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional cluster survey of 502 adolescents in rural and urban areas in Vietnam. Factors associated with eating OH were recorded with a Likert scale and analysed using factor analysis. Data on eating OH was collected using a frequency questionnaire and a 1-day 24h recall. A first pattern "Convenience" incorporated preparation time, price, variety, taste, proximity and social aspects as items associated with eating OH. A second pattern "Nutritional and food safety concerned" reflected concerns with regard to hygiene, fat and salt content of the food prepared OH. Adolescents characterised by the convenience pattern were more likely (OR=1.51, P<0.001) to eat OH more frequently. The highest tertile of the Nutritional and food safety concerned pattern was less likely (OR=0.61, P=0.03) to eat OH compared to lower tertiles. Both patterns were not associated with the % energy from eating OH per day. Convenience and to a lesser extent Nutritional and food safety concerns are significant factors associated with the frequency of eating OH in Vietnamese adolescents. PMID:21856346

Lachat, Carl; Khanh, Le Nguyen Bao; Huynh, Thi Thanh Tuyen; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Nago, Eunice; Roberfroid, Dominique; Kolsteren, Patrick

2011-08-10

19

Weighing in on the issue: a longitudinal analysis of the influence of selected individual factors and the sports context on the developmental trajectories of eating pathology among adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain risk for, and that protect against, eating- and weight-related problems among adolescents. Accordingly, the current study used longitudinal data from 1,050 male and female (68.0%) adolescents (Grades 9-11)-the majority of whom were European Americans (72.2%)-who participated in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development to (a) describe trajectories of adolescents' eating pathology and body dissatisfaction, (b) identify individual and contextual correlates of these pathways, (c) examine whether trajectories of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction related to adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (d) elucidate whether sports participation moderated associations between specific trajectories of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Results suggest that the diverse pathways of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction that exist across middle adolescence, in combination with adolescents' sports participation, have important implications for the positive and problematic development of our youth. In addition, the findings underscore the need to evaluate the interindividual differences that exist in regard to how sports participation may relate positively and negatively to developmental outcomes.

Fay K; Lerner RM

2013-01-01

20

Weighing in on the Issue: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of Selected Individual Factors and the Sports Context on the Developmental Trajectories of Eating Pathology among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain

Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Interpersonal difficulties as a risk factor for athletes' eating psychopathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study sought to determine the predictive role of interpersonal difficulties on eating psychopathology among competitive British athletes (ranging from university to international competition level). A total of 122 athletes (36 males and 86 females) with a mean age of 21.22 years (SD?=?4.02), completed a multisection questionnaire that measured eating psychopathology, attachment styles, and quality of relationships with parents, coaches and teammate over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, only the quality of the relationship with coach and closest teammate were related to athletes' eating psychopathology 6?months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that athletes' eating psychopathology was only predicted by perceived levels of interpersonal conflict with the coach. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that conflict within the coach-athlete relationship is a potential risk factor for eating disorders among athletes and thus it would seem appropriate to raise awareness for its potentially toxic role in athletes' eating psychopathology.

Shanmugam V; Jowett S; Meyer C

2013-09-01

22

Perfectionism in Body Dissatisfaction, Sociocultural Influence of the Thinness model and Symptoms of Eating Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD), sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM) and symptoms of eating disorders (ED). The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM) and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.

Karina Franco Paredes; Juan Manuel Mancilla-D韆z; Rosal韆 V醩quez-Ar関alo; Georgina 羖varez Ray髇; Xochitl L髉ez Aguilar

2011-01-01

23

Characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory for children at risk and protective factors for disordered eating in adolescent girls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sanna Aila Gustafsson1, Birgitta Edlund2, Lars Kjellin3, Claes Norring41Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of 謗ebro; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala; 3Psychiatric Research Centre, University of 謗ebro; 4Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-Child version (EDI-C) to find early predictors that might constitute risk and protective factors in the development of disordered eating.Method: Participants were divided into three groups based on eating attitudes at T2: disordered eating (n = 49), intermediate eating concern (n = 260), and healthy eating attitudes (n = 120). EDI-C from T1 (four to five years earlier) was then analyzed to find predictors of group classification at T2.Results: Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction emerged as risk factors at T1, while drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and interoceptive awareness emerged as protective factors after controlling for initial eating concerns and body mass index.Discussion: Eating disorders should not be seen as a result of a premorbid personality type. Rather we should take a more social-psychological perspective to explain how individual and sociocultural factors work together in the development of these conditions. Keywords: eating disorders, EDI-C, risk factors, protective factors

Sanna Aila Gustafsson; Birgitta Edlund; Lars Kjellin; et al

2010-01-01

24

Eating concerns and media influences in an Irish adolescent context.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes. METHOD: Students were screened using the EAT-26, EDI-III and a study-specific questionnaire. A sub-sample of parents' views was included. RESULTS: Three thousand and thirty-one students (mean age 14.74) and 56 parents enrolled. The majority (71.4%) of adolescents felt adversely affected by media portrayal of body weight and shape, with more than a quarter (25.6%) believing it to be 'far too thin'. A significant correlation between media impact and high EAT scores (chi2 = 450.78, df = 2, p < 0.05) and EDI-III scores (chi2 = 387.51, df = 4, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Parents also view media portrayal as too thin (94.7%), less than half are adversely affected by it (49.2%) but the majority (71.9%) believe their children to be. CONCLUSION: Media portrayal of body weight and shape is correlated with eating psychopathology and may affect adolescents more than adults. School psycho-educational programmes and media policies are urgently needed to minimise any detrimental effect.

McNicholas F; Lydon A; Lennon R; Dooley B

2009-05-01

25

Eating and drinking in labor: the influence of caregiver advice on women's behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although there is much debate about eating and drinking during labor, little scientific data about its influence on the course of labor exist. In The Netherlands, most midwives and obstetricians allow women to eat and drink during normal labor. The objective of this study was to examine whether or not women were actively advised to eat and drink and if this advice affected eating and drinking behavior. METHODS: A randomly selected group of midwives and obstetricians from across The Netherlands identified 211 consecutive nulliparous women to participate in the study. In a questionnaire with open-ended questions, women were asked after their delivery whether or not they were advised about eating and drinking during labor, and if so, about the nature of this advice and what they had consumed. Data were analyzed at the Leyenburg Hospital in The Hague. RESULTS: Sixty-six percent of the women were not given advice about eating and drinking during labor. Women who were given advice usually followed it. In the total group, 37 percent of the women had intake other than water and of these, 75 percent ate solid food. After adjusting for other prognostic factors, the incidence of an instrumental delivery due to a nonprogressing second stage was lower in women with caloric intake (13% vs 24%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The study design did not enable us to draw conclusions about the cause and effect between caloric intake and labor progress. Scientific data with respect to the giving of evidence-based advice about eating and drinking during labor are lacking. Should such advice become available, women are likely to follow it.

Scheepers HC; Thans MC; de Jong PA; Essed GG; Le Cessie S; Kanhai HH

2001-06-01

26

The influence of emotional intensity on facial emotion recognition in disordered eating.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Significant facial emotion recognition (FER) deficits have been observed in participants exhibiting high levels of eating psychopathology. The current study aimed to determine if the pattern of FER deficits is influenced by intensity of facial emotion and to establish if eating psychopathology is associated with a specific pattern of emotion recognition errors that is independent of other psychopathological or personality factors. Eighty females, 40 high and 40 low scorers on the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) were presented with a series of faces, each featuring one of five emotional expressions at one of four intensities, and were asked to identify the emotion portrayed. Results revealed that, in comparison to Low EDI scorers, high scorers correctly recognised significantly fewer expressions, particularly of fear and anger. There was also a trend for this deficit to be more evident for subtle displays of emotion (50% intensity). Deficits in anger recognition were related specifically to scores on the body dissatisfaction subscale of the EDI. Error analyses revealed that, in comparison to Low EDI scorers, high scorers made significantly more and fear-as-anger errors. Also, a tendency to label anger expressions as sadness was related to body dissatisfaction. Current findings confirm FER deficits in subclinical eating psychopathology and extend these findings to subtle expressions of emotion. Furthermore, this is the first study to establish that these deficits are related to a specific pattern of recognition errors. Impaired FER could disrupt normal social functioning and might represent a risk factor for the development of more severe psychopathology.

Ridout N; Wallis DJ; Autwal Y; Sellis J

2012-08-01

27

Structural modeling analysis of prospective risk factors for eating disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many variables have been suggested as possible risk factors for eating disorders (ED), although the validity of these suggestions has seldom been tested causally. The current study tested a pathway model for the development of ED using prospective data from a randomly selected sample of 807 women, aged 18-32 years, from the general population of Sweden. Data was collected using self-report questionnaires with well-established psychometric properties. The cardinal symptoms of binge eating, purging, and fear of weight gain according to the DSM-IV characterized ED. Data supported the hypothesized model suggesting that low self-esteem, low perceived social support from the family, high levels of body concern, and high relative use of escape avoidance coping constitute a risk profile for later development of ED. Given the results and the fact that these risk factors can be modified, their practical utility and clinical significance should be examined in prevention studies.

Ghaderi A

2003-01-01

28

Safety behaviours in eating disorders: factor structure and clinical validation of the brief safety behaviours scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the utility of a transdiagnostic measure of safety behaviours [Brief Safety Behaviours Scale (BSBS)] in eating disorders. Prior to treatment, a group of 102 women with eating disorders completed the BSBS and well-validated measures of eating pathology, anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty. The BSBS had three factors, suggesting that avoidant, checking and social safety behaviours are distinct constructs in the eating disorders. This three-scale scoring system showed greater clinical precision in correlations with eating pathology than the original two-scale version. The pattern of safety behaviours in the eating disorders is more specific than had previously been shown in other clinical samples. While it is important to consider eating-related safety behaviours in the eating disorders (e.g. restriction, body checking), it is also necessary to consider the role of generic safety behaviours when assessing, formulating and treating eating disorders.

Waller G; Kyriacou Marcoulides O

2013-05-01

29

Perceptions of healthful eating and influences on the food choices of Appalachian youth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. METHODS: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68) and moderated by experienced local residents, were conducted with participants aged 8-17. Session transcripts were coded for thematic analysis, using measures to enhance rigor and transferability. RESULTS: Participants discussed numerous internal and external factors affecting dietary choices. They expressed confidence in their own nutritional knowledge, and they stressed the importance of taste preferences, cost, convenience, social influences, and advertising on diet. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Appalachian youth awareness of the multiple influences on diet may create opportunities for multifaceted, ecologically based interventions. In particular, participants stressed the importance of social influences on diet and on successful nutrition programming.

Swanson M; Schoenberg NE; Davis R; Wright S; Dollarhide K

2013-03-01

30

Impulsivity is associated with the disinhibition but not restraint factor from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting. PMID:18069081

Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Mobini, Sirous

2007-10-18

31

Impulsivity is associated with the disinhibition but not restraint factor from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting.

Yeomans MR; Leitch M; Mobini S

2008-03-01

32

The relation between parental influence, body image, and eating behaviors in a nonclinical female sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the current study is to create a comprehensive composite measure of parental influence based on previously developed measures to clarify the underlying dimensions of parental influence and to determine the degree to which parental influence relates to body image and dysfunctional weight concerns. Previously published literature was reviewed for measures of parental influence, and items from 22 measures were condensed and combined into a single questionnaire, which was completed by 367 female undergraduate psychology students. Two dimensions emerged from a principle components analysis: Direct Influence, which includes weight and eating related comments, and Modeling, which includes parental modeling of dieting and related behavior. Direct Influence and Modeling were significantly related to eating disturbance, such as drive for thinness and bulimic symptomatology. Overall, the results integrate the previous literature and clarify the underlying dimensions of parental influence. Further, this study provides directions for future research related to the development and maintenance of body image and eating disturbance. PMID:22104125

Abraczinskas, Michelle; Fisak, Brian; Barnes, Rachel D

2011-11-21

33

The relation between parental influence, body image, and eating behaviors in a nonclinical female sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the current study is to create a comprehensive composite measure of parental influence based on previously developed measures to clarify the underlying dimensions of parental influence and to determine the degree to which parental influence relates to body image and dysfunctional weight concerns. Previously published literature was reviewed for measures of parental influence, and items from 22 measures were condensed and combined into a single questionnaire, which was completed by 367 female undergraduate psychology students. Two dimensions emerged from a principle components analysis: Direct Influence, which includes weight and eating related comments, and Modeling, which includes parental modeling of dieting and related behavior. Direct Influence and Modeling were significantly related to eating disturbance, such as drive for thinness and bulimic symptomatology. Overall, the results integrate the previous literature and clarify the underlying dimensions of parental influence. Further, this study provides directions for future research related to the development and maintenance of body image and eating disturbance.

Abraczinskas M; Fisak B Jr; Barnes RD

2012-01-01

34

Effect of a dissonance-based prevention program on risk for eating disorder onset in the context of eating disorder risk factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Test (a) whether a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program that reduces thin-ideal internalization mitigates the effects of risk factors for eating disorder onset and (b) whether the risk factors moderate the effects of this intervention on risk for eating disorder onset, to place the effects of this intervention within the context of established risk factors. Female adolescents (N=481) with body image concerns were randomized to the dissonance-based program, healthy weight control program, expressive writing control condition, or assessment-only control condition. Denial of costs of pursuing the thin-ideal was the most potent risk factor for eating disorder onset during the 3-year follow-up (OR=5.0). The dissonance program mitigated the effect of this risk factor. For participants who did not deny costs of pursuing the thin-ideal, emotional eating and externalizing symptoms increased risk for eating disorder onset. Negative affect attenuated the effects of each of the active interventions in this trial. Results imply that this brief prevention program offsets the risk conveyed by the most potent risk factor for eating disorder onset in this sample, implicate three vulnerability pathways to eating pathology involving thin-ideal pursuit, emotional eating, and externalizing symptoms, and suggest that negative affect mitigates the effects of eating disorder prevention programs.

Stice E; Rohde P; Gau J; Shaw H

2012-04-01

35

Eating disorders in athletes: Overview of prevalence, risk factors and recommendations for prevention and treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders vary from 0-19% in male athletes and 6-45% in female athletes. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of eating disorders in adolescent and adult athletes including: (1) prevalence data; (2) suggested sport- and gender-specific risk factors and (3) importance of early detection, management and prevention of eating disorders. Additionally, this paper presents suggestions for future research which includes: (1) the need for knowledge regarding possible gender-specific risk factors and sport- and gender-specific prevention programmes for eating disorders in sports; (2) suggestions for long-term follow-up for female and male athletes with eating disorders and (3) exploration of a possible male athlete triad.

Bratland-Sanda S; Sundgot-Borgen J

2013-09-01

36

Eating disorders : Prevalence, incidence, and prospective risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women in the general population  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eating disorders (ED) constitute a significant source of psychiatric morbidity and are an important public health concern in Western societies. Knowledge about risk factors for ED is crucial for early detection and implementation of preventive interventions. The aim of the present thesis was to e...

Ghaderi, Ata

37

Influence of parent's eating attitudes on eating disorders in school adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To investigate the relationship between parents' cognitive and behavioural dimensions and the risk of eating disorders (ED) in non-clinical adolescents. Methods: From an initial sample of 1,336 boys and girls with a mean age of 11.37, a total of 258 subjects were selected either as being ...

Canals, J.; Sancho, C.; Arija, M. V.

38

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the goodness-of-fit of five models of Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) data, in clinical and community samples. METHOD: The EDE-Q was administered to 228 eating disorder patients and 211 non-eating disordered university students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the validity of the original four EDE-Q subscales with that of brief one-factor, extended one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models. Measurement invariance across the two samples was considered. RESULTS: The only model to provide an acceptable fit to the data was the brief one-factor model consisting of eight Weight and Shape Concern items. Scores on this scale correlated highly with the original EDE-Q subscales. CONCLUSION: The reliability of the EDE-Q may be increased if a modified scoring system is used. This complements findings from recent research with the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE).

Allen KL; Byrne SM; Lampard A; Watson H; Fursland A

2011-04-01

39

Determining the influence of type 1 diabetes on two common eating disorder questionnaires.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This research evaluated the level of influence that having type 1 diabetes (T1DM) has on responses to questions about food choices, eating concerns, dietary restraint, and others that are included on two widely used, validated eating disorder (ED) questionnaires and examined responses to these two questionnaires from patients with T1DM and an eating disorder (ED-T1DM) and an ED-no-diabetes. METHOD: An expert panel rated each item on the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorders Inventory, version 3 (EDI-3) regarding T1DM level of influence on item interpretation. These questionnaires were completed by 2 matched samples (ED-T1DM, n = 48 and ED-no-diabetes, n = 96); responses were compared between the samples with particular attention to items of high T1DM influence. RESULTS: The expert panel identified that 50% (19/38) of the items on the EDE-Q and 6.6% (6/91) on the EDI-3 could be highly influenced by having T1DM. Before Bonferroni correction, the 2 groups responded statistically different on 9 out of 38 items on the EDE-Q and 27 out of 91 items on the EDI-3; generally responses were healthier for those with ED-T1DM than ED-no-diabetes. Of these items, on the EDE-Q, 5 were rated high T1DM influence and on the EDI-3, 3 were rated high. CONCLUSION: Having T1DM influences responses on ED questionnaires developed for the general population. This influence may be greater when questionnaires focus on eating, weight, and shape and result in misinterpretation of total and subscale scores by even well-trained clinicians. A careful review of individual item responses by the treatment team is warranted.

Powers MA; Richter S; Ackard D; Critchley S; Meier M; Criego A

2013-05-01

40

The assessment of dietary habits in obese women: influence of eating behavior patterns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to compare the dietary history and the 7-day record method to assess dietary habits in obese women. The second goal was to investigate whether eating behavior characteristics influence self-reported dietary intake. The study took place at the Obesity Outpatient Clinic, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. Subjects were 137 obese women with a mean age of 40 +/- 12 years and a mean body mass index of 38.2 +/- 6.0 kg/m2. Dietary intake was assessed both by the dietary history and by the 7-day record method. Resting energy expenditure was measured by continuous indirect calorimetry. Physical activity level was estimated using the Baecke questionnaire. To study different aspects of eating behaviour, the "Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire" was used. Absolute energy intake, as assessed by the 7-day record, was consistently lower than with the dietary history method. Sixteen percent of the obese women were overreporters while 66% clearly underreported energy intake, using dietary history as standard method. Restrained eating was associated with underreporting, while all aspects of emotional and external eating behavior were significantly higher in the group of overreporters. No relationship could be observed between the degree of underreporting and age, body weight or body mass index. Energy intake, as assessed by the dietary history method, correlated better with measured energy expenditure in obese subjects than the 7-day record. Eating behavior characteristics influence the accuracy of self-reported dietary intake in obese women.

Vansant G; Hulens M

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

The assessment of dietary habits in obese women: influence of eating behavior patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to compare the dietary history and the 7-day record method to assess dietary habits in obese women. The second goal was to investigate whether eating behavior characteristics influence self-reported dietary intake. The study took place at the Obesity Outpatient Clinic, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. Subjects were 137 obese women with a mean age of 40 +/- 12 years and a mean body mass index of 38.2 +/- 6.0 kg/m2. Dietary intake was assessed both by the dietary history and by the 7-day record method. Resting energy expenditure was measured by continuous indirect calorimetry. Physical activity level was estimated using the Baecke questionnaire. To study different aspects of eating behaviour, the "Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire" was used. Absolute energy intake, as assessed by the 7-day record, was consistently lower than with the dietary history method. Sixteen percent of the obese women were overreporters while 66% clearly underreported energy intake, using dietary history as standard method. Restrained eating was associated with underreporting, while all aspects of emotional and external eating behavior were significantly higher in the group of overreporters. No relationship could be observed between the degree of underreporting and age, body weight or body mass index. Energy intake, as assessed by the dietary history method, correlated better with measured energy expenditure in obese subjects than the 7-day record. Eating behavior characteristics influence the accuracy of self-reported dietary intake in obese women. PMID:16777809

Vansant, Greet; Hulens, Mieke

42

Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: the influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N = 790) in Baltimore, MD, and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, from 2009-2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality from violence was fully mediated by depression. IPV should be considered in research and treatment of DE and both IPV and DE should be assessed when the other or depression is detected.

Lucea MB; Francis L; Sabri B; Campbell JC; Campbell DW

2012-08-01

43

Eating habits and factors affecting food choice of adolescents living in rural areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. DESIGN: A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED questionnaire. Information was collected regarding self-perceived body size, dieting, dietary knowledge, parental control, meal and snack frequency, eating out of home, eating takeaways and precooked meals, eating from the school canteen. RESULTS: Body image concerns, dieting, education about food, parental control, maternal education level and eating with family and peers are factors that were found to affect food choices in this group of Greek adolescents. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low (KIDMED index was 4.52.7). Regular family meals at home were frequent in this group and 99% of the adolescents ate lunch daily at home. Eating out with peers and eating from the school canteen was related with higher consumption of 'junk type of food'. Girls and younger adolescents and those whose mothers had a higher education level seem to make healthier choices. CONCLUSIONS: Factors such as personal issues, family and peer pressure significantly affect food choices among adolescents living in a Greek rural area and highlight the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescents.

Bargiota A; Pelekanou M; Tsitouras A; Koukoulis GN

2013-04-01

44

Continuity in primary school children's eating problems and the influence of parental feeding strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eating problems are highly prevalent and seem to show continuity in children. Nevertheless, the effect of different maternal and paternal feeding practices on changes in these problems is not fully understood yet. This study examines short-term continuity in primary school children's overeating, loss of control (over eating), restraint and concerns (about eating, body shape and weight) and the predictive value of parental feeding strategies on change in these eating problems. Children (8-12爕ears, n=613, 46.5% girls) completed the Child Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (ChEDE-Q) twice with the second measurement (T2) taking place 6爉onths after the first (T1). Parents (n=714, 57.7% mothers) completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) at T1 to assess the level of controlling feeding strategies. More overeating, restraint and concerns at T1 predicted higher levels of the same eating problems 6爉onths later, whereas more of loss of control at T1 predicted lower levels of loss of control 6爉onths later. Additionally, the interaction between maternal pressure and the gender of the child was predictive for increases in overeating, whereas the interaction between paternal monitoring and gender of the child was a marginally significant predictor for decreases in overeating. These findings point to the possible negative and positive effects of parental feeding practices as well as to the possible larger influence of mothers on their daughters' and of fathers on their sons' eating behaviors. The importance of studying mothers and fathers, as well as daughters and sons, and of including different feeding strategies and eating problems is discussed.

Matton A; Goossens L; Braet C; Van Durme K

2013-01-01

45

The Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Perfectionism scale: factor structure and associations with dietary restraint and weight and shape concern in eating disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Perfectionism subscale (EDI-P) was originally construed as a unidimensional measure of perfectionism. However, research in non-clinical samples suggests that the EDI-P measures two dimensions of perfectionism: self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. This study aimed to investigate the factor structure of the EDI-P in a transdiagnostic sample of females seeking treatment for an eating disorder, and to determine the unique association between EDI-P dimensions, weight and shape concern, and dietary restraint in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Two hundred and ninety nine females seeking treatment for an eating disorder at an outpatient eating disorder service completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the EDI-P. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of the EDI-P comprising self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Self-oriented perfectionism, but not socially prescribed perfectionism, accounted for unique variance in weight and shape concern and dietary restraint in both AN and BN. Results highlight the potential importance of self-oriented perfectionism in eating disorders and support the argument that self-imposed standards are central to perfectionism in eating disorders.

Lampard AM; Byrne SM; McLean N; Fursland A

2012-01-01

46

The Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Perfectionism scale: factor structure and associations with dietary restraint and weight and shape concern in eating disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Perfectionism subscale (EDI-P) was originally construed as a unidimensional measure of perfectionism. However, research in non-clinical samples suggests that the EDI-P measures two dimensions of perfectionism: self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. This study aimed to investigate the factor structure of the EDI-P in a transdiagnostic sample of females seeking treatment for an eating disorder, and to determine the unique association between EDI-P dimensions, weight and shape concern, and dietary restraint in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Two hundred and ninety nine females seeking treatment for an eating disorder at an outpatient eating disorder service completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the EDI-P. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of the EDI-P comprising self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Self-oriented perfectionism, but not socially prescribed perfectionism, accounted for unique variance in weight and shape concern and dietary restraint in both AN and BN. Results highlight the potential importance of self-oriented perfectionism in eating disorders and support the argument that self-imposed standards are central to perfectionism in eating disorders. PMID:22177396

Lampard, Amy M; Byrne, Susan M; McLean, Neil; Fursland, Anthea

2011-10-06

47

A longitudinal investigation of sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in aesthetic sports.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0? .2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation.

Krentz EM; Warschburger P

2013-06-01

48

A longitudinal investigation of sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in aesthetic sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0? .2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation. PMID:22093018

Krentz, E M; Warschburger, P

2011-08-18

49

Emergent factors in Eating Disorders in childhood and preadolescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract We have reviewed the literature related to the current advances in comprehension of Eating Disorders (ED) in childhood and preadolescence. The state of art regarding the psychodynamic models concerning the onset of ED are explained. DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria are discussed, pointing out their little value in the characterization of early eating difficulties. Historic and new diagnostic classifications are displayed in detail. We provided a clearer description of subclinical patterns. Finally we focus on the key role of the paediatrician in detecting and managing parental concerns regarding feeding.

Sacrato Leonardo; Pellicciari Alessandro; Franzoni Emilio

2010-01-01

50

A Set of Meta-Analytic Studies on the Factors Associated with Disordered Eating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To consolidate knowledge from research on associates of disordered eating to guide future research efforts, asking 搘hich factors are associated with the presence of disturbed eating/ anorexia/ bulimia? Method: We reviewed 232 studies, comprising 87,878 participants, through 74 individual meta-analyses under 12 associative factor category headings.Results: Race had no association (r = .02), whilst anxiety (r = .47) and depression (r = .39) were modestly associated with disordered eating. Women with eating disorders were more likely than controls to have experienced abuse (r = .19), personality disorders (r = .26), an increased tendency to self-harm (r = .37), various personality traits such as perfectionism (r = .30) and hostility (r = .40), and engage in more exercise (r = .13). A higher incidence of stressful life events were reported by women with bulimia (r = .23) but not by women with other eating disorders.Conclusions: Although disturbed eating, anorexia and bulimia show similar associations with various factors, they also show some disorder-specific relationships, highlighting overlapping and unique aspects of the disorders. Suggestions to benefit further research are proposed based on these differences.

Emma P. Vince; Ian Walker

2008-01-01

51

Disturbed eating at high altitude: influence of food preferences, acute mountain sickness and satiation hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Hypoxia has been shown to reduce energy intake and lead to weight loss, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim was therefore to assess changes in eating after rapid ascent to 4,559 m and to investigate to what extent hypoxia, acute mountain sickness (AMS), food preferences and satiation hormones influence eating behavior. METHODS: Participants (n = 23) were studied at near sea level (Zurich (ZH), 446 m) and on two days after rapid ascent to Capanna Margherita (MG) at 4,559 m (MG2 and MG4). Changes in appetite, food preferences and energy intake in an ad libitum meal were assessed. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, gastrin, glucagon and amylin were measured. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) was monitored, and AMS assessed using the Lake Louis score. RESULTS: Energy intake from the ad libitum meal was reduced on MG2 compared to ZH (643 308 vs. 952 458 kcal, p = 0.001), but was similar to ZH on MG4 (890 298 kcal). Energy intake on all test days was correlated with hunger/satiety scores prior to the meal and AMS scores on MG2 but not with SpO(2) on any of the 3 days. Liking for high-fat foods before a meal predicted subsequent energy intake on all days. None of the satiation hormones showed significant differences between the 3 days. CONCLUSION: Reduced energy intake after rapid ascent to high altitude is associated with AMS severity. This effect was not directly associated with hypoxia or changes in gastrointestinal hormones. Other peripheral and central factors appear to reduce food intake at high altitude.

Aeberli I; Erb A; Spliethoff K; Meier D; G鰐ze O; Fr黨auf H; Fox M; Finlayson GS; Gassmann M; Berneis K; Maggiorini M; Langhans W; Lutz TA

2013-03-01

52

Individual and relational risk factors for the development of eating disorders in adolescent aesthetic athletes and general adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared potential risk and protective factors, levels of disordered eating (DE), and their relationship among young aesthetic athletes (elite and non-elite) and controls (N=725; 62.5% females; mean age=15.3, SD=2.1). The participants completed self-report measures (McKnight Risk Factor Survey-IV, Contour Drawing Rating Scale and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire). Female elite athletes showed a greater risk of developing eating disorders than non-elite athletes and controls, with no difference between the three groups of males. Multiple group analyses revealed important differences in DE predictors. Although social pressure is the strongest DE predictor in non-elite athletes and controls, in elite athletes, the strongest DE predictor is body image dissatisfaction. Parental influences, rather than self-esteem, are predictors of DE in elite athletes, unlike the other two groups. These results show that the risk and protective factors involved in the development of DE are not universally valid. The results highlight the importance of studying specific characteristics associated with DE in aesthetic athletes. Some implications for ED risk assessment and prevention are discussed.

Francisco R; Narciso I; Alarc鉶 M

2013-08-01

53

The factor structure of the eating disorder examination in clinical and community samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) in three different samples and to compare the goodness-of-fit of five models of EDE data. METHOD: The EDE was administered to eating disordered (n = 158), treatment-seeking obese (n = 170) and non-eating disordered community-based (n = 329) participants. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the validity of the original four-factor EDE model with that of three-, two-, and one-factor models. RESULTS: None of the tested models provided a "good fit" to the data in any sample, with the exception of a brief one-factor model in the eating disorder group. Estimations of internal consistency, reliability, and validity were superior for the one-, two-, and three-factor models compared to the four-factor model in all samples. DISCUSSION: Overall, there was more support for a one-factor model of EDE data than for a multi-factorial model. It may be more appropriate to use Global EDE scores than individual subscale scores for research purposes.

Byrne SM; Allen KL; Lampard AM; Dove ER; Fursland A

2010-04-01

54

Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating), and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Qu閎ec (Canada). Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Qu閎ec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Qu閎ec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating) were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight), and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA) allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight at 4.5 years than were children who were never overeaters. Conclusion Given the association between eating behaviours and bodyweight among 4.5-year-old children, particularly among those from less educated, lower income families and younger mothers, health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity and underweight with focussed messages and strategies for the management of emerging problematic eating behaviours.

Dubois Lise; Farmer Anna; Girard Manon; Peterson Kelly; Tatone-Tokuda Fabiola

2007-01-01

55

Culture-specific influences on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women: the roles of faith and traditional fasting.  

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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of local culture on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women. Specifically, we focused on two affiliated factors unique to the Bulgarian context: faith and traditional fasting. Findings revealed that women could be divided into two groups who behaved differently based on the severity of their eating disorder symptomatology. For women with higher EAT-40 scores (i.e., vulnerable women), faith seemed to have harmful effects, perhaps by virtue of motivating or reinforcing asceticism and dietary restraint. For these women fasting was likely but one strategy for weight management and the achievement of a desired thin figure consistent with the socio-cultural models. In contrast, among women with lower EAT-40 scores, faith seemed to have a protective effect against excessive dieting. These women were more likely to use fasting in the way intended by religious scripture, for faith-related reasons that have nothing to do with body image. This study contributes to the literature by emphasizing the importance of culturally unique factors that may be implicated in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and overt eating distress in the trans-cultural context. When expanded, this research can be of use in helping formulate custom interventions and public health policies aimed at preventing such conditions in Bulgaria and possibly in similar post-communist cultures. PMID:23910786

Angelova, Rosa Angelova; Utermohlen, Virginia

2013-05-15

56

Body image flexibility as a protective factor against disordered eating behavior for women with lower body mass index.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI.

Hill ML; Masuda A; Latzman RD

2013-08-01

57

Body image flexibility as a protective factor against disordered eating behavior for women with lower body mass index.  

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The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI. PMID:23910777

Hill, Mary L; Masuda, Akihiko; Latzman, Robert D

2013-06-15

58

Confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of the distress tolerance scale (DTS) in a clinical sample of eating disorder patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A confirmatory factor analysis of the factor structure of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) created by Corstorphine et al. [Corstorphine, E., Mountford, V., Tomlinson, S., Waller, G., & Meyer, C. (2007). Distress tolerance in the eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 8, 91-97.] was conducted to assess whether the scale's purported three factors emerged in a clinical sample of patients with a DSM-IV diagnosed eating disorder. The original three-factor model was generally considered to be a poor fit for the data. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a better fit emerged using a four-factor structure. Significant associations were observed between behavioral avoidance of positive affect and eating disorder psychopathology. Implications for use of the DTS with eating disorder patients are discussed.

Raykos BC; Byrne SM; Watson H

2009-12-01

59

Influence of Family Modelling on Children抯 Healthy Eating Behaviour  

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Full Text Available The development of eating behaviours is a dynamic process that begins in infancy and continues throughout life, being strongly influenced by the family models. Our study aimed to evaluate the food behaviour in children aged 11, 13 and 15 years old in relation to the family models. We did a cross-sectional study in 206 school children from Sibiu county (rural and urban areas) using the Romanian version of HBSC questionnaire. We analysed the frequency of breakfast and dinner with the family, the lunch circumstances, the frequency of snacks during playtime or computer work, the family influence on the consumption of certain unhealthy foods, the frequency of fast-food restaurants attendance and the compliance of family dining rules. High proportions of children were found not to have breakfast with family, to eat snacks during playtime and to receive soft drinks, sweets and chips without restriction. Also a high proportion of children in urban areas use to have the lunch at school (as a snack) due to the school program. By opposite, the situation seemed much better in relation to dinner, most of the children having daily dinners with their parents. Also a low percent of children use to visit the fast food restaurants. Moderate compliance was found in relation to family dining rules. This results are quite concerning, showing limited involvement of the parents and moderate influence of family modelling in relation to the children eating behaviour.

Carmen Daniela DOMNARIU; Andreea ILIES; Florentina Ligia FURTUNESCU

2013-01-01

60

Influence of negative affect on choice behavior in individuals with binge eating pathology.  

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Research suggests that individuals with binge eating pathology (e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED)) have decision making impairments and particularly act impulsively in response to negative affect. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of negative affect on choice behavior in women with BN and BED. Ninety women (59 with BN or BED and 31 healthy controls) watched a sad or control film fragment and were subsequently asked to complete a choice behavior task (as measured by a variation of the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT)). Results showed that negative affect influenced choice behavior differently in healthy controls and in women with BN and BED after punishment (but not after reward). In the context of increased negative affect, punishment was associated with more disadvantageous choice behavior in both BN and BED women but not in healthy controls, while the effect was the exact opposite in both groups after a decrease in negative affect. Levels of sadness were not found to influence choice behavior after reward in either groups. These findings suggest that emotional states may have a direct impact on choice behavior of individuals with binge eating pathology and are not only related to pathological behavior itself.

Danner UN; Evers C; Sternheim L; van Meer F; van Elburg AA; Geerets TA; Breteler LM; de Ridder DT

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Risk factors to eating disorders in students of the Universidad de Manizales.  

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Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors for eating disorders instudents of the University of Manizales. Materials andmethods: The total sample was of 165 of 3610 totalregistered students. Each student has completed aquestionnaire composed by a demographic survey, theZung磗 scales for depressiono or anxiety, the EatingDisorders Inventory (EDI-2) and the family Apagar; height,weight, mass corporal index and percent fat data also wereobtained. Results: 12.7% of the population presented EDI-2risk factor for eating disorders; 17.3% of women and 3.8% ofmen). The faculty with the highest risk factor betweenwomen was Social Communication and Journalism (24.1%).There is a significant correlation between the variableimpulse by thinness, and anxiety or depression.Conclusions: Almost all of the risk factors associated withthe development of eating disorders present an importantprevalence in this study. The frequency of EDI-2 risk factor inthis study was lower than the expected when compared withother studies made in Bogot, Medell韓 and Bucaramanga.The scores on the EDI2 scale were similar to those found inMedell韓.

羖varo Andr閟 Cano Correa; Jose Jaime Casta駉 Castrill髇; Diego Andr閟 Corredor Zuluaga; 羘gela Maria Garc韆 Ortiz; Mildreth Gonzales Bedoya; Olga Liliana LLoreda Chala; Keyris Viviana Lucero Angulo; Juliana Otiz Restrepo; Martha Luc韆 Paez Cala; Leidy Johana Pati駉 Ram韗ez; Luz Helena P閞ez Blanco; Carlos Alejandro Villegas Quintero; Alejandra Zuluaga Cardona

2007-01-01

62

[Epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorder in adolescence: a review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. OBJECTIVE: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. METHODS: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. RESULTS: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.

Portela de Santana ML; da Costa Ribeiro Junior H; Mora Giral M; Raich RM

2012-03-01

63

Emotional Intelligence, Personality and Gender as Factors in Disordered Eating Patterns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the hypotheses that proposing higher levels of emotional intelligence (ability test and self-report) and lower neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness associate with lower levels of disordered eating. In a correlational study, 126 Israeli college students completed two measures of emotional intelligence, a brief five-factor personality test, demographic data questionnaires, and questionnaires assessing food preoccupation, namely, the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Scale and the Appearance Schema Inventory. Results suggested that ability emotional intelligence is associated with disordered eating beyond gender and personality. Self-reported emotional intelligence did not associate with any of the outcomes after controlling for personality. Implications and applications are briefly discussed.

Zysberg L

2013-05-01

64

Interactive programme to enhance protective factors for eating disorders in girls with type 1 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a pilot programme in enhancing protective factors for eating disorders in young girls with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Twenty girls with T1D (M age?=?11.06 years) attended two 4-h group sessions. A 4-week baseline control period was compared against changes at post-programme and at 1-month follow-up on measures of eating disorder risk factors and indicators of glycaemic control. RESULTS: At post-intervention, significant improvements were found for self-efficacy related to diabetes management, self-esteem, body-esteem,thin-ideal internalization and perfectionism. These gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. Participants were also rated by their parents as assuming more responsibility for specific diabetes-related tasks at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: A brief interactive programme can favourably impact protective factors for disordered eating. The development of effective disordered eating prevention strategies for girls with T1D is an urgent priority and the current study is a first step in this direction.

Wilksch SM; Starkey K; Gannoni A; Kelly T; Wade TD

2013-08-01

65

Characteristics of eating in anger, fear, sadness and joy.  

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The influences of emotions on eating were investigated. One-hundred and seven female and 103 male subjects were asked to report how various characteristics of eating could change during the emotions of anger, fear, sadness and joy. Subjects completed a questionnaire of 33 items for each emotion and a food deprivation condition. A factor analysis of the items answered with respect to food deprivation yielded four factors which were labelled hunger, impulsive eating, sensory eating and hedonic eating. ANCOVAs showed main effects of emotions upon each factor. Single comparisons showed that: (1) subjects reported to experience higher levels of hunger during anger and joy than during fear and sadness; (2) impulsive eating and sensory eating were rated higher during anger than during the other emotions; and (3) hedonic eating was rated higher during joy than during the other emotions. Results did not indicate any differential influences upon eating between fear and sadness. Women reported to experience higher tendencies of impulsive eating and sensory eating than men during anger and sadness. Eating scores of negative emotions correlated low and positive with body mass index, low and negative with dietary restraint. The differential effects of emotions on characteristics of eating may be due to differences of the examined emotions in frequency of occurrence, physiological correlates and motivational properties. PMID:10447985

Macht, M

1999-08-01

66

Influence of gender role orientation (masculinity versus femininity) on body satisfaction and eating attitudes in homosexuals, heterosexuals and transsexuals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender role orientation and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors and body dissatisfaction in a sample of homosexuals, heterosexuals, and transsexuals. METHOD: We screened 132 homosexuals, 178 heterosexuals (both male and female), and 15 MtF transsexuals by means of an ad hoc socio-demographic schedule; the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist; the Body Uneasiness Test and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. RESULTS: Differences between homosexual, heterosexual, and transsexual participants emerged, but those data seem to be best explained by the constructs of femininity and masculinity than by the biological gender. DISCUSSION: The empirical evidence of a positive correlation between femininity and eating problems, and the negative correlation between masculinity and eating problems, is full of implications. Eating disorders appear to be diseases of femininity; masculinity seems to be a protective factor, independently by the biological gender.

Cella S; Iannaccone M; Cotrufo P

2013-06-01

67

Factors influencing glabridin stability.  

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Glabridin, a polyphenolic isoflavan of Glycyrrhiza glabra, has shown a variety of pharmaceutical properties. We have previously studied the isolation of glabridin using macroporous resin and found that it is partially degraded, giving a dark color. To illustrate the degradation of glabridin, the present work studied the stability of glabridin under various conditions. Licorice extract containing about 20% glabridin, obtained from G. glabra by silica gel column chromatography, was used in the stability study. Seven different factors (temperature, illumination, humidity, pH, solvent, oxygen, and oxidant) were studied and content changes were determined through HPLC analysis. Except for oxygen, all the above factors had an effect on the stability of glabridin, with illumination being the main one. Moreover, the interactions between temperature and pH, temperature and humidity, and illumination and pH can promote the degradation of glabridin. In conclusion, we suggest that a dark, dry and airtight environment provides the optimized condition for the long-term storage of glabridin.

Ao M; Shi Y; Cui Y; Guo W; Wang J; Yu L

2010-12-01

68

Factors influencing thyroidectomy complications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The postoperative outcome of thyroidectomies is related to factors concerning the patient, the thyroid disease, and the surgeon. OBJECTIVES: To analyze a clinic's experience with thyroidectomy complications. Study design: historical cross-sectional cohort study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts from 228 patients submitted to thyroidectomy, between 1991 and 2004. Transient, permanent and total complications as well as persistence and recurrence of the basal disease were studied in relation to clinical and laboratory factors. RESULTS: Total complications occurred in 34.65%, transient complications in 18.86% (9.21% had hypocalcemia, 0.44% had vocal cord paralysis), associated with the first postoperative years and pressure complaints, and permanent complications in 17.98% (8.77%: hypoparathyroidism; 1.75%: vocal cord paralysis), associated with malignancy and more radical surgeries. The thyroid disease persisted in 17.98% of the cases, associated with age and recurrence in 10.96%, associated with the first operative years, benign diseases and less radical surgeries. CONCLUSION: The complications were associated with pressure complaints, shorter complaining period, malignancy and more radical surgeries. The recurrence was associated with the first operative years, non-neoplastic thyroid diseases and less radical surgeries. The persistence of disease was associated with older age.

Ernandes-Neto M; Tagliarini JV; L髉ez BE; Padovani CR; Marques Mde A; Castilho EC; Mazeto GM

2012-06-01

69

Military experience strongly influences post-service eating behavior and BMI status in American veterans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In-depth interviews were conducted with veterans (n=64) with an average age of 57 years to investigate eating behavior and food insecurity during military service and examine if it affects post-war eating behavior, and if this contributes to the high incidence of obesity found in veterans. About half of the subjects served during the Vietnam War, while smaller numbers served in WWII, the Korean War, Desert Storm, or other conflicts. The mean BMI was 30.5+/-6.7 kg/m(2). Only 12.5% of participants were classified as normal weight, while 37.5% were overweight, 46.9% were obese, and 3.1% were classified as excessively obese. Five major themes were identified including, (a) military service impacts soldier's food environment, (b) food insecurity influences eating behavior and food choices, (c) military impacts weight status during and post-service, (d) military service has health consequences, and (e) post-service re-adjustment solutions are needed to ease re-entry into civilian life.

Smith C; Klosterbuer A; Levine AS

2009-04-01

70

Testing the Tripartite Influence Model of body image and eating disturbance among Hungarian adolescents.  

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We tested the Tripartite Influence Model of body image and eating disturbance on two separate samples of Hungarian boys (n=145) and girls (n=225), aged 10-16 years. Our results supported the model among Hungarian adolescents; however we found notable gender differences. The associations were stronger in girls compared to boys; moreover, internalization and body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between appearance-related sociocultural influences and self-esteem only in girls. BMI and weight perception were also involved in the model, and we could present evidence that the sociocultural influence and the weight perception predict independently body dissatisfaction. Our data are in line with previous results; however, further exploration of gender, age, and culture-related differences in the pattern of associations may contribute to the refinement of intervention programs. PMID:23352324

Papp, Ildik; Urb醤, R骲ert; Czegl閐i, Edit; Babusa, Bernadett; T鷕y, Ferenc

2013-01-24

71

Testing the Tripartite Influence Model of body image and eating disturbance among Hungarian adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We tested the Tripartite Influence Model of body image and eating disturbance on two separate samples of Hungarian boys (n=145) and girls (n=225), aged 10-16 years. Our results supported the model among Hungarian adolescents; however we found notable gender differences. The associations were stronger in girls compared to boys; moreover, internalization and body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between appearance-related sociocultural influences and self-esteem only in girls. BMI and weight perception were also involved in the model, and we could present evidence that the sociocultural influence and the weight perception predict independently body dissatisfaction. Our data are in line with previous results; however, further exploration of gender, age, and culture-related differences in the pattern of associations may contribute to the refinement of intervention programs.

Papp I; Urb醤 R; Czegl閐i E; Babusa B; T鷕y F

2013-03-01

72

Factor analysis and cut-off score of the 26-item eating attitudes test in a Greek sample  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the cross-cultural validity of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) in Greece, with 26 items under three subscales ('Dieting', 'Bulimia and Food Preoccupation', 'Oral Control'). Method: A total of 167 Greek undergraduate students (19 to 23 years old), and 20 female patients with Eating Disorders (13 to 42 years old) were examined with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The factor analysis of the EAT-26 revealed a 13 items EAT model, with the three subscales 'Food Preoccupation', 'Dieting' and 'Important Others' fit the data (2/df=1.24, AGFI=.91). Cronbach alpha and test retest reliability coefficients were at the appropriate range. Thegroups of patients and undergraduate students differed significantly (Wilks' Lambda=.52, p. 05) and 12 emerged asa new cut-off score for EAT-13. Conclusion: Cultural adaptation of the EAT-26 showed a new 13 item model which appears to be valid and reliablefor the detection of eating disorders in Greek population.

ANGELIKI DOUKA; EIRINI GRAMMATOPOULOU,; EMMANOUIL SKORDILIS; DIMITRA KOUTSOUKI

2009-01-01

73

Cultural Factors Influencing Children's Pain  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political and legal, economic, educational factors) was used as framework for the analysis.Results: Religious and philosophical factors, kinship and social factors, cultural values and lifeways, political and legalfactors, and economical and educational factors were found to be related to children's pain. The relation was focused onboth acute, recurrent and chronic pain.Discussion and conclusions: In a global view, there are several cultural factors that are related to children's pain indifferent settings. Many of these factors are culturally valued and could be difficult to modify. More research is neededto understand specific cultural influences that maintain traditions and practices leading to children's suffering from pain.Implications for practice: Nurses should be aware of cultural factors that may have influence on children's pain. Byproviding information to children and their parents some of these traditions and cultural factors might be modified.

P鋓vi Kankkunen; Katri Vehvil鋓nen-Julkunen; Anna-Maija Pietil; Merja Nikkonen

2009-01-01

74

Adolescents' views of food and eating: identifying barriers to healthy eating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. Twelve focus group discussions of single-sex groups of boys or girls ranging from early to-mid adolescence (N=73) were employed to identify key perceptions of, and influences upon, healthy eating behaviour. Thematic analysis identified four key factors as barriers to healthy eating. These factors were: physical and psychological reinforcement of eating behaviour; perceptions of food and eating behaviour; perceptions of contradictory food-related social pressures; and perceptions of the concept of healthy eating itself. Overall, healthy eating as a goal in its own right is notably absent from the data and would appear to be elided by competing pressures to eat unhealthily and to lose weight. This insight should inform the development of future food-related communications to adolescents. PMID:16730371

Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T; Trew, Karen

2006-05-26

75

The influence of heritability, neuroticism, maternal warmth and media use on disordered eating behaviors: a prospective analysis of twins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relative impact of genetic and social influences on disordered eating behaviors (DEB) including binging, purging, excessive dieting and negative self-evaluations about weight remain an issue of debate. The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and social influences on DEB. A 7-year prospective analysis of 580 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins was conducted. Estimates of heritability of DEB were obtained using the DF Analysis Model. Regression equations revealed the relative predictive value of sibling's DEB, neurotic personality, maternal warmth and television and video game exposure on DEB. Heritability estimates for DEB were 0.40 for females and 0.48 for males. Among MZ and DZ twin pairs, female sex, neurotic personality and a genetic variable component, but not maternal warmth or school related problems, predicted DEB. Contrary to the expectations of media effects theory, greater media use was associated with lower DEB among DZ twins and had no influence on MZ twins. These results indicate that DEB is highly heritable and that personality variables may play an important role in the formation of DEB. This suggests that it is important to control for genetic variables when analyzing risk factors for DEB.

Ferguson CJ; Mu駉z ME; Winegard B; Winegard B

2012-09-01

76

Parental influences on adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior: longitudinal findings from Project EAT-II  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term role that parental encouragement and attitudes about fitness and exercise play in adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits remains unclear. This paper aims to longitudinally examine how parental encouragement to be physically active and parental concern about staying fit are associated with adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits five years later. Methods Project EAT-II adolescent and young adult participants (1130 male, 1386 female) completed surveys while in middle school or high school (19981999), and again 5 years later. Participants were asked whether their mother and father encourage them to be physically active and care about staying fit and exercising. Adolescent moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and TV/video watching (hours/week) were assessed. Linear regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline behavior were used to examine the association of Time 1 parental factors with behavioral outcomes among adolescents and young adults five years later (Time 2). Results After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline MVPA, adolescent-reported maternal and paternal encouragement to be active, and paternal care for fitness, were positively associated with weekly hours of MVPA after five years in young adult males (p for trend ? .01). The positive relationship between maternal encouragement and MVPA approached significance among high-school aged females (p for trend = .06), and paternal encouragement was positively related to MVPA among high-school aged males (p for trend = .02). While maternal encouragement to be active was associated with decreased TV/video time among younger females (p for trend = .02), other parental factors were not associated with lower TV/video time among the other groups. Conclusion Parental encouragement to be active was associated with increased physical activity among males and younger females 5 years later. Younger adolescents appear to be especially influenced by their same-sex parent. These findings suggest that encouragement may be more influential than parental concern for fitness on adolescents' physical activity habits. Further research is needed to determine how parents can help adolescents decrease sedentary behavior time.

Bauer Katherine W; Nelson Melissa C; Boutelle Kerri N; Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

2008-01-01

77

Physical activity, obesity and eating habits can influence assisted reproduction outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if eating habits, physical activity and BMI can influence assisted reproduction outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study analyzed 436 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Patients answered a questionnaire and regression analysis examined the relationship between lifestyle and BMI with the intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles outcomes. RESULTS: No influence of lifestyle and obesity was observed on the number of oocytes recovered. Obesity reduced the normal fertilization rate (coefficient [Coef.]: -16.0; p = 0.01) and increased the risk of miscarriage (OR: 14.3; p = 0.03). Physical activity positively affected implantation (Coef.: 9.4; p = 0.009), increased the chance of pregnancy (OR: 1.83; p = 0.013) and tended to decrease the risk of miscarriage (OR: 0.30; p = 0.068). In addition, an inverse correlation was found between physical activity and BMI, and a direct correlation was found between soft-drink consumption and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Eating habits, physical activity and obesity could affect clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction.

Ferreira RC; Halpern G; Figueira Rde C; Braga DP; Iaconelli A Jr; Borges E Jr

2010-07-01

78

Factors influencing bone scan quality  

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A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables.

Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

1983-10-07

79

Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.

Petrovici Dan A; Ritson Christopher

2006-01-01

80

Eating disorders in childhood and adolescence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia', both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to the media. Eating disorders were frequently followed by psychological comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Among the risk factors for eating disorders, social and family environment and the media were the most important ones. The influence of the media and social environment has been related to the worship of thinness. As to family environment, mealtimes appeared to be fundamental in shaping eating behavior and the development of disorders. Eating disorders were associated with nutritional problems (growing impairment and weight gain), oral health (cheilitis, dental erosion, periodontitis, and hypertrophy of salivary glands), and social prejudice.

Gon鏰lves Jde A; Moreira EA; Trindade EB; Fiates GM

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Factors associated with dropout from treatment for eating disorders: a comprehensive literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dropout (DO) is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs), but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. Methods All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009) were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed. Results The dropout rates ranged from 20.2% to 51% (inpatient) and from 29% to 73% (outpatient). Predictors of dropout were inconsistent due to methodological flaws and limited sample sizes. There is no evidence that baseline ED clinical severity, psychiatric comorbidity or treatment issues affect dropout. The most consistent predictor is the binge-purging subtype of anorexia nervosa. Good evidence exists that two psychological traits (high maturity fear and impulsivity) and two personality dimensions (low self-directedness, low cooperativeness) are related to dropout. Conclusion Implications for clinical practice and areas for further research are discussed. Particularly, these results highlight the need for a shared definition of dropout in the treatment of eating disorders for both inpatient and outpatient settings. Moreover, the assessment of personality dimensions (impulse control, self-efficacy, maturity fear and others) as liability factors for dropout seems an important issue for creating specific strategies to reduce the dropout phenomenon in eating disorders.

Fassino Secondo; Pier Andrea; Tomba Elena; Abbate-Daga Giovanni

2009-01-01

82

Evaluaci髇 de factores de riesgo de TCA en estudiantes de nutrici髇/ Evaluation of risk factors for eating disorders in students of nutrition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los medios de comunicaci髇, el ambiente social y los factores personales desempe馻n un papel importante como factores de riesgo de los TCA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relaci髇 entre las influencias socioculturales del modelo est閠ico corporal con las cogniciones que son caracter韘ticas de los TCA, en estudiantes de licenciatura en nutrici髇. Se cont con 112 participantes (88 mujeres y 24 hombres) estudiantes de la licenciatura en nutrici髇. 1 (more) 5.9% de las mujeres y el 20.8% de los hombres presentaron insatisfacci髇 corporal. Los hombres presentaron significativamente mayor malestar patol骻ico, influencia de la publicidad y perfeccionismo que las mujeres. Tanto en hombres y mujeres se muestra una correlaci髇 significativa entre la interiorizaci髇 de un cuerpo delgado y la insatisfacci髇 corporal. Casi la mitad de los participantes (48%) presenta una interiorizaci髇 del modelo est閠ico de delgadez. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre la interiorizaci髇 de un modelo est閠ico delgado y la insatisfacci髇 corporal, lo cual indica que dicha insatisfacci髇 est mediada por aquellos est醤dares provenientes de los medios de comunicaci髇. Abstract in english The media, the social environment and personal factors play an important role as risk factors for eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociocultural influences body shape model with cognitions that are characteristic of eating disorders in undergraduate nutrition. Participated 112 students (88 women and 24 men) undergraduate students in nutrition. 15.9% of women and 20.8% of the men had body dissatisfaction. Men showed signific (more) antly greater pathological distress advertising influence and perfectionism than women. Both men and women shows a significant correlation between the internalization of a thin body and body dissatisfaction. Almost half of the participants (48%) had an internalization body thin model. Significant correlations were found between the internalization of a thin aesthetic model and body dissatisfaction, which indicates that this dissatisfaction is mediated by those standards from the media.

Cruz Boj髍quez, Reyna Mar韆; 羦ila Escalante, Mar韆 Luisa; Vel醶quez L髉ez, H閏tor Juli醤; Estrella Castillo, Damaris Francis

2013-06-01

83

Parental influence on children's early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most childhood obesity prevention efforts have focused on school-age children and adolescents and have had limited success. We argue that the first years of life, including the prenatal period, the postnatal suckling period and the transition to the modified adult diet, may provide opportunities for preventive interventions. These early periods are characterized by high plasticity and rapid transitions, and parents have a high degree of control over children's environments and experiences. Observational and experimental evidence reveal persistent effects of early environments on eating behavior and obesity risk, suggesting that interventions should be tested during these early periods. The central task parents have in early development points to their potential as key targets and agents of change in early preventive interventions. In this paper, we review evidence of early environmental effects on children's eating and obesity risk, highlighting ways that parental feeding practices and parents' own behaviors impact these outcomes and calling for further experimental research to elucidate whether these factors are indeed promising targets for childhood obesity preventive interventions. PMID:20195285

Anzman, S L; Rollins, B Y; Birch, L L

2010-03-02

84

Parental influence on children's early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most childhood obesity prevention efforts have focused on school-age children and adolescents and have had limited success. We argue that the first years of life, including the prenatal period, the postnatal suckling period and the transition to the modified adult diet, may provide opportunities for preventive interventions. These early periods are characterized by high plasticity and rapid transitions, and parents have a high degree of control over children's environments and experiences. Observational and experimental evidence reveal persistent effects of early environments on eating behavior and obesity risk, suggesting that interventions should be tested during these early periods. The central task parents have in early development points to their potential as key targets and agents of change in early preventive interventions. In this paper, we review evidence of early environmental effects on children's eating and obesity risk, highlighting ways that parental feeding practices and parents' own behaviors impact these outcomes and calling for further experimental research to elucidate whether these factors are indeed promising targets for childhood obesity preventive interventions.

Anzman SL; Rollins BY; Birch LL

2010-07-01

85

The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: tradu玢o para o portugu阺 e aplica玢o em mulheres brasileiras The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: translation and administration to Brazilian women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e discutir a rela玢o dos comportamentos de restri玢o cognitiva, alimenta玢o emocional e descontrole alimentar entre si e com os par鈓etros antropom閠ricos: 韓dice de massa corporal e circunfer阯cia abdominal. M蒚ODOS: Tradu玢o para o portugu阺 e aplica玢o do The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - vers鉶 reduzida de 21 itens, com subsequente compara玢o aos par鈓etros antropom閠ricos de 125 mulheres trabalhadoras do Instituto Central do Hospital das Cl韓icas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de S鉶 Paulo, escolhidas casualmente em um grupo de 800 interessados em orienta玢o nutricional. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se associa珲es entre a alimenta玢o emocional e o descontrole alimentar, al閙 de associa珲es entre alimenta玢o emocional e descontrole alimentar, 韓dice de massa corporal e circunfer阯cia abdominal. CONCLUS肙: O The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - vers鉶 reduzida de 21 itens mostrou-se um instrumento adequado para identificar os comportamentos de restri玢o cognitiva, alimenta玢o emocional e descontrole alimentar, padr鮡s de comportamentos cuja an醠ise pode servir como ponto de partida para a ado玢o de estrat間ias de abordagem de orienta玢o nutricional em programas de controle de peso.OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed and discussed how cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors interrelate and relate with the anthropometric parameters BMI and waist circumference. METHODS: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire consisting of 21 items was translated into Portuguese, administered to 125 female employees from the Central Unit of the Universidade de S鉶 Paulo School of Medicine Clinics Hospital and compared with the anthropometric data of these women who had been casually selected from a group of 800 individuals interested in nutrition counseling. RESULTS: Emotional eating was found to be associated with bingeing, body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire with 21 items proved to effectively identify cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors. Analysis of these behavior patterns can be the starting point for the implementation of strategies for approaching nutrition counseling in weight-control programs.

Lara Cristiane Natacci; Mario Ferreira J鷑ior

2011-01-01

86

The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: tradu玢o para o portugu阺 e aplica玢o em mulheres brasileiras/ The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: translation and administration to Brazilian women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar e discutir a rela玢o dos comportamentos de restri玢o cognitiva, alimenta玢o emocional e descontrole alimentar entre si e com os par鈓etros antropom閠ricos: 韓dice de massa corporal e circunfer阯cia abdominal. M蒚ODOS: Tradu玢o para o portugu阺 e aplica玢o do The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - vers鉶 reduzida de 21 itens, com subsequente compara玢o aos par鈓etros antropom閠ricos de 125 mulheres trabalhadoras do Instituto Central (more) do Hospital das Cl韓icas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de S鉶 Paulo, escolhidas casualmente em um grupo de 800 interessados em orienta玢o nutricional. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se associa珲es entre a alimenta玢o emocional e o descontrole alimentar, al閙 de associa珲es entre alimenta玢o emocional e descontrole alimentar, 韓dice de massa corporal e circunfer阯cia abdominal. CONCLUS肙: O The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - vers鉶 reduzida de 21 itens mostrou-se um instrumento adequado para identificar os comportamentos de restri玢o cognitiva, alimenta玢o emocional e descontrole alimentar, padr鮡s de comportamentos cuja an醠ise pode servir como ponto de partida para a ado玢o de estrat間ias de abordagem de orienta玢o nutricional em programas de controle de peso. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed and discussed how cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors interrelate and relate with the anthropometric parameters BMI and waist circumference. METHODS: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire consisting of 21 items was translated into Portuguese, administered to 125 female employees from the Central Unit of the Universidade de S鉶 Paulo School of Medicine Clinics Hospital and compared with the anthr (more) opometric data of these women who had been casually selected from a group of 800 individuals interested in nutrition counseling. RESULTS: Emotional eating was found to be associated with bingeing, body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire with 21 items proved to effectively identify cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors. Analysis of these behavior patterns can be the starting point for the implementation of strategies for approaching nutrition counseling in weight-control programs.

Natacci, Lara Cristiane; Ferreira J鷑ior, Mario

2011-06-01

87

The genetics of eating disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in understanding genetic influences on eating pathology. Eating disorders aggregate in families, and twin studies reveal that additive genetic factors account for approximately 40% to 60% of liability to anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Molecular genetics studies have been undertaken to identify alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid sequence and/or gene expression that may be involved in the pathogenesis of disordered eating behaviors, symptoms, and related disorders and to uncover potential genetic variants that may contribute to variability of treatment response. This article provides an in-depth review of the scientific literature on the genetics of AN, BN, and BED including extant studies, emerging hypotheses, future directions, and clinical implications.

Trace SE; Baker JH; Pe馻s-Lled E; Bulik CM

2013-01-01

88

The influence of eating rate on satiety and intake among participants exhibiting high dietary restraint.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR). DESIGN: Two samples of college students who exhibit HDR, which is a group likely to use behavioral strategies to manage intake, were selected in a prescreening session. Participants were told how fast or slow to eat (Variation 1) or allowed to eat at their own pace (Variation 2). Self-reported satiety during the meal and amount consumed was recorded. The types of foods, macronutrient intakes, weights of foods, order of food intakes, and the dimensions of foods were held constant between groups to control for group differences in the sensory and hedonic qualities of the meals. RESULTS: Eating slower enhanced mid-meal satiety ratings, but only when instructions were given to eat fast or slow (Variation 1). In both variations, eating slower did not reduce amount consumed in the meal, although each variation had sufficient power to detect differences. CONCLUSION: Eating slower is not likely to be an effective strategy to control intake in a meal among those exhibiting HDR.

Privitera GJ; Cooper KC; Cosco AR

2012-01-01

89

Evaluation of abiotic factors on the activity period of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous Carnivora: Canidae)  

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Full Text Available The activity period of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) was studied in the Itaja valley, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, through camera traps during a 15-month survey. The existence of relationships between this behavior and abiotic factors was also investigated. We found that the crab-eating fox抯 activity is basically nocturnal (54%) and crepuscular (25%). It has been classified as cathemeral. However, there were no relationships among the abiotic factors estimated (rainfall, temperature and lunar phases).

Fernando Rodrigo Tortato; S閞gio Luiz Althoff

2009-01-01

90

Relevancia de Factores de Riesgo, Psicopatolog韆 Alimentaria, Insatisfacci髇 Corporal y Funcionamiento Psicol骻ico en Pacientes con TCA/ Relevant Risk Factors, Current Eating Psychopathology, Body Shape Concern and Psychological Functioning in Eating Disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El primer objetivo del estudio es evaluar restrospectivamente, la relevancia de factores de riesgo en pacientes con Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA) en funci髇 de la categor韆 diagn髎tica. El segundo objetivo, es evaluar la psicopatolog韆 alimentaria, la insatisfacci髇 corporal y el funcionamiento psicol骻ico en cada grupo diagn髎tico. M閠odo: Se eval鷄 en el momento previo al tratamiento de TCA, un total de 73 pacientes con diferentes criteri (more) os diagn髎ticos: Bulimia Nerviosa Purgativa (BN-P; n=29), la provisional forma diagn髎tica del Trastorno por Atrac髇 (TA; n=6), el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Purgativo (TCANE-P; n=17) y el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Restrictivo (TCANE-R; n=21). Resultados: Se hallan como factores de riesgo de consistencia el antecedente de obesidad y el inicio del TCA en la adolescencia. El inicio de la menarquia en la edad temprana no resulta ser un factor de riesgo. El 蚽dice de Masa Corporal (IMC) refleja la sintomatolog韆 alimentaria de cada cuadro diagn髎tico. El grupo BN-P, se caracteriza por presentar mayor severidad en la sintomatolog韆 alimentaria. La mayor韆 de grupos presenta larga duraci髇 de la enfermedad, dificultades en la imagen corporal, el funcionamiento psicosocial y caracter韘ticas de personalidad. El sentimiento de ineficacia no fue una caracter韘tica cl韓ica en casos de TA. Conclusiones: El que los antecedentes de obesidad se hayan mostrado como un factor de riesgo de consistencia en los TCA es un argumento m醩 a favor de la necesidad de su prevenci髇. Las dificultades en el funcionamiento psicosocial encontradas en casos cl韓icos con TA, avalar韆n la necesidad de l韓eas de intervenci髇 de tipo m醩 interpersonal en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective: The first aim of this study is a retrospective assessment of relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (ED). The second aim is to study eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning assessment in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evaluation before intervention of 73 patients with Bulimia Nervosa Purging type (BN-P; n=29), Binge Eating Disorder (BED; n=6), Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Purging type (more) (EDNOS-P; n=17) and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Restrictive type (EDNOS-R; n=21). Findings: Consistent risk factors in the precedent of obesity and the beginning of the ED in adolescence. The young age at which menarche occurred was not a risk factor. The eating symptomatology of each diagnostic category reflected the nutritional state. The BN-P group presented a more severe eating symptomatology. The majority of the groups had long duration illness and had difficulties with body shape, social performance, and personality problems. The feeling of ineffectiveness was not a clinical characteristic in Binge eating cases. Conclusion: The precedent of obesity showed up as a consolidated risk factor in eating disorders, supporting the necessity of prevention. Difficulties found in social performance in binge eating support the necessity of interpersonal intervention.

Carretero Garc韆, Anna; S醤chez Planell, Lu韘; Rusi駉l Estragu閟, Jordi; Raich Escursell, Rosa M.; S醤chez Carracedo, David

2009-01-01

91

Eating disorder examination-questionnaire factor structure and construct validity in bariatric surgery candidates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is increasingly used in studies with bariatric surgery patients although little is known about psychometric properties of this self-report measure in this clinical group. The current study evaluated the factor structure and construct validity of the EDE-Q in bariatric surgery candidates. METHODS: Participants were a consecutive series of 174 obese bariatric surgery candidates who completed the EDE-Q and a battery of behavioral and psychological measures. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed an inadequate fit for the original EDE-Q structure but revealed a good fit for an alternative structure suggested by recent research with obese samples. CFA supported a seven-item, three-factor structure; the three factors were interpreted as dietary restraint, shape/weight overvaluation, and body dissatisfaction. The three factors converged with other relevant collateral measures. CONCLUSIONS: These factor analytic findings, which replicate recent findings from studies with diverse obese samples, demonstrated convergent validity. Implications of these findings for clinical assessment and research with bariatric surgery patients are discussed.

Grilo CM; Henderson KE; Bell RL; Crosby RD

2013-05-01

92

Eating disorders during pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eating disorders during pregnancy, once thought to be rare, occur in a significant number of women. The incidences of the major eating disorders-anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa-are increasing because of cultural pressures on the drive for thinness. Because the age range for these major eating disorders overlaps with the age range for reproductive function, it is not unusual for a clinician to encounter a pregnant patient with a major eating disorder. Eating disorders attributable to the pregnant state include pregnancy sickness, pica, and ptyalism. The diagnostic criteria, etiology, nutritional behavioral influences, evolutionary psychological considerations where elucidated, and treatment of these disorders will be presented. Target Audience: Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to review how the major eating disorders impact pregnancy, to diagnose eating disorders during pregnancy using the diagnostic criteria, and to treat eating disorders during pregnancy.

Cardwell MS

2013-04-01

93

Psychosocial factors associated with binge eating among overweight and obese male veterans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study's primary objective is to compare psychosocial characteristics of overweight/obese male Veterans who report binge eating with those who do not report binge eating. Participants include 111 overweight/obese male Veterans who completed questionnaires assessing binge eating, depression, stress, body image, self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity, and barriers to physical activity. Of the study sample, 25.2% are classified as binge eaters. Binge eating status is not significantly associated with age, race/ethnicity, weight, or BMI. Binge eating is associated with higher scores on measures of depression, barriers to exercise, self-classified weight, and lower self-efficacy for both healthy eating and exercise, but is not associated with body satisfaction or recent stress. Findings suggest that a sizable minority of overweight/obese male Veterans engage in binge eating. Depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers all significantly predicted binge eating. These findings have implications both for identification of overweight/obese men at risk for binge eating disorder as well as for weight loss treatment in the Veteran population.

Rosenberger PH; Dorflinger L

2013-08-01

94

Tranformation factors for doses in connection with internal doses obtained via inhalation or via eating of different articles of food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes a method for the calculation of transformation factors for internal doses. These factors will be used to calculate radiation doses in connection with internal contamination. The radioactivity is assumed to enter the body either via the inhalation of radioactive air or via the eating of contaminated articles of food. Tables of calculated transformation factors for internal doses are given. (E.R.)

1978-01-01

95

Influence of eating profile on the outcome of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the eating profile of patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and its impact on weight loss. METHODS: One hundred ten patients who underwent LSG were interviewed using Suter questionnaire and revised Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns in follow-up visits. Eating patterns were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients were divided into six groups according to the timing point of assessment. Group 1 (n = 10) included patients < 3 months, group 2 (n = 11) 3-6 months, group 3 (n = 11) 6-12 months, group 4 (n = 39) 1-2 years, group 5 (n = 23) 2-3 years, and group 6 (n = 16) > 3 years. The excess weight loss (EWL) was correlated with the results. RESULTS: The total score of the Suter questionnaire was 15.0 5.87, 20.3 7.07, 26.2 1.54, 23.8 4.25, 24.65 2.8, and 23.43 4.14 for the groups 1-6, respectively (p < 0.0001). No significant differences were denoted when long-term follow-up groups 3 to 6 were compared. No association was found between the preoperative eating pattern and EWL. Postoperatively, 91 patients modified their eating pattern. Postoperative eating pattern was significantly correlated with EWL (p = 0.015). Patients with normal and snacking eating pattern achieve the best EWL (63.57 21.32 and 60.73 20.62, respectively). Binge eating disorder and emotional patterns had the worst EWL (42.84 29.42 and 34.55 19.34, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Better food tolerance is detected after the first postoperative year after LSG. The postoperative eating patterns seem to affect excessive weight loss.

Sioka E; Tzovaras G; Oikonomou K; Katsogridaki G; Zachari E; Papamargaritis D; Pinaka O; Zacharoulis D

2013-04-01

96

Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燩roperly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)

2009-01-01

97

Physical Activity Behaviours of Female Pupils and Possible Influences of Urban Environments on Eating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relationships among children`s physical activity behaviors and factors that might indicate increasing health risks have not yet been firmly established in developing nations. Eating and activity behaviours, is an area in research, particularly in developing communities, like Nigeria, where changes in lifestyle have had profound effects on the population densely populated urban area and risk of heart diseases. The main thrust of this study was to examine specific aspects of lifestyles of school children who lived in an extremely dense urban area of the troubled Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. The participants were 25 males and 25 females school children in five schools in Warri metropolis (oil-city) of Nigeria, recruited by the school principals. A purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the subjects, with the consent of their parents. The BEACHES` instrument, developed by Mckenzie was adopted. For this study, every target child was visited in his/her home for 1 hour session, along with six (20 minutes observation) sessions at the child`s school during recess periods. Number and lengths of observations were based on optimum suggested by Mckenzie et al. (1991). Findings revealed low participation rate, school children involved in sedentary activity during their recess time passivity and low occurrence patterns at home based activities. All may be attributed to the unfriendly environment of the area under study. The need to make a friendly area was therefore suggested

L.O. Eboh; T.E. Boye

2005-01-01

98

Toward an understanding of risk factors for binge-eating disorder in black and white women: a community-based case-control study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study sought to identify in white women risk factors specific to binge-eating disorder (BED) and for psychiatric disorders in general, and to compare black and white women on risk factors for BED.

Striegel-Moore, RH; Fairburn, CG; Wilfley, DE; Pike, KM; Dohm, FA

99

The Weight Influenced Self-Esteem Questionnaire (WISE-Q): factor structure and psychometric properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Weight-based self-esteem (WBSE) is hypothesized to be the core cognitive feature of eating disorders. The Weight Influenced Self-Esteem Questionnaire (WISE-Q) was designed to measure the influence of a negatively perceived body image on multiple dimensions of self-esteem, which we believe to be one aspect of WBSE. Study 1 sought to determine the factor structure of the WISE-Q as well as to examine the reliability and concurrent validity of WISE-Q scores among eating disorder and undergraduate student participants. In Study 2, validity was further investigated by examining changes in WISE-Q scores with treatment. The WISE-Q has two factors representing generalized and expected WBSE. Evidence of internal and test-retest reliability was found. Also, the pattern of correlations between WISE-Q scores and other constructs was in line with predictions. As expected, WISE-Q scores improved with treatment yet remained high.

Trottier K; McFarlane T; Olmsted MP; McCabe RE

2013-01-01

100

Eating as an Automatic Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The continued growth of the obesity epidemic at a time when obesity is highly stigmatizing should make us question the assumption that, given the right information and motivation, people can successfully reduce their food intake over the long term. An alternative view is that eating is an automatic behavior over which the environment has more control than do individuals. Automatic behaviors are those that occur without awareness, are initiated without intention, tend to continue without control, and operate efficiently or with little effort. The concept that eating is an automatic behavior is supported by studies that demonstrate the impact of the environmental context and food presentation on eating. The amount of food eaten is strongly influenced by factors such as portion size, food visibility and salience, and the ease of obtaining food. Moreover, people are often unaware of the amount of food they have eaten or of the environmental influences on their eating. A revised view of eating as an automatic behavior, as opposed to one that humans can self-regulate, has profound implications for our response to the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the focus should be less on nutrition education and more on shaping the food environment.

Deborah A. Cohen, MD, MPH; Thomas A. Farley, MD, MPH

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2012-01-01

102

Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria como factor de riesgo para osteoporosis Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres j髒enes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La p閞dida de masa 髎ea es una complicaci髇 f韘ica de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sin閞gico de la desnutrici髇 y la deficiencia de estr骻enos produce una p閞dida de masa 髎ea a trav閟 del desacoplamiento entre resorci髇 osteocl醩tica y formaci髇 osteobl醩tica. La severidad var韆 dependiendo de la duraci髇 de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad f韘ica. La repercusi髇 a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera l韓ea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa 髎ea es la rehabilitaci髇 nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podr韆 ser efectiva si se combina con m閠odos anab髄icos. Los t閞minos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa 髎ea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos t閞minos para definir datos densitom閠ricos en sujetos j髒enes que no han alcanzado la masa 髎ea pico. Sugerimos el t閞mino "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa 髎ea en adolescentes o ni駉s.Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.

Ma Teresa Rivera-Gallardo; Ma del Socorro Parra-Cabrera; Jorge Armando Barriguete-Mel閚dez

2005-01-01

103

The associations of sociocultural attitudes towards appearance with body dissatisfaction and eating behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Western culture has great influences on body dissatisfaction and related eating behaviors in adolescents. This study aimed to assess the sociocultural influences on eating attitudes and motivations among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. METHODS: In 2007, 909 adolescents (mean age = 14.7 years, 55.3% boys) completed a survey with Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale (FRS), Motivation for Eating Scale (MFES), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Revised Restraint Scale (RRS), and Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale (SATAQ). In addition, their body mass index (BMI) was objectively measured. RESULTS: Our results indicated that Hong Kong adolescents, particularly girls exhibited a remarked level of body dissatisfaction, external, emotional, restrained and disordered eating behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age, sex and BMI were the most common contributing factors to individual eating styles. SATAQ significantly accounted for an additional variance of body dissatisfaction (2%), physical eating (2%), external eating (1%), emotional eating (3%), restrained eating (5%), and disordered eating (5%). CONCLUSIONS: In Hong Kong, the sociocultural influences on body image and eating disturbance were supported.

Lai CM; Mak KK; Pang JS; Fong SS; Ho RC; Guldan GS

2013-08-01

104

The uniqueness of negative urgency as a common risk factor for self-harm behaviors, alcohol consumption, and eating problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research suggests that self-control, affective lability, and negative urgency are associated with deliberate self-harm, problematic alcohol consumption, and eating problems. Few studies have fully examined how negative urgency might uniquely explain the effects of self-control and affective lability on these outcomes, as compared to other impulsivity-related traits. This was the goal of the current study. Of an initial group of 734 undergraduate students, 29% indicated a history of deliberate self-harm. These 215 individuals were randomly matched with a group of non-self-harmers (total N=430; mean age=22.36, SD=6.59; 76.2% female). Self-harmers showed higher rates of alcohol use (F(2, 186)=5.48, p<.001) and eating problems (F(2, 186)=7.74, p<.001). In a structural equation model, negative urgency was significantly associated with self-harming frequency (?=3.81, p<.001), variety of self-harm methods (?=5.79, p<.001), the number of years of self-harming (?=2.75, p<.001), problematic alcohol use (?=1.80, p<.05), and eating problems (?=3.99, p<.001). Negative urgency was positively associated with affective lability (?=7.71, p<.001) and negatively associated with self-control (?=-13.59, p<.001). Negative urgency is the only impulsivity-related trait that is a common risk factor associated with increased self-harm, problematic alcohol use, and eating problems.

Dir AL; Karyadi K; Cyders MA

2013-05-01

105

Eating Seizure; Case Report  

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Full Text Available Eating-induced seizures are an uncommon presentation of reflex epilepsy, a condition characterized by seizures provoked by specific stimuli. Exact pathogenic mechanism of eating epilepsy is still unknown. Various etiology related to eating epilepsy such as genetic factors, ethnicity, and specific food and eating habits. Here we present a 69-year-old men with eating epilepsy presented to the emergency department with syncope after eating during last two weeks. His complaints start with eating especially solid foods. His neurologic examination and metabolic evaluation was normal. We revealed video-Electroencephalography (video-EEG) monitorization with provocation test. Ictal period was recorded on video-monitorization and active epileptic focus was detected at right central temporal anterior-posterior temporal and temporoparietal side and ischemic lesions was found on periventricular and sentrum semiovale regions on MRI. Carbamazepine treatment started but since the patient could not tolerate high doses, then levetiracetam was added on. The seizures were controlled by polytherapy.

Kezban Aslan; Hacer Bozdemir; Can Sezer; Taylan Pek鰖

2011-01-01

106

Individual differences in the relationship between ovarian hormones and emotional eating across the menstrual cycle: a role for personality?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Within-person changes in estradiol and progesterone predict changes in binge eating tendencies across the menstrual cycle. However, all women have menstrual-cycle fluctuations in hormones, but few experience binge eating. Personality traits may be critical individual difference factors that influence who will engage in emotional eating in the presence of a vulnerable hormonal environment. Women (N=239) provided self-reports of emotional eating and saliva samples for hormone measurement for 45 consecutive days. Negative urgency and negative emotionality were measured once and were examined as moderators of hormone-emotional eating associations. Consistent with prior research, within-person changes in the interaction between estradiol and progesterone predicted emotional eating. Neither negative urgency nor negative emotionality interacted with changes in estradiol and progesterone to predict changes in emotional eating. Additional factors, other than the two personality traits examined, may account for individual differences in within-person associations between hormones and emotional eating.

Racine SE; Keel PK; Burt SA; Sisk CL; Neale M; Boker S; Klump KL

2013-04-01

107

Childhood Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating among Undergraduate Females: Mediating Influence of Alexithymia and Distress  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore

Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

2006-01-01

108

Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery  

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Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophtha...

Torres-Gimeno Ana; Mart韓ez-Costa Luc韆; Ayala Guillermo

109

The Influence of Cognitive-Perceptual Variables on Patterns of Change over Time in Rural Midlife and Older Women's Healthy Eating  

Science.gov (United States)

Although studies demonstrate that dietary interventions for healthy adults can result in beneficial dietary changes, few studies examine when and how people change in response to these interventions, particularly in rural populations. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change over time in healthy eating behaviors in midlife and older women in response to a one-year health-promoting intervention, and to examine what predictors (perceived benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, and family support for healthy eating) influence the changes during the intervention and follow-up. Data for this secondary analysis were from the Wellness for Women community-based trial. Women (N=225) between the ages of 5069 in rural Nebraska, U.S.A., were recruited. A repeated-measures experimental design was used with randomization of two rural counties to intervention (tailored newsletter) or comparison (standard newsletter) groups. Eating behavior was measured by the Healthy Eating Index. The predictor variables were assessed using standard measures. Data analysis was done using latent growth curve modeling. The tailored newsletter group was successful in improving their healthy eating behavior compared to the standard newsletter group during the one-year intervention, at the end of the intervention, and during the follow-up phase. Family support at the end of the intervention was positively associated with healthy eating at the end of the intervention. Perceived barriers had the strongest impact on healthy eating behavior at all time points. Compared to participants in the standard newsletter group, those in the tailored newsletter group perceived more family support and fewer barriers for healthy eating at the end of the intervention (mediation effects). Based on these findings, both family support and perceived barriers should be central components of interventions focused on healthy eating behavior in rural midlife and older women.

Yates, Bernice C.; Pullen, Carol H.; Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Boeckner, Linda; Hageman, Patricia A.; Dizona, Paul J.; Walker, Susan Noble

2012-01-01

110

Considering J.Lo and Ugly Betty: a qualitative examination of risk factors and prevention targets for body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, and obesity in young Latina women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Latina women are vulnerable to poor body image, eating disorders, and obesity, particularly during the college years. This study sought to identify common cultural antecedents of these concerns in order to inform the development of prevention programs for this population. Six groups of university students who identified as Latina (N=27) discussed cultural aspects of body image, eating disorders, and obesity. Thematic analysis identified four main themes: (a) cultural disparities in body-ideal, including the influence of the media and acculturation issues; (b) messages about body shape and weight received by family, peers, and society; (c) difficulties making healthy eating and physical activity choices as a function of college life; and (d) the influence of peers and potential male partners on body satisfaction and body-ideals. These results have implications for the development of programs targeting body dissatisfaction and risk for eating disorders and obesity in Latina college women.

Franko DL; Coen EJ; Roehrig JP; Rodgers RF; Jenkins A; Lovering ME; Dela Cruz S

2012-06-01

111

SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors  

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Full Text Available Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI) and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population), patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessiveness朿ompulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects) emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. Keywords: psychiatric comorbidity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, SAFA test

Emilo Franzoni; Morena Monti; Alessandro Pellicciari; Carlo Muratore; Alberto Verrotti; et al

2009-01-01

112

Childhood emotional abuse and disordered eating among undergraduate females: mediating influence of alexithymia and distress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore those of CEA using measures of specific emotionally abusive acts. METHOD: Five hundred and eighty-eight female university students completed self-report surveys consisting of measures of CEA, alexithymia, depression, anxiety, and DE. Structural equation modeling was used to test this conceptual model. RESULTS: Comparison between measurement models suggested that bulimic behavior is a separate construct from restrictive eating behaviors and body dissatisfaction. In the structural model with the best fit, the association between CEA and DE was mediated by alexithymia and GD (i.e., a component of depression and anxiety). Specifically, CEA was associated with alexithymia, which was further related to GD. Then, restrictive eating behaviors and attitudes mediated the relation between GD and bulimic behaviors. By analyzing a second, nested model, this latter pathway was shown to be important. CONCLUSION: While the best-fitting model is only one of many possibilities, these results point to a weak-but significant-complex relation between CEA and DE. They are associated through a series of mediating relations in a multivariate model including alexithymia and GD. The current study supports research suggesting that child emotional abuse can have a negative impact on its survivors. Treatment of those survivors manifesting disordered eating should be holistic, as opposed to targeted towards specific symptoms.

Hund AR; Espelage DL

2006-04-01

113

Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders  

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Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

Bedriye Oncu; Direnc Sakarya

2013-01-01

114

Factors influencing human tumor radioresistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燭he first part of this paper reviews factors which modulate intrinsic radioresistance including free radical scavengers, chemical and enzymatic repair of DNA, chromatin conformation, cell cycle checkpoints and signal transduction processes. In the second part a sub-set of radioresistant cells which have been identified from among cell lines cross-resistant to alkylating agents are described. Radioresistance is associated with a reduction in the value of ? in the linear-quadratic model and these cell lines are radiosensitized under aerated conditions by GSH depletion with sensitization involving an increase in ?. (authors). 43 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

1994-01-01

115

Factors influencing peripheral nerve suture results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Besides the surgical treatment, other factors do greatly influence the results following peripheral nerve suture. On the basis of our own findings in more than 80 patients, we analyze those factors, the exclusion of which prevents a satisfactory comparison between the different results in peripheral nerve suturing, as well as a valid discussion of their implications.

M黮ler H; Grubel G

1983-01-01

116

Behavioral risk factors for overweight in early childhood; the 態e active, eat right study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifestyle-related behaviors having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, playing outside and watching TV have been indicated to have an association with childhood overweight, but research among young children (below 6?years old) is limited. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between these four behaviors and overweight among young children. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data on 5-year-old children (n?=?7505) collected for the study 態e active, eat right. Age and sex-specific cut-off points for body mass index of the International Obesity Task Force were used to assess overweight/obesity. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results For children whom had breakfast 2 hours/day, the odds ratio (OR) for having overweight (obesity included) was, respectively, 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.95), and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51). There was a positive association between the number of risk behaviors present and the risk for having overweight. For children with 3 or all of the risk behaviors having breakfast 2 glasses/day, playing outside 2 hs/day, the OR for overweight was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11-2.71) (all models adjusted for children抯 sex and sociodemographic characteristics). Conclusion Given the positive association between the number of behavioral risk factors and overweight, further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral counseling of parents of toddlers in preventing childhood overweight. In the meantime we recommend physicians to target all four behaviors for counseling during well-child visits.

Veldhuis Lydian; Vogel Ineke; Renders Carry M; van Rossem Lenie; Oenema Anke; HiraSing Remy A; Raat Hein

2012-01-01

117

A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows  

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Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy) per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

Lawlor Peadar G; Lynch P Brendan

2007-01-01

118

A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy) per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter. PMID:21851695

Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan

2007-06-01

119

H醔itos y Trastornos Alimenticios asociados a factores Socio-demogr醘icos, F韘icos y Conductuales en Universitarios de Cartagena, Colombia/ Eating habits and disorders associated to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors in university students, Cartagena Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir la prevalencia de h醔itos y des髍denes alimenticios en universitarios y relacionarlos con factores socio-demogr醘icos, f韘icos y conductuales. Dise駉. Estudio de corte transversal. Emplazamiento. Municipio de Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participantes. Un total de 1.040 estudiantes de los programas diurnos y nocturnos de la Universidad de Cartagena. Mediciones principales. Se utiliz una encuesta estructurada para evaluar h醔itos alimenticios (more) y aspectos socio-demogr醘icos, EAT-26 y SCOFF para trastornos alimenticios y escala de Holmes and Rahe para la susceptibilidad de enfermar. Se estim la ocurrencia a trav閟 de prevalencias, las relaciones entre variables a trav閟 de razones de disparidad y el an醠isis multivariable mediante regresi髇 log韘tica nominal. Resultados. El motivo m醩 frecuente para no alimentarse bien fue la falta de costumbre y tiempo. La susceptibilidad de enfermar fue del 23,1% y el riesgo de anorexia y bulimia del 14,2%. En el an醠isis multivariable el mejor modelo con el SCOFF mostr significaci髇 estad韘tica con edad (OR: 1,86), susceptibilidad de enfermar (OR: 1,77), dieta (OR: 2,81), problemas de colon (OR: 1,8) y no realizar actividad f韘ica (OR: 3,04). Conclusiones. Los h醔itos y trastornos de alimentaci髇 en estudiantes universitarios est醤 influidos por factores relacionados con el quehacer universitario, siendo necesario considerar este comportamiento alimentario como un problema relevante que interact鷄 con el buen desarrollo de las actividades acad閙icas. Abstract in english Objective. To describe the prevalence of eating habits and disorders in university students and their relationship with socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors. Design. Cross-sectional study Setting. Municipality of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participants. 1040 students in day and evening programmes at the University of Cartagena. Main measurements. A structured questionnaire was used to assess eating habits and socio-demographic factors; EAT-26 and SCOFF (more) for eating disorders and the Holmes and Rahe scale for the susceptibility to disease. Occurrence was estimated by prevalence, assuming confidence 95% intervals. Relationships between variables were evaluated using odds ratios and multivariate analysis using nominal logistic regression. Results. The most common reason for not eating well was the lack of habit and time. Susceptibility to disease was 23.1% and the risk of anorexia and bulimia 14.2%. The best model for logistic regression with SCOFF showed statistical significance with age (OR: 1.86), susceptibility to disease (OR: 1.77), diet (OR: 2.81), colon problems (OR: 1.8), and lack of physical activity (OR: 3.04). Conclusions. Eating habits and disorders in university students are influenced by factors related to university life. This behavior should be considered as a serious problem that one that interferes with the smooth running of academic activities.

S醗nz Duran, Shirly; Gonz醠ez Mart韓ez, Farith; D韆z C醨denas, Shyrley

2011-10-01

120

Assessment of Predisposing, Enabling, and Reinforcing Factors Toward Food Choices and Healthy Eating Among Hispanics in South Carolina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this project was to examine the determinants of diet-related behaviors and the influences of the environment that drive food choices among Hispanic adults in South Carolina. A series of focus-group interviews found barriers to healthy eating, including limited availability of specific foods, insufficient time, and lack of cooking skills. Participants mentioned the need for education related to portion control, illness prevention, weight control, healthy foods, foods appropriate for children, and reading food labels. Motivators included risk awareness, advice from physicians, family help, and education. These findings provide a basis for developing nutrition education interventions that target Hispanic adults.

Chavez-Martinez America; Cason KatherineL; Mayo Rachel; Nieto-Montenegro Sergio; Williams JoelE; Haley-Zitin Vivian

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity. PMID:21523903

Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, St閜hanie; Langlois, Genevi鑦e; Hall, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

2011-04-26

122

Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

Tam SK; Dusseault J; Bilodeau S; Langlois G; Hall JP; Yahia L

2011-07-01

123

Which factors influence psychiatrists' selection of antidepressants?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: There is little empirical evidence to guide clinicians in choosing among the diverse array of antidepressants available. In the absence of replicated empirical research guiding the selection of antidepressants, it is of interest to examine what factors psychiatrists consider when prescribing antidepressants. METHOD: For 1,137 depressed patients who received a new antidepressant prescription, the treating psychiatrist completed a 43-item questionnaire listing factors that might have influenced the choice of antidepressant medication. The questionnaire was filled out immediately after an antidepressant was prescribed to treat a depressive disorder. RESULTS: The most common factors influencing antidepressant selection were the avoidance of specific side effects, the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the presence of specific clinical symptoms. Prior treatment history, including prior positive or failed response to a drug, was the next most frequently endorsed factor influencing medication choice. Some factors that have been commonly discussed in the literature, such as concern about discontinuation syndrome and drug-drug interactions, rarely influenced antidepressant selection. CONCLUSIONS: Because relatively little research has examined clinical features associated with differential response to the newer generation of antidepressants, a study of psychiatrists' prescribing practices highlights priorities for future controlled research. Our results suggest that two priority areas are the treatment of depression with coexisting anxiety symptoms/anxiety disorders and the influence of particular symptoms on response to different medications.

Zimmerman M; Posternak M; Friedman M; Attiullah N; Baymiller S; Boland R; Berlowitz S; Rahman S; Uy K; Singer S

2004-07-01

124

Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

C Hill M; L Cox C

2013-08-01

125

La epidemiolog韆 y los factores de riesgo de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia: una revisi髇 Epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorder in adolescence: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducci髇: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. M閠odos: B鷖queda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiolog韆 y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las ni馻s en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparici髇 de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la gen閠ica, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presi髇 social por ser delgada, la insatisfacci髇 con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresi髇 y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparici髇 de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en c髆o interact鷄n estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de m醩 investigaciones.Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.

M. L. Portela de Santana; H. da Costa Ribeiro Junior; M. Mora Giral; R. M. Raich

2012-01-01

126

Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation  

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Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer age are reported.

Micha? Dudek

2010-01-01

127

Risk factors for eating disorders: surprising similarities between middle school boys and girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), and self-esteem in middle school students. Participants were 40 girls and 36 boys aged 11-13. Students completed BD and DT Eating Disorder Inventory subscales and the Rosenberg self-esteem questionnaire. There were no significant differences on these measures. For boys and girls, self-esteem was negatively correlated with BD, and Body Mass Index (BMI) was positively correlated with BD. For boys, BMI was positively correlated with DT. DT was negatively correlated with self-esteem in girls. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem is cause for concern and may be a higher risk for developing eating disorders. PMID:16864524

Wiseman, Claire V; Peltzman, Brooke; Halmi, Katherine A; Sunday, Suzanne R

2004-01-01

128

A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand  

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Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including 揷ultural image of customers, 揺xciting characteristics, 揷ompetitive pricing strategies, 損erception image and 損revious perceptions.

Naser Azad; Somayeh Hozouri; Seyed Foad Zarifi; Yaser Khodashenas

129

Psychometric properties, norms, and factor structure of the diabetes eating problem survey-revised in a large sample of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R) in a large sample of young patients with type 1 diabetes, to establish norms, and to validate it against the Eating Attitudes Test-12 (EAT-12). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 770 children and adolescents aged 11-19 years with type 1 diabetes completed the DEPS-R and the EAT-12. In addition, age- and sex-standardized BMI and HbA1c data were obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. In addition to tests of validity, principal axis factoring was conducted to investigate the factor structure of the 16-item DEPS-R. RESULTS: The DEPS-R demonstrated satisfactory Cronbach ? (0.89) and was significantly correlated with the EAT-12 (0.65; P < 0.01), indicating convergent validity. The mean (SD) DEPS-R scores were 11.0 (10.7) for the total sample and 7.7 (7.4) and 14.2 (2.4) for males and females, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates and extends previous research demonstrating the psychometric properties of the abbreviated 16-item DEPS-R. Findings support the utility of this important screening tool to identify disturbed eating in young patients with type 1 diabetes.

Wisting L; Fr鴌sland DH; Skrivarhaug T; Dahl-J鴕gensen K; R O

2013-08-01

130

Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa; Marco Antonio Moreira

1997-01-01

131

Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science  

Science.gov (United States)

Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

Atria, Catherine Graczyk

132

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to di...

?ilda Pe?ari?; Miroslav Tu?man

133

Influence of Microwaved Food Eating on Blood Iron and Transferrin in Rat  

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Full Text Available The health consideration of microwave radiation has been the subject of scientific investigations particularly in the last decades. But there is a few information about the health effect of micro waved food consuming for a long time. The aim of this trial is to evaluate blood iron and also plasma transferrin as a protein transporter of iron in rat after eating microwaved food for a period of 1 year. For this study 64 young Sprague Dawley rats in 4 groups, each 16 (8 males and 8 females), 2 treated and 2 controls, were used under the standard conditions with free access to tap water and standard food. The 2 treated groups were consuming standard rat food pellets heated by 2450 MHz microwave radiation in 30 min for group (A) and 5 min for group (B). One of the control group (C) were consuming same pellets heated by electric oven at 200癈 for 30 min and another control group (H) were eating the food pellets without any heating by microwave or electric oven. Animals were observed daily and the body weight and food and water consumption were assessed weekly too. In the end of the study the blood samples were taken from the heart of animals after 12 h fasting under ether anesthesia and the serum iron and transferrin analysis was performed on the blood samples. According to the statistical analysis, the level of iron was significantly decreased in all treated groups in comparison with control group of (C) and significant decreasing of iron, in female groups of B and male groups of A, in comparison with control (H). But transferrin level was significantly increased in female groups of A and B and male group of A in comparison with control (C) and only male group of A in comparison with control (H).

M. Sedehi Esfahani; F. Ansari; S. Khadivi; F. Rashid Najafi

2008-01-01

134

[The first epidemiologic survey among Hungarian elite athletes: eating disorders, depression and risk factors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is a fact that the incidence rate of anorexia nervosa is high among athletes who are considered a high-risk population in terms of eating disorders, and it is known as anorexia athletica by specialised literature. Our goal is to assess the prevalence of eating disorders among leading Hungarian athletes. Patients and methods: Before the 2008 Olympics we conducted questionnaire surveys in several Hungarian training camps: demographic and training data, anorexia nervosa inventory for self-rating (ANIS) and the bulimia investigation test, Edinburgh (BITE). We processed the data with the application of the SPSS software package. Results: The average age was 22+/-4.9 years in the different sports (canoeing, pentathlon, handball, basketball, volleyball, weight-lifting). Average body mass index (22.15+/-2.12 kg/m2 ) was in the normal range. Prevalence of clinical anorexia nervosa was 12 (16.7%) and clinical bulimia nervosa was 5 (6.9%). The incidence rate of at least one pathological symptom was 73.6% with regard to the whole population. The prevalence of the depression episode was 37.5% by the current population. Conclusions: The prevalence of eating disorders among athletes was remarkably higher compared to the average population which, however, correlates with the international data. Our outcomes encourage further detailed researches.

Resch M; Ha醩z P

2009-01-01

135

Eating-related anxiety in individuals with eating disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although previous research has supported the importance of anxiety as an etiological and maintenance factor for eating disorders, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The role of anxiety in the context of eating behavior is especially unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify anxiety-eliciting eating situations and anxiety management strategies patients use to mitigate anxiety experienced in the context of eating as determined by diagnostic groups and symptom patterns. Fifty-three eating disorder outpatients were administered the Eating and Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ) and the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Ratings indicated significant anxiety in most eating situations, whereas management strategies were more limited yet regularly employed. Factor analysis of the EAQ revealed a 6-factor solution for anxiety management strategies and a 4-factor solution for anxiety-eliciting situations. These results indicate patients with eating disorders report high levels of anxiety associated with eating behaviors but utilize limited yet consistent anxiety management strategies. Effective intervention strategies for managing eating-related anxiety should be incorporated into treatment and may need to be specified for different diagnostic subgroups.

Webb CM; Thuras P; Peterson CB; Lampert J; Miller D; Crow SJ

2011-12-01

136

Factors influencing lunchtime food choices among working Americans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is growing interest in the usefulness of the workplace as a site for promotion of healthful food choices. The authors therefore analyzed data of U.S. adults (N = 1,918) who reported working outside the home and eating lunch. The majority (84.0%) of workers had a break room. About one half (54.0%) purchased lunch > or = 2 times/week, with higher percentages for males, Blacks, younger (age 18-34 years) versus older adults (age 55 years or older), and obese versus normal-weight persons. The most important lunch food choice value was convenience (34.3%), followed by taste (27.8%), cost (20.8%), and health (17.1%). The typical source for purchasing lunch was a fast-food restaurant (43.4%), followed by on-site cafeteria/snack shop (25.3%), full-service restaurant (16.9%), supermarket (5.2%), vending machine (4.4%), and convenience store (4.0%); younger adults and those less educated relied more on fast-food places. This study identifies individual factors and values that may influence future dietary health initiatives in the work site.

Blanck HM; Yaroch AL; Atienza AA; Yi SL; Zhang J; M鈙se LC

2009-04-01

137

Review of identified factors influencing contraceptive use  

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Full Text Available Introduction It is necessary to know the factors that influence contraceptive behavior in order to overcome obstacles of contraceptive use by implementing modern family planning programs that have to be based on logistic management and directed to the client. The factor isolated till now are systematized into the two groups: the socio-demographic factors - to a greater extent associated with developing countries and the psychological factors -mainly related to developed countries. Socio-demographic f actors of the contraceptive use The most significant socio-demographic determinants of contraceptive behavior appear to be the age, women's educational level but even the educational level of the husband/partner, occupation, environment (urban/rural), some cultural factors, and high price of contraceptives. Psychological variables as a factor of contraceptive (non)use In the group of psychological variables that influence contraceptive use it is possible to distinguish: the presence of illusion of fertility control, locus of control, level of Ego maturity, femininity and masculinity, i.e. the accepted gender roles, level of self-acceptance. The majority of the factors show that the presence of personal initiative and assertiveness are associated with higher level of contraception use.

Bjelica Artur; Trnini?-Pjevi? Aleksandra

2008-01-01

138

Social identity in eating disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This qualitative study examines social identity in eating disorders. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight females with an eating disorder diagnosis. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the data. Three superordinate themes emerged from participants' accounts: (1) Shifts in social identity; (2) Outgroup perceptions and influences and (3) Eating disorders as an ingroup. The findings suggested that a person's social identity can change during the course of having an eating disorder, and an interaction between social identity and a person's recovery from an eating disorder was proposed. Clinical implications, methodological issues, and directions for future research were discussed.

Ison J; Kent S

2010-11-01

139

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

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Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses). The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years). The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

?ilda Pe?ari?; Miroslav Tu?man

2010-01-01

140

A note on eating disorders and appetite and satiety in the orthodox Jewish meal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between religion and eating concerns is receiving increasing empirical attention; and because religion seems to be important to many women with eating concerns, there is an interest in investigating the role religion plays and ways that religion might be employed therapeutically. Research has indicated that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors. An aspect of religiosity that is unique to Judaism is Halakhah, the system of Jewish Law and Ethics which informs the life of a religiously observant orthodox Jew. In this note, we briefly describe how Halakhah approaches the issues of appetite and satiety in eating meals. These might well contribute to the protective influence regarding tendencies for eating disorders in a person whose culture demands an awareness of and commitment to halakhic norms. Some of the most significant characteristics of disordered eating-lack of appetite, disturbed satiated response, withdrawal from community and decreased spirituality-correlate inversely with the halakhic requirements of eating a meal. We suggest that future studies of orthodox Jewish women measuring eating-order symptomatology and its correlation with religiosity might focus not only on well-known indicators of halakhic adherence such as kashrut and Sabbath observance, but also on the specifics of how their kosher meals are eaten, including ritually washing one's hands before eating, saying the appropriate blessing before and after eating, eating the required two meals on the Sabbath, and fully participating in the Passover Seder meal.

Shafran Y; Wolowelsky JB

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

Naser Azad

2012-01-01

142

Influence of organizational factors on safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1990-01-01

143

The influence of stress on the relationship between cognitive variables and measures of eating disorders (in healthy female university students): a quasi-experimental study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Perfectionism, poor self-esteem and stress have all been described as important risk factors for eating disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a stressful situation is significantly correlated to and associated with significantly higher levels of perfectionism, stress, quantifiable measures of eating disorders, and with significantly lower levels of self-esteem in a non-clinical sample. METHOD: Thirty-five female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Eating Disorder Inventory two times; once on an average university day and once on the day of an exam. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were calculated to verify whether a stressful situation was associated with a significant difference in levels of perfectionism, self-esteem, stress, and measures of eating disorders. Bivariate correlations were calculated for both the stress and non-stress situation, to observe how the dimensions of perfectionism, self-esteem, and stress were associated with measures of eating disorders. RESULTS: During the stress situation, the study participants had, on average, significantly higher levels of concern over mistakes, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and perceived stress. Bivariate correlations revealed that during the stress situation perceived stress, cognitive variables and measures of eating disorders showed significant correlations with each other that were absent in the non stress situation. DISCUSSION: The results of the present study suggest that the dimensions of pathological perfectionism, low self-esteem, and perceived stress are related to an increase in dieting thoughts and dissatisfaction with body aspect in non-clinical women during a performance that could potentially challenge the perception of their self-esteem. The stressful situation can be interpreted as an experience of invalidation, which could explain the connection between cognitive constructs and behaviours related to eating disorders.

Ruggiero GM; Bertelli S; Boccalari L; Centorame F; Ditucci A; La Mela C; Scarinci A; Vinai P; Scarone S; Sassaroli S

2008-09-01

144

[Eating habits and life styles in a Portuguese population--protective and risk factors for osteoporosis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Physical activity, calcium intake, coffee, alcohol and tobacco consumption can influence OP risk. These factors can be modifiable and, in some cases, their control may contribute for the OP prevention. OBJECTIVES: To identify and to evaluate associations between modifiable risk or protective factors of OP, age and sex in Portuguese healthy subjects. To assess the knowledge about osteoporosis in the studied population stratified by age and sex. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of randomly selected healthy subjects aged 18 to 29 years or more than 50 years. Information was obtained on demographic, clinical, lifestyle and behavioural characteristics using a standard protocol. Alcohol and tobacco consumption, calcium intake, physical activity and knowledge about osteoporosis were quantified. RESULTS: 301 subjects, 199 females and 102 males were evaluated. They have been separated in four groups stratified by sex and age. All the individuals presented calcium intake below the recommended levels and, except for the group of young males, physical activity was very low. Tobacco consumption was higher in the young female group and had been initiated earlier. Alcohol consumption was higher in male individuals with more than 49 years, being wine the predominant drink, while younger preferred beer. Women older than 49 years presented reduced calcium intake and physical activity. DISCUSSION: Risk factors for OP have been identified in age groups prone to develop OP The differences found in the evaluated parameters between age and sex groups must be considered in campaigns for OP prevention, promoting calcium intake, physical activity and the fight against tobacco consumption.

Canh鉶 H; Fonseca JE; Queiroz MV

2006-10-01

145

Eating behaviour, insulin resistance and cluster of metabolic risk factors in European adolescents. The HELENA study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors.

Ses MA; Jim閚ez-Pav髇 D; Gilbert CC; Gonz醠ez-Gross M; Gottrand F; de Henauw S; Breidenassel C; W鋜nberg J; Widhalm K; Molnar D; Manios Y; Cuenca-Garc韆 M; Kafatos A; Moreno LA

2012-08-01

146

Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

147

Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees knowledgesharing (learning) behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

Jawahar Nesan

2012-01-01

148

Body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise and eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate eating behavior is high in athletes. However, little is known about the factors that affect this phenomenon in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction and level of psychological commitment to exercise (LPCE) with inadequate eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports. Forty-seven female athletes practicing aesthetic sports (artistic gymnastics, synchronized swimming and high diving), ranging in age from 12 to 16 years, participated in the study. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES) were used to evaluate the risk behavior for eating disorders, body dissatisfaction and LPCE, respectively. Skinfold thickness was measured to calculate body fat percentage of the athletes. The results revealed a significant association between body dissatisfaction and eating behavior and between LPCE and risk behavior for eating disorders. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all variables, except for fat percentage, influenced the eating behavior of young athletes. This analysis also indicated an influence of body fat percentage and body dissatisfaction on CES scores. It was concluded that body dissatisfaction and LPCE are factors that predispose to risky eating behaviors in athletes from aesthetic sports.

Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Clara Mockdece Neves; Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Sebasti鉶 Sousa Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

2013-01-01

149

Co-Occurring Eating and Psychiatric Symptoms in Taiwanese College Students: Effects of Gender and Parental Factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To test whether gender and parental factors moderate the relationships between symptoms of eating disorder (ED) and other psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: A total of 5,015 new entrants completed several questionnaires and 541individuals with ED symptoms were identified by the Adult Self-Report Inventory-4 that assessed a wide range of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition psychopathology. The participants also reported on their parents' attitude toward them before their ages of 16. RESULTS: ED symptoms, female gender, less parental care, and more parental protection were associated with more severe co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Gender and parental factors also demonstrated differential moderating effects on the relationships between ED and co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Parenting counseling may be individualized to young adults with ED symptoms and different co-occurring psychiatric symptoms.

Tseng MC; Gau SS; Tseng WL; Hwu HG; Lee MB

2013-06-01

150

Age and factors influencing consumer behaviour  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When evaluating a product or service, consumers seek out information to judge whether that specific product will meet certain criteria. The main concern of sales providers is how to increase their purchasers' willingness to buy a product. The authors studied the impact of age on the perceived importance and interaction of three factors known to influence people when buying clothes: price, durability and suitability. A sample of 160 French adults aged 18-90 rated their likelihood of buying an item of clothing in 27 scenarios, in which three levels (low, moderate and high) of each of the above three factors were combined in an orthogonal factorial design. For younger participants, a low price was considered a sufficient reason to buy the item of clothing. For older participants, suitability was a more important factor, while for the eldest people, durability was the most important.

Herv Catherine; Mullet Etienne

2009-05-01

151

CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS  

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Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets), the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size) have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets).

Toth Kristof; Toth Jozsef

2012-01-01

152

Fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de dist鷕bios alimentares: um estudo em universit醨ias Risk factors in the development of eating disorders: study in a group of college women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou identificar, em mulheres universit醨ias, aquelas que apresentavam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de dist鷕bios alimentares. Aplicou-se o question醨io Eating Attitudes Test em 221 mulheres (114 estudantes de nutri玢o e 107 estudantes de outras 醨eas n鉶 relacionadas sa鷇e). Os resultados indicaram que 22,17% das estudantes apresentaram fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de dist鷕bio alimentar, sendo que no grupo de alunas da nutri玢o o percentual foi maior (25,43%) do que no grupo de estudantes de outros cursos (18,69%). Embora a diferen鏰 n鉶 tenha sido significativa, as futuras nutricionistas podem estar inseridas em um ambiente mais favor醰el ao desenvolvimento de dist鷕bios alimentares.This work studied a group of 221 college women, to identify those who presented risk factors compatible with the development of eating disorders. The Eating Attitudes Test was applied to 221 women (114 nutrition students and 107 students from other areas, unrelated to the health field). Results indicated that 22.17% of the group presented risk factors in the development of an eating disorder. Nutrition students presented a higher percentage (25.43%) than the other students (18.69%), but this difference was not significant. However, women who study nutrition may be exposed to an environment more propitious to the development of eating disorders.

Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck FIATES; Raquel Kuerten de SALLES

2001-01-01

153

A double burden: emotional eating and lack of cognitive reappraisal in eating disordered women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of emotional eating and lack of cognitive reappraisal on eating pathology in women with binge-purge and restricting type eating disorders. METHOD: Women with a diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia nervosa according to the DSM-IV-tr (n = 50) and non-clinical women without eating disorders (n = 52) were asked about emotional eating tendencies, adaptive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal) and eating pathology symptoms. RESULTS: In binge-purging women, emotional eating with limited use of cognitive reappraisal predicted level of eating pathology but not in the restricting and non-clinical women. DISCUSSION: Emotional eating tendencies in combination with a low tendency to use cognitive reappraisal may influence the severity of eating pathology in individuals with binge-purge behaviours. Evidently, patients with these characteristics require a therapy that addresses adaptive emotion regulation skills.

Danner UN; Evers C; Stok FM; van Elburg AA; de Ridder DT

2012-11-01

154

Concurrent and Prospective Analyses of Peer, Television and Social Media Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disorder Symptoms and Life Satisfaction in Adolescent Girls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure.

Ferguson CJ; Mu駉z ME; Garza A; Galindo M

2013-01-01

155

The influence of the proportion of Duroc genes on growth, carcass and pork eating quality characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was carried out involving 721 pigs, comprising boars and gilts, with either 0, 0(.)25, or 0(.)50 Duroc inclusion level, which were produced by mating Large White boars with Large White X British Landrace sows, Large White boars with Duroc X (Large White X British Landrace) sows, or Duroc boars with Large White X British Landrace sows, respectively. Animals were reared on one of seven different feeding regimens from 30 to 90 kg live weight. Tissue growth rates were determined using a triple sampling procedure based on a combination of full-side and ham joint dissection on subsamples of pigs (127 and 366 pigs, respectively) and P(2) backfat thickness on the remainder. Initial body composition was determined at 30 kg on subsamples of the three genotypes. Daily food intakes increased with increasing Duroc inclusion but live-weight gains were similar for the three genotypes. Lean and fat growth rates and food conversion ratios were greatest for the 0(.)50 Duroc group, although the genotype differences were small. Killing-out proportions and P(2) fat depths were higher for the 0(.)25 and 0(.)50 Duroc groups. The proportion of lean in the carcass was lower (P <0(.)01) for 0(.)50 Duroc pigs. Japanese colour scores and EEL reflectance indicated that the longissimus muscle was darker for the 0(.)25 and 0(.)50 Duroc genotypes. Subcutaneous fat firmness scores and penetrometer readings taken in the mid back indicated softer fat for the 0 Duroc group. Intramuscular fat levels increased (P <0(.)01) with increasing Duroc inclusion (10(.)4, 11(.)2, and 18(.)2 g/kg for the 0, 0(.)25, and 0(.)50 groups respectively). Cooked longissimus from pigs with 0(.)50 Duroc had a lower shear force and was judged to have a stronger pork odour and to be more tender and acceptable than that from the 0 Duroc group. The 0(.)25 Duroc group showed a small improvement in tenderness but a weaker pork odour and similar overall acceptability compared with the 0 Duroc group. This study suggests that the use of the Duroc in crossing systems in the United Kingdom will have limited impact on growth performance but that 0(.)50 Duroc inclusion will result in fatter carcasses, higher intramuscular fat levels and improved eating quality.

Blanchard PJ; Warkup CC; Ellis M; Willis MB; Avery P

1999-04-01

156

Factors influencing laboratory animal spontaneous tumor profiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In chemical carcinogenicity and drug-safety testing, a carcinogen is defined as an agent that when administered by an appropriate route causes an increased incidence of tumors in experimental animals as compared to unexposed control animals. Although a carcinogen may cause the appearance of tumors in organs where tumors do not usually occur in a given strain, the usual response is to increase the types of tumors seen spontaneously and to shorten the period of latency. The use of carcinogenesis experiments for research and safety assessment requires properly designed and well-conducted experiments and a knowledge of background data and variations in tumor incidences of control animals. Many factors can influence the reported incidences of spontaneous tumors. These include species, strain, sex, age, and source of the experimental test animal; study duration; extent of the pathology examination; dietary and environmental conditions; qualifications and experience of the study pathologist; diagnostic criteria and nomenclature conventions; and quality assurance and review procedures. This paper discusses several factors which may influence the incidence of tumors in control and test animals, and provides examples to illustrate the potential for these factors to affect the data.

Hardisty JF

1985-01-01

157

Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

1975-04-05

158

Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: 揹oor-to-doctor time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival) proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting 揹oor-to-doctor and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102%) with an average of 27% boarding. Median 揹oor-to-doctor time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1):10-15

Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H

2010-01-01

159

[New nurse turnover intention and influencing factors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. METHODS: Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. RESULTS: Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. CONCLUSION: New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.

Han SS; Sohn IS; Kim NE

2009-12-01

160

Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample) and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87篊/10 min (experimental sample) are coagulated at temperatures of 30篊 and 35篊, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn抰 recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn抰 strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn抰 have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

Jovanovi? Sne瀉na T.; Ma?ej Ognjen D.; Denin-?ur?evi? Jelena D.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燭he purpose of the study is to identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. A follow-up study was performed on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated form 1984-1998. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. The conclusion is that biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatis carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatment splits in radiation therapy. (R.P.)

1999-01-01

162

Factors influencing choice of countermeasure strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are number of countermeasures that can be used, singly and in combination, to reduce doses in the short-term following a nuclear accident. Which strategy is adopted will depend on local factors, such as the type of accident, local geography and demography, and the resources available, and on the form of national and international guidance is to facilitate a consistent level of response to accidents, wherever they occur, whilst at the same time providing for flexibility of response to suit local circumstances. This paper discusses the influence of all these factors on the choice of protective strategy. The goal of any off-site emergency response strategy should be the protection of the public, not just against radiation, but in the sense of providing overall benefit. To achieve this goal, differing local and national constraint mean that the precise strategy adopted may vary from site to site. (Authors). 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

1995-01-01

163

Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1997-02-01

164

Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.).

1997-01-01

165

Social risk factors related to eating disorders in women/ Factores de riesgo sociales relacionados con los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en mujeres  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria est aumentando en los pa韘es industrializados y hay evidencia de que son las mujeres j髒enes las que tienen un mayor riesgo para desarrollar este tipo de patolog韆s. Esa es la raz髇 por la que los programas de prevenci髇 e intervenci髇 son tan importantes. Para desarrollar tales programas es necesario identificar los factores de riesgo relevantes que contribuyen a la aparici髇 de este trastorno. (more) En la presente investigaci髇 se analizan variables sociales relacionadas con el riesgo a desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (comparaciones sociales, actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia y la ansiedad social) en una muestra no cl韓ica de 375 mujeres. Los resultados muestran que la comparaci髇 social est directa e indirectamente (a trav閟 de la ansiedad social) relacionada de forma positiva con el riesgo para desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, mientras que las actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia lo hace de forma indirecta (a trav閟 de la ansiedad social) y positiva con los problemas de la conducta alimentaria. Finalmente, se discute la importancia de incluir estas variables sociales en los programas de prevenci髇 e intervenci髇. Abstract in english Eating disorders prevalence's rates are increasing in Western countries and there is evidence to suggest that young women are at the highest risk of developing this kind of disorders. That is the reason why prevention and intervention programs are so important. To develop these types of programs it is necessary to identify relevant risk factors contributing to this disorder. In the current research social risk variables to develop eating disorders (social comparisons, soc (more) iocultural attitudes toward appearance and social anxiety) have been measured in a 375 women non clinical sample. Results have shown that social comparisons are direct and indirect (trough social anxiety) positively related with the risk to develop eating disorders and that sociocultural attitudes toward appearance are just indirect (trough social anxiety) and positively related to eating disorders. Finally, the importance of including these social variables in prevention and intervention programs is discussed.

Magallares, Alejandro

2013-01-01

166

La epidemiolog韆 y los factores de riesgo de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia: una revisi髇/ Epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorder in adolescence: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducci髇: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. M閠odos: B鷖queda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y (more) LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiolog韆 y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las ni馻s en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparici髇 de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la gen閠ica, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presi髇 social por ser delgada, la insatisfacci髇 con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresi髇 y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparici髇 de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en c髆o interact鷄n estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de m醩 investigaciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors (more) for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.

Portela de Santana, M. L.; da Costa Ribeiro Junior, H.; Mora Giral, M.; Raich, R. M.

2012-04-01

167

Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB) to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack

Norbert Dahmen; Julia Becht; Alice Engel; Monika Thommes; Peter Tonn

2008-01-01

168

Factors influencing breast changes after pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pregnancy and breastfeeding are major factors reducing breast cancer (BC) risk. A potential mechanism for this effect might be changes in mammographic density, but other factors might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing changes in breast size and breast stiffness after pregnancy. Of a consecutive cohort of 5991 women who gave birth between 1996 and 1999, 559 replied to a questionnaire including questions about breast changes. The women completed their own assessments of changes in breast size and stiffness since their last pregnancy. Factors being investigated regarding their predictive value for these changes were: BMI before pregnancy, weight gain, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), number of pregnancies, breastfeeding, and BMI of the children's fathers. A decrease in breast size was reported in 21.8% of the participants and an increase in 35.1%. With regard to the breast stiffness, 66.4% reported a decrease and only 5% reported an increase. Independent predictors for increased breast size were age at FFTP, increase in BMI since last pregnancy, BMI before pregnancy, and time since FFTP. Factors predictive of greater breast stiffness included age at FFTP, BMI before FFTP, time since FFTP, breastfeeding status, and number of pregnancies. Breast changes after pregnancy depend on several variables, which are described as BC-risk factors. Individual reaction of the female breast to a pregnancy leads to different outcomes with regard to breast size and stiffness. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these individual responses interact with the effect of pregnancy on the BC risk.

Rauh C; Faschingbauer F; Haeberle L; Jud SM; Heusinger K; Fasching PA; Goecke TW; Rajakaruna N; Voigt F; Bani MR; Lux MP; Renner SP; Loehberg CR; Hartmann A; Schulz-Wendtland R; Beckmann MW; Bayer CM

2013-05-01

169

Factors influencing plutonium sorption in shale media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extent and factors influencing sorption of plutonium (Pu) in shale media have been studied in batch-type experiments. The equilibrium time and isotherm of Pu sorption have been firstly determined. The effect of shale grain size, aqueous pH, water/solid ratio, co-existing ions (cations and anions) and temperature were studied as the factors likely to influence Pu sorption. The experimental variables included the following: grain sizes in five ranges, 0.12 to 0.15 mm, 0.15 to 0.18mm, 0.18 to 0.25mm, 0.25 to 0.38 mm, and 0.38 to 0.83 mm; solution pH values of 4, 6, 8, and 10; water/solid ratios of 10:0.25, 10:0.5, 10:0.75, and 10:1; temperatures of 20 C, 40 C, and 60 C; and selected coexisting conventional cations including Na+, Fe+, Al3+, Ca2+, and K+ and anions including SO42-, CO32, NO3-, and Cl- in each case in solutions of the same total ionic strength. The experimental results demonstrate that the equilibrium time of Pu sorption is 9d, that the sorption behavior of Pu in the solution is well described by the Freundlich sorption isotherm (Cs = kCeqN), and that Pu is strongly sorbed on shale media. The extent of Pu sorption increased with decreasing grain size, apparently in response to the increase in specific surface area and total pore volume. The results also show that Pu sorption increases with increasing solution pH and with increasing water/solid ratio. The influence of co-existing anions on Pu sorption was much stronger, under the same conditions, than that of the cations; this was attributed to Pu complexation in solution, i.e., the complexing apparently weakened the sorption of Pu on shale particles in the solution. Finally, the influence of varying temperature on Pu sorption is found to be less important than that of other factors, but should never be ignored. (orig.)

2010-01-01

170

Nutritional factors influencing infections in preterm infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast with clinical studies in term infants or older children, it is very difficult to investigate possible immunoregulatory effects of a novel infant formula composition in preterm infants. This is mainly because of the multicausal origin of infections in this high-risk population that is usually admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Possible effects of nutrition composition on onset and incidence of nosocomial infections in these very small infants have to be compared with infections that may have originated in utero. The development of the gastrointestinal tract may be inhibited after severe intrauterine growth retardation, leading to functional impairment of the gut shortly after birth. This may be related to the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis of the newborn. However, this disease in very small preterm infants is possibly also related to the initiation of oral feeding and/or the amount of feeding. Specific infection risks of neonatal intensive care as a result of invasive techniques such as artificial ventilation or total parenteral nutrition using indwelling umbilical and/or Silastic lines and so-called "all-in-one" mixtures may influence the incidence of infections. Widespread use of intravenous antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit may create an even larger infection risk. Investigation of possible immunomodulatory effects of factors such as prebiotics and probiotics added to the nutrition of preterm infants should always be considered along with other nutritional factors known to influence the immature immune system. PMID:18716192

Lafeber, Harrie N; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A M; van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P F; van Elburg, Ruurd M

2008-09-01

171

Fatores associados ao comportamento alimentar inadequado em adolescentes escolares Factors associated with inappropriate eating behavior in adolescent students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evid阯cias demonstram que a preval阯cia do comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos 鷏timos anos. Parece que a insatisfa玢o corporal (IC), a pr醫ica excessiva de exerc韈io f韘ico, a composi玢o corporal, o n韛el econ鬽ico (NE), al閙 da etnia, podem ser fatores de risco para o CAI. OBJETIVO: Associar IC, grau de comprometimento psicol骻ico ao exerc韈io (GCPE), adiposidade corporal (AC), estado nutricional (EN), NE e etnia ao CAI em adolescentes. M蒚ODOS: Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar o CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale foram utilizados para mensurar IC e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cut鈔eas para classificar a AC segundo sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular-se o 韓dice de massa corporal (IMC) e classificar o EN. O NE foi avaliado pelo Crit閞io de Classifica玢o Econ鬽ica Brasil. Aplicou-se question醨io que buscava avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram associa玢o do CAI com IC, GCPE e NE no sexo feminino (p BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that the prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior (CAI) among young people has increased in recent years. It seems that body dissatisfaction (IC), the practice of excessive exercise, body composition, the socioeconomic status (NE), and ethnicity may be risk factors for CAI. OBJECTIVE: To associate IC, degree of psychological impairment to exercise (GCPE), adiposity (AC), nutritional status (EN), NE and ethnicity with CAI in adolescents. METHODS: Participants 362 young people of both sexes aged between 10 and 19 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess the CAI. The Body Shape Exercise Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale were used to measure IC and GCPE, respectively. We evaluated skinfold thickness is to classify the AC second sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the index of mass (BMI) and classify the EN. The NE was evaluated by Brazil Economic Classification. Questionnaire was used that sought to assess ethnicity, age and sex. RESULTS: The results showed association of CAI with IC, GCPE and NE in females (p < 0.05). Among boys, IC, AC and EN were associated with CAI (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION: It was concluded that IC was the main predictor of risk for the CAI.

Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Fabiane Frota da Rocha Morgado; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

2013-01-01

172

Factors Influencing Household Food Security Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, impaired physical and mental development and reduced productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the Influencing factors on the household food insecurity status. This cross-sectional study conducted on 2500 households selected from Qaresoo region in the northwest of Iran. Household food security status measured by a validated short questionnaire including six questions and other required data (influencing factors) obtained alongside the validated questionnaire. Chisquare and logistic regression used for data analysis using SPSS software. Forty Percent of households suffered from low food insecurity and twenty percent had experienced very low food insecurity. Severity of household food insecurity increased with increasing distance from the city (Exp (B) = 1.05, 95% C.I = 1.03-1.07). It decreased with increasing centers that provides food (Exp (B) = 0.97, 95% C.I = 0.97-0.98) Residential infrastructure (Exp (B) = 0.99, 95% C.I = 0.98-0.99) Family size (Exp (B) = 0.92, 95% C.I = 0.87-0.98) and the presence of both parents in comparison the presence of single parent at home (Exp (B) = 0.46, 95% C.I = 0.32-0.66). Spearman correlation test also showed that mean per capita income had a significant inverse correlation with household food insecurity status. (Correlation coefficient = 0.3, P < 0.05). Socioeconomic factors were affecting the household food insecurity status. More studies seem to be essential in order to provide practical solutions to reduce the severity of food insecurity.

Sharafkhani Rahim; Dastgiri Saeed; Gharaaghaji Asl Rasool; Ghavamzadeh Saeed

2011-01-01

173

Factors influencing successful radioiodine therapy of thyroid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.3713), operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq) and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq) of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1), the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS), and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05) influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.

Popadi? Silvija M.; Voji?i? Jelena V.; Peter Andrea; Male歟vi? Milica ?.; Mihailovi? Jasna; Kermeci Katarina

2003-01-01

174

A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people's ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

Casey Dympna; Murphy Kathy; Lawton Julia; White Florence; Dineen Sean

2011-01-01

175

Factors Influencing How Teachers Manage Their Classrooms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teaching and learning a foreign language is a social process which requires theinteraction of two important parts of the process, the teacher and the students, in a socialenvironment. As this process takes place in a social context, it is inevitable toexperience some problems while teaching the students having different needs, interestsand levels. These problems may be caused by the students, teachers as well as thephysical environment in which teaching and learning take place. It is clear that languageteaching skill is not enough to handle these problems; teachers also need classroommanagement skills so that they are able to manage their classrooms. It is believed thatsuccessful classroom management is highly related to effective instruction. Asclassroom management is a general term that is affected by many factors, theeffectiveness of classroom environment depends on how teachers cope with thesefactors and provide their students with a positive and friendly classroom atmosphere. Itis clear that a detailed analysis of the factors that affect successful classroommanagement and adequate teacher training on how to cope with them will makeunmanageable classrooms manageable which will immediately result in effectiveteaching and learning process. In this article, factors that influence successful classroommanagement will be analyzed and possible solutions to these problems will bepresented.

Arif SARI荗BAN; Sevilay SAKIZLI

2006-01-01

176

[Eating behavior and eating disorders in obesity].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is not an eating disorder. Nevertheless, dysfunctional eating pattersn and eating disorders have a substantial impact on emergence and maintenance of obesity. In this article we describe problematic eating patterns that are common in obese patients and how these eating behaviors should be explored. Eating disorders are differentiated from subclinical dysfunctional eating behavior. A classification system for dysfunctional eating patterns in obesity doesn't exist so far.

Terpitz C; Remund L

2013-02-01

177

El papel del perfeccionismo en la insatisfacci髇 corporal, la influencia sociocultural del modelo de delgadez y los s韓tomas de trastorno del comportamiento alimentario/ Perfectionism in body dissatisfaction, sociocultural influence of the thinness model and symptoms of eating disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El prop髎ito de este estudio fue analizar si los componentes de la conducta perfeccionista explican la insatisfacci髇 corporal (IC), la influencia socio-cultural del modelo de delgadez (ISMD) y los s韓tomas de Trastorno del Comportamiento Alimentario (TCA). Participaron 30 mujeres con Bulimia Nerviosa (BN), 35 con Trastorno Alimentario no Especificado (TANE) y 63 sin TCA. El an醠isis de regresi髇 mostr que la Preocupaci髇 por los Errores (PE) y la Indecisi髇 de A (more) cci髇 explicaron la IC y la ISMD en BN; mientras que PE solo explic la ISMD en TANE. Se concluye que solo dos componentes del perfeccionismo explican significativamente la interiorizaci髇 del ideal de delgadez y la IC, las cuales son consideradas factores de riesgo importantes para los TCA. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD), sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM) and symptoms of eating disorders (ED). The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM) and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concer (more) n over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.

FRANCO PAREDES, KARINA; MANCILLA D虯Z, JUAN MANUEL; V罿QUEZ AR蒝ALO, ROSAL虯; 罫VAREZ RAY覰, GEORGINA; L覲EZ AGUILAR, X覥HITL

2011-09-01

178

Factors influencing the demand for Australian coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, econometric models are used to identify factors influencing the demand for Australian coal. Of particular interest is the responsiveness of international demand for coal to changes in the prices of coal and substitute fuels, and the responsiveness of demand for Australian coal to relative changes in the prices of coal from competing suppliers. Data on the use of coal and other fuels in the electricity generation, iron and steel and industrial sectors of Western European and other OECD countries are used to derive estimates of the price elasticity of demand for coal. Results are given for Western European and OECD countries as groups rather than individually. 38 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs.

Ball, K.; Loncas, T.

1991-01-01

179

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

S ARMAN; M SOLTANI

2003-01-01

180

Factors influencing properties of coal briquettes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To maximize the efficiency of manufasture of smokeless fuel briquettes from blends of high-rank coals and pitches, it is necessary to optimize feedstock selection to maintain strength during carbonization and subsequent handling. From an understanding of carbonization behaviour of feedstock components and of microcarbonization phenomena at interfaces, the contribution of interfacial interactions to strength properties of briquettes is assessed. The crushing strength, microstrength and optical texture of briquettes from a range of feedstocks were determined before and after carbonization at 970 K. These techniques promoted understanding of the carbonization behaviour of blends of feedstocks and strength-structure relations in resultant briquettes. Factors of feedstock selection that influenced the strength of carbonized briquettes were identified. 19 refs., 7 tabs.

Clarke, D.E.; Marsh, H. (University of Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1989-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Factors influencing the prognosis in bladder cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the categories T1, T2 and T3NxM0 bladder cancer, with a diameter not exceeding 5 cm, the treatment in the Rotterdam Radio-Therapy Institute consists of interstitial irradiation with needles containing radioactive material. The results of treatment and the role of additional external irradiation are discussed. Category T3NxM0 tumors with a diameter exceeding 5 cm are treated by external irradiation followed by cystectomy; the results are presented here. Factors influencing prognosis appeared to be the degree of differentiation, number of transurethral resections (TURs) prior to definitive treatment, intravenous pyelography (IVP), vascular invasion, T category after preoperative irradiation, and postsurgical histopathologically-assessed T category (pT).

Wijnmaalen, A.; van der Werf-Messing, B.H.

1986-04-01

182

Influence of the PROP bitter taste phenotype and eating attitudes on energy intake and weight status in pre-adolescents: a 6-year follow-up study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status and change in weight status in children from preschool (baseline) to preadolescence as a function of eating attitudes and PROP phenotype. Other measures included self-reported food intakes and physical activity by activity monitor. Seventy-three lean (BMI percentile=57.73.2%) children with mean age=10.30.5yrs, participated in the follow up. There were no group differences in energy intake, current BMI-percentile or change in BMI percentile from baseline by PROP phenotype in either boys or girls. However, there was a trend for non-taster girls to show a downward shift in BMI-percentile at follow up. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that baseline BMI percentile and physical activity energy expenditure were the strongest predictors of current weight (28.5% variance),followed by child restraint, the taster譯ender interaction, and the maternal BMI譵aternal emotional eating interaction, accounting for 7.1%, 6.0% and 4.8% of variance in the model, respectively. These findings suggest that PROP status and eating attitudes are modest predictors of weight status in preadolescent children. PMID:23680431

Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J

2013-05-14

183

Influence of the PROP bitter taste phenotype and eating attitudes on energy intake and weight status in pre-adolescents: a 6-year follow-up study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status and change in weight status in children from preschool (baseline) to preadolescence as a function of eating attitudes and PROP phenotype. Other measures included self-reported food intakes and physical activity by activity monitor. Seventy-three lean (BMI percentile=57.73.2%) children with mean age=10.30.5yrs, participated in the follow up. There were no group differences in energy intake, current BMI-percentile or change in BMI percentile from baseline by PROP phenotype in either boys or girls. However, there was a trend for non-taster girls to show a downward shift in BMI-percentile at follow up. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that baseline BMI percentile and physical activity energy expenditure were the strongest predictors of current weight (28.5% variance),followed by child restraint, the taster譯ender interaction, and the maternal BMI譵aternal emotional eating interaction, accounting for 7.1%, 6.0% and 4.8% of variance in the model, respectively. These findings suggest that PROP status and eating attitudes are modest predictors of weight status in preadolescent children.

Oftedal KN; Tepper BJ

2013-06-01

184

Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes may need to be considered if groundwater composition is found to change with time. (author, shortened). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

1995-01-01

185

Factores asociados con los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en estudiantes universitarios en Cali, Colombia/ Factors associated with eating disorders in university students in Cali, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducci髇: Existen pocos estudios de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes y adultos j髒enes en Am閞ica Latina. Las caracter韘ticas sociodemogr醘icas de los estudiantes universitarios permiten suponer que existen casos de trastornos del comportamiento alimentario (TCA) en un porcentaje mayor al de la poblaci髇 general. Objetivo: Determinar la cifra relativa de estudiantes con alta probabilidad de padecer alg鷑 tipo de TCA, y a partir de los datos, estimar la p (more) revalencia en la poblaci髇 universitaria. Adem醩, evaluar los factores asociados con el resultado positivo en una nueva prueba de filtro para los TCA. Metodolog韆: Se realiz un estudio transversal en un grupo de 174 estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Valle (Cali, Colombia), a quienes se aplic un cuestionario auto-diligenciado con la encuesta de evaluaci髇 del comportamiento alimentario (ECA). Resultados: Hubo 39.7% de estudiantes con puntajes positivos en la prueba (puntaje >24), cifra que indica una alta probabilidad de desarrollar alg鷑 TCA; con una relaci髇 mujer:hombre de 2:1; y una prevalencia estimada de 44.1% en mujeres y 9.6% en hombres. Los factores asociados con un resultado positivo en la ECA fueron el g閚ero femenino (OR: 2.74 IC95%: 1.29. 5.85), el querer disminuir m醩 de 10% del peso corporal (OR: 24.65 IC95%: 1.92-316.91) y la interacci髇 entre este factor y el porcentaje deseado de disminuci髇 de peso (OR: 0.81 IC95%: 0.66-0.98). Existe una interacci髇 cualitativa entre la direcci髇 del deseo de cambio de peso y otras variables del modelo. La ECA identifica diferentes tipos de TCA. Discusi髇 y conclusiones: La ECA identifica diferentes tipos de TCA que se deben diferenciar con preguntas adicionales. La prevalencia estimada indica que los TCA son un problema importante en la comunidad universitaria, que se debe intervenir mediante diferentes estrategias de prevenci髇, detecci髇 temprana y tratamiento. Abstract in english Introduction: There are few studies about eating disorders (ED) in adolescents and young adults in Latin America. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics of university students suggest they may experience cases of ED in a percentage greater than general population抯 one. Objective: To determine the percentage of students with high risk of developing altered eating behaviours, and to estimate the prevalence of ED in that population. Additionally, to examine facto (more) rs associated with a positive outcome in a screening test for ED. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 174 students of first and second year of Medicine at Universidad del Valle (Cali, Colombia), who completed a self-reported questionnaire with the test for Evaluation of Eating Behaviour (EEV). Results: The 39.7% of students had positive scores in the EEV (>24), which is indicative of high risk of suffering an Eating Disorder (ED); with a 2/1 woman/man ratio and an estimated prevalence of ED of 44.1% in women and of 9.6% in men. The associated factors for positive outcomes in the EEV are female gender (OR: 2.74 CI95%: 1.29-5.85), desire for losing more than 10% of body weight (OR: 24.65 CI95%: 1.92-316.91), and interaction between the last factor and the desired percentage of weight loss (OR: 0.81 CI95%: 0.66-0.98). There is a qualitative interaction between the direction of desired weight loss and other variables in the model. Discussion and conclusions: The EEV identifies different kinds of ED which should be differentiated by additional questions. The estimated prevalence of ED shows that it is an important problem in the university community, which should be tackled by means of different prevention, early detection and treatment strategies.

Fandi駉, Andr閟; Giraldo, Sandra C.; Mart韓ez, Carolina; Aux, Claudia Paola; Espinosa, Rafael

2007-12-01

186

Exploring the relationship between negative urgency and dysregulated eating: etiologic associations and the role of negative affect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to engage in rash action in response to negative affect) has emerged as a critical personality trait contributing to individual differences in binge eating. However, studies investigating the extent to which genetic and/or environmental influences underlie the effects of negative urgency on binge eating are lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether negative urgency-binge eating associations are simply a result of the well-established role of negative affect in the development/maintenance of binge eating. The current study addresses these gaps by examining phenotypic and etiologic associations between negative urgency, negative affect, and dysregulated eating (i.e., binge eating, emotional eating) in a sample of 222 same-sex female twin pairs from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Negative urgency was significantly associated with both dysregulated eating symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of negative affect. Genetic factors accounted for the majority (62-77%) of this phenotypic association, although a significant proportion of this genetic covariation was due to genetic influences in common with negative affect. Nonshared environmental factors accounted for a relatively smaller (23-38%) proportion of the association, but these nonshared environmental effects were independent of negative affect. Findings suggest that the presence of emotion-based rash action, combined with high levels of negative affect, may significantly increase genetic risk for dysregulated eating.

Racine SE; Keel PK; Burt SA; Sisk CL; Neale M; Boker S; Klump KL

2013-05-01

187

Effects of a Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Intervention To Reduce Stroke Risk Factors in Older Adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a theory-based physical activity and healthy eating intervention aimed at reducing stroke risk factors among overweight/obese and sedentary older adults. METHODS: Between 12/2009-1/2011, participants (n=69) were randomly assigned to an 8-week group motivational intervention or biweekly newsletters by mail. Physical activity (blinded pedometer, 7-day recall) body composition, theoretical mediator, and dietary (24-hour recall) variables were measured at pre-test and post-test. The physical activity and dietary outcomes are reported. RESULTS: For outcome measures, the follow-up was 90% for the intervention group (n=29) and 91% for the control group (n=34) for this sample. Statistically significant differences in the 7-day physical activity self-report were noted at post-test in the intervention group. The dietary measures were not statistically significant at post-test; however, the intervention group increased the quantity of vegetable servings. CONCLUSION: Limited efficacy testing was supported for a combined physical activity-dietary intervention, framed by a wellness-motivation theory, and designed to reduce stroke risk factors in older adults who are sedentary and overweight/obese. Limitations were identified and recommendations for additional research provided.

Silva-Smith A; Fleury J; Belyea M

2013-07-01

188

Factors influencing residents' pursuit of urology fellowships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictors of residents' pursuit of fellowship training by surveying current urology residents and recent graduates. Postgraduate fellowship training of urologists could be an important source of urologic physician-scientists and continued innovation in urologic care. METHODS: A Web-based survey was electronically mailed to urology residents and recent graduates of urologic residency. Variables concerning sex, marital status, debt load, research and clinical exposure, publications, and postgraduate careers were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 71 respondents, 46 (65%) were married and 45% had children/dependents. Of the 69% who applied for fellowship, the "most important" factors influencing the pursuit of fellowship were intellectual appeal (82%), mentors (79%), the desire for an additional point of view for surgical training (58%), and the desire to pursue a career in academics (52%). Forty of those completing a fellowship (87%) versus two of those completing residency alone (13%) would pursue a career in academics. Residents with a mentor were 20 times more likely to pursue a urology fellowship. A shorter residency (5 years), encouragement by a program director, and manuscript publication during residency were also independent predictors. CONCLUSION: Mentorship, a shorter residency, and manuscript publication during residency were independent predictors of pursuing fellowship training. Debt load, age, marital status, and a desire to pursue a career in academic medicine were not significant factors.

Freilich DA; Nguyen HT; Phillips JL

2011-11-01

189

Eating Problems and Overlap with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Nationwide Twin Study of 9- and 12-Year-Old Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. To establish the prevalence of restrictive eating problems, the overlap and association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to estimate the heritability of eating problems in a general population sample of twins aged 9 and 12. Methods. Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twin pairs born between 1993 and 1998 (n = 12,366) were interviewed regarding symptoms of ADHD, ASD, and eating problems (EAT-P). Intraclass correlations and structural equation modelling were used for evaluating the influence of genetic and environmental factors. Cross-twin, cross-trait correlations were used to indicate a possible overlap between conditions. Results. The prevalence of eating problems was 0.6% in the study population and was significantly higher in children with ADHD and/or ASD. Among children with eating problems, 40% were screened positive for ADHD and/or ASD. Social interaction problems were strongly associated with EAT-P in girls, and impulsivity and activity problems with EAT-P in boys. The cross-twin, cross-trait correlations suggested low correlations between EAT-P and ADHD or EAT-P and ASD. Genetic effects accounted for 44% of the variation in liability for eating problems. Conclusions. In the group with eating problems, there was a clear overrepresentation of individuals with ADHD and/or ASD symptoms.

Rastam, Maria; Taljemark, Jakob; Tajnia, Armin; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Peik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher; Anckarsater, Henrik; Kerekes, Nora

2013-01-01

190

Eating problems and overlap with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders in a nationwide twin study of 9- and 12-year-old children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM. To establish the prevalence of restrictive eating problems, the overlap and association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to estimate the heritability of eating problems in a general population sample of twins aged 9 and 12. METHODS. Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twin pairs born between 1993 and 1998 (n = 12,366) were interviewed regarding symptoms of ADHD, ASD, and eating problems (EAT-P). Intraclass correlations and structural equation modelling were used for evaluating the influence of genetic and environmental factors. Cross-twin, cross-trait correlations were used to indicate a possible overlap between conditions. RESULTS. The prevalence of eating problems was 0.6% in the study population and was significantly higher in children with ADHD and/or ASD. Among children with eating problems, 40% were screened positive for ADHD and/or ASD. Social interaction problems were strongly associated with EAT-P in girls, and impulsivity and activity problems with EAT-P in boys. The cross-twin, cross-trait correlations suggested low correlations between EAT-P and ADHD or EAT-P and ASD. Genetic effects accounted for 44% of the variation in liability for eating problems. CONCLUSIONS. In the group with eating problems, there was a clear overrepresentation of individuals with ADHD and/or ASD symptoms.

R錽tam M; T鋖jemark J; Tajnia A; Lundstr鰉 S; Gustafsson P; Lichtenstein P; Gillberg C; Anckars鋞er H; Kerekes N

2013-01-01

191

Eating problems and overlap with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders in a nationwide twin study of 9- and 12-year-old children.  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM. To establish the prevalence of restrictive eating problems, the overlap and association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to estimate the heritability of eating problems in a general population sample of twins aged 9 and 12. METHODS. Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twin pairs born between 1993 and 1998 (n = 12,366) were interviewed regarding symptoms of ADHD, ASD, and eating problems (EAT-P). Intraclass correlations and structural equation modelling were used for evaluating the influence of genetic and environmental factors. Cross-twin, cross-trait correlations were used to indicate a possible overlap between conditions. RESULTS. The prevalence of eating problems was 0.6% in the study population and was significantly higher in children with ADHD and/or ASD. Among children with eating problems, 40% were screened positive for ADHD and/or ASD. Social interaction problems were strongly associated with EAT-P in girls, and impulsivity and activity problems with EAT-P in boys. The cross-twin, cross-trait correlations suggested low correlations between EAT-P and ADHD or EAT-P and ASD. Genetic effects accounted for 44% of the variation in liability for eating problems. CONCLUSIONS. In the group with eating problems, there was a clear overrepresentation of individuals with ADHD and/or ASD symptoms. PMID:23690743

R錽tam, Maria; T鋖jemark, Jakob; Tajnia, Armin; Lundstr鰉, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Peik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher; Anckars鋞er, Henrik; Kerekes, N髍a

2013-04-15

192

Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue), graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis), and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain). The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women) presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

Torres-Gimeno Ana; Mart韓ez-Costa Luc韆; Ayala Guillermo

2012-01-01

193

Eating local: influences of habitat on the diet of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We employ molecular methods to profile the diet of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and describe spatial and temporal changes in diet over their maternity season. We identified 61 prey species of insects and 5 species of arachnid. The largest proportion of prey (?32%) were identified as species of the mass-emerging Ephemeroptera (mayfly) genus Caenis. Bats roosting in agricultural settings had lower dietary richness than those occupying a roost located on a forest fragment in a conservation area. We detected temporal fluctuations in diet over the maternity season. Dipteran (fly) species dominated the diet early in the season, replaced later by species of mayfly. Because our methodology provides species-level identification of prey, we were able to isolate environmental indicator species in the diet and draw conclusions about the location and type of their foraging habitat and the health of these aquatic systems. The species detected suggested that the bats use variable habitats; members of one agricultural roost foraged on insects originating in rivers or streams while those in another agricultural roost and the forest roost fed on insects from pond or lake environments. All source water for prey was of fair to good quality, though no species detected are intolerant of pollution thus the habitat cannot be classified as pristine. Our study outlines a model system to investigate the abiotic and biotic interactions between habitat factors through this simple food chain to the top predator.

Clare EL; Barber BR; Sweeney BW; Hebert PD; Fenton MB

2011-04-01

194

Eating local: influences of habitat on the diet of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).  

Science.gov (United States)

We employ molecular methods to profile the diet of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and describe spatial and temporal changes in diet over their maternity season. We identified 61 prey species of insects and 5 species of arachnid. The largest proportion of prey (?32%) were identified as species of the mass-emerging Ephemeroptera (mayfly) genus Caenis. Bats roosting in agricultural settings had lower dietary richness than those occupying a roost located on a forest fragment in a conservation area. We detected temporal fluctuations in diet over the maternity season. Dipteran (fly) species dominated the diet early in the season, replaced later by species of mayfly. Because our methodology provides species-level identification of prey, we were able to isolate environmental indicator species in the diet and draw conclusions about the location and type of their foraging habitat and the health of these aquatic systems. The species detected suggested that the bats use variable habitats; members of one agricultural roost foraged on insects originating in rivers or streams while those in another agricultural roost and the forest roost fed on insects from pond or lake environments. All source water for prey was of fair to good quality, though no species detected are intolerant of pollution thus the habitat cannot be classified as pristine. Our study outlines a model system to investigate the abiotic and biotic interactions between habitat factors through this simple food chain to the top predator. PMID:21366747

Clare, E L; Barber, B R; Sweeney, B W; Hebert, P D N; Fenton, M B

2011-03-02

195

[Eating disorders and drug addiction].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The link between drug addiction and eating disorders is often noted in clinical practice and in the literature. This may be due to their phenomenological, structural and systemic manifestations. In this paper, we shall underline these numerous links as well as their impact on the treatment of eating disorders. Addictive behaviour has long been well defined by clinicians and offers a model of understanding the underlying mechanisms of eating disorders without, however, identifying them with addiction. Eating disorders as well as addictions are multifactorial disorders implying different vulnerability traits, involving biological, psychological, familial and sociological factors. Their management therefore requires a multidisciplinary approach.

Fuchs S; Geronooz I; Cleinge L; Mezzena K

2013-05-01

196

Organisation of the Influence Factors System for Foodstuffs Lyophilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying) presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through which an organized system was formed was applied. Finally, the values of entropy system and of the organization level of the factors system were determined.

Gabriela-Victoria Anghel; Dumitru Mnerie; Dumitru Tucu; Titus Slavici; Alin Vasile Mneri

2007-01-01

197

O papel dos factores socioculturais no desenvolvimento das perturba珲es do comportamento alimentar: Uma revis鉶 da literatura/ The role of social and cultural factors in the development of eating disorders: A literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As perturba珲es do comportamento alimentar s鉶 perturba珲es graves que se caracterizam por altera珲es significativas ao n韛el do comportamento alimentar associadas a uma preocupa玢o extrema com o peso e forma corporais. Estas perturba珲es s鉶 mais frequentes em sociedades ocidentais, que enfatizam uma imagem corporal feminina magra. Talvez por esta raz鉶, os factores socioculturais t阭 sido, muitas vezes, apontados, como os factores respons醰eis pelo aumen (more) to da incid阯cia das perturba珲es do comportamento alimentar. No entanto, a discrep鈔cia entre os valores de preval阯cia das perturba珲es do comportamento alimentar e o n鷐ero total de pessoas expostas press鉶 social para um corpo magro e tubular, questiona a import鈔cia desta exposi玢o no desenvolvimento das patologias alimentares. O presente artigo apresenta uma revis鉶 de estudos que procuram mostrar o papel etiol骻ico dos factores socioculturais no desenvolvimento das perturba珲es do comportamento alimentar e a raz鉶 destas patologias, serem denominadas de culture-bound syndromes, bem como algumas perspectivas alternativas a estes modelos conceptuais que procuram revelar a fragilidade dos modelos etiol骻icos que enfatizam a import鈔cia destes factores na complexa etiologia das perturba珲es do comportamento alimentar. Abstract in english Eating disorders are serious disorders characterized by major changes in eating behaviour associated with extreme preoccupations with weight and physical shape. The aetiology of these disorders is, like other psychopathologies, considered to be complex and multifactorial. Eating disorders are more common in western societies that value a female thin body image as beauty ideal. Perhaps for that reason, sociocultural factors are often seen as responsible for the increase of (more) the incidence of eating disorders. However, the discrepancy between the values of the prevalence of eating disorders and the total number of people submitted to the social pressure to thinness related to personal and interpersonal success, questioned the importance of that exposure in the development of eating disorders. The present paper presents a review of studies that shows the role of sociocultural factors in the development of eating disorders and the reason why these disorders are called culture-bound syndromes, as well some alternative perspectives that show the fragility of aetiologic models that emphasize the importance of these factors in the complex etiology of eating disorders.

Gon鏰lves, S髇ia F.; Machado, B醨bara C.; Machado, Paulo P.P.

2011-01-01

198

Factors influencing induction of adaptive response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

Misonoh, Jun [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio

2000-07-01

199

Factors influencing induction of adaptive response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

2000-01-01

200

Factors influencing the carcinogenicity of food chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between food and cancer is extremely complex. It is generally accepted that diet is a contributory factor in the aetiology of a large proportion of cancers, but with very few exceptions, we are unable to identify specific causal agents. Many food components have genotoxic potential and more are produced endogenously during digestion. Conversely, there is increasing evidence that consumption of some foods may decrease the risk of cancer, and a number of plant constituents have been shown to have the potential to inhibit various stages of the carcinogenic process. Yet we have little understanding of the interactions between the different food-related genotoxic and protective factors. A further complication is the variation in individual susceptibility and vulnerability. As a result we are still not able to determine the optimal diet for minimising cancer risk. In recognition of these issues, the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is funding a number of projects aimed at providing greater mechanistic understanding of the links between food and cancer, in order to offer detailed advice to the public. This report summarises the proceedings of a workshop entitled 'Factors influencing the carcinogenicity of food chemicals', held in London on 1 June 1998, providing overviews of some of the key issues, and demonstrating how the MAFF-funded research is contributing to advances in these areas. It includes discussion of genetic polymorphisms and how they may contribute to individual susceptibility and help to identify causal links between food components and colorectal cancer. Biomarkers of DNA damage in human studies and of inhibition of carcinogen activation and endogenous formation of genotoxic reactive nitrogen species are examined. Also considered are the potential uses of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling techniques for providing more accurate estimates of risk and reducing the uncertainty in extrapolation between species and doses. Research now in progress will help to establish the critical risk and protective factors involved in diet-related colorectal cancers, in order to provide a sound scientific basis for formulation of dietary advice to the public. PMID:10403629

Manson, M M; Benford, D J

1999-06-15

 
 
 
 
201

Factors influencing the carcinogenicity of food chemicals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between food and cancer is extremely complex. It is generally accepted that diet is a contributory factor in the aetiology of a large proportion of cancers, but with very few exceptions, we are unable to identify specific causal agents. Many food components have genotoxic potential and more are produced endogenously during digestion. Conversely, there is increasing evidence that consumption of some foods may decrease the risk of cancer, and a number of plant constituents have been shown to have the potential to inhibit various stages of the carcinogenic process. Yet we have little understanding of the interactions between the different food-related genotoxic and protective factors. A further complication is the variation in individual susceptibility and vulnerability. As a result we are still not able to determine the optimal diet for minimising cancer risk. In recognition of these issues, the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is funding a number of projects aimed at providing greater mechanistic understanding of the links between food and cancer, in order to offer detailed advice to the public. This report summarises the proceedings of a workshop entitled 'Factors influencing the carcinogenicity of food chemicals', held in London on 1 June 1998, providing overviews of some of the key issues, and demonstrating how the MAFF-funded research is contributing to advances in these areas. It includes discussion of genetic polymorphisms and how they may contribute to individual susceptibility and help to identify causal links between food components and colorectal cancer. Biomarkers of DNA damage in human studies and of inhibition of carcinogen activation and endogenous formation of genotoxic reactive nitrogen species are examined. Also considered are the potential uses of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling techniques for providing more accurate estimates of risk and reducing the uncertainty in extrapolation between species and doses. Research now in progress will help to establish the critical risk and protective factors involved in diet-related colorectal cancers, in order to provide a sound scientific basis for formulation of dietary advice to the public.

Manson MM; Benford DJ

1999-06-01

202

Factors that influencing veterinary drug抯 metabolisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics), sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal抯 bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

Cristina, Romeo T.

2007-01-01

203

Heart risk associated with weight loss in anorexia nervosa and eating disorders: risk factors for QTc interval prolongation and dispersion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation and dispersion, indicators of an increased risk for cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death, have been investigated in patients with eating disorders (ED) and ongoing weight loss. Patients were characterized with regard to weight, body mass index (BMI; weight/length2), duration of weight loss, rate of weight loss and rate of weight loss immediately preceding examination. At examination, a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) registration and blood samples for analysis of serum electrolytes were obtained. In total, 92 examinations in 58 female patients aged 15.5+/-1.7 (mean +/- SD) y were analysed. Control ECG recordings were obtained from 38 normal-weight teenage girls with no known heart disease. Patients with ED weighed 40.7+/-7.8 kg, corresponding to BMI 15.2+/-2.4 kg/m2 following a weight loss of 11.8+/-6.5 kg. In ED patients, the ECG showed bradycardia, a shift to the right of the QRS axis, diminished amplitudes of the QRS complex and T wave, and prolongation and increased dispersion of the QTc interval. In multiple regression analyses low weight, low BMI and rapid weight loss immediately preceding the examination were the most important independent predictors of QTc interval prolongation and dispersion. It is concluded that an ECG examination is an important part of the assessment of patients with ED and ongoing weight loss, even in the absence of electrolyte disturbances, and especially if the patient is severely underweight or weight loss is rapid.

Swenne I; Larsson PT

1999-03-01

204

Heart risk associated with weight loss in anorexia nervosa and eating disorders: risk factors for QTc interval prolongation and dispersion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation and dispersion, indicators of an increased risk for cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death, have been investigated in patients with eating disorders (ED) and ongoing weight loss. Patients were characterized with regard to weight, body mass index (BMI; weight/length2), duration of weight loss, rate of weight loss and rate of weight loss immediately preceding examination. At examination, a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) registration and blood samples for analysis of serum electrolytes were obtained. In total, 92 examinations in 58 female patients aged 15.5+/-1.7 (mean +/- SD) y were analysed. Control ECG recordings were obtained from 38 normal-weight teenage girls with no known heart disease. Patients with ED weighed 40.7+/-7.8 kg, corresponding to BMI 15.2+/-2.4 kg/m2 following a weight loss of 11.8+/-6.5 kg. In ED patients, the ECG showed bradycardia, a shift to the right of the QRS axis, diminished amplitudes of the QRS complex and T wave, and prolongation and increased dispersion of the QTc interval. In multiple regression analyses low weight, low BMI and rapid weight loss immediately preceding the examination were the most important independent predictors of QTc interval prolongation and dispersion. It is concluded that an ECG examination is an important part of the assessment of patients with ED and ongoing weight loss, even in the absence of electrolyte disturbances, and especially if the patient is severely underweight or weight loss is rapid. PMID:10229042

Swenne, I; Larsson, P T

1999-03-01

205

FACTORS INFLUENCING PAYMENT OF IRRIGATION SERVICE FEES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article attempts to identify factors affecting participation in payment of irrigation service fees. There are five variables comprising demographic and economic of land variables were tested to find the variables that influenced the participation significantly. The five variables tested consisted of age and formal education as demographic variables; land productivity, land size, and land tenure as the economic of land variables. The results showed that formal education (demographic variable) had positive relationship and land size (economic of land variable) had negative relationship with the participation. Positive relationship between formal education and participation in payment of irrigation service fees meant that the participation increased as farmers education increased. Meanwhile, negative relationship between land size and the participation in payment of irrigation service fees showed that the farmers participation wouldincrease as the land size owned by farmers decreased. In other words, participation in payment of irrigation service fees was higher among farmers with small lands rather than that among farmers with large lands.

Gelar Satya Budhi

2006-01-01

206

Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length  

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Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

Miyoshi,Ko; Kasahara,Kyosuke; Miyazaki,Ikuko; Asanuma,Masato

2011-01-01

207

Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

2013-01-01

208

Physical Activity Correlates in Persons with Binge Eating Disorder: A Systematic Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the factors that influence physical activity in persons with binge eating disorders can aid the design of more effective interventions. In order to address this, the present paper provides a systematic quantitative review of the correlates of physical activity in people with binge eating disorder. We searched PsycINFO, PubMed and PEDro from inception until June 2013. Keywords included 'binge eating' with 'physical activity' or 'exercise', or 'physical inactivity' or 'sedentary'. Nine papers involving 636 (489 women) persons with binge eating disorders and evaluating 24 correlates were included. No consistent physical activity correlates were reported in four or more studies. The only significant correlate with lower physical activity participation reported in more than one study was a negative body attitude. Further research is required to address this current gap in literature. Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

Vancampfort D; Vanderlinden J; Stubbs B; Soundy A; Pieters G; Hert MD; Probst M

2013-09-01

209

Identifying the eating disorder symptomatic in China: the role of sociocultural factors and culturally defined appearance concerns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the extent to which eating disorder symptomatic Chinese adolescents and young adults could be differentiated from demographically similar peers on the basis of their sociocultural experiences and appearance perceptions. METHODS: Forty-two students who endorsed all criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition eating disorder diagnosis on the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale [Stice E, Telch CF, Rizvi SL. Development and validation of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: a brief self-report measure of anorexia, bulemia, and binge-eating disorder. Psychol Assess 2000;12:123-31] and 42 less symptomatic classmates completed measures of perceived social pressure, teasing, social comparison, negative affect, and concern with facial features. RESULTS: Symptomatic participants reported significantly more social pressure/teasing, appearance comparison, and concern with facial appearance than their less symptomatic peers, although groups did not differ in average levels of negative affect. In a jackknife discriminant classification analysis using these five predictors, 76.2% of the symptomatic group and 81.0% of the comparison group were correctly classified. Within the symptomatic group, 95% of respondents who reported either full or partial criteria for bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder were correctly identified compared to 59.10% of those who endorsed all criteria for eating disorders not otherwise specified related to anorexia nervosa. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to link appearance-related social pressure and social comparison as well as appearance concerns not directly reflecting body size or weight with increased eating disorder symptomatology among young people from the People's Republic of China.

Jackson T; Chen H

2007-02-01

210

Healthy eating among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children: understanding choice using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the role of parental influence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intentions, which, in turn, predicted self-reported dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not increase the model's explanatory power. Results support the application of the TPB to the prediction of food choice-related intention and behaviour among children; however, the role of parental influence requires further examination.

Hewitt AM; Stephens C

2007-10-01

211

Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... for patients with bulimia nervosa interrupting the binge-purge cycle is key. For patients with binge eating disorder ... to normal weight or temporarily ending the binge-purge cycle does not address the underlying emotional problems that ...

212

Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... in your state. http://store.samhsa.gov/mhlocator Orthorexia Nervosa (Copyright National Eating Disorders Association) - This publication explains the symptoms of and treatment for orthorexia. http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/uploads/file/Orthorexia%20Nervosa. ...

213

Factors Affecting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors Among Multiethnic Blue- and White-collar Workers: A Case Study of One Healthcare Institution  

Science.gov (United States)

Worksite health promotion programs can reduce prevalence of chronic disease among employees, but little research has been done to discern whether they meet the needs and incorporate the preferences of workers of different occupational types. The objective of this study is to examine differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity and preferences for programs among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers in Hawai慽. A total of 57 employees from a major health care corporation in Hawai慽 participated. A mixed-methods approach was employed, in which findings from focus groups with white-collar workers (WCW) (n=18) were used to inform development of a questionnaire with closed and open-ended items for use with blue-collar workers (BCW) (n=39), whose jobs did not provide adequate time to participate in focus groups. Focus groups with WCW revealed that onsite availability of healthy food and fitness opportunities provided the most support for healthy eating and physical activity at work; work demands, easy access to unhealthy foods, and lack of onsite fitness opportunities were barriers; and lifestyle management was a topic of substantial interest. BCW cited the ability to bring home lunch and their (physically active) jobs as being supportive of healthy behaviors; not having enough time to eat and personal illness/injury were barriers; and chronic disease topics were of greatest interest. Knowing differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity, as well as preferences for worksite wellness programming, among BCW and WCW, is important when planning and implementing worksite health promotion programs.

Braun, Kathryn L; Novotny, Rachel; Mokuau, Noreen

2013-01-01

214

Eating disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient抯 health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one抯 own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

Konti? Olga; Vasiljevi? Nadja; Tri歰vi? Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Laki? Aneta; Ja歰vi?-Ga歩? Miroslava

2012-01-01

215

Eating disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

Konti? O; Vasiljevi? N; Trisovi? M; Jorga J; Laki? A; Gasi? MJ

2012-09-01

216

THE FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF MANAGING SUBJECTS ???????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article the author's approach to consideration of the factors influencing innovative activity of managing subjects is presented. Innovations, as one of the major factors, are presented.

Sobchenko N. V.; Kuleshova L. V.

2011-01-01

217

Factors influencing peritoneal dialysis patients' psychosocial adjustment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The specific aims of this study were as follows: (1) to describe psychosocial adjustment in adults with end-stage renal disease who underwent maintenance peritoneal dialysis; (2) to explore the influence of demographics, clinical variables, symptom distress and social support on psychosocial adjustment and (3) to determine predictive factors of psychosocial adjustment. BACKGROUND: Proper psychosocial adjustment is important for patients with end-stage renal disease to cope with multiple stressors of their disease and to balance their lives within the restrictions imposed by peritoneal dialysis treatment. Knowledge on psychosocial adjustment in patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis has been limited. DESIGN: The study was based on a predictive correlational design. METHOD: One hundred peritoneal dialysis patients were recruited from outpatient peritoneal dialysis clinics of a general hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Data were collected with the study questionnaires, including the Physical Symptom Distress Scale, the Social Support Scale and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale - self-report. RESULTS: The mean score on the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale was 3597 (SD=400), indicating that these participants were moderately struggling in adjusting to their illness. Symptom distress, family social support and financial status explained 383% of the variance in psychosocial adjustment (F(3,96) =215, p<񁖜01). CONCLUSIONS: The level of psychosocial adjustment in peritoneal dialysis patients is suboptimal. Overall, the patients with high physical symptom distress, weak family social support and poor financial status reported deficient psychosocial adjustment to their illness. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The findings of this study are relevant to the understanding of preconditions that enable peritoneal dialysis patients to successfully adjust to the disease and its diverse consequences. Patients with insufficient income, higher symptom distress and less family social support have a greater risk of psychosocial maladjustment. Medical professionals may use these variables to identify higher risk groups for early intensive intervention.

Wang TJ; Lin MY; Liang SY; Wu SF; Tung HH; Tsay SL

2013-01-01

218

Perspectives on healthy eating among Appalachian residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. METHODS: During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. FINDINGS: Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context.

Schoenberg NE; Howell BM; Swanson M; Grosh C; Bardach S

2013-08-01

219

VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN P贐ERES MEXICANOS VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para p鷅eres mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que eval鷈 factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y m閠odo: El cuestionario se aplic a una muestra no probabil韘tica, de p鷅eres estudiantes de la ciudad de M閤ico (504 hombres y 511 mujeres), con edades de 11 a 15 a駉s de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realiz un an醠isis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y un an醠isis factorial de componentes principales con rotaci髇 oblimin por el m閠odo de m醲ima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada) y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada). Conclusi髇: El instrumento result v醠ido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal.Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female students in M閤ico City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha) and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %), and females 0,83 (57,6%) of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.

Teresita de Jes鷖 Saucedo-Molina; Claudia Unikel-Santoncini

2010-01-01

220

Ghrelin and eating disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders.

Atalayer D; Gibson C; Konopacka A; Geliebter A

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Factores de 閤ito en campa馻s de alimentaci髇 saludable: un estudio de casos/ Success factors in public healthy eating campaigns: a case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducci髇: Rara vez se ha evaluado la efectividad de las campa馻s e intervenciones de informaci髇 p鷅lica. Por ello, el estudio de actividades exitosas podr韆 contribuir al desarrollo y puesta en pr醕tica en el futuro de campa馻s e intervenciones a favor de una alimentaci髇 saludable Objetivos: El objetivo del presente estudio de campa馻s de informaci髇 sobre alimentaci髇 saludable fue primeramente la identificaci髇 de los factores de 閤ito de las mismas, (more) y seguidamente la descripci髇 de sus inter-relaciones. M閠odos: Se entrevistaron a 11 representantes de industrias alimentarias cuyas campa馻s fueron identificadas como exitosas en una etapa previa del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron luego analizadas con respecto a los factores de 閤ito potenciales. Estos 鷏timos fueron posteriormente utilizados para desarrollar un modelo de factores de 閤ito y sus interrelaciones. Resultados: El 閤ito de los casos estudiados fue atribuido primeramente a las caracter韘ticas del ambiente macro, o a una colaboraci髇 entre los sectores p鷅lico y privado. Segundo, se identific al compromiso de las comunidades, elementos de empoderamiento del grupo objetivo y a la ejecuci髇 de medidas de marketing social. Tercero, el 閤ito puede atribuirse a la adopci髇 por parte de la ciudadan韆 de las campa馻s y los cambios estructurales consecuentes. Conclusiones: El modelo y los factores de 閤ito identificados resaltan que el 閤ito puede originarse en tres fases cruciales, el dise駉 y montaje de la campa馻, su ejecuci髇 y finalmente, su interacci髇 con la ciudadan韆. El modelo puede servir como gu韆 para el desarrollo de campa馻s en el futuro. Abstract in english Introduction: Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. Objectives: The study of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 1 (more) 1 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. Results: It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. Conclusions: The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.

Aschemann-Witzel, J.; P閞ez-Cueto, F.J.A.; Strand, M.; Verbeke, W.; Bech-Larsen, T.

2012-10-01

222

INTERCULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Translation is a complex process, involving linguistic, cultural and personal factors. This article seeks to show how intercultural factors constitute one of the main sources of translation difficultties. The author suggests that a systematic discussion of these factors would be useful in establishing effective strategies for avoiding pitfalls in translation between English and Chinese.

Dai Xiaoqian

2005-01-01

223

Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl/sub 2/ or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 ..mu..g, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r/sup 2/ = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 ..mu..g Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 ..mu..g Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl/sub 2/ except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in /sup 65/Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability.

Mahalko, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

1986-03-05

224

A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process  

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Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.

Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela Victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

2007-01-01

225

Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.

K. R. Sowmya; N. Panchanatham

2011-01-01

226

Psychiatric morbidity associated with same-sex sexual behaviour: influence of minority stress and familial factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Increased psychiatric morbidity has been widely reported among non-heterosexual individuals (defined as reporting a homosexual/bisexual identity and/or same-sex sexual partners). However, the causes of this psychiatric ill-health are mostly unknown. METHOD: We attempted to estimate the influence of minority stress and familial factors on psychiatric disorder among adults with same-sex sexual partners. Self-report data from a 2005 survey of adults (age 20-47 years, n=17,379) in the population-based Swedish Twin Registry were analysed with regression modelling and co-twin control methodology. RESULTS: Rates of depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), eating disorders, alcohol dependence and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were increased among men and women with same-sex sexual experiences. Adjusting for perceived discrimination and hate crime victimization lowered this risk whereas controlling for familial (genetic or environmental) factors in within-twin pair comparisons further reduced or eliminated it. CONCLUSIONS: Components of minority stress influence the risk of psychiatric ill-health among individuals with any same-sex sexual partner. However, substantial confounding by familial factors suggests a common genetic and/or environmental liability for same-sex sexual behaviour and psychiatric morbidity.

Frisell T; Lichtenstein P; Rahman Q; L錸gstr鰉 N

2010-02-01

227

Acquired liking for sweet-paired odours is related to the disinhibition but not restraint factor from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research suggests that women scoring high on dietary restraint may be insensitive to flavour-flavour learning, but no study has yet explored this using the olfactory conditioning paradigm. Accordingly, 56 women who were sweet likers were classified as either high or low on both the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire restraint and disinhibition scales. They evaluated two odours before and after disguised pairings of one odour with 10% sucrose and the other with 0.01% quinine. Liking for the quinine-paired odour decreased post-training, with no effects of restraint or disinhibition. In contrast, the increase in liking for the sucrose-paired odour was significantly greater in women classified as scoring high in disinhibition, but was unaffected by restraint. Sweetness of the sucrose paired odour increased, and bitterness of the quinine-paired odour decreased, similarly in all groups. These data suggest that sensitivity of restrained eaters to flavour-based learning may result from their attitude to the food used as reinforcer rather than some basic failure in the learning process, and also suggest that women scoring high on disinhibition may show heightened sensitivity to hedonic cues.

Yeomans MR; Mobini S; Bertenshaw EJ; Gould NJ

2009-02-01

228

Acquired liking for sweet-paired odours is related to the disinhibition but not restraint factor from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research suggests that women scoring high on dietary restraint may be insensitive to flavour-flavour learning, but no study has yet explored this using the olfactory conditioning paradigm. Accordingly, 56 women who were sweet likers were classified as either high or low on both the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire restraint and disinhibition scales. They evaluated two odours before and after disguised pairings of one odour with 10% sucrose and the other with 0.01% quinine. Liking for the quinine-paired odour decreased post-training, with no effects of restraint or disinhibition. In contrast, the increase in liking for the sucrose-paired odour was significantly greater in women classified as scoring high in disinhibition, but was unaffected by restraint. Sweetness of the sucrose paired odour increased, and bitterness of the quinine-paired odour decreased, similarly in all groups. These data suggest that sensitivity of restrained eaters to flavour-based learning may result from their attitude to the food used as reinforcer rather than some basic failure in the learning process, and also suggest that women scoring high on disinhibition may show heightened sensitivity to hedonic cues. PMID:18955073

Yeomans, Martin R; Mobini, Sirous; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Gould, Natalie J

2008-10-17

229

Factors influencing perioperative nurses' error reporting preferences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To explore the influence of scope of practice and patient outcomes on error reporting, 13 nurses were interviewed after they reviewed four "error" scenarios ranging in both scope of practice and seriousness of outcome. Of 52 theoretical incidents, only 30 were identified as errors. The nurses indicated they would formally report errors for only eight of the incidents. For another 10 incidents, the nurses would have reported using an informal reporting system only. Qualitative analysis of the interviews revealed that perceived scope of practice influenced reporting preferences, and seriousness of outcome was only a secondary consideration. Selective error reporting and the reasons for selective reporting have negative implications for patient safety.

Espin S; Regehr G; Levinson W; Baker GR; Biancucci C; Lingard L

2007-03-01

230

Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectiona...

Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

231

Unintentional role models: links between maternal eating psychopathology and the modelling of eating behaviours.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study explored the relationships between maternal modelling of eating behaviours with reported symptoms of maternal eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Mothers (N = 264) with a child aged 1.5 to 8 years completed three self-report measures designed to assess modelling of eating behaviours, eating psychopathology and levels of anxiety and depression. The study found that higher levels of maternal eating psychopathology were positively associated with eating behaviours that were unintentionally modelled by mothers but that maternal eating psychopathology was not associated with more overt/intentional forms of parental modelling. In addition, higher levels of maternal depression were associated with lower levels of both unintentional and intentional forms of maternal modelling, whereas maternal anxiety was not found to correlate with modelling behaviours. This study highlights the possible detrimental influences of maternal mental health in relation to mothers providing their child with a positive parental role model around eating and feeding.

Palfreyman Z; Haycraft E; Meyer C

2013-05-01

232

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...

233

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat can ... Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video (WMV) Keywords: self-management , healthy eating , National Diabetes ...

234

Cholangiocarcinoma: risk factors, environmental influences and oncogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most frequent malignant epithelial liver tumors after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its incidence seems to be increasing worldwide, although risk factors are heterogeneous and differ globally. Although diagnostic and therapeutic medicine have advanced in several countries, tackling this tumor remains a challenge. The causes of CCA's increasing incidence are likely a differential increment of some factors according to the geographical area, which will be considered in this review. Environment-linked risk factors may play a critical role in the carcinogenesis. Liver flukes may play a major role in East Asia, while exposure to chemical compounds, such as naphthenic acids, has been postulated as a source of the rate increase in Western countries. Carcinogenesis is variable and confounding factors also need to be taken into account. Carcinogenesis depends on a sequential process and most probably involves both cholestasis and chronic inflammation as promoting steps after induction. The release and interaction of interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are at the basis of the proliferation of biliary epithelial cells or cholangiocytes. Additional steps for the final development of CCA may also involve an increase of the mutation rate of tumor suppressor genes, such as TP53, and the evasion of apoptosis.

Al-Bahrani R; Abuetabh Y; Zeitouni N; Sergi C

2013-01-01

235

Identification of environmental supports for healthy eating in older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many environmental settings and influences can affect food choices and eating behaviors in the growing population of community-dwelling older adults. Using the Social Ecological model, an expert panel participated in online discussions and an Analytic Hierarchy Process survey to identify the most important and changeable environmental settings and enabling factors that promote healthy eating in older adults. Food stores were rated most important when considering accessibility and affordability. Congregate nutrition sites were important for social support along with supporting access and affordability of healthful foods and living accommodations. Senior housing, health care, and religious settings also contributed to the goal of promoting healthful eating in aging adults. Restaurants were rated of lower importance. Based on these results, it is recommended that community food policies include the nutritional needs of older adults by addressing food accessibility and affordability, social support, and living accommodations, with a focus on congregate nutrition sites, food stores, senior housing, health care, and religious organizations.

Sylvie AK; Jiang Q; Cohen N

2013-01-01

236

Transtornos alimentares na inf鈔cia e na adolesc阯cia/ Eating disorders in childhood and adolescence/ Trastornos alimentares en la infancia y adolescencia y factores de riesgo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crian鏰s e adolescentes quanto 鄐 suas caracter韘ticas e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combina玢o dos termos 'crian鏰s', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'transtorno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas portugu阺 e ingl阺. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisar (more) am o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares n鉶 especificados. S蚇TESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os n鉶 especificados, mostraram-se comuns na inf鈔cia e na adolesc阯cia. Sua presen鏰 foi atribu韉a principalmente ao ambiente familiar e exposi玢o aos meios de comunica玢o. As comorbidades psicol骻icas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagn髎tico do transtorno. CONCLUS誆S: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a m韉ia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influ阯cia da m韉ia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto magreza. J no 鈓bito familiar, o momento das refei珲es mostrou-se fundamental na determina玢o do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (d閒icit no crescimento e ganho de peso), sa鷇e bucal (queilose, eros鉶 dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das gl鈔dulas salivares) e aos preju韟os sociais. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en ni駉s y adolescentes respecto a sus caracter韘ticas y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigaci髇 de art韈ulos se realiz en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinaci髇 de los t閞minos "ni駉s", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alimentar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugu閟 e ingl閟. Se consideraron los art韈ulos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccio (more) nados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. S蚇TESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposici髇 a los medios de comunicaci髇. Las comorbilidades psicol骻icas muchas veces acompa馻n el diagn髎tico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el 醡bito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostr fundamental en la determinaci髇 del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (d閒icit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso), a la salud oral (queilosis, erosi髇 dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las gl醤dulas salivares) y a los perjuicios sociales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia', both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bu (more) limia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to the media. Eating disorders were fr

Gon鏰lves, Juliana de Abreu; Moreira, Emilia Addison M.; Trindade, Erasmo Ben韈io S. de M.; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros R.

2013-03-01

237

Eating disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasin...

Konti? Olga; Vasiljevi? Nadja; Tri歰vi? Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Laki? Aneta; Ja歰vi?-Ga歩? Miroslava

238

FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATION IN SMES IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to organize resources and competence in novel patterns. Enterprises extend their ability to develop new business concepts, their dynamic capability, by accessing external resources. This study proposes to investigate how the use of external resources varies in the course of SMEs innovation processes, and how deployment of external resources is influenced by the nature of the innovation as well as by the context of the innovation process.

HOLBAN ONCIOIU IONICA; ONCIOIU FLORIN RAZVAN

2010-01-01

239

Eating pattern of vegetarian diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA) and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil) allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.

Patricia Couceiro; Eric Slywitch; Franciele Lenz

2008-01-01

240

Factors influencing attractiveness of soft tissue profile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The factors affecting the attractiveness of the soft tissue profile are assessed in only very few nonmatched and controversial studies. We aimed to evaluate these factors in a matched comprehensive study. METHODS: Profile photographs of 100 students with good occlusion were sorted according to facial beauty by 20 judges. After excluding 40 unmatched subjects or those with marginal scores, 12 soft tissue variables were compared among profiles of 30 attractive and 30 unattractive matched participants (t test, ? = 0.05). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: As the most important factor, excessive mandibular retrusion made both men and women unattractive. Both attractive men and women tended to have less prominent noses with higher nose tips, protruded upper lips compared with the position of lower lips, and deeper lower faces. Closeness of lips to the middle of vertical chin-nose distance enhanced female beauty only. Straight profiles and more protruded maxillae merely made men more attractive.

Khosravanifard B; Rakhshan V; Raeesi E

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Promotion orientation explains why future-oriented people exercise and eat healthy: evidence from the two-factor consideration of future consequences-14 scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors extended research linking individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC) with health behaviors by (a) testing whether individual differences in regulatory focus would mediate that link and (b) highlighting the value of a revised, two-factor CFC-14 scale with subscales assessing concern with future consequences (CFC-Future) and concern with immediate consequences (CFC-Immediate) proper. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the revised CFC-14 scale supported the presence of two highly reliable factors (CFC-Future and CFC-Immediate; ?s from .80 to .84). Moreover, structural equation modeling showed that those high in CFC-Future engage in exercise and healthy eating because they adopt a promotion orientation. Future use of the two-factor CFC-14 scale is encouraged to shed additional light on how concern with future and concern with immediate consequences (proper) differentially impact the way people resolve a host of intertemporal dilemmas (e.g., health, financial, and environmental behavior).

Joireman J; Shaffer MJ; Balliet D; Strathman A

2012-10-01

242

Influencing Factors of Science Olympiad Students Success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and student抯 self efficacy.

M. K黵?ad 謟len; Mehmet 謟g黱

2013-01-01

243

Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life. PMID:24028035

Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

2013-01-01

244

Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

Cummings G; Olson K; Raymond-Seniuk C; Lo E; Masaoud E; Bakker D; Fitch M; Green E; Butler L; Conlon M

2013-01-01

245

Factores de riesgo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en j髒enes escolarizados en Cundinamarca (Colombia)/ Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among School-Aged Young People in Cundinamarca (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducci髇: El diagn髎tico precoz de un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) es determinante para evitar complicaciones graves a lo largo de la vida. Pocos estudios en Colombia han examinado sus caracter韘ticas cl韓icas y comorbilidad en la poblaci髇 escolar. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de TCA, sus factores de inicio y mantenimiento, as como sus subtipos cl韓icos y comorbilidad en una poblaci髇 escolarizada. M閠odo: Estudio de base comunitaria y c (more) orte transversal con 937 estudiantes entre 12 y 20 a駉s de edad, de Bogot y la sabana centro de Cundinamarca, que respondieron la EAT-26, encuesta de factores de inicio y mantenimiento de TCA, y la Zung de ansiedad y depresi髇. Los casos probables fueron contactados para entrevista cl韓ica psiqui醫rica. Resultados: Se detectaron 141 casos probables de TCA, la mayor韆 en mujeres (p Abstract in english Introduction: The early diagnosis of Eating Disorders (ED) is decisive in order to prevent serious complications during lifetime. In Colombia, few studies have assessed the clinical characteristics and comorbidity of ED in students. Objective: To determine the frecuency of ED, its onset and maintenance factors, as well as its clinical subtypes and comorbidity in student population. Method: Cross sectional and community based study with 937 students, ages 10 to 12, from Bo (more) got and Sabana Centro-Cundinamarca, who answered the EAT- 26, a survey on onset and maintenance factors for ED, and the Zung depression and anxiety scales. Results: 141 probable cases of ED were detected, predominantly among women (p

Pi馿ros Ort韟, Sandra; Molano Caro, Jenny; L髉ez de Mesa, Clara

2010-06-01

246

FACTORS INFLUENCING BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION TO ADOPT NET BANKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking while Primary and Secondary Influence was rated the least impacting factor. Both Utilitarian Outcomes and Availability of Internet were rated as second most impacting factor followed by Availability, Cost, Ease of Use, Security, Trust and Self Confidence.

SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA; M.V.SURYANARAYANA

2013-01-01

247

Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

Ioan Pastor

2011-01-01

248

Influ阯cia do estado nutricional no risco para transtornos alimentares em estudantes de nutri玢o/ Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliar a rela玢o entre a altera玢o do comportamento alimentar, associado insatisfa玢o com a imagem corporal, e o estado nutricional de universit醨ias de Nutri玢o. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 175 universit醨ias do Curso de Nutri玢o (ENUT/UFOP). Foram aplicados os question醨ios Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) e o Body Shape Questionare (BSQ) e realizadas medidas antropom閠ricas. 21,7% das estudantes apresentaram alto risco para transtornos alim (more) entares e 13,7% apresentaram insatisfa玢o com a imagem corporal. A maioria das estudantes com BSQ e EAT-26 positivos estava eutr骹ica. As estudantes com excesso de peso, aumento do percentual de gordura corporal (% GC) e do per韒etro da cintura (PC) apresentaram risco 5 a 9 vezes maiores de altera玢o do comportamento alimentar. Houve associa玢o positiva entre os par鈓etros antropom閠ricos com a pontua玢o dos question醨ios EAT-26 e BSQ. Futuras nutricionistas com excesso de peso apresentaram maior risco de estarem insatisfeitas com a sua imagem corporal e de desenvolverem transtornos alimentares. A utiliza玢o de outros par鈓etros antropom閠ricos, al閙 do IMC, pode ser 鷗il na triagem de indiv韉uos suscet韛eis ao surgimento de preocupa珲es excessivas com o peso corporal e a alimenta玢o. Abstract in english The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP). The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high (more) risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.

Silva, Janiara David; Silva, Amanda Bertolini de Jesus; Oliveira, Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff de; Nemer, Aline Silva de Aguiar

2012-12-01

249

Examining the Factors Influencing Environmental Innovations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Technological innovation is a key factor for achieving a better environmental performance of firms and the economy as a whole, to the extent that it helps to increase the material/energy efficiency of production processes and to reduce emission/effluents associated to outputs. Environmental innovati...

Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Zoboli, Roberto

250

[Antijuvenile influence of the precocene on the development of adult antennae in the apple surface eating tortricid Archips podana Scop. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence ofprecocene II, an antijuvenile agent, on the development of adult antennae in the apple surface eating tortricid A. podana Scop was demonstrated. Treatment of the fifth instar larvae and prepupae with different doses of precocene proved to cause different sensitivity of the specimens to the juvenile hormone deficit. Treatment with 450 and 600 microg precocene per specimen during the first days after ecdysis to the fifth instar caused the death of larvae. Treatment with 300, 450, and 600 microg per specimen on the third day of the fifth instar larvae and prepupae caused a delay in the development of adult antennae. The results are discussed with respect to the role of the juvenile hormone in the development of imaginal structures during metamorphosis. PMID:23136738

Triseleva, T A

251

[Antijuvenile influence of the precocene on the development of adult antennae in the apple surface eating tortricid Archips podana Scop. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence ofprecocene II, an antijuvenile agent, on the development of adult antennae in the apple surface eating tortricid A. podana Scop was demonstrated. Treatment of the fifth instar larvae and prepupae with different doses of precocene proved to cause different sensitivity of the specimens to the juvenile hormone deficit. Treatment with 450 and 600 microg precocene per specimen during the first days after ecdysis to the fifth instar caused the death of larvae. Treatment with 300, 450, and 600 microg per specimen on the third day of the fifth instar larvae and prepupae caused a delay in the development of adult antennae. The results are discussed with respect to the role of the juvenile hormone in the development of imaginal structures during metamorphosis.

Triseleva TA

2012-09-01

252

Communicating healthy eating to adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - This study explores perceptions of healthy/unhealthy eating, and perceptions of various socializing agents encouraging healthy eating, amongst Chinese adolescents. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was conducted of 152 seven, eighth and ninth grade Hong Kong students. A structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed in three public secondary schools. Findings - Results showed that respondents frequently ate out with friends and frequently consumed a range of relatively unhealthy food (candies, chips, and soft drinks). They perceived that a balanced diet and eating at a regular time were the most important attributes of healthy eating. In terms of situational influences on their consumption, respondents most likely ate unhealthy food at parties, when eating out or with friends. They most likely ate healthy food at home and when they were sick. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents and government publicity asked them to eat healthy food more often than teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. In terms of alternative advertising appeals discouraging unhealthy eating, respondents considered news and fear appeals the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered relatively less effective. Research limitations/implications - The respondents were chosen from three secondary schools (two co-ed schools and one school for boys). These three schools may not be representative of all schools in Hong Kong or elsewhere, thus limiting the generalizabilty of the findings. Practical implications - The study can serve as a guideline for social services marketing professionals targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings in relation to socializing agents, social services marketers can consider influencing the adolescents eating habits through the parents. As government publicity was perceived as a relatively weak socializing agent, there is a need to review health education materials targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings in relation to different advertising appeals discouraging unhealthy eating, news and fear appeals should be considered, as these were considered relatively more likable and effective than other types of appeals. Originality/value - This paper offers insights into designing communication strategies for adolescents. It is original in that it focuses on adolescents, and explores the perceptions of various socializing agents influencing healthy eating.

Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard

2009-01-01

253

Intussusception: Clinical and radiographic factors influencing reducibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.).

Stephenson, C.A.; Seibert, J.J.; Glasier, C.M.; Leithiser, R.E. Jr.; Iqbal, V. (Arkansas Univ. for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (USA). Dept. of Pediatrics; Arkansas Univ. for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (USA)); Strain, J.D. (Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (USA))

1989-11-01

254

Intussusception: Clinical and radiographic factors influencing reducibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.).

1989-01-01

255

Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU) content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995). In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

A. Di Francia; F. Masucci; M.T. Maresca di Serracapriola; F. Gioffr; V. Proto

2011-01-01

256

Preventive screening. What factors influence testing?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with having preventive screening tests in a population-based sample of Ontario women. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey linked to data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to ascertain whether women aged 20 or older had Pap smears, mammography, bone densitometry, or cholesterol testing. Factors associated with having testing were subjected to logistic regression analysis. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 20 or older; from 19,600 Canadian households, 2232 Ontario women gave consent to linkage of administrative databases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-specific population screening rates. Odds ratios and probabilities of having screening in relation to socioeconomic, geographic, and physician-associated factors. RESULTS: Having screening was associated with age, income, education, and place of residence. Women with regular physicians were more likely to have Pap smears (odds ratio [OR] 4.4, range 1.7 to 12), densitometry (OR 22, range 3.6 to 140), and cholesterol testing (OR 8.0, range 2.3 to 29). Women who had periodic health examinations were more likely to have Pap smears (OR 6.7, range 4.6 to 9.8), mammograms (OR 3.7, range 2.3 to 5.9), densitometry (OR 3.7, range 1.3 to 10.5), and cholesterol testing (OR 3.0, range 2.0 to 4.5). The probability of having testing increased with number of visits a year to a doctor, but ceased to increase after three visits. CONCLUSION: Having screening tests was associated with socioeconomic factors including income, education, and place of residence. Patients who went to doctors for episodic care only were less likely to have preventive screening than patients who went for periodic health examinations.

Finkelstein MM

2002-01-01

257

Factors Influencing Mortality in Pediatric Trauma Patients  

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Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to research the factors we thought might be affect mortality in a pediatric age group (0-15 y) with multiple trauma.Materials and Methods: In our study of 1658 pediatric patients suffering from falling events, burns, cutting and perforating instrument injuries, gunshot injuries and vehicle accidents admitted to Dicle University. hospital ED between March 2003 and December 2006 were analyzed and included to the study consecutively. The patients were divided in two groups, the patients who survived were in group 1, and the patients who died were in group 2.Results: Of the 1658 patients, 70.5% (n= 1169) were male, 29.5% (n= 489) were female and 107 patient died (6.46 %). Mean age was 6.75+-0.397 in group 2 (who died) and 7.00+-0.99 in group 1, (survived). Low RTS score (OR (odds ratio)=1.565, CI=1.297-1.889, p<0.05). Falling down from height OR=0.637, CI=0.408- 0.995, p<0.05), postulated admission (OR=2.035 CI=1.267-3.267, p<0.05) and medical treatment (OR=0.451, CI=0.273-0.744, p<0.05) were found to be the effective factors in pediatric patients with multiple trauma.Conclusion: The falling events, abdominal and thoracic trauma with low ?SS, RTS, TR?SS and postulated admission to ED are the factors that affect the mortality in pediatric trauma patients.

Mahmut Ta?; Cahfer G黮o?lu; Murat Orak; Mehmet 躶t黱da?; Mustafa Aldemir

2012-01-01

258

Factors Influencing Individual Investor Behaviour in Karachi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies have examined motivation from economic perspectives or studied relationships between economic, behavioral, demographic & lifestyle variables but examination of various utility maximization and behavioral variables taken together provides a complete understanding of the investment decision process. This study incorporated this concept by taking 30 variables from diverse decision criteria including contemporary concerns. Results revealed seven homogenous groups among these 30 variables which were grouped into seven factors that address major investor considerations. The findings suggest that individual抯 base their stock purchase decisions on wealth-maximization criteria combined with past and present stock performance along with other diverse variables; they do not rely on a single approach.

Sania Usmani

2012-01-01

259

Food Behavior Correlated with Lifestyle Pattern and Societal Influences in a Romanian Students Population. Part I: Eating General Habits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Input data from Students Food Behavior, Preference and Lifestyle Questionnaire conducted with 376 students from University 揇unarea de Jos Galati (UDJG) were analyzed from socio-demographic criteria. The sample socio-demoraphic characteristics of the student population were investigated beside the general food & eating habits by gender. In the current study, most than three quart of students (76.06%) was of correct (normal) weight. Nearly 65.15% of the students reported having regular daily breakfast. The strongest correlation of having breakfast habit is show with the regular meal behaviour [r(3, 4) = 0.242] and regular meals were associated with reduced trends for BMI [r(4, 2) =?0.055].

Iuliana Vintila

2013-01-01

260

Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

Millet JP; Moreno A; Fina L; del Ba駉 L; Orcau A; de Olalla PG; Cayl JA

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

Bbaale, Edward

2013-03-01

262

FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI), Industry Production Index (IPI), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and interest rates (IR) on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS) and Corporate Bonds (CBs) for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

Norliza Ahmad; Joriah Muhammad; Tajul Ariffin Masron

2009-01-01

263

A descriptive analysis of factors influencing physician assistant specialty selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study assessed factors impacting practice selection among primary care and specialty physician assistants (PAs). Certified PAs randomized by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA) (30,000) were surveyed, with 2,020 responses (RR = 6.7%). Results showed that factors influencing primary care and specialty selection differ. Increasing reimbursements may not increase selection of primary care by PAs.

Halasy MP; Leafman J; Mathieson K; Bowman R; Cannon J

2012-07-01

264

Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show

Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

2005-01-01

265

?????????????????? Factors influencing success and failure of confessing one'slove  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Love is a high interest issue for university studenls, and confessing one's love is an important trigger to start a love relationship. The purpose of this study was to find the factors influencings success and failure of confessing ones'love. As in the preceding study, factors used were the time nee...

??, ???; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??; ???, ???; ???, ???; ?ta, Makoto; ????, ???; ???, ???; Kojima, Nanae; Ota, Makoto; Takamoto, Yukiko

266

Factors influencing whether children walk to school.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

2013-04-17

267

Factors influencing nursing in Macaca fascicularis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nursing by two mother-infant pairs in a caged colony of Macaca fascicularis was monitored at 1-min intervals for 8 h beginning 8:30 a.m. BST, once a week for 3 months in the summer of 1973. Nursing occupied about 210 min in 8 daylight hours for the infants at 10 weeks of age, and the time spent nursing decreased at the average rate of 9.4 min per week until the infants were about 6 months old. The time spent nursing by the infants studied here resembles closely the times spent nursing by some other macaques and by baboons. In the course of a day the amount of time spent nursing varies significantly with a diurnal peak. If nursing by one mother-infant pair is independent of nursing by the other pair, then the time the two pairs spend nursing together would be a function of the product of the frequencies of nursing by each pair. The expected times for the pairs nursing together based on the hypothesis of independent events were significantly less than the observed times the pairs nursed together. Nursing, therefore, involves a positive influence or imitation of one nursing pair by the other. Nursing sessions involving both mother-infant pairs were longer on the average than sessions involving only one pair.

Chance MR; Jones E; Shostak S

1977-01-01

268

Factors influencing whether children walk to school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children.

Su JG; Jerrett M; McConnell R; Berhane K; Dunton G; Shankardass K; Reynolds K; Chang R; Wolch J

2013-07-01

269

NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

Joseph Baker; Sean Horton; Jennifer Robertson-Wilson; Michael Wall

2003-01-01

270

Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research.

1991-01-01

271

Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Tunisia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly that use of internet banking in Tunisia is influenced moststrongly by convenience, risk, security and prior internet knowledge. Only information on online banking did notaffect intention to use internet banking service in Tunisia. The results also propose that demographic factorsimpact significantly internet banking behaviour, specifically, occupation and instruction. Finally, this papersuggests that an understanding the factors affecting intention to use internet banking is very important to thepractitioners who plan and promote new forms of banking in the current competitive market.

Wadie Nasri

2011-01-01

272

A Biopsychosocial Model of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescent Girls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Body image and eating concerns are prevalent among early adolescent girls, and associated with biological, psychological and sociocultural risk factors. To date, explorations of biopsychosocial models of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls are lacking. A sample of 488 early adolescent girls, mean age=12.35爕ears (SD=0.53), completed a questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), sociocultural appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, body image concerns and disordered eating. Structural equation modelling was conducted to test a hypothetical model in which internalization and comparison were mediators of the effect of both negative affect and sociocultural influences on body image concerns and disordered eating. In addition, the model proposed that BMI would impact body image concerns. Although the initial model was a poor fit to the data, the fit was improved after the addition of a direct pathway between negative affect and bulimic symptoms. The final model explained a large to moderate proportion of the variance in body image and eating concerns. This study supports the role of negative affect in biopsychosocial models of the development of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Interventions including strategies to address negative affect as well as sociocultural appearance pressures may help decrease the risk for body image concerns and disordered eating among this age group.

Rodgers RF; Paxton SJ; McLean SA

2013-09-01

273

Caring for patients who have eating disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article gives an overview of the nurse's role when caring for patients with eating disorders. While mental health nurses are more likely than general nurses to be dealing with patients with eating disorders, such disorders can influence an individual's ability to recover from other illnesses so knowledge of this area is relevant in all settings.

Walsh L

2007-07-01

274

Pregnancy and Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... Special Issues / Pregnancy and Eating Disorders Pregnancy and Eating Disorders Pregnancy and motherhood require a great deal of ... required for a healthy pregnancy, for women with eating disorders, having to gain this amount can be very ...

275

Kids and Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... withdrawing from social activities Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ... own appearance or body. Can Somebody Catch an Eating Disorder? You can't catch an eating disorder from ...

276

Factors influencing theophylline serum protein binding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied a number of influences on theophylline binding to serum proteins using equilibrium dialysis (37 degrees), a modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4), and 8-14C-theophylline with unlabeled theophylline (30 microgram/ml) added to sera from healthy subjects. Theophylline protein binding rose by 18.6% as pH rose from 7.0 to 7.8 (percent theophylline bound = 28.2 +/- 4.3 at pH 7.0 and 46.8 +/- 4.9 at pH 7.8, n = 5). Average theophylline binding to the proteins at 37 degrees in serum samples from 10 normal adults was 39.3 +/- 3.44%, which is 89.9% lower than the average of 48.2 +/- 3.74% for the same samples at 26 degrees. Theophylline binding was 6.1% higher with 0.1 mole/l phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, than with a modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4. Of the 19 drugs and metabolites tested for competition with theophylline for binding sites on serum proteins, 10 induced decreases in binding ranging from 6.8% in the case of furosemide to 18.3% for sodium salicylate. The latter was the only drug that induced a decrease in theophylline binding at concentrations that would be achieved in the therapy of same patients (i.e., patients on long-term salicylate therapy). All the other drugs that decreased theophylline binding did so at much greater concentrations than their usual therapeutic levels. The mean +/- SD of theophylline bound in 51 fresh serum samples from healthy adults was 48.6 +/- 10.2%; the pH of these specimens varied from 7.6 to 8.7. After adjusting pH to 7.4, theophylline binding was lowered to 37.6 +/- 4.5% and intersubject variability decreased. We recommend that the pH of serum specimens be adjusted to 7.4, or to the original pH of the blood specimen if it differs significantly from 7.4 (i.e., in acidotic or alkalotic patients). The wide range of reported values for theophylline binding to serum proteins in normal and asthmatic adults at least partly results from differences in the conditions used for the separation of free from bound drug.

Shaw LM; Fields L; Mayock R

1982-10-01

277

Eating disorders and emotional neglect: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eating disorders are psychiatric disorders presenting various problems in eating behavior and have biological, psychological, social factors as important causes. Personality features and traumatic experiences have significant role in its development. Psychiatric comorbidity and trauma history are fr...

Aylin A??rman; Fulya Maner

278

Eating disorders. New threats to health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

I feel honored by this opportunity to pay tribute to my former chief, Tom Hackett. I was indeed fortunate to know Tom. He was a major influence in my life. He knew of my interest in eating disorders and was instrumental in helping me start the Eating Disorders Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital. The clinic was opened in 1981, and in the 10 years hence we have evaluated more than 2,500 adolescent and adult patients with eating disorders. At the outset Tom was not particularly interested in eating disorders, yet he was always willing to put time into my projects. He assisted me in developing a curriculum for a top-notch course on eating disorders and helped me obtain necessary funding for eating disorder research. Tom always encouraged me to embrace new challenges. I will be eternally grateful to him, and I miss him.

Herzog DB

1992-01-01

279

Leptina e sua influ阯cia na patofisiologia de dist鷕bios alimentares Leptin and its influence in the pathophysiology of eating disorders  

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Full Text Available A leptina uma prote韓a secretada pelos adip骳itos com papel regulador em v醨ios sistemas do organismo, como sistema imune, respirat髍io e reprodutivo, bem como no balan鏾 energ閠ico via a玢o hipotal鈓ica. Sua a玢o prim醨ia ocorre no n鷆leo hipotal鈓ico arqueado, no qual inicia uma cascata de eventos para inibi玢o da ingest鉶 energ閠ica e aumento do gasto energ閠ico. As concentra珲es de leptina s鉶 influenciadas pela adiposidade, fatores hormonais e nutricionais. A restri玢o e os epis骴ios de compuls鉶 alimentar, presentes na anorexia nervosa e bulimia, respectivamente, s鉶 considerados, na literatura cient韋ica, fatores determinantes na leptinemia. Seus n韛eis tamb閙 alterados no tratamento desses dist鷕bios alimentares sugerem uma rela玢o entre as altera珲es neuroend骳rinas e conseq黣ntes modifica珲es nos sinais de fome e saciedade, com a patogenia ou manuten玢o dos quadros cl韓icos. Trabalhos t阭 encontrado impacto dessas altera珲es na sa鷇e dos pacientes, em curto e longo prazos. Esta revis鉶 tem como objetivo esclarecer quais s鉶 as fun珲es da leptina nos tecidos nervoso e perif閞ico, quais os mecanismos que interferem na sua concentra玢o nos dist鷕bios alimentares e como isso reflete na sa鷇e do paciente anor閤ico ou bul韒ico.Leptin, a protein secreted by adipocytes, has a regulatory function in several organism systems such as the immune, respiratory, and reproductive systems and in the energy balance via hypothalamic action. Its primary action occurs in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, where it begins a cascade of events that inhibits energy intake and enhances energy consumption. The concentration of leptin is influenced by adiposity and hormonal and nutritional factors. The scientific literature considers food restriction and binge episodes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia, respectively, as determining factors of leptin circulation. Leptin levels are also altered during the treatment of these food disturbances, which indicates a relation between neuroendocrine alterations and eventual modifications in hunger and satiety signals and pathogenesis or clinical state of patients. Studies have reported on the short and long-term impact of these alterations on health. Therefore, this review aims to explain the function of leptin in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the mechanisms that interfere with its concentrations in food disturbances, and how this reflects on the health of anorectic and bulimic patients.

Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff; Maria Aparecida de Queiroga Milagres Vieira; Josefina Bressan Resende Monteiro

2006-01-01

280

Analysis of a factor that influences cancer outpatient fatigue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fatigue seen in many cancer cases is considered to be decrease quality of life. We clarified factors related to such fatigue and used out result to relieve fatigue. We conducted a questionnaire using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) on 204 cancer outpatients at the A hospital. We studied 16 factors influencing fatigue and analyzed the relationships among these factors and CFS scores. The mean of total fatigue scores was 23.0 points (standard deviation: 10.0). The fatigue is strong by higher than 19 points of the CFS scores. That frequency was 64.7%. The logistic regression analysis was conducted the influence factors of fatigue. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for items showing a significant difference Performance States (PS), loneliness, hormonal therapy, and radiation therapy. The conclusion of this study was to reduce fatigue in outpatient cancer treatment, it was suggested to that importance to assess a related factor of fatigue. (author)

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Factors Influencing Nursing-Sensitive Outcomes in Taiwanese Nursing Homes.  

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Full Text Available Outcomes research needs to be conducted in countries beyond the USA if nursing classification is to move into visibility and acceptance in health care delivery around the world. Clinical outcomes that reflect nursing interventions have not been well documented. Recent socioeconomic changes in Taiwan have provided a unique opportunity to measure nursing-sensitive outcomes in nurse-managed nursing homes. The purpose of recently completed research conducted in eight selected nursing homes in Taiwan was to explore factors influencing two nursing-sensitive outcomes, namely, biopsychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. Nursing-sensitive outcomes are defined as changes in health status upon which nursing care has had a direct influence. The researchers considered the impact of both individual patient factors and organizational factors on the care outcomes. Individual patient factors were found to be significantly more important than organizational factors in determining biopsychosocial function.

Yang, Ke-Ping A., Simms, Lillian M., Yin, Jeo-Chen T

1999-01-01

282

An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products  

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Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

Naser Azad; Mina Mohammadi

2013-01-01

283

A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

Naser Azad; Gholamreza Heidari Kord Zangeneh; Seyed Mohsen SeyedAliAkbar; Ali Valipour

2013-01-01

284

Analysis of eating disorders among 12-17 year-old adolescents in the island of Gran Canaria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A clinical pathology characterized by disturbances in eating behaviour has been often associated to socio-cultural factors that influence the psychopathology of these disorders. The alarming increase in the number of teenagers with eating disorders underscores the need to promote research on the underlying causes, and to identify high-risk subpopulations in need of effective targeted treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of eating disorders among an adolescent population of both sexes on the island of Gran Canaria. The sample was composed of adolescent boys and girls aged 12 to 17 years old (N=1364) who resided in different municipalities of Gran Canaria. The EAT-40 questionnaire was administered (cut-off point at 30), and body mass index measurements were assessed. The mean BMI for the 1364 subjects was 21.8 Kg/m; 15% were underweight, and of these at least 1% obtained BMI values below 15 Kg/m. Thus, 13.4% of adolescents were potentially at risk of eating disorders according to the EAT-40 questionnaire. Moreover, the BMI was not significantly correlated to the EAT-40 and was not considered a sufficient parameter to establish the incidence of eating disorders.

Mateos-Padorno C; Scoffier S; Polifrone M; Mart韓ez-Pati駉 MJ; Mart韓ez-Vidal A; Zagalaz S醤chez ML

2010-09-01

285

Health behaviour among adolescents in Denmark: influence of school class and individual risk factors.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes. Data were collected through questionnaires completed by the students and by their class teacher and information from the school physician. Multilevel analysis was used to indicate the relative significance of individual and school class characteristics. RESULTS: We find no consistent pattern between the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all other adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, and use of hashish and other euphoriants. Circumstances in the school class more profoundly influenced risk behaviour among adolescents (smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of hashish or other euphoriants) than their dietary habits (eating breakfast, frequent intake of fruit and vegetables, and frequent intake of soft drinks). CONCLUSIONS: The school class had the relatively strongest influence on adolescents' risk behaviour (smoking, alcohol intake, and use of hashish or other euphoriants), whereas family circumstances comprised the strongest influence on dietary habits. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-null

Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, S豶en

2006-01-01

286

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS IN CANADA  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the factors that influence the working capital requirements (wcr) in canada. a sample of 166 canadian firms listed on toronto stock exchange for a period of 3 years from 2008-2010 was selected. this study applied co-relational and non-experimental research design. overall results indicate that operating cycle (oc), return on assets (roa), internationalization of firm, firm抯 growth, and firm size influence the wcr in canada. the study also found that oc, roa, leverage, internationalization of the firm, tobin's q, and firm size influence the working capital requirements in the canadian manufacturing industry. in addition, findings show that oc, roa, sales growth, and firm size affect the wcr in the canadian service industry. this study contributes to the literature on the factors that influence working capital requirements. the findings may be useful for the financial managers, investors, and financial management consultants.

Amarjit Gill

2011-01-01

287

Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure.

Bornschein, R.L.

1985-10-01

288

Influence Of Dilution Factor For Activity Measurement Of 60CO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)

2003-01-01

289

Factors that influence fatigue status in Canadian university swimmers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The overall purpose of this two-part study was to examine factors that influenced fatigue status in university level swimmers. Participants were 25 swimmers (14 male, 11 female) from one university swim team. A mixed methods approach was used. Quantitative data were collected using an orthostatic heart rate test and self-report questionnaire at multiple time points throughout a competitive season. Qualitative data were collected via focus groups conducted at the end of the season. Analysis of the quantitative data indicated high levels of accumulated physiological and psychological fatigue that improved with increased recovery. Specifically, heart rate indices, form, feeling, and energy level improved during taper periods and worsened during and immediately after intensive training blocks. Analysis of the qualitative data revealed that one factor (flexible structure of training programme) had a positive influence on athletes' fatigue while two factors (teammate expectations and balancing school, work, and sleep) had a negative influence on athletes' fatigue.

Kennedy MD; Tamminen KA; Holt NL

2013-01-01

290

[Research on health cost of pesticide application and influence factors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To measure quantitatively the health costs of 380 farmer families using the pesticides and influence factors, and to provide the base for establishing the protective measures. METHODS: Based on the surveyed data of rice producers in Anhui province, a quantitative analysis of health cost of pesticide application was conducted with COI, the influence factors on farmers' pesticide application have been examined. RESULTS: The results shown that the health cost of pesticide application was as RMB 54.44 yuans per farmer a year. The influence factors of health cost were the amount and time of pesticide application, protective facilities, pesticide label illiteracy, age, gender and education level of farmers. CONCLUSION: The measures of reducing the health cost for pesticide application were to train the farmers for knowledge of pesticide application and occupational safety, to provide convenient and cheap protective equipment and instructions of pesticide application and to standardize pesticide labels.

Han HY; Cai SK

2012-01-01

291

Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevenci髇 Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia r韙mica, patinaje art韘tico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifest醤dose con frecuencia una baja autoestima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de p閞dida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejercido a trav閟 de la manipulaci髇 de la comida y la utilizaci髇 de m閠odos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducci髇 de la densidad mineral 髎ea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tr韆da de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y p閞didas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparici髇 se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendaci髇 del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas p閞didas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupaci髇 excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participaci髇 de m閐icos, psic髄ogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas.Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.

S. M醨quez

2008-01-01

292

Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevenci髇/ Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia r韙mica, patinaje art韘tico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifest醤dose con frecuencia una baja autoestima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de p閞dida de control, con un mec (more) anismo compensatorio ejercido a trav閟 de la manipulaci髇 de la comida y la utilizaci髇 de m閠odos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducci髇 de la densidad mineral 髎ea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tr韆da de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y p閞didas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparici髇 se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendaci髇 del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas p閞didas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupaci髇 excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participaci髇 de m閐icos, psic髄ogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas. Abstract in english Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control we (more) ight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.

M醨quez, S.

2008-06-01

293

Supervising medication administration by undergraduate nursing students: influencing factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The administration of medication is an important skill nursing students need to learn in the clinical setting to develop safe practices. Legally within Queensland, registered nurses are required to provide personal supervision for this process. Research undertaken by the authors suggests the supervision students receive frequently falls short of what is legally required. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the factors that influence the experiences of final-year undergraduate nursing students when administering medications in the clinical setting. DESIGN: A grounded theory approach was used with constant comparative analysis to identify categories from the data. METHODS: The experiences of final-year nursing students were explored using a grounded theory approach. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 final-year undergraduate nursing students in Queensland, Australia. RESULTS: Supervision was found to be the central issue influencing medication administration for students. Three main factors were identified as influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses: attitudes of the registered nurse, communication from the university, and busyness and having time. CONCLUSIONS: The extent to which registered nurses provide direct supervision to nursing students when administering medication is influenced by factors inherent within the clinical environment. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The factors influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses needs further exploration that effective strategies can be implemented to ensure safe practices in relation to medication administration can be implemented.

Reid-Searl K; Moxham L; Walker S; Happell B

2010-03-01

294

Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour  

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Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

Fratu, D.

2011-01-01

295

Analyzing factors influencing productivity in Yugoslav coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results are outlined for a study made by the Mining Institute of Belgrade on the factors influencing the productivity of Yugoslav coal mines. Data published in the Yearbook of Yugoslav coal mines (published by the Mining Institute of Belgrade) were used. Altogether 34 coal mines (11 open surface casts and 23 underground coal mines) were involved in the study. The main factors influencing productivity are: level of concentration of production, level of technological innovation, miner interest in the work and motivation, level of organization, calorific value of exploited coal, mining conditions.

Perisic, M.; Vujic, J.

1984-01-01

296

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE E-LOYALTY OF INTERNET BANKING USERS  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging were found to have a significant impact on customer e-loyalty in Internet banking.

Ameen M Al-Agaga; Khalil Md Nor

2012-01-01

297

THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN FACTORS UPON BUSINESS COMMUNICATION  

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Full Text Available Communication is a complex process of transmitting messages, according to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel to a receiver who ultimately is going to decode it. At an ordinary level, communication as a message exchange between individuals is understood as a verbal or written transmission of information. The success of any communication is dependent on several factors that exert their influence both upon the emitter and the receiver. Business communication obeys the general rules of communication being influenced by certain factors.

LAVINIA HULEA

2009-01-01

298

Adolescence and Eating Pathologies  

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Full Text Available Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007). The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics) reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population) suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002), cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schilder, 2002), nutrition and weight (Halmi, 2003).These factors can be divided into four main categories: 憈he cultural pressure to acquire a thin body; the change in the woman抯 social role; the mythical character granted to eating disorders; the prejudice against obesity (Dalle Grave, 2007). So far, the literature on this subject, however wide, has provided no conclusive data with reference to related issues, such as psychiatric comorbidities(Blinder et al, 2007). In particular, this study focused on the aspectof control, a significant feature of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder too, (Couturier, 2004) and on body-image disperception, peculiar to eating disorders (Neumark-Sztainer, 2000). To investigate co-morbidity between eating disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a questionnaire including items of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Dalle Grave, Ghisi, Calugi, 2006) was administered to a sample of adolescent students. The results provide significant correlations between Calculation Compulsions and the BSQ Behaviours variable, between Current MiscellaneousCompulsions and Body Image, between Current Miscellaneous Compulsionsand Body Shape/Self Esteem. Therefore the study provides further evidence in support of co-morbidity.

Valeria Caggiano

2010-01-01

299

Organizational Structure: Influencing Factors and Impact on a Firm  

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Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on organizational structure has been in researchers focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Many of these factors are from the environment where traditional view commonly divided into internal and external factors. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate the influencing factors and impact on organizational structure of a sample of firms located in Hanoi, Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were administered with respect to these factors. The variables studied were identified from among the factors considered in contingency theory and by incorporating elements of the strategic choice approach. After grouping the variables into two factors (related to external and internal respectively), the results revealed three groups of firms according to how they regarded the impact of these factors on organizational structures. In those groups that consider the variables of internal factors to be modifiers of structure the organizational structures are of the 揷omplex classical type, whereas simple forms predominate in the group that believes these variables do not modify their structure.

Quangyen Tran; Yezhuang Tian

2013-01-01

300

Eating Disorders and Family Structure: A Review  

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Full Text Available The frequency of eating disorders has been increased over the course of last 50 years. Its history reveals that different forms of eating disorders have actually been existed for a long period of time but the most recognized eating disorders like Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa have only recently been included to the official classification systems. It is being argued that biological genetic load and hypothalamic neuromediator factors are the main causes for the etiology of eating disorders, which may cause appearance of several physical symptoms, have a poor prognosis, have a high risk of recurrence, and have a high rate of fatality among psychiatric disorders. Among psychological factors, the emphasis is on family structure and the patient-family relations, and it抯 being claimed that the form of the relation that the patient has with his/her parents is effective on eating disorders. It抯 expressed that the families of patients with eating disorders are less emphatic, less supportive and have higher expectations. Furthermore, findings reveal that more cases of familial problems and fights, depression, anxiety, alcoholism and any kind of eating disorder are being encountered within the families of patients with eating disorders. In this study the literature on the relationship between eating disorder and family structure has been reviewed.

Dilek Ertu? Toker; 莍鏴k Hocao?lu

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Factors influencing habitat selection of root voles ({\\sl Microtus oeconomus})  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied habitat selection of root voles (Microtus oeconomus) at Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, July-September 2002. Stepwise regression indicated that shrub height, dicotyledon biomass, number of competing rodent species, Poa density, and distances from power line poles, pasture fences, and shrubs significantly influenced runway length. Significant factors influencing runway branch number were shrub height, number of competing rodent species, Poa density, and distances from power line poles, and pasture fences. Factors significantly influencing burrow number were shrub height, soil moisture, and distance from pasture fences. The influences of most habitat variables on vole habitat selection were directly or indirectly related to interspecific competition and predation risk. Risk of predation increased and habitat utilization decreased with decreased shrub height and Poa dominance, and with increased proximity of pasture fences and power lines. The presence of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) resulted in increased habitat openness, thus increased risk of predation and decreased habitat utilization by root voles. Overall, at a microhabitat scale, risk of predation and inter-specific competition were the main factors which influenced habitat selection by root voles during the study period.

Cui Qinghu; Jiang Zhigang; Lian Xinming; Zhang Tongzuo; Su Jianping

2005-01-01

302

Common Genetic Variation near MC4R Has a Sex-Specific Impact on Human Brain Structure and Eating Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV) in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific. PMID:24066140

Horstmann, Annette; Kovacs, Peter; Kabisch, Stefan; Boettcher, Yvonne; Schloegl, Haiko; T鰊jes, Anke; Stumvoll, Michael; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno

2013-09-16

303

Common Genetic Variation near MC4R Has a Sex-Specific Impact on Human Brain Structure and Eating Behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV) in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific.

Horstmann A; Kovacs P; Kabisch S; Boettcher Y; Schloegl H; T鰊jes A; Stumvoll M; Pleger B; Villringer A

2013-01-01

304

Comportamento e h醔itos alimentares em crian鏰s e jovens: Uma revis鉶 da literatura/ Eating behavior and food habits in children and adolescents: A literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho de revis鉶 bibliogr醘ica, os autores descrevem alguns determinantes do comportamento e h醔itos alimentares ao longo do desenvolvimento, da inf鈔cia adolesc阯cia. Embora primariamente influenciados por factores constitucionais, s鉶 as experi阯cias com diversos alimentos e sabores, incentivadas por aspectos de ordem afectiva e sociais, os principais factores do comportamento e h醔itos alimentares. Entre as influ阯cias mais importantes das escolhas (more) de crian鏰s e jovens contam-se os n韛eis de satisfa玢o com o corpo, o tempo despendido face TV e a publicidade sobre alimentos. Sobre-ingest鉶 e excesso de peso e obesidade s鉶 algumas as consequ阯cias negativas. Compreender o comportamento alimentar e os seus determinantes um passo importante para o desenvolvimento de estrat間ias de preven玢o. Abstract in english In this literature review, some factors of eating practices and eating behavior along development of children and adolescents are described. Although there are some genetic influences, the learning experiences with different tastes and foods in affective and social context are the main determinants of eating habits and preferences. Satisfactions with body aspect, the time spent in TV and publicity about food are some of the important influences in children and adolescents (more) eating preferences, exercise practices. Overeating and overweight are some of the negative consequences. Obesity and eating disorders are the results of eating style and food selection. To understand eating behavior and overweight development is an important step to develop preventive and educative strategies.

Viana, Victor; Santos, Pedro Lopes dos; Guimar鉫s, Maria J鷏ia

2008-01-01

305

Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

|Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training

Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

2013-01-01

306

Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisan...

Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-hua; L, Xiu-yang

307

Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that

Hawke, Geof

308

Limit Values and Factors influencing Limit Values of Spruce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We collected the data for decomposition of spruce litter to determine the limit values of mass loss and to find both chemical and climate factors that influence limit values. Our data contained 28 sequences of spruce which mainly in Sweden and a small part in other places. We choose mean annual temp...

Zhang, Liming

309

Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)

Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

2011-01-01

310

The factors that influence CAD/CAM/CAE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)

2005-01-01

311

Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer

Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

2011-01-01

312

External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes  

Science.gov (United States)

|When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford

Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

2009-01-01

313

Factors Influencing the College Choice Decisions of Graduate Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated the relative importance of 31 institutional characteristics in 1,068 graduate students' decisions to enroll or not enroll in the institution. Factors having the greatest influence included residency status, quality and other academic environment characteristics, work-related concerns, spouse considerations, financial aid, and

Kallio, Ruth E.

1995-01-01

314

Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti...

Kerstens, N.F.H.

315

The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

316

Adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating and communication about healthy eating  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach - Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to 15) in Hong Kong. Findings - The participants perceived a balanced diet and regular meal times as the most important attributes of healthy eating. Participants were most likely to eat unhealthy food at parties, during festivals, and when socializing. They reported that mothers and teachers often advise them to eat healthy foods. They felt that banning the sale of soft drinks in schools and at sports centers and/or increasing the price of soft drinks might discourage their consumption, but felt that banning soft drink advertisements and/or making free drinking water more available would be ineffective. Research limitations/implications - The interviewees were mostly from low to middle income families. They may not be representative of all adolescents in Hong Kong or elsewhere, thus limiting the generalisabilty of the findings. Originality/value - The study serves as a guideline for social services marketing professionals targeting adolescents. Social services marketers might consider influencing adolescents' eating habits through the parents and school teachers. Restricting selling of soft drinks at schools and sports centers and increasing the price of soft drinks should be considered, as these were considered relatively more effective than other measures. Seven testable hypotheses are proposed to guide further research.

Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard

2009-01-01

317

Can we reduce eating disorder risk factors in female college athletes? A randomized exploratory investigation of two peer-led interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female athletes are at least as at risk as other women for eating disorders (EDs) and at risk for the female athlete triad (i.e., inadequate energy availability, menstrual disorders, and osteoporosis). This study investigated whether two evidence-based programs appear promising for future study if modified to address the unique needs of female athletes. Athletes were randomly assigned to athlete-modified dissonance prevention or healthy weight intervention (AM-HWI). ED risk factors were assessed pre/post-treatment, and 6-week and 1-year follow-up. Results (analyzed sample, N=157) indicated that both interventions reduced thin-ideal internalization, dietary restraint, bulimic pathology, shape and weight concern, and negative affect at 6 weeks, and bulimic pathology, shape concern, and negative affect at 1 year. Unexpectedly we observed an increase in students spontaneously seeking medical consultation for the triad. Qualitative results suggested that AM-HWI may be more preferred by athletes.

Becker CB; McDaniel L; Bull S; Powell M; McIntyre K

2012-01-01

318

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

DANA-CODRU?A DUD?-D?IANU; DANIELA HARANGU?

2012-01-01

319

Influence of atmospheric factors on the rheumatic diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the influence of atmospheric factors on rheumatic diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, unspecified arthritis, gout, and systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). The authors state that there appears to be ample evidence to conclude that various atmospheric factors do exert a significant impact on some people with various rheumatic diseases. The data are, however, crude relative to the authors general understanding. They recommend as a logical progression of research the determination of the effects of the meteorological/atmospheric factors of concern on the specific intrinsic mediators of inflammation.

Latman, N.S.

1987-01-01

320

Preadolescent disordered eating predicts subsequent eating dysfunction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children. METHOD: Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade). RESULTS: A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls. CONCLUSION: A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade.

Combs JL; Pearson CM; Zapolski TC; Smith GT

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Influence of genotype of froglets belonging to the Rana esculenta hybridogenetic complex in relation to learning capacity to eat pellets  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amphibians generally require moving preys to elicit feeding behaviour. In addition, since feeding capacity is linked to learning and memory capacities in many animals, the idea has long prevailed that amphibians were somewhat impoverished in this regard. As a result, there is currently no frog farming in Europe. However, in the 1990s, we succeeded in getting Rana ridibunda to accept pellets. R. ridibunda is a European frog belonging to the esculenta complex, which is composed of two species: Rana lessonae (LL) and R. ridibunda (RR) and their natural hybridogenetic hybrid Rana esculenta (RL). This latter taxon can be either diploid or triploid (RLL or RRL). For rearing purposes, we need to compare the learning and memory capacities of the components of this complex in relation to artificial feeding. While froglets of all taxa from the esculenta complex seem able to eat pellets, various results are obtained according to the genotype and origin of the parents. Generally, froglets from RR pairs have high survival rates (0.59-0.79), but the presence of only one L genome in the hybrid male is sufficient to reduce the survival rate (0.08-0.54). This reduction in survival is also observed in all pairs made up of an LL female and a male from various genotypes. The RL hybrid females produce smaller outputs (0-0.49) irrespective of the male genotype. The froglets from wild RR females paired with the common triploid RLL show a good survival rate (0.54), but this drops sharply with the rare RRL (0.08). The RR females from intensive rearing yield good results with RR males (0.66-0.78), somewhat lower with triploids (0.26 with RLL or RRL). LL females from one site paired with local diploid males give rise to progenies with a good survival rate (0.45-0.54), but this becomes worse (0.17) with RLL triploid. On the other hand, LL females from another site yield lower rates (0.07-0.11), which even fall to zero for corresponding RL females, whatever the genotype of the males. While pellet odour can be a feeding stimulus learnt during the tadpole stage, it is more associated with a particular stimulation of froglets during the beginning of their sub-aerial life, which varies according to the population history. Social facilitation seems to act as a feeding stimulus by direct and indirect effects (free-moving among floating pellets). Frogs, as primitive animals, are thus able to carry out cognitive tasks under the extreme conditions of artificial rearing.

Neveu A

2011-01-01

322

Factors that influence the test day milk yield and composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this research was to study the factors that influence the test day milk yield (TDMY) and percentages of protein, fat, lactose, and total dry extract obtained on test day. We evaluated 110,732 weekly milk production records from 1496 goats and 19,271 monthly milk constituent records from 1245 Alpine and Saanen goats, which were collected from 1997 to 2010 in the goat sector at Universidade Federal de Vi鏾sa. To ensure greater record reliability, only lactation data with kidding order between 1 to 6, type of kidding data including 0 to 3 kids, milk control years after 1997, and genetic groupings other than types 7 or 9 were considered, due to the relative lack of information recorded for some classes of these factors. Data in which the reported milk days were less than 7 or greater than 315 were also eliminated. Goats aged greater than 300 days at calving and those aged less than 6 years at control were considered in this study. Milk production was higher in the dry season in comparison to the rainy season. Genetic grouping did not influence all traits in both breedings. The TDMY tended to increase along with increasing age of the goats at kidding, while the opposite trend was observed relative to kidding order. Factors that significantly influenced all of the studied traits varied, and the factors that significantly influenced each trait were altered between the relationship of Alpine and Saanen breeds. Thus, the analysis of factors that influence traits to be evaluated in the herd under study is critical for defining the best evaluation model.

Silva FG; Brito LF; Torres RA; Ribeiro J鷑ior JI; Oliveira HR; Caetano GC; Rodrigues MT

2013-01-01

323

Factors influencing efficacy of exogenous surfactant in acute lung injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exogenous surfactant is currently being tested as a therapeutic modality for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal studies have shown that several factors may influence the efficacy of this treatment modality. These factors include the surfactant delivery method used (instillation vs. aerosolization), the timing of surfactant treatment over the course of injury, the specific surfactant preparation used, and the dose of surfactant administered. Each of these factors alone and together may influence the interaction of the exogenous surfactant with the host's alveolar environment. This, in turn, may dictate how a specific patient responds to a particular surfactant treatment strategy. It is suggested that patients at an early stage of lung injury will benefit from aerosolized exogenous surfactant whereas large quantities of an instilled exogenous surfactant may be necessary at later stages of injury. Future studies will clarify how a specific surfactant treatment strategy should be chosen for an individual patient with ARDS.

Lewis JF; Veldhuizen RA

1995-01-01

324

Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements桟onsumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions梞entally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer抯 online shopping decision-making process effectively.

Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

325

Factors influencing the pantographic tracing of mandibular border movements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three studies were performed to evaluate the influence of anatomic and neuromuscular factors of pantographic tracings of mandibular border movements. In the first study, the tracing of 50 patients with TMJ and/or muscular dysfunction were made, and the data correlated with the clinical and radiologic findings. In the second study, the tracing of 20 patients were compared before and after therapy. In the third study, the tracing of 20 patients were evaluated before and after a relaxation session with biofeedback. The data showed that both articular and neuromuscular factors influence the tracing pattern. Internal derangements of TMJ, as well as muscle spasm, lead to typical tracings. The neuromuscular factor can be dramatically improved by relaxation with biofeedback. Repeated pantographic tracings before and during treatment may help in diagnosis and in the evaluation of treatment.

Mongini F; Capurso U

1982-11-01

326

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi

2013-01-01

327

Set shifting, central coherence and starvation in eating disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: This review aims to evaluate and synthesise previous research on set shifting in eating disorders in order to determine whether individuals with eating disorders have impaired set shifting. It also aims to determine whether set shifting difficulties are a risk factor for eating disorders or a ...

McConnellogue, DM

328

Does mindfulness matter? Everyday mindfulness, mindful eating and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods among a sample of South Australian adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serving size is a modifiable determinant of energy consumption, and an important factor to address in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The present study tested an hypothesised negative association between individuals' everyday mindfulness and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods. The mediating role of mindful eating was also explored. A community sample of 171 South Australian adults completed self-report measures of everyday mindfulness and mindful eating. The dependent measure was participants' self-reported average serving size of energy dense foods consumed in the preceding week. Participants who reported higher levels of everyday mindfulness were more mindful eaters (r=0.41, pmindfulness and serving size. The domains of mindful eating most relevant to serving size included emotional and disinhibited eating. Results suggest that mindful eating may have a greater influence on serving size than daily mindfulness. PMID:23548262

Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

2013-03-30

329

Influence of Social Context on Eating, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors of Latina Mothers and their Preschool-Age Children  

Science.gov (United States)

As more U.S. children grow up in Latino families, understanding how social class, culture, and environment influence feeding practices is key to preventing obesity. The authors conducted six focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews among immigrant, low-income Latina mothers in the Northeast United States and classified 17 emergent themes from

Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Greaney, Mary L.; Peterson, Karen E.

2009-01-01

330

Eating disorders today--not just a girl thing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20632480

Hepworth, Kimberly

331

Eating disorders today--not just a girl thing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes.

Hepworth K

2010-07-01

332

[Dance training and eating disorders  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical history, eating habits, weight, current symptomatology and EDI (Eating Disorders Inventory)-scores of 41 bulimic female patients with and without past training in dancing, who came for treatment to an outpatient clinic, were compared. It was found that both groups of patients were not different for age, age at beginning of bulimia, actual as well as minimal and maximal BMI (Body mass index), length and severity of symptomatology, frequency of bulimic behaviors, and scores on the subscales of the EDI, but it should be noted that these similarities might be in relationship with some methodological shortcomings. Considering the prevalence of bulimia nervosa in women and the high frequency of ballet and sports training in teenagers, some hypotheses about the possible influence of strenuous physical exercise in childhood on the symptomatology and some psychological traits in adults with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eating disorder are presented. Further studies, including standardized scales and larger samples, are necessary.

Archinard M; Scherer U; Reverdin N; Rouget P; Allaz AF

1994-01-01

333

QoS test traffic influence factor analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper described certain problems when performing QoS active measurement. The term Test Traffic Influence Factor (TTIF), describing quantitatively influence which the test traffic compared to actual traffic on Qos parameters is defined. A kind of ideal model based on the queue theory to study TTIF is build up and a TTIF for delay is discussed. The theoretical analysis results are verified by using network simulation tool-OPNET modeler. Then certain important conclusions and advice about IP network QoS measurement are given and further research direction is directed.

Ge, Fei; Cao, Yang

2004-04-01

334

Factors that influence physician assistant choice of practice location.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Certain US rural areas have inadequate access to health care providers. Health care educational institutions have made nationwide efforts to recruit students from rural areas, in the hope that they will return upon graduation. This 2009 study focused on the physician assistant (PA) profession's endeavors in this effort. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey used a random sample of 2000 practicing PAs from the United States. Factor analysis was used to categorize the responses to 20 Likert-type questions about possible reasons behind the PA's choice of first practice location. RESULTS: Respondents who graduated from a rural high school were significantly more likely to practice in a rural setting. Six identifiable factors emerged from the factor analysis. Chi-square analyses determined that significant relationships existed between these factors and demographic variables. Gender influenced the greatest number of items; specialty and PA degree level influenced the fewest items. Factor 2 (support of/for significant other) held the most sway in the decision about first employment location. CONCLUSION: Respondents felt that support of and for the significant other was the most important factor in their first practice-location choice. Recruiters searching for health care professionals in areas needing medical services may wish to pay closer attention to spousal opportunities and should not underestimate the impact of family in the decision about work location.

Smith B; Muma RD; Burks L; Lavoie MM

2012-03-01

335

Influence of socioeconomic factors on medically unnecessary ambulance calls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socioeconomic characteristics, dichotomous choice method questions pertaining to ambulance calls in hypothetical nonemergency situations, and questions on the city's emergency medical system. The probit model was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 2,029 out of 3,363 targeted recipients completed the questionnaire (response rate, 60.3%). Probit regression analyses showed that several demographic and socioeconomic factors influence the decision to call an ambulance. Male respondents were more apt than female respondents to state that they would call an ambulance in nonemergency situations (p Conclusion Results of the study suggest that several socioeconomic factors, i.e., age, gender, household income, and possession of a car, influence a person's decision to call an ambulance in nonemergency situations. Hesitation to use an ambulance and knowledge of the city's primary emergency medical center are likely to be important factors limiting ambulance overuse. It was estimated that unnecessary ambulance use is increased approximately 10% to 20% by socioeconomic factors.

Kawakami Chihiro; Ohshige Kenji; Kubota Katsuaki; Tochikubo Osamu

2007-01-01

336

Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman抯 personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

Juana Robledo Mart韓; Diana de la Fuente Aparicio; Ana Bel閚 Salamanca Castro; Sara S醤chez Castro

2008-01-01

337

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

2012-01-01

338

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22822302

Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J

2012-05-01

339

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

2012-05-15

340

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Gupta N; Fischer AR; van der Lans IA; Frewer LJ

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Determinantes do comportamento alimentar: uma revis鉶 com enfoque na fam韑ia Determinants of eating behavior: a review focusing on the family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O comportamento alimentar ocupa atualmente um papel central na preven玢o e no tratamento de doen鏰s. A alimenta玢o durante a inf鈔cia, ao mesmo tempo em que importante para o crescimento e desenvolvimento, pode tamb閙 representar um dos principais fatores de preven玢o de algumas doen鏰s na fase adulta. Freq黣ntemente a fam韑ia, os fatores sociais e os ambientais podem influenciar o padr鉶 alimentar das crian鏰s. O objetivo desta revis鉶 foi abordar os diversos fatores ambientais envolvidos na aquisi玢o de h醔itos alimentares na inf鈔cia. Os artigos selecionados foram pesquisados nas bases de dados Medline e SciELO considerando o per韔do de 1978 a 2007. Foram utilizados os termos em ingles: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality, determinants of children's eating patterns e em portugu阺. S鉶 apresentados os resultados de algumas investiga珲es mais relevantes nesta 醨ea. Embora alguns desses fatores sejam inatos e, por isso, necessitem de um controle mais rigoroso, ressalta-se o papel determinante da fam韑ia na forma玢o dos h醔itos alimentares saud醰eis, pois a modifica玢o de um h醔ito alimentar durante a fase adulta tem, em geral, alta taxa de insucesso. Al閙 disso, outros fatores, como a escola, a rede social, as condi珲es socioecon鬽icas e culturais, s鉶 potencialmente modific醰eis e influenciam no processo de constru玢o dos h醔itos alimentares da crian鏰 e, conseq黣ntemente, do indiv韉uo adulto.Eating behavior currently has a central role in the prevention and treatment of illnesses. Eating patterns during childhood, while important for growth and development, also represent one of the main factors that can prevent diseases in adulthood. Such eating patterns are frequently influenced by family, social and environmental factors. The objective of this review was to approach the many environmental factors involved in the acquisition of eating habits during childhood. The selected articles dating from 1978 to 2007 were found in the Medline and SciELO databases. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality and determinants of children's eating patterns. The results of some more relevant researches in this area are presented. Although some factors are innate and thus need a more rigorous control, the determinant role played by the family in forming healthy eating habits is emphasized since attempts to modify eating habits during adulthood usually fail. Additionally, other factors such as school, social network and cultural and socioeconomic conditions are potentially modifiable and influence the process of building the child's eating habits and so that of the adult.

Alessandra Rossi; Em韑ia Addison Machado Moreira; Michelle Soares Rauen

2008-01-01

342

Determinantes do comportamento alimentar: uma revis鉶 com enfoque na fam韑ia/ Determinants of eating behavior: a review focusing on the family  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O comportamento alimentar ocupa atualmente um papel central na preven玢o e no tratamento de doen鏰s. A alimenta玢o durante a inf鈔cia, ao mesmo tempo em que importante para o crescimento e desenvolvimento, pode tamb閙 representar um dos principais fatores de preven玢o de algumas doen鏰s na fase adulta. Freq黣ntemente a fam韑ia, os fatores sociais e os ambientais podem influenciar o padr鉶 alimentar das crian鏰s. O objetivo desta revis鉶 foi abordar os di (more) versos fatores ambientais envolvidos na aquisi玢o de h醔itos alimentares na inf鈔cia. Os artigos selecionados foram pesquisados nas bases de dados Medline e SciELO considerando o per韔do de 1978 a 2007. Foram utilizados os termos em ingles: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality, determinants of children's eating patterns e em portugu阺. S鉶 apresentados os resultados de algumas investiga珲es mais relevantes nesta 醨ea. Embora alguns desses fatores sejam inatos e, por isso, necessitem de um controle mais rigoroso, ressalta-se o papel determinante da fam韑ia na forma玢o dos h醔itos alimentares saud醰eis, pois a modifica玢o de um h醔ito alimentar durante a fase adulta tem, em geral, alta taxa de insucesso. Al閙 disso, outros fatores, como a escola, a rede social, as condi珲es socioecon鬽icas e culturais, s鉶 potencialmente modific醰eis e influenciam no processo de constru玢o dos h醔itos alimentares da crian鏰 e, conseq黣ntemente, do indiv韉uo adulto. Abstract in english Eating behavior currently has a central role in the prevention and treatment of illnesses. Eating patterns during childhood, while important for growth and development, also represent one of the main factors that can prevent diseases in adulthood. Such eating patterns are frequently influenced by family, social and environmental factors. The objective of this review was to approach the many environmental factors involved in the acquisition of eating habits during childhoo (more) d. The selected articles dating from 1978 to 2007 were found in the Medline and SciELO databases. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality and determinants of children's eating patterns. The results of some more relevant researches in this area are presented. Although some factors are innate and thus need a more rigorous control, the determinant role played by the family in forming healthy eating habits is emphasized since attempts to modify eating habits during adulthood usually fail. Additionally, other factors such as school, social network and cultural and socioeconomic conditions are potentially modifiable and influence the process of building the child's eating habits and so that of the adult.

Rossi, Alessandra; Moreira, Em韑ia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares

2008-12-01

343

Local and regional factors influence the structure of treehole metacommunities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Abiotic and biotic factors in a local habitat may strongly impact the community residing within, but spatially structured metacommunities are also influenced by regional factors such as immigration and colonization. We used three years of monthly treehole census data to evaluate the relative influence of local and regional factors on our study system. RESULTS: Every species responded to at least one of three local environmental factors measured: water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator. Several species were affected by water volume, and a non-exclusive group of species were influenced by leaf litter mass. Relative abundance of Aedes triseriatus was higher in treeholes with higher volumes of water, and relative abundances of three out of six other species were lower in treeholes with higher volumes of water. Leaf litter mass positively affected densities of Aedes triseriatus and relative abundance of several dipteran species. The density of the top predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus, affected the relative abundance of the two most common species, A. triseriatus and Culicoides guttipennis. Treeholes with T. rutilus had an average of two more species than treeholes without T. rutilus. We found little evidence of synchrony between pairs of treeholes, either spatially or temporally. There were high levels of spatial and temporal turnover, and spatial turnover increased with distance between patches. CONCLUSION: The strong effects of water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator, along with the high temporal turnover strongly suggest that species presence and density are determined by local factors and changes in those factors over time. Both low water volume and high predator densities can eliminate populations in local patches, and those populations can recolonize patches when rain refills or predators exit treeholes. Population densities of the same species were not matched between pairs of treeholes, suggesting variation in local factors and limited dispersal. Distance effects on spatial turnover also support limitations to dispersal in the metacommunity, and we conclude that the weight of evidence favors a strong influence of local factors relative to regional factors.

Paradise CJ; Blue JD; Burkhart JQ; Goldberg J; Harshaw L; Hawkins KD; Kegan B; Krentz T; Smith L; Villalpando S

2008-01-01

344

The influence of various factors on milk clotting time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of pH (6.5 and 5.8), amount of added CaCl2 (0, 200 and 400 mg/l)), coagulation temperature (30篊 and 35篊) and heat treatment of milk (65篊/30 min and 87篊/10 min) on the rate of rennet induced milk coagulation (s) were investigated. The time (s) from rennet addition to onset of gelation (as indicated by the first visible floccules) was measured. The milk samples heat-treated at 87篊/10 min, with 400 mg/l added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 35篊 and pH 5.8, coagulated 23.28-fold faster than the same samples without added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 30篊 and pH 6.5. The results of investigations related to the influence of particular coagulation factors on the coagulation rate of heat-treated milk showed that at pH 6.5 the most pronounced influence was demonstrated by the amount of Ca2+ and temperature of coagulation. At pH 5.8, different amounts of Ca2 and used temperatures of coagulation did not influence coagulation rate regardless of the used heat treatment of milk. The influence of used heat treatment of milk was particularly pronounced during coagulation of samples without added CaCl2 that coagulated at 30篊 and pH 6.5. The used heat treatment of milk practically did not influence the milk coagulation rate at pH 5.8. The greatest influence on milk coagulation rate was showed by pH. This influence was the most marked in coagulation of samples in which the coaggregates were formed, regardless of the amount of added Ca2+ and used coagulation temperatures.

Jovanovi? Sne瀉na T.; Ma?ej Ognjen D.; ?ur?evi?-Denin Jelena D.

2002-01-01

345

External and internal factors influencing happiness in elite collegiate athletes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford student-athletes (N=140) were studied with a standardized questionnaire which examined internal factors ((1) locus of control, (2) mindfulness, (3) self-restraint, and (4) self-esteem) to see whether they better account for happiness than external factors (playing time, scholarship). As predicted, internal factors were more powerful correlates of happiness when holding constant demographics. Regression models differed for different aspects of happiness, but the main postulated result of internal versus external was maintained throughout. These findings have implications for how well athletes cope with adversity which, in turn, could shed light on the development of traits that may provide a buffer against adversity and build resilience.

Denny KG; Steiner H

2009-03-01

346

An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as 0.873 and 12744 with (Sig. =0.000), respectively. The study has detected four important factors including quality of service casualties, sales improvement and advertisement, quality of issuance of insurance policies and quality of work force.

Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami

2013-01-01

347

From shared care to disease management: key-influencing factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In order to improve the quality of care of chronically ill patients the traditional boundaries between primary and secondary care are questioned. To demolish these boundaries so-called 憇hared care projects have been initiated in which different ways of substitution of care are applied. When these projects end, disease management may offer a solution to expand the achieved co-operation between primary and secondary care. Objective: Answering the question: What key factors influence the development and implementation of shared care projects from a management perspective and how are they linked? Theory: The theoretical framework is based on the concept of the learning organisation. Design: Reference point is a multiple case study that finally becomes a single case study. Data are collected by means of triangulation. The studied cases concern two interrelated Dutch shared care projects for type 2 diabetic patients, that in the end proceed as one disease management project. Results: In these cases the predominant key-influencing factors appear to be the project management, commitment and local context, respectively. The factor project management directly links the latter two, albeit managing both appear prerequisites to its success. In practice this implies managing the factors' interdependency by the application of change strategies and tactics in a committed and skilful way. Conclusion: Project management, as the most important and active key factor, is advised to cope with the interrelationships of the influencing factors in a gradually more fundamental way by using strategies and tactics that enable learning processes. Then small-scale shared care projects may change into a disease management network at a large scale, which may yield the future blueprint to proceed.

Irmgard M.J.G. Eijkelberg; Cor Spreeuwenberg; Ingrid M. Mur-Veeman; Bruce H.R. Wolffenbuttel

2001-01-01

348

[Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. METHODS: Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. RESULTS: 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). CONCLUSION: Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

L髉ez Alonso SR; G醠vez Gonz醠ez M; Amezcua M

2013-04-01

349

Iranian nurses self-perception -- factors influencing nursing image.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe the perspectives of Iranian nurses regarding factors influencing nursing image. BACKGROUND: Nursing image is closely tied to the nurse's role and identity, influencing clinical performance, job satisfaction and quality of care. Images of nursing and nurses are closely linked to the cultural context in which nursing is practised, hence, this study explores how Iranian nurses perceive the factors that influence their own image. METHODS: A descriptive study using a survey design was conducted with 220 baccalaureate qualified nurses working in four teaching hospitals in an urban area of Iran. A Nursing Image Questionnaire was used and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: In the domains of 'characteristics required for entry to work', 'social role characteristics of nursing' and 'prestige, economic and social status, and self image' the nurses had negative images. 'Reward' and 'opportunity for creativity and originality' were factors that least influenced choosing nursing as a career. The presence of a nurse in the family and working in the hospital had the greatest impact on the establishment of nurses' nursing image. CONCLUSION: Improving the nursing profession's prestige and social position as well as providing the opportunity for creativity and originality in nursing practice will change the self-image of Iranian nurses, facilitating effective and lasting changes in nursing's image. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nurse managers are well-placed to influence nurses' perceptions of nursing's image. Given the finding that thinking about leaving a job positively correlates with holding a negative nursing image, nurse managers need to consider how they can work effectively with their staff to enhance morale and nurses' experience of their job.

Varaei S; Vaismoradi M; Jasper M; Faghihzadeh S

2012-05-01

350

Influencing Factors of Malaria Drug Purchase at Stall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 80% of Indonesia populations lived in malaria endemic areas. AMI reported to date is still high, on the other side of the MDG targets is to reduce AMI (38 C, chills, cold sweating, headache, and muscle pain or splenomegaly at 4 health centers in January to April 2011. Interview was assigned to 220 respondents; 53.2% of respondents aged over 40 years, predominantly female (52.7%). In general, respondents have a job (66.4%) with low educational level (81.8%), and 67.7% get a pain less than 4 days. Results shows that occupation factor is significantly related to drug purchasing behavior (p = 0.003). Model of risk factors that influencing malaria drug purchases in the stall is the kind of work that is influenced by the low education level (p-value = 0.003) with odds ratio is 15.5%.

Muhammad Nizar; Yulian Taviv; Terang Uli Sembiring; Lukman Hakim

2013-01-01

351

Analyzing the Influencing Factors of Group Learning: A Mixed Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore which factors influence group learning content, and content analysis is chosen as the research method. The sample for this study is the literature of group learning. 35 books and 1 paper was examined. The coding system for the content analysis is an opened and a self-expanded system in this study, which means that the original coding system can be updated if the new coding item is developed during the data collection. A total of 62 influencing factors are identified in terms of the content analysis. In order to organise them systematically, we categorised them into four aggregations according to one model of the group learning processes:planning, organising, learning process, and evaluation. The result of this study may be used to design a questionnaire and to model group learning process in our further research.

Jianhua Zhao; Yinjian Jiang

2009-01-01

352

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CONSUMER OF RURAL AND FARM TOURISM BEHAVIOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To suggest its available financial resources, consumer of rural and farm tourism, according to its preferences, must maximize the utility of purchases within own available budget. Consumer of rural and farm tourism products and services, in economic terms, is characterized through the option to chose a competitive market, outside his professional activity (public, private or commercial). The study evaluates consumer behavior influences that are exerted on consumer by family groups, friends and society in general. Consumer of agro-tourist farm goods and services behavior is influenced by a number of factors that make them come more often or less often or only seasonal to the farm: endogenous and exogenous factors.

Diana Marin; Ioan Petroman; M. Popescu; Cornelia Petroman; Petroman Cornelia; Iasmina Iosim; Ramona Ciolac; Carmen Dumitrescu; Ana Lozici

2013-01-01

353

Factors Influencing the Adoption of E-government Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-government initiatives are in their infancy in many developing countries. The success of these initiatives is dependent on government support as well as citizens adoption of e-government services. This research identified the attitudes and perceptions of the citizens of Kuwait, a developing country, towards the adoption of e-government services. Based on previous research exploring the determinants of the adoption of e-government services using an amended version of the UTAUT model, the study reported here investigates the factors that influence the take-up of such services. These factors are related to usefulness, ease of use, reforming bureaucracy, cultural and social influences, technology issues and lack of awareness. Conclusions and implication for decision makers are also considered in this paper.

Suha AlAwadhi; Anne Morris

2009-01-01

354

A Study of Factors Influencing Students' Authorization of Thesis Digitization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study explores graduate students' attitudes toward authorizing digitization rights to their theses. The investigation primarily focused on factors that might influence students' consent. Current domestic copyright management practices of thesis digitization were briefly described. Study methods included questionnaire survey and indepth interviews. Two sets of questionnaires were administrated: one for librarians and the other for graduate students. In addition to payment of royalties, the results identified a number of factors that influence students' willingness to authorize digitization. The results led to suggestions regarding revision of related laws and regulations, cooperation of library professionals, and promotion and better management of thesis digitization, with the intention of improving the effectiveness of thesis digitization.

Huey-Jiuan Chang; Shiao-Feng Su

2009-01-01

355

Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above.

Chengxiang Wang; Longwei Yin; Luyuan Zhang; Dong Xiang; Rui Gao

2010-01-01

356

Factors Influencing the Night Market Traders Performance in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the night market traders sales performance. Thefactors examined were the financial resources, consumers tastes and preferences, product demands, business lifespan, and number of employees. This study tested seven hypotheses identified as the seven predictive factorsinfluencing the performance of the night market traders sales. The major factors influencing the salesperformance of the night market traders were found to be the number of employees and business life span. Thefindings of this study can be used by other researchers to conduct a comparative study in this area besidesproviding advisory services to traders and potential traders who wish to do business in night markets.

Fauzilah Salleh; Noryati Yaakub; Kamariah Yunus; Mazuri Abd Ghani; Wan Kuntom Wan Sulong

2012-01-01

357

Environmental factors influencing the efficacy of probiotic bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Probiotic bacteria are not typical ingredients but rather living cells that can rapidly respond and adapt to changing conditions in their environment. Numerous factors from culture preparation and preservation, conditions in consumer product matrices, and genetic, dietary, cultural, and health differences between consumers can affect probiotic cell activity and probably influence the specific host-microbe interactions required for probiotic effects in the digestive tract. Understanding the impact of these factors on probiotic efficacy will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of probiotic function, improve the design of probiotic-containing consumer products, and guide the establishment of standardized procedures for clinical studies intended to evaluate probiotic effects.

Marco ML; Tachon S

2013-04-01

358

[Distribution and influencing factors of magnoflorine in Epimedium].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty samples of Epimedium from 29 species and were determined in this study. The content of magnoflorine in leaves range between 0. 003% and 2. 603%. The results showed that the content of magnoflorine was quite stable within species except E. wushanense, E. acuminatum, E. hunanense. Genetic factors might be the main influencing ones. The contents of different parts and different collecting time of the medicinal materials were variable. PMID:22256748

Gao, Min; Fu, Changzhen; Liu, Jingjing; Guo, Baolin; Yang, Xiangbo; Chen, Debin; Li, Li

2011-09-01

359

[Distribution and influencing factors of magnoflorine in Epimedium].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eighty samples of Epimedium from 29 species and were determined in this study. The content of magnoflorine in leaves range between 0. 003% and 2. 603%. The results showed that the content of magnoflorine was quite stable within species except E. wushanense, E. acuminatum, E. hunanense. Genetic factors might be the main influencing ones. The contents of different parts and different collecting time of the medicinal materials were variable.

Gao M; Fu C; Liu J; Guo B; Yang X; Chen D; Li L

2011-09-01

360

Prospective study of breakfast eating and incident coronary heart disease in a cohort of male US health professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Among adults, skipping meals is associated with excess body weight, hypertension, insulin resistance, and elevated fasting lipid concentrations. However, it remains unknown whether specific eating habits regardless of dietary composition influence coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine eating habits and risk of CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eating habits, including breakfast eating, were assessed in 1992 in 26 902 American men 45 to 82 years of age from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer. During 16 years of follow-up, 1527 incident CHD cases were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for CHD, adjusted for demographic, diet, lifestyle, and other CHD risk factors. Men who skipped breakfast had a 27% higher risk of CHD compared with men who did not (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.53). Compared with men who did not eat late at night, those who ate late at night had a 55% higher CHD risk (relative risk, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.29). These associations were mediated by body mass index, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. No association was observed between eating frequency (times per day) and risk of CHD. CONCLUSIONS: Eating breakfast was associated with significantly lower CHD risk in this cohort of male health professionals.

Cahill LE; Chiuve SE; Mekary RA; Jensen MK; Flint AJ; Hu FB; Rimm EB

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

A Real-Time Assessment of Factors Influencing Medication Events.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p < .05), 38.6% higher inpatient caseloads (p < .01), and 55.9% higher emotional stress scores (p < .01). There was a trend for reported events to also be associated with less sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety.

Dollarhide AW; Rutledge T; Weinger MB; Fisher ES; Jain S; Wolfson T; Dresselhaus TR

2013-03-01

362

FACTORS INFLUENCING AUDITORS' ACCEPTANCE OF THE PRACTICE REVIEW SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was carried out to identify the factors that influence auditors' acceptance of the Practice Review System. Using a theoretical model based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior, this study aims to identify the factors influencing acceptance of the Practice Review System. Questionnaire survey was used in research. Systematic random sampling was adopted with 1,000 sets of questionnaire distributed and 123 completed questionnaire returned for analysis. The results indicated that the proposed model explained 64.6% of the variance in intention to accept the Practice Review System. The results from this study highlight that salient beliefs including perceived usefulness and rule observation behavior are highly relevant in assessing attitude towards acceptance of Practice Review System, while attitude is strongly associated with intention. The implications of this study are beneficial for practitioners in identifying the factors influencing auditors' acceptance of the Practice Review System. Hence, this would enable them to better develop implementation strategies for acceptance of the Practice Review System.

Sarina Ismail; Hasnah Haron; Ishak Ismail; Gerald Vinten

2007-01-01

363

Do lifestyle factors influence colorectal cancer risk in Lynch syndrome?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lynch syndrome (LS) is one of the inherited colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes and is due to germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Within LS affected-families the expression of the syndrome varies, which suggests that other factors, such as lifestyle factors, have an influence on the LS phenotype. This review gives an overview of studies that assessed the role of lifestyle factors in the development of CRC in LS. Several published studies investigated smoking habits or body fatness (BMI) in relation to colorectal tumours. Those studies fairly consistently suggest that smoking and a high BMI markedly increase the risk of CRC in persons with LS. Other lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, alcohol or diet have not or only scarcely been studied. Lifestyle factors may indeed affect CRC risk in LS. However, more prospective studies with only confirmed MMR gene mutation carriers should be done to further elucidate the role of all lifestyle factors in CRC and in other types of cancer in persons with LS. Information on the role of lifestyle factors in the development of LS-associated cancers may help in establishing lifestyle and dietary recommendations with the ultimate goal of decreasing cancer risk in persons with LS.

van Duijnhoven FJ; Botma A; Winkels R; Nagengast FM; Vasen HF; Kampman E

2013-06-01

364

Factors that influence the bleeding phenotype in severe hemophilic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemophilia A and B are rare, X-linked bleeding disorders resulting from a partial or total deficiency of functionally active coagulation factor VIII or factor IX, respectively. Endogenous factor levels have traditionally been used to characterize the severity of the disorder, with severe hemophilia considered as circulating levels of factor less than 1% of normal. Identifying patients with severe hemophilia is essential to effective treatment, since these patients are at highest risk of spontaneous life or limb-threatening bleeding and disability resulting from repeated joint bleeding and are most likely to benefit from prophylaxis. However, there is variability in bleeding tendency, even among patients with severe hemophilia. This article will review potential modifiers of hemophilia-associated bleeding other than endogenous factor activity, which may influence bleeding tendencies and complications in hemophilic patients considered to have severe hemophilia. These potential modifiers include physiologic factors, such as elements of the hemostatic system; pathophysiologic factors, such as hemophilic arthropathy, associated inflammation, and angiogenesis; and others, such as seasonal variation, body weight, and physical activity. PMID:24056291

Rendo, Pablo; Shafer, Frank; Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Sivamurthy, Krupa; Korin, Jorge

2013-10-01

365

Factors that influence the bleeding phenotype in severe hemophilic patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemophilia A and B are rare, X-linked bleeding disorders resulting from a partial or total deficiency of functionally active coagulation factor VIII or factor IX, respectively. Endogenous factor levels have traditionally been used to characterize the severity of the disorder, with severe hemophilia considered as circulating levels of factor less than 1% of normal. Identifying patients with severe hemophilia is essential to effective treatment, since these patients are at highest risk of spontaneous life or limb-threatening bleeding and disability resulting from repeated joint bleeding and are most likely to benefit from prophylaxis. However, there is variability in bleeding tendency, even among patients with severe hemophilia. This article will review potential modifiers of hemophilia-associated bleeding other than endogenous factor activity, which may influence bleeding tendencies and complications in hemophilic patients considered to have severe hemophilia. These potential modifiers include physiologic factors, such as elements of the hemostatic system; pathophysiologic factors, such as hemophilic arthropathy, associated inflammation, and angiogenesis; and others, such as seasonal variation, body weight, and physical activity.

Rendo P; Shafer F; Korth-Bradley JM; Sivamurthy K; Korin J

2013-10-01

366

Environmental influences: factors influencing a woman's decision to use dietary supplements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Use of dietary supplements by women, particularly those over 40 years of age may be widespread in the United Kingdom. However, from surveillance data, there appears to be a disparity between nutrition and health needs and the rationale for and actual use of dietary supplements by women. This apparent paradox forms the basis for an inverse supplement hypothesis (i.e., supplement use in women appears to be most prevalent among those with least need). Little research has been done to examine the factors underlying the decision to use dietary supplements. Reasons for consuming dietary supplements are often complex, combining social, psychological, knowledge and economic factors. The theory of planned behavior is a widely used model for assessing factors influencing behavioral motivation and action that may be useful for assessing specific diet- and nutrition-related practices. It provided the basis for the development of a questionnaire to explore overall dietary supplement use in a cohort of women in the United Kingdom. The analysis of factors related to beliefs underlying dietary supplement use revealed differences between supplement users and nonusers. Differences included a stronger belief by users than nonusers that taking dietary supplements ensures against possible ill health. Both users and nonusers of supplements also perceived the media (books and magazines) to be a powerful influence on a person's decision to use supplements. These findings highlight the potential of the theory of planned behavior in exploring supplement-taking behavior while throwing light on the factors influencing an individual's motivations to use dietary supplements.

Conner M; Kirk SF; Cade JE; Barrett JH

2003-06-01

367