Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier
Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour
da Cunha Feio Costa, Larissa; de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos, Francisco; Peres, Karen Glazer
The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-c...
The present dissertation addresses psychological influences on eating behavior.Understanding why people eat what they eat in everyday life, that is, motives for eating behavior, is crucial for the development of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent eating disorders. Furthermore, enhancing knowledge about both, individual and situational factors facilitating (pull factors) or impeding (push factors) healthy eating is essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity and it...
Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Lumbers, Margaret
Objective: To investigate the influences of resources and food-related goals on the variety of food choice among older people. Design: A questionnaire-based survey in eight European countries: Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Italy and Spain. Subjects: Participants (n 3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversit...
Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.
Objective: To investigate the influences of resources and food-related goals on the variety of food choice among older people. Design: A questionnaire-based survey in eight European countries: Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Italy and Spain. Subjects: Participants (n 3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversity of each of the national populations based on education, income and urbanization of living environment. Results: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that income, health status, access to a car and living arrangement affected the level of dietary variety. The perceived level of different food-related resources impacted the consumption of a varied diet over and above actual resource levels. Food-related goals contributed to variety of food intake that was not accounted for by the amount of material resources possessed or the social and other resources perceived to be possessed. Conclusions: Older people's variety of food intake depended on material resources (e.g. monthly income, access to a car, living arrangement, physical and mental health). However, in addition to these variables, the way older peopleperceived other resources, such as their level of appetite, their food knowledge, their perception of the distance to the shops, access to high-quality products, having better kitchen facilities, access to good service providers and support from friends and neighbours, all contributed to how varied a diet they ate.
Mónica del Pilar, Díaz-Beltrán.
Full Text Available La razón por la que los niños tienen determinadas características en el consumo de alimentos es un tema que preocupa tanto a padres, como a profesionales e investigadores cercanos a esta área de estudio. Aquí se buscó comprender los factores que hoy día son reconocidos como influyentes en el consumo [...] de alimentos por parte de la población infantil. Para ello se revisó literatura científica publicada desde enero de 2002 hasta abril de 2013; la revisión se adelantó en las bases de datos: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost y Redalyc. Se obtuvieron 57 documentos acordes a los criterios de inclusión definidos. Dicho ejercicio llevó a clasificar la información encontrada en condiciones individuales, características del entorno y estrategias frecuentes que pueden influir en el consumo. La revisión realizada permite concluir que hoy en día, más que hablar solo de consumo, la mirada se traslada al comportamiento alimentario. Esto incluye las características de los alimentos consumidos, lugares, experiencias, compañías, entre otros aspectos, que forman parte de un patrón de conducta alrededor de los alimentos. De esta manera, se evidencian campos de intervención e investigación en aspectos tales como conducta alimentaria por género, rasgos genéticos y estado nutricional; también se exploran creencias y experiencias alrededor de los alimentos, grupos sociales influyentes, características organolépticas de las preparaciones y estrategias de promoción que involucran mucho más que trasmitir conocimiento acerca de lo saludable, entre otros. Abstract in english Why children have certain characteristics in food consumption is a matter of concern to both parents, as professionals and researchers in their exercise near this age group. This paper aim is to understand factors and mechanisms influencing in the decision of food intake by children. Scientific lite [...] rature published was revised, from January 2002 to April 2013, in the databases: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost and Redalyc. 57 papers were obtained with the inclusion criteria used. This exercise led to classify the information found in individual conditions, characteristics of the setting and common strategies that may influence food consumption. Today, more than just talk about consumption, the works attends the feeding behavior, which includes the characteristics of the food consumed, places, experiences, companies, among others, as part of a pattern of behavior around food. This led to identify areas of intervention and research such as eating behavior by gender, genetic characteristics and nutritional status. And, the beliefs and experiences around food, influential social groups, organoleptic characteristics of recipes and promotion strategies, involve much more than transmit knowledge about how to be healthy, among others.
Toro, J; Gila, A; Castro, J; Pombo, C; Guete, O
The aim was to study differences between male and female adolescents as regards body dissatisfaction, some risk factors for eating disorders, and exposure to social influences that create ideal body figures among these populations. A questionnaire comprising 40 items was administered to 240 male adolescents at 12 public and private schools in Barcelona. Twenty-nine of the questions were the same as those in another study administered to a sample of 675 female adolescents attending similar schools in the same geographical area. The other 11 questions were specifically for males. The differences between boys and girls were highly significant on almost all the items. Girls' scores were significantly higher (p = 0.000) in the following areas: dieting and exercising in order to be thin; feelings of anxiety on seeing or showing the body in public; tendency to focus on the bodies of others and on the amount of food they eat; the belief that thin people are more popular. In addition, the girls were significantly more vulnerable to potentially dangerous social influences. For the most part, males sought a heavier, more muscular body. Though a minority of males also feared being overweight, one out of four ate more than normal to gain weight and two out of three exercised to develop their muscles. The same proportion reported envying the build of certain actors. In adolescence, the ideal body figures of the sexes vary widely. This divergence reflects a greater risk of eating disorders in girls, who are also far more exposed to social situations that cause body dissatisfaction and shape risk attitudes and behaviors. PMID:16114222
Costa, Larrissa Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco Assis Guedes; Peres, Karen Glazer
The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florian6polis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6-12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7-25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions. PMID:20411681
Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher...
McCullum-Gomez, Christine; Barroso, Cristina S; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ward, Jerri L; Kelder, Steven H
The purpose of this research was to evaluate factors influencing the implementation of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program in Texas using data from the CATCH dissemination study. A mail survey was sent to school foodservice personnel (N = 213) who attended a CATCH training from August 2000 through January 2002. A response rate of 40% (n = 85) was achieved. The mean score for the percentage of CATCH Eat Smart guidelines implemented was 80.44. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for age and number of years employed in school foodservice, the following factors were significantly associated with the percentage of CATCH Eat Smart guidelines implemented: utility of CATCH and CATCH Eat Smart in meeting requirements for Coordinated School Health Programs (P = 0.006), school foodservice personnel's satisfaction with food made using the CATCH Eat Smart guidelines (P = 0.008), utility of CATCH in facilitating interschool communication about children's health (P = 0.019), and perceived student satisfaction with food made using the CATCH Eat Smart guidelines (P = 0.046). These results suggest that dissemination approaches for Coordinated School Health Programs should focus on ways to enhance program satisfaction, be consistent with legislated mandates, and increase interschool staff communication to increase program implementation by school foodservice personnel. PMID:17126635
Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advancesâ¦
Cooley, E; Toray, T; Valdez, N; Tee, M
As the empirical literature on maladaptive eating patterns has grown, the importance of longitudinal studies in establishing causal risk factors has become apparent. The current study reports longitudinal data gathered from the first 20 months of college for female students (n=117). Eating pathology was assessed using a composite measure from the Eating Disorders Inventory. Variables examined as potential risk factors included depression, reassurance seeking, perfectionism, impulsiveness, body dissatisfaction, and stressful events. Eating symptoms were quite stable across the 20-month interval (r=0.68). Although all of the potential risk variables showed significant correlations with eating symptoms, hierarchical regressions controlling for eating symptoms at Time 1 indicated that perfectionism, impulsiveness, and body dissatisfaction failed to uniquely add to the prediction of eating symptoms at Time 2. Depression, reassurance seeking and stressful events did add to this prediction. Failure to find support for variables in a longitudinal design may be due to the age of participants and relative stability of eating symptoms. Perfectionism, and body dissatisfaction may play a causal role in developing eating symptoms at earlier ages, but do not continue to influence the course of these symptoms in late adolescence. Negative affect (depression), needing reassurance in social relationships, and having to deal with stressful events seem to be risk factors for increased eating symptoms in late adolescence. PMID:17984637
Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.
Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)
Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.
Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)â¦
Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305
Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms. PMID:25451578
Burton, Pat; Smit, Hendrik J; Lightowler, Helen J
Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eating behaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fast food fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fast food fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fast food fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fast food foods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent. PMID:17349717
Hilbert, A.; Pike, KM; Goldschmidt, AB; Wilfley, DE; Fairburn, CG; Dohm, FA; Walsh, BT; Striegel Weissman, R
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...
Holland, Lauren A.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.
The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eating behaviors in men and women (N=1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-...
Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674
Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of
Park, Sohyun; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lawrence, Robert; Gittelsohn, Joel
Youth obesity has increased over the past two decades in South Korea. Researchers employed in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with parents and teachers from 26 schools in metropolitan South Korea, to examine environmental factors affecting youth eating habits. Home environment and exposure to healthy foods were the most important factors influencing healthy eating habits. Families with working mothers eat out more than do families with stay-at-home mothers. Poor nutrition education is associated with low vegetable intake in elementary school lunches. A cultural emphasis on academic achievement adversely affects children's eating practices. Findings can guide future studies and inform program development. PMID:24884552
Full Text Available Among early adolescents (1014 years, poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions.
Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun
Among early adolescents (10-14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384
Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie
Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer
Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
Despite the widespread use of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) as a primary assessment instrument in studies of eating and weight disorders, little is known about the psychometric aspects of this interview measure. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the EDE interview in a large series of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Participants were 688 treatment-seeking patients with BED who were reliably administered the EDE interview by trained res...
Francis, Lori A.; Birch, Leann L.
This study examined whether mothers' preoccupation with their own weight and eating was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior. Participants included 173 non-Hispanic, White motherdaughter dyads, measured longitudinally when daughters were ages 5, 7, 9, and 11. Mothers who were preoccupied with their own weight and eating reported higher levels of restricting daughters' intake and encouraging daughters to lose weight over time. Mothers' encouragement of daughters' weight loss was li...
Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary
This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference?=?967?kJ, p?eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference?=?1067?kJ, p?=?.019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. PMID:25903236
Penniment, Kylie J; Egan, Sarah J
There is strong evidence that perfectionism is a risk factor for eating disorders. Women who engage in dance training have been reported to be at risk for eating disorders, and it has been hypothesised that expectancies about thinness and restricting food intake are formed partly as a result of exposure to thinness related learning (TRL) experiences in this environment, which may increase their risk. To clarify the relative contribution of perfectionism and learning in accounting for eating disorder symptoms in this group, 142 female ballet dancers completed an online survey. Through structural equation modelling it was found that the association between perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms was partially mediated by learning about thinness and restriction. The results suggest that eating disorder symptoms in dancers are significantly influenced by the interaction of perfectionism and learning, and future research should investigate the efficacy of prevention programs to target these risk factors in female dancers. PMID:21275007
Harriger, Jennifer A; Witherington, David C; Bryan, Angela D
Although participation in sports that emphasize aestheticism, such as women's gymnastics, are associated with higher rates of eating pathology, little is known about the risk and protective factors involved in this process. We established and tested a model proposing that body surveillance and body shame are processes by which pubertal development and training may uniquely contribute to pathological eating by sampling 100 competitive female gymnasts via questionnaires. We further tested whether self-esteem moderated several model relationships. Results demonstrated that pubertal development was associated with higher levels of body surveillance, body shame and disordered eating; whereas greater time spent training was associated with lower levels of body shame and disordered eating. Finally higher self-esteem was associated with lower levels of disordered eating, less body surveillance, and less body shame. Potential risk and protective factors for the development of eating pathology in female gymnasts are discussed. PMID:25173666
Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol
Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys and girls symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 1619 years of age (N = 199; 49.75% g...
Cohen, D A; Babey, S H
This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473
Manwaring, JL; Hilbert, A.; Wilfley, DE; Pike, KM; Fairburn, CG; Dohm, FA; Striegel-Moore, RH
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined risk factors in women with binge eating disorder (BED) who began binging before dieting (binge-first [BF]) compared with women with BED who began dieting before binging (diet-first [DF]). It further aimed to replicate findings regarding eating disorder and general psychopathology among BF versus DF subtypes. METHOD: One hundred fifty-five women with BED completed the Oxford Risk Factor Interview to retrospectively assess risk factors occurring before eati...
Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes / Influencia de los Factores Psicológicos, Antropométricos y Sociodemográficos Sobre los Síntomas de los Trastornos Alimentarios en Jóvenes Deportistas / Influência de Fatores Psicológicos, Antropométricos e Sociodemográficos Sobre os Sintomas de Transtornos Alimentares em Jovens Atletas
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião de Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência de fatores psicológicos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares (TAs) em jovens atletas. Participaram 580 adolescentes de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), o [...] Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale para avaliar o comportamento de risco para TAs, a insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC) e o grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos. Os achados da regressão múltipla evidenciaram que somente a IC e o percentual de gordura modularam significativamente ( p Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue analizar la influencia de factores psicológicos, antropométricos y sociodemográficos en los comportamientos de riesgo para TA en atletas jóvenes. Participantes fueron 580 adolescentes de ambos sexos. Se utilizó el Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire y Commitment [...] Exercise Scale para evaluar los comportamientos de riesgo para los TA, la insatisfacción con el imagen corporal (IC) y el grado de compromiso psicológico para ejercer (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, talla y pliegues cutáneos se midieron. Los resultados de regresión múltiple mostraron que sólo el IC y el porcentaje de grasa modula de manera significativa ( p Abstract in english The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED) in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Body Shape Ques [...] tionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD) and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE), respectively. Participants weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p
Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.
Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain
Thatcher, William; Rhea, Deborah
This study examined whether behavioral differences (exercise, dieting, changing eating habits, taking pills, or vomiting/taking laxatives to lose weight) exist when identifying the major influencing factors (media, family, friends, teacher/coach, and doctor/nurse) among Black and White men's and women's self-perceptions of body weight. Respondentsâ¦
Gelinas, Bethany L; Delparte, Chelsea A; Wright, Kristi D; Hart, Regan
Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, depression) are routinely assessed in bariatric pre-surgical programs, as high levels of psychopathology are consistently related to poor program outcomes (e.g., failure to lose significant weight pre-surgery, weight regain post-surgery). Behavioral factors related to poor program outcomes and ways in which behavioral and psychological factors interact, have received little attention in bariatric research and practice. Potentially problematic behavioral factors are queried by Section H of the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI-H), in which respondents indicate the relevance of certain eating behaviors to obesity. A factor analytic investigation of the WALI-H serves to improve the way in which this assessment tool is interpreted and used among bariatric surgical candidates, and subsequent moderation analyses serve to demonstrate potential compounding influences of psychopathology on eating behavior factors. Bariatric surgical candidates (n =362) completed several measures of psychopathology and the WALI-H. Item responses from the WALI-H were subjected to principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Results revealed a three-factor model including: (1) eating in response to negative affect, (2) overeating/desirability of food, and (3) eating in response to positive affect/social cues. All three behavioral factors of the WALI-H were significantly associated with measures of depression and anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed that depression did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and any eating behavior factor. Although single forms of psychopathology are related to eating behaviors, the combination of psychopathology does not appear to influence these problematic behaviors. Recommendations for pre-surgical assessment and treatment of bariatric surgical candidates are discussed. PMID:25464064
Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce A; Manfredi, Chiara; Boccaletti, Fabio; Dallari, Giulia; Gandini, Federica; Pinna, Eleonora; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra
In the current study we explored the role of desire thinking in predicting binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A sample of binge eaters (n=77) and a sample of non-binge eaters (n=185) completed the following self-report instruments: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Binge Eating Scale. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that all variable scores were significantly higher for binge eaters than non-binge eaters. A logistic regression analysis indicated that verbal perseveration was a predictor of classification as a binge eater over and above Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A hierarchical regression analysis, on the combined sample, indicated that verbal perseveration predicted levels of binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. These results highlight the possible role of desire thinking as a risk factor for binge eating. PMID:25880044
Ridout, Nathan; Matharu, Munveen; Sanders, Elizabeth; Wallis, Deborah J
The primary aim was to examine the influence of subclinical disordered eating on autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) and social problem solving (SPS). A further aim was to establish if AMS mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. A non-clinical sample of 52 females completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT), where they were asked to retrieve specific memories of events from their past in response to cue words, and the means-end problem-solving task (MEPS), where they were asked to generate means of solving a series of social problems. Participants also completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. After controlling for mood, high scores on the EDI subscales, particularly Drive-for-Thinness, were associated with the retrieval of fewer specific and a greater proportion of categorical memories on the AMT and with the generation of fewer and less effective means on the MEPS. Memory specificity fully mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. These findings have implications for individuals exhibiting high levels of disordered eating, as poor AMS and SPS are likely to impact negatively on their psychological wellbeing and everyday social functioning and could represent a risk factor for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. PMID:26144580
Karina Franco Paredes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD, sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM and symptoms of eating disorders (ED. The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN, 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.
Sanna Aila Gustafsson
Full Text Available Sanna Aila Gustafsson1, Birgitta Edlund2, Lars Kjellin3, Claes Norring41Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Örebro; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala; 3Psychiatric Research Centre, University of Örebro; 4Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-Child version (EDI-C to find early predictors that might constitute risk and protective factors in the development of disordered eating.Method: Participants were divided into three groups based on eating attitudes at T2: disordered eating (n = 49, intermediate eating concern (n = 260, and healthy eating attitudes (n = 120. EDI-C from T1 (four to five years earlier was then analyzed to find predictors of group classification at T2.Results: Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction emerged as risk factors at T1, while drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and interoceptive awareness emerged as protective factors after controlling for initial eating concerns and body mass index.Discussion: Eating disorders should not be seen as a result of a premorbid personality type. Rather we should take a more social-psychological perspective to explain how individual and sociocultural factors work together in the development of these conditions. Keywords: eating disorders, EDI-C, risk factors, protective factors
Fairburn, CG; Doll, HA; Welch, SL; Hay, PJ; Davies, BA; O'Connor, ME
BACKGROUND: Many risk factors have been implicated for eating disorders, although little is known about those for binge eating disorder. METHODS: A community-based, case-control design was used to compare 52 women with binge eating disorder, 104 without an eating disorder, 102 with other psychiatric disorders, and 102 with bulimia nervosa. RESULTS: The main risk factors identified from the comparison of subjects with binge eating disorder with healthy control subjects were certain adverse chi...
OBJECTIVE: EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes. METHOD: Students were screened using the EAT-26, EDI-III and a study-specific questionnaire. A sub-sample of parents\\' views was included. RESULTS: Three thousand and thirty-one students (mean age 14.74) and 56 parents enrolled. The majority (71.4%) of adolescents felt adversely affected by media portrayal of body weight and shape, with more than a quarter (25.6%) believing it to be \\'far too thin\\'. A significant correlation between media impact and high EAT scores (chi2 = 450.78, df = 2, p < 0.05) and EDI-III scores (chi2 = 387.51, df = 4, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Parents also view media portrayal as too thin (94.7%), less than half are adversely affected by it (49.2%) but the majority (71.9%) believe their children to be. CONCLUSION: Media portrayal of body weight and shape is correlated with eating psychopathology and may affect adolescents more than adults. School psycho-educational programmes and media policies are urgently needed to minimise any detrimental effect.
Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Larson, Christine L.; KLUMP, KELLY L.
Although serotonin (5-HT) genes are thought to be involved in the etiology of bulimia nervosa and binge eating, findings from molecular genetic studies are inconclusive. This may be due to limitations of past research, such as a failure to consider the influence of quantitative traits and gene-environment interactions. The current study investigated these issues by examining whether quantitative traits (i.e., impulsivity) and environmental exposure factors (i.e., dietary restraint) moderate 5...
Herman, C Peter; Fitzgerald, Nicola E; Polivy, Janet
Restrained and unrestrained eaters were exposed to fictitious hunger reports (high-hunger, low-hunger) of ostensible prior participants in the experiment. In the control condition, participants were not exposed to prior-participant reports. Participants rated their own hunger and then consumed cookies during a 'taste-test.' The fictitious hunger ratings of prior participants exerted a strong effect (p<0.001) on actual participants' hunger ratings; however, food intake was not affected by the fictitious hunger ratings (or by the actual participants' hunger ratings). We discuss the disjunction between hunger ratings and eating, specifically whether (a) hunger reports were fabricated in response to social pressure or (b) eating is controlled by factors other than hunger. PMID:12880617
Behshid Garrusi; Mohammad Reza Baneshi
Backgrounds: Many socio cultural variables could be affect eating disorders in Asian countries. In Iran, there are few researches regarding eating disorders and their contributing factors. The aim of this study is to explore frequency of eating disorders and their risk factors in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: About 1204 participants were selected aged between fourteen to 55 years. Frequency of eating disorders and effects of variables such as demographic characteristics, Body ...
Brown, Stephen L.; Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Wrobleski, Peggy P.
Background: Overeating is often attributed to emotions and has been linked to psychological challenges and obesity. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of emotional and external cue eating on obesity and the correlation of emotional and external cue eating with positive and negative psychological factors, as well as early familial eating
Uzunian, Laura Giron; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza
The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the literature on the relationship between eating disorders and social skills in adolescents. A search was made on the Medline, SciELO and Lilacs databases, for items combining the terms 'eating disorders', 'anorexia nervosa', 'bulimia nervosa' and 'food behavior', with the terms 'social psychology' and 'social isolation', and with the keywords 'social competence', 'social skill' and 'interpersonal relations'. The following were included: studies on adolescents; in Portuguese, English and Spanish; published in the years 2007 through 2012. The search resulted in 63 articles, and 50 were included in this review. The majority of the studies were made in Brazil and the United States. Of the total, 43 were original articles. The studies aimed to understand how emotional state could influence the establishment of eating disorders, interpersonal relationships and peer relationship. The articles also discussed the influence of the media and of society in this process. Based on the analysis of the studies, it was observed that the greater an adolescent's repertory of social skills, the greater his or her factor of protection against the development of eating disorders. PMID:26602727
Sánchez Carracedo, David; Fauquet Ars, Jordi; López Guimerà, Gemma; Leiva Ureña, David; Puntí Vidal, Joaquim; Trepat de Ancos, Esther; Pàmias Massana, Montserrat; Palao Vidal, Diego J.
Challenges in the prevention of disordered eating field include moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under mo...
Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri; Paxton, Susan J
The aim of the study was to compare levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating and risk factors, and to examine the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance among French and Australian young adult females. Participants were 188 Australian (mean age=19.6 years, SD=1.0) and 190 French (mean age=20.7 years, SD=2.6) students. Media, peer and family influences, internalisation of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimia and self-esteem were assessed. Australian participants reported perceiving more peer and media influence, and higher levels of appearance comparison, internalisation of media ideals and bulimic symptoms than French participants (pbody image and eating disturbance with a view to prevention. PMID:21664887
Full Text Available SummaryBackground: Treatment for inpatients presenting an eating disorder usually implies a therapeutic contract. However,treatment dropout is frequent, costky and leads to poor prognosis.Aim: To identify predictive factors of dropout in inpatients admitted for an eating disorder.Methods: In all, 916 consecutive female inpatients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and atypical bulimia nervosa were assessed at admission between 1988 and 2004 accordingly to ICD-10 classification. Clinical, sociodemographic, and psychological data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. Descriptive, univariate analyses and two logisticmodels were performed: onefor patients with anorexia or bulimia and the other for patientswith atypical bulimia.Results: Dropout rates were 49.6 % for anorexia, 55.6 % for bulimia and 69.3 % for atypical bulimia. For the anorexia/ bulimiamodel, predictive factors were the following:educational status, age at admission, subtype of eating disorder,minimumBMI and ideal BMI (calculated on the basis of the question According to you, what should be your weight after treatment?, requested upon admission, and without any medical advice. The atypical bulimia model is the first published on female inpatients to date.Psychological scores were not significant factors in both models.Conclusion: the inpatients characteristics seem close to those described in the literature. The results of the multivariate analysis were discussed, especially the fact that the psychometric scales had no predictive value.An innovative variable, the ideal BMI signifies that the more a thin patient declares herself ready to gain weight upon admission, the more likely she is to keep to the contract. This study highlights the importance of pre-hospitalisation preparation,particularly in terms of the patients recognising their illness.Prat Organ Soins 2008;39(1:23-32
Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Mobini, Sirous
Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting. PMID:18069081
Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael
In a random sample (N?=?951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. PMID:25308432
Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine
Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.
Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control. PMID:11752484
Arcelus, Jon; García-Dantas, Ana; Sánchez-Martín, Milagrosa; Del Río Sánchez, Carmen
The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of the main two elements of perfectionism (CM, concern over mistakes and PS, personal standards) on eating disorders risk factors in dancers. Based on the literature, we tested the role of CM and PS over diet and mood related symptoms, and the function of performance anxiety and body dissatisfaction as the main mediators in the model. Two hundreds and eighty one female dancers (M = 15.28; SDage = 2.32) from two Spanish dance conservato...
Full Text Available The main purposes of this study were to study demographic factors, academic system, and social networks andother communication tools which can influence alumni donations. Using quantitative research involvingquestionnaires, the participants of this study were former and current students of master and doctoral degreeprograms in business from one of the government universities in Thailand. The results showed that academicsystem, social networks and other communication tools have an influence on a willingness to donate. Whereasthe alumni and current studentsâ gender, age, marital status have no relationship with a willingness to donate.Student satisfactory interactions have no influence on a willingness to donate either.
Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D
Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model, this significant indirect effect was not moderated by eating disorder group. The results support a prospective model of risk that applies to bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. Common prevention approaches may be possible for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. PMID:25233874
Tasca, Giorgio A.; Lampard, Amy M.
The nature of the alliance-outcome relationship is still emerging. This study examined the reciprocal influence of change in alliance to the group and change in urge to restrict in eating-disordered individuals attending a group-based day treatment. Participants (N = 238) were a transdiagnostic or mixed diagnostic sample of eating-disordered
Gomes, António Rui; Martins, Carla; Silva, Luiz
Objective: This study describes eating disordered behaviours in a sample of Portuguese elite athletes and analyses the impact of personal and sports factors on those eating disordered behaviours. Method: Two hundred and ninety athletes (51.7% males) practicing collective (64.8%) and individual sports have been included. The evaluation protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; the Sport Condition Questionnaire; the Sport Anxiety Scale; the Task and Ego Orientation in ...
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci
Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci
Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)â¦
Chatelain, M; Halpin, C G; Rowe, C
Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff; Shaw, Heather
Test (a) whether a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program that reduces thin-ideal internalization mitigates the effects of risk factors for eating disorder onset and (b) whether the risk factors moderate the effects of this intervention on risk for eating disorder onset, to place the effects of this intervention within the context of established risk factors. Female adolescents (N=481) with body image concerns were randomized to the dissonance-based program, healthy weight contro...
Striegel-Moore, RH; Dohm, FA; Pike, KM; Wilfley, DE; Fairburn, CG
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether sexual and physical abuse, bullying by peers, and ethnicity-based discrimination are associated with an increased risk for developing binge eating disorder in black women and in white women and whether any increase in risk is specific for the development of binge eating disorder. METHOD: A community sample of 162 women with binge eating disorder and 251 healthy and 107 psychiatric comparison subjects was interviewed for exposure to the risk factors under...
Hibbs, Rebecca; Rhind, Charlotte; Sallis, Hannah; Goddard, Elizabeth; Raenker, Simone; Ayton, Agnes; Bamford, Bryony; Arcelus, Jon; Boughton, Nicky; Connan, Frances; Goss, Ken; Lazlo, Bert; Morgan, John; Moore, Kim; Robertson, David
Objective: Caring for someone diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED) is associated with a high level of burden and psychological distress which can inadvertently contribute to the maintenance of the illness. The Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale (EDSIS) and Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders (AESED) are self-report scales to assess elements of caregiving theorised to contribute to the maintenance of an ED. Further validation and confirmation of the factor structures for...
Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey
The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. PMID:20739233
Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E
Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. PMID:26368577
Yong Jun Park
Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wall, Melanie M; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control [LOC]) predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but interrelated constructs during critical developmental transitions. We used a population-based sample (n = 1,902) that completed surveys at 5-year intervals spanning adolescence and young adulthood. The trajectories of no overeating, overeating, binge eating, and binge eating disorder (BED; recurrent binge eating with associated distress) were characterized using cross-tabulations. Body mass index, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and body satisfaction were examined as risk factors for no overeating, overeating, and binge eating (including BED) 5-years later using multinomial logistic regression. We found that all overeating categories tended to remit to no overeating at 5-year follow-up. Although overeating had the lowest remittance rates at each time-point, binge eating and BED showed higher rates of persistence or worsening of symptoms during the transition from late adolescence/early young adulthood to early/middle young adulthood. Overeating and binge eating had similar risk factors, although for females, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, and self-esteem in late adolescence/early young adulthood differentially predicted binge eating versus overeating in early/middle young adulthood (ps eating persists for a subset of individuals. Greater psychosocial problems in late adolescence/early young adulthood predicted greater odds of binge eating relative to overeating in early/middle young adulthood among females, indicating that poorer psychosocial functioning in this developmental stage portends more severe eating-related psychopathology later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689758
Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston
Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among
BULIK, Cynthia M.; VON HOLLE, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mothers age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...
Eating disorders (ED) constitute a significant source of psychiatric morbidity and are an important public health concern in Western societies. Knowledge about risk factors for ED is crucial for early detection and implementation of preventive interventions. The aim of the present thesis was to examine the prevalence, incidence, correlates, and the risk factors for ED among 1,157 young adult women in the general population. The studies in the thesis used a prospective design with the potentia...
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control [LOC]) predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but interrelated constructs during critical developmental transitions. We used a population-based sample (n
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control [LOC]) predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but interrelated constructs during critical developmental transitions. We used a population-based sample (nâ¦
Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria
Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n?=?703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p?origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices. PMID:25681292
Lafraire, Jérémie; Rioux, Camille; Giboreau, Agnès; Picard, Delphine
Food neophobia and picky/fussy eating behavior are presented as the two main forms of children's food rejections which are responsible for a reduction of their dietary repertoire. We review the key factors, presented in the literature, that are involved in food rejections during childhood. We first consider a range of "cognitive factors", such as food perception, mental representations, categorization of food items, and emotions and feelings toward food. Next we focus on "social and environmental factors", as these might also significantly influence and modulate children's food rejections. We then summarize the findings to provide a comprehensive view of the factors involved in children's food rejections. Finally, we discuss the need for future studies on food rejections, regarding (i) the distinction between food neophobia and picky/fussy eating, and (ii) the potential link between food categorization abilities and children's food neophobia and pickiness. PMID:26391004
Baker, Jessica H.; MAES, HERMINE H.; Lissner, Lauren; Aggen, Steven H.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kendler, Kenneth S
The etiologic role of genetic and environmental factors on disordered eating was examined in a sample of 15- to 17-year-old femalefemale, malemale, and opposite-sex twin pairs. Also assessed was whether a single factor is underlying 3 facets (body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimia) of disordered eating, including the possible importance of sex differences. Univariate model-fitting analyses indicated that genetic factors are more important for girls and environment more important ...
Full Text Available Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs in adults. Method: A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion: More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. Keywords: demographic, environment, abuse, prevalence, socioeconomic status, heritability
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10â17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10â17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed; Nurul Hidayah Nazri; See?Ling Loy
Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the t...
Ba?, Murat; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül
The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in eating attitudes, self-esteem, social trait anxiety and social physique anxiety of self-reported vegetarian and nonvegetarian Turkish adolescents. The sample for the Turkish University' students is designed to provide the estimates of vegetarian indicators and prevalence. The participants were 608 females and 597 males, in total 1205 adolescents aged between 17 and 21 years. Disturbed eating behaviors (EAT-26> or =20) was found in 45.2% (14 of vegetarian) of the total vegetarian sample; which included two of the male vegetarians and 12 of the female vegetarians. The mean BMI was 19.78+/-1.49 kg/m(2) for female vegetarians and 20.78+/-2.46 kg/m(2) for female nonvegetarians (p<0.05). Male vegetarians had significantly higher score than male nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (17.25+/-11.18 for male vegetarians and 9.38+/-6.60 for male nonvegetarians), dieting (6.50+/-7.65 for male vegetarians and 2.55+/-3.87 for male nonvegetarians) and oral control (6.13+/-4.67 for male vegetarians and 3.20+/-3.19 for male nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). Besides, female vegetarians had significantly higher score than female nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (22.04+/-13.62 for female vegetarians and 11.38+/-8.28 for female nonvegetarians), dieting (10.35+/-9.58 for female vegetarians and 4.41+/-5.30 for female nonvegetarians), oral control (7.78+/-5.13 for female vegetarians and 3.33+/-3.51 for female nonvegetarians) and STAI (51.39+/-7.28 for female vegetarians and 47.29+/-5.13 for female nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). As a conclusion, the present study indicated abnormal eating attitudes, low self-esteem, high social physique anxiety, and high trait anxiety in Turkish vegetarian adolescents. The vegetarian adolescents may be more likely to display disordered eating attitudes and behaviors than nonvegetarians. PMID:15927731
Eating disorders are a complex phenomenon, which has a negative effect on many areas of individual's life. It's a very complex issue, which hides in the background much more profound reasons, than the persons wishes of becoming thinner and more beautiful. Although a lot has been said on this topic, I think that society still lacks the awareness and knowledge for a successful fight against this problem in order to diminish it. In theoretical part I defined eating disorders and their types,...
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels; HÃ¸rder, Kirsten; StÃ¸ving, RenÃ© Klinkby
Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality...... calculated with the confounding variables: body mass index (BMI), age at referral and diagnosis. In the latest cohort the SMR for AN was 2.89 vs 11.16 in the time before our specialization. SMR for bulimia nervosa (BN) and for eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in the latest cohort were 2.37 and...
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Bowker, Julie C.; Hermans, Roel C. J.
Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the Big Two contributors to the obesity epidemic, unhealthy eating and physical inactivity . In this article, we synthesize the empirical literature on the influence of peers and friends on youths eating and physical activity. Limitat...
Mojisola D, Kupolati; Gerda J, Gericke; Una E, MacIntyre.
Full Text Available Qualitative investigation can provide invaluable information towards understanding the influence of school nutrition education (NE). The study explored teachers' perceptions of the immediate impact of NE on learners' eating behaviours. Twenty-four primary school teachers in the Bronkhorstspruit dist [...] rict, Gauteng, South Africa, who taught nutrition topics to grades four to seven learners, participated in three focus group discussions. Transcript data obtained was analysed using the thematic approach of the framework method. Findings indicated that school support for NE was limited, which undermined the capacity of school NE to influence healthy eating behaviours of learners. The need to strengthen teachers' capacity to model positive eating behaviours was identified. Learners were perceived as being not completely ignorant of healthy eating, with limited capacity to effect changes within the resource-constrained environment. Negative influences like unhealthy choices of food from food vendors and peer influences were identified as needing to be discouraged. Positive influences like the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) and the school vegetable garden were to be encouraged. Understanding the prevailing school situation and environment and teachers' perceptions and roles in school NE is important in addressing issues that weaken the influence of NE on learners' eating behaviours.
The first years of life mark a time of rapid development and dietary change, as children transition from an exclusive milk diet to a modified adult diet. During these early years, children's learning about food and eating plays a central role in shaping subsequent food choices, diet quality, and wei...
Deerajen Ramasawmy; Subratty, Anwar H; Mahomoodally, Fawzi M; Stephanie M. Krige
There is currently a dearth of information pertaining to socio-demographic factors and eating practices in a multicultural country like Mauritius. This study was therefore undertaken to probe the different eating practices among an adult sample population in Mauritius in an endeavor to establish significant relationships, if any, with common socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. A self-designed questionnaire, (randomly distributed to n = 387 adults), pertaining to socio-demographic va...
Emma P. Vince; Ian Walker
Objective: To consolidate knowledge from research on associates of disordered eating to guide future research efforts, asking which factors are associated with the presence of disturbed eating/ anorexia/ bulimia? Method: We reviewed 232 studies, comprising 87,878 participants, through 74 individual meta-analyses under 12 associative factor category headings.Results: Race had no association (r = .02), whilst anxiety (r = .47) and depression (r = .39) were modestly associated with disordered ...
Laliberté, M; Boland, F J; Leichner, P
More than a decade of research has characterized the families of individuals with bulimia and bulimia anorexia (Anorexia Nervosa, Binge/Purging Type) as less expressive, less cohesive, and experiencing more conflicts than normal control families. This two-part study investigated variables believed more directly related to disturbed eating and bulimia as contributing to a "family climate for eating disorders." In Study 1. a nonclinical sample of 324 women who had just left home for college and a sample of 121 mothers evaluated their families. Principal-components analyses revealed the same factor structure for both students and mothers, with Family Body Satisfaction, Family Social Appearance Orientation, and Family Achievement Emphasis loading together, representing the hypothesized family climate for eating disorders: the remaining variables loaded with the more traditional family process variables (conflict, cohesion, expressiveness), representing a more general family dysfunction. As predicted, the family climate for eating disorders factor score was a more powerful predictor of disturbed eating. Study 2 extended these findings into a clin ical population, examining whether the family climate for eating disorders variables would distinguish individuals with bulimia from both depressed and healthy controls. Groups of eating-disordered patients (n = 40) and depressed (n = 17) and healthy (n = 27) controls completed family measures. The eating-disordered group scored significantly higher on family climate variables than control groups. Family process variables distinguished clinical groups (depressed and eating disordered) from healthy controls, but not from one another. Controlling for depression removed group differences on family process variables, but family climate variables continued to distinguish the eating-disordered group from both control groups. Indications for further research are discussed. PMID:10576318
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and
Lessard, Jared; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng
Previous findings have shown both beneficial and adverse effects of parents' attempts to influence adolescents' eating habits. The current study examined the differential effect of parents' persuasion (e.g., encouragement, giving information) and pressure tactics (e.g., guilt induction, ridicule) and the moderating influence of parental warmth onâ¦
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers andâ¦
Vis, L.F.P.Q. van der
Abstract Objective: The new proposals of the DSM-5 implement that personality dysfunctioning should be used as a new diagnostic variable. Over the last couple of years research examined possible other factors that might significantly differentiate the types of eating disorders besides the existing DSM-IV criteria. Currently, of the diagnosed eating disorders 50% doesnt fulfill the criteria needed for the diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia. Lilenfed et al. (2006) discovered that there are si...
Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L
Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d?=?.41, p?=?.003; dieting (six studies), d?=?.68, p?eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26230192
Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.
Personality disorders appear to be present in a significant minority of individuals with eating disorders. For example, in contrast to reported rates in the general population of eight percent, obsessive compulsive personality is present in approximately 22 percent of individuals with anorexia, restricting type. Likewise, in contrast to rates in the general population of six percent, borderline personality is present in approximately 25 percent of individuals with anorexia nervosa, binge-eati...
Krentz, E M; Warschburger, P
Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0? ±.2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation. PMID:22093018
friends compared to personal factors impact adolescentsâ healthy eating? 3. How can a feedback intervention based on socio-cognitive theory and using text messaging improve adolescent healthy eating and why? The first research question is answered in research paper 1. Since the area of family interaction...... socialisation, this paper contributes with identifying and understanding barriers and facilitators of adolescentsâ healthy eating. The second research question is answered in research paper 2. The paper aimed at testing whether the common belief that children become increasingly influenced by friends at the...... more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating by comparing the influence of entangled social spheres (parents and friends) while also controlling for personal factors such as the adolescent...
Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; White, Marney A
Latino/s face health care disparities in eating/weight disorders but are under-represented in treatment research and this is especially the case for Spanish-speaking-only persons. The development of psychometrically-sound assessment methods for Latino/as is needed to facilitate eating/weight research. The current study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Eating Disorder Examination (S-EDE) interview, one of the primary assessment methods in studies of...
Faith, Myles S.; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Heo, Moonseong; Johnson, Susan L.; Keller, Kathleen L.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Allison, David B.
Objective Children differ greatly in their ability to self-regulate food intake for reasons that are poorly understood. This laboratory-based twin study tested genetic and environmental contributions to self-regulatory eating and body fat in early childhood. Methods Sixty-nine 4 to 7 year-old same-sex twin pairs, including 40 monozygotic (MZ) and 29 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, were studied. Self-regulatory eating was operationalized as the percentage compensation index (COMPX%), assessed by a preload challenge in which lunch intake was measured following a low- (3 kcal) or high-calorie (159 kcal) drink. Body fat indexes also were measured. The familial association for COMPX% was estimated by an intraclass correlation, and biometric analyses estimated heritability. Results Children ate more at lunch following the low- compared to high-energy preload (pchildren, and among girls compared to boys. There was a familial association for self-regulatory eating (?= 0.23, p= 0.03) but no significant genetic component. Twenty two percent of the variance in COMPX% was due to shared environmental (household) factors, with the remaining variance attributable to child-specific (unique or random) environments. Poorer self-regulatory eating was associated with greater percent body fat (r= ?0.21, p= 0.04). Conclusions Self-regulatory eating was influenced by environmental factors, especially those differing among siblings. The absence of a significant genetic effect may reflect age of the sample or could be artifactual due to measurement issues that need to be considered in future studies. PMID:22249227
Carleton, R A; Sennett, L; Gans, K M; Levin, S; Lefebvre, C; Lasater, T M
The Pawtucket Heart Health Program, a research effort testing a process of community activation for cardiovascular risk factor behavior change, risk factor change, and coronary heart disease event rate change, utilizes risk factor behavior change programs for the entire population of a northeastern city. A diversity of nutrition programs designed to teach new skills and to alter the nutrition environment have been delivered. These include group programs, highlighting restaurant menus, labeling grocery shelf items, screening for blood cholesterol levels accompanied by nutritional counseling, and provision of programs in schools. In addition to standard curricula, the Heart Healthy Cook-Off for both junior high school and high school students has been developed. Students select recipes, make substitutions to lower fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol content, analyze original and substitution recipe nutrient content using a microcomputer and nutrient analysis software, and prepare the food. A panel of judges assesses presentation, taste, and health-promoting characteristics. In one junior high school class, cholesterol measure before and after the cook-off decreased by 10.7% among those with elevated cholesterol. The Heart Healthy Cook-Off is an education program that influences the culinary practices of children in an enjoyable, challenging format. PMID:2042840
Forrester-Knauss Christine; Zemp Stutz Elisabeth
Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eatin...
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Ana Carolina Soares, Amaral; Sebastião de Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available Pesquisadores sugerem que o comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI) em jovens pode sofrer influências de diversos fatores. No entanto, os resultados têm sido controversos. Deste modo, o objetivo do presente estudo foi averiguar os efeitos de insatisfação corporal (IC), grau de comprometimento psico [...] lógico ao exercício (GCPE), nível habitual de atividade física (NAF), índice de massa corporal (IMC), percentual de gordura e etnia sobre o CAI de adolescentes. Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. O Eating attitudes test (EAT-26) foi utilizado para avaliar o CAI. Ademais, utilizou-se o Body shape questionnaire, a commitment exercise scale e o International physical activity questionnaire para avaliar IC, GCPE e NAF, respectivamente. Conduziu-se análise multivariada e regressão múltipla para analisar os dados. Os resultados evidenciaram que a IC, o GCPE, IMC e percentual de gordura influenciaram significativamente (p Abstract in english Researchers suggest that inadequate eating behavior (IEB) in young people can be influenced by several factors. However, the results have been controversial. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of body dissatisfaction (BD), the degree of psychological commitment to exerc [...] ise (DPCE), the usual level of physical activity (LPA), the body mass index (BMI), the fat percentage and ethnicity on CAI in adolescents. The participants included 362 young men and women between 10 and 19 years of age. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess IEB. In addition, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Commitment to Exercise Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to assess BD DPCE and LPA, respectively. Multivariate analysis and multiple regression was conducted to analyze the data. The results showed that BD, DPCE, BMI and body fat percentage significantly influenced (p
Andrade Ana M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.
Rayner, Kathryn E; Schniering, Carolyn A; Rapee, Ronald M; Hutchinson, Delyse M
Although major etiological models highlight the importance of friends in the development of adolescent body image and eating problems, longitudinal research that comprehensively investigates possible direct and mediational relationships between these variables is lacking. Thus, this study aimed to examine prospective interrelationships between perceived friend influence, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in early adolescent girls, and whether these relationships differed across levels of body mass. A large Australian community sample of female high school students (N = 1,094; Time 1 M age = 12.3 years) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived friend influence, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating at 3 yearly intervals. Height and weight were also measured at each time point. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate two separate models, in which Time 2 body dissatisfaction was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between Time 1 perceived friend influence and Time 3 dieting and bulimic behaviors. No significant direct or indirect pathways were found between friend influence and disordered eating. Unexpectedly, however, body dissatisfaction was found to prospectively predict girls' perception of friend influence. These findings were remarkably similar in both healthy and overweight girls. The findings suggest that friends may be more influential for those adolescents who have higher levels of body image concern, rather than contributing directly to the development of body dissatisfaction. The peer environment represents an important consideration in adolescent prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23215623
Eating disorders are conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits and behaviors which may involve excessive or insufficient intake along with the individuals mental and physical health. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa as well as binge eating are the major type of eating disorders. Parental influence has been shown to be a fundamental component in the development process of eating behaviors of children and adolescents, this effect is shaped by a variety of diverse factors including fa...
Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen
Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.
Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn
What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812
Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Leiva, David; Puntí, Joaquim; Trepat, Esther; Pàmias, Montserrat; Palao, Diego
Challenges in the prevention of disordered eating field include moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. This effectiveness trial tested whether this program has effects when previously trained community providers in an integrated approach to prevention implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post-test and 1-year follow-up measures. The sample included girls in the 8th grade from six schools (n = 152 girls) in a city near Barcelona (intervention group), and from eleven schools (n = 413 girls) in four neighboring towns (control group). The MABIC risk factors of disordered eating were assessed as main outcomes. Girls in the intervention group showed significantly greater reductions in beauty ideal internalization, disordered eating attitudes and weight-related teasing from pretest to 1-year follow-up compared to girls in the control group, suggesting that this program is effective under real-world conditions. PMID:26708330
Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye
Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)
Ana Olivia, Ruíz Martínez; Rosalía, Vázquez Arévalo; Juan Manuel, Mancilla Díaz; Carme, Viladrich i Segués; María Elizabeth, Halley Castillo.
Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva multifactorial el presente trabajo es una revisión sobre los factores familiares asociados a los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA), considerando las aportaciones teóricas y empíricas propuestas en artículos nacionales e internacionales. Los resultados de la búsqueda s [...] obre TCA y familia, indican que los principales tópicos investigados son: funcionamiento familiar, relaciones hija-padres, experiencias estresantes, psicopatología familiar, actitudes y conductas hacia el peso, alimentación e imagen corporal en las familias afectadas. Se concluye reconociendo la heterogeneidad de las familias con TCA y la compleja combinación de factores familiares asociados a la psicopatología alimentaria. Se sugiere mayor investigación sobre: funcionamiento familiar de las personas con TCANE, el papel del padre, factores de protección, afrontamiento al estrés, imagen corporal y alimentación familiar. Abstract in english From a multifactorial perspective this study present a review about the family factors associated to eating disorders, considering theoretical and empirical contributions in national and international journals articles . The find of the research about the Eating Disorders and Family, indicate that t [...] he principal topics investigated are: family functioning, daughters and fathers relationships, stressful experiences, family psychopathology, attitudes and behaviors about weigh, eating and body image in the affected families. We conclude recognizing the heterogeneity of the families with Eating Disorders and the complex combination of family factors associated to eating psychopathology. More research is suggested about: family functioning in EDNOS patients, the father's role, protective factors, coping stress, body image and family food.
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed; Nurul Hidayah Nazri; See?Ling Loy
Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals...
Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.
There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating, and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada. Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight, and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight at 4.5 years than were children who were never overeaters. Conclusion Given the association between eating behaviours and bodyweight among 4.5-year-old children, particularly among those from less educated, lower income families and younger mothers, health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity and underweight with focussed messages and strategies for the management of emerging problematic eating behaviours.
The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277
Antonio J. Sanchez-Guarnido
Full Text Available Objective:To establish whether the risk of suffering from an eating disorder (ED is associated with the high-functioning, undercontrolled, or overcontrolled personality prototype groups.Method:The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2 were administered to 69 patients diagnosed as suffering from EDs (cases and 89 people free of any ED symptoms (control group. A cluster analysis was carried out to divide the participants into three groups based on their scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. A logistic regression model was then created.Results:Participants in the undercontrolled group had a risk of suffering from an ED 6.517 times higher than those in the high-functioning group (p = 0.019; odds ratio [OR] = 6.517, while those in the overcontrolled subgroup had a risk of ED 15.972 times higher than those in the high-functioning group.Conclusions:Two personality subtypes were identified in which the risk of EDs was six times higher (the undercontrolled group and almost 16 times higher (the overcontrolled group. Prevention and treatment programs for ED could benefit from focusing on the abovementioned personality profiles.
Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M
We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15?years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R(2)???41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. PMID:26032800
Ao, Mingzhang; Shi, Yue; Cui, Yongming; Guo, Wentao; Wang, Jing; Yu, Longjiang
Glabridin, a polyphenolic isoflavan of Glycyrrhiza glabra, has shown a variety of pharmaceutical properties. We have previously studied the isolation of glabridin using macroporous resin and found that it is partially degraded, giving a dark color. To illustrate the degradation of glabridin, the present work studied the stability of glabridin under various conditions. Licorice extract containing about 20% glabridin, obtained from G. glabra by silica gel column chromatography, was used in the stability study. Seven different factors (temperature, illumination, humidity, pH, solvent, oxygen, and oxidant) were studied and content changes were determined through HPLC analysis. Except for oxygen, all the above factors had an effect on the stability of glabridin, with illumination being the main one. Moreover, the interactions between temperature and pH, temperature and humidity, and illumination and pH can promote the degradation of glabridin. In conclusion, we suggest that a dark, dry and airtight environment provides the optimized condition for the long-term storage of glabridin. PMID:21299118
Full Text Available Association between autism and eating problem has been discussed in US and European countries recently, but there are only a few studies about that matter in Asian countries. Objective: This study provides information about eating behavior in autistic children in comparison with Typically Developing (TD children in two different countries, which are Japan and Indonesia. Method: Participants of this study were 39 Japanese and 13 Indonesian parents with autistic children and 197 Japanese and 144 Indonesian parents of TD. Ages of subjects were between 3 to 6 years old. Eating behavior was evaluated by using Brief Autism Mealtime Inventory (BAMBI completed by parents. Result showed that commonly children in both countries had eating behavior problems and children with autistic showed more problems than TD children. It is estimated that autistic children have a delay in eating development that may influence their eating behaviors. It is also reported that cultural background can be considered as another influencing factor in the difference of eating behavior in each country. Conclusion: Our study provided information that Autism children have problem in eating behavior. It needs to be noticed continually by clinicians and parents, although problem in eating behavior is not a core feature of autism; it can be an associate feature in autism. Key words: Autism, Eating behavior, Children
Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd
Obese subjects frequently show an adversely altered eating behaviour. However, little is known on differences in eating behaviour across different degree of obesity. We analysed data on the three factor eating questionnaire assessing cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger that were filled in by 664 obese patients (469 women) who seeked treatment in our Interdisciplinary Obesity Center. Patients were divided in five BMI classes (30 - 50 kg/m(2)). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that sex was significantly related to all three eating behaviour traits (all P hunger scores (6.9 ± 3.7 vs. 6.3 ± 3.5; P = 0.042). Analyses on different BMI classes revealed that cognitive restraint decreased (P = 0.016) while disinhibition (P = 0.010) and hunger (P = 0.044) increased independently of sex with increasing BMI classes. However, above the obesity grade I class (i.e. BMI 30 - hunger scores than more severe obese patients these dimensions of eating behaviour do not systematically vary across higher BMI classes. PMID:26145273
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S.; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.
The Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) is an established instrument to assess eating behaviour. Analysis of the TFEQ-factor structure was based on selected, convenient and clinical samples so far. Aims of this study were (I) to analyse the factor structure of the German version of the TFEQ and (II)based on the refined factor structureto examine the association between eating behaviour and the body mass index (BMI) in a general population sample of 3,144 middle-aged and older participants (4079 years) of the ongoing population based cohort study of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Health Study). The factor structure was examined in a split-half analysis with both explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between TFEQ-scores and BMI values were tested with multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and education. We found a three factor solution for the TFEQ with an uncontrolled eating, a cognitive restraint and an emotional eating domain including 29 of the original 51 TFEQ-items. Scores of the uncontrolled eating domain showed the strongest correlation with BMI values (partial r = 0.26). Subjects with scores above the median in both uncontrolled eating and emotional eating showed the highest BMI values (mean = 29.41 kg/m²), subjects with scores below the median in all three domains showed the lowest BMI values (mean = 25.68 kg/m²; F = 72.074, pobese individuals. PMID:26230264
Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine
This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be
Angelova, Rosa Angelova; Utermohlen, Virginia
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of local culture on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women. Specifically, we focused on two affiliated factors unique to the Bulgarian context: faith and traditional fasting. Findings revealed that women could be divided into two groups who behaved differently based on the severity of their eating disorder symptomatology. For women with higher EAT-40 scores (i.e., vulnerable women), faith seemed to have harmful effects, perhaps by virtue of motivating or reinforcing asceticism and dietary restraint. For these women fasting was likely but one strategy for weight management and the achievement of a desired thin figure consistent with the socio-cultural models. In contrast, among women with lower EAT-40 scores, faith seemed to have a protective effect against excessive dieting. These women were more likely to use fasting in the way intended by religious scripture, for faith-related reasons that have nothing to do with body image. This study contributes to the literature by emphasizing the importance of culturally unique factors that may be implicated in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and overt eating distress in the trans-cultural context. When expanded, this research can be of use in helping formulate custom interventions and public health policies aimed at preventing such conditions in Bulgaria and possibly in similar post-communist cultures. PMID:23910786
Ganasegeran Kurubaran; Al-Dubai Sami AR; Qureshi Ahmad M; Al-abed Al-abed AA; AM Rizal; Aljunid Syed M
Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating ha...
Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Oken, Emily; Choi, Anna Lai; Korrick, Susan Abigail; Sunderland, Elsie
Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targete...
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed
Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the countrys economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed
Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the countrys economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.
Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Dale A. Schoeller
Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality.
Carmen Daniela DOMNARIU
Full Text Available The development of eating behaviours is a dynamic process that begins in infancy and continues throughout life, being strongly influenced by the family models. Our study aimed to evaluate the food behaviour in children aged 11, 13 and 15 years old in relation to the family models. We did a cross-sectional study in 206 school children from Sibiu county (rural and urban areas using the Romanian version of HBSC questionnaire. We analysed the frequency of breakfast and dinner with the family, the lunch circumstances, the frequency of snacks during playtime or computer work, the family influence on the consumption of certain unhealthy foods, the frequency of fast-food restaurants attendance and the compliance of family dining rules. High proportions of children were found not to have breakfast with family, to eat snacks during playtime and to receive soft drinks, sweets and chips without restriction. Also a high proportion of children in urban areas use to have the lunch at school (as a snack due to the school program. By opposite, the situation seemed much better in relation to dinner, most of the children having daily dinners with their parents. Also a low percent of children use to visit the fast food restaurants. Moderate compliance was found in relation to family dining rules. This results are quite concerning, showing limited involvement of the parents and moderate influence of family modelling in relation to the children eating behaviour.
Oken, Emily; Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan
BACKGROUND: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices.[br/] OBJECTIVES: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories.[br/] METHODS: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on ad...
Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Palmeira, Antonio L; Gaspar, Tania; De Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra
The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier. PMID:26564992
Moore, Malcolm A
The major environmental risk factors for cancer are carcinogen and co-carcinogen exposure in tobacco, insufficient exercise and above all an unhealthy diet. What we eat or do not eat is exceedingly important in determining what cancers or other chronic disease we may suffer from. Carcinogens may be integral contaminants of the diet, like nitrosamines in some situations and aflatoxins, or may be generated by cooking processes, as is known to be the case for heterocyclic amine pyrolysis products. Examples of co-carcinogenic agents may include grit in bread products, salt in pickles or betel in chewing quids. Dietary insufficiencies, for example of zinc, may also act to increase sensitivity to genetic damage, for example. Influence on metabolism of carcinogens, like induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione S transferases, further directly impacts on carcinogenicity. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables are typical examples of protective agents acting in this way. In addition we have dietary fibre which can decrease carcinogen exposure through accelerating passage of faeces through the gut. Other types of fibre, the soluble forms, can act to decrease uptake of glucose and thus suppress insulin exposure, an important factor for colon cancer. Natural anti-inflammatory agents like N-3 fatty acids in fish offer another example of preventive factors in the diet. Individual dietary components, like isoflavones in soy products, can interfere with hormone function to exert a beneficial action, as on the breast. Other compounds may act via stimulation of the immune system like lactoferrin and betaglucans. Perhaps the most important influence of diet on cancer, however, in a world of increasing comfort and ease of access to foodstuffs, is through over-eating and consequent obesity. Given the importance of diet to all our lives, we need to focus on all possible interactive effects in providing an evidence base to guide our choices regarding what we should eat in Asia. PMID:20192570
Azanza, F; Tadmor, Y; Klein, B P; Rocheford, T R; Juvik, J A
This study was conducted to ascertain the chromosomal location and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the chemical and sensory properties of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) eating quality. Eighty-eight RFLPs, 3 cloned genes (sh1, sh2, and dhn1), and 2 morphological markers (a2 and se1) distributed throughout the sweet corn genome were scored in 214 F2:3 families derived from a cross between the inbreds W6786su1Se1 and IL731Asu1se1. Kernel properties associated with eating quality (kernel tenderness and starch, phytoglycogen, sucrose, and dimethyl sulfide concentrations) were quantified on F2:3 sib-pollinated ears harvested at 20 days after pollination. Sensory evaluation was conducted on a subset of 103 F2:3 families to determine intensity of attributes associated with sweet corn eating quality (corn aroma, grassy aroma, sweetness, starchiness, grassy flavor, crispness, tenderness, and juiciness) and overall liking. Single factor analysis of variance revealed significant QTL for all these traits, which accounted for from 3 to 42% of the total phenotypic variation. A proportion of the RFLP markers associated with human sensory response were also found to be associated with kernel characteristics. To our knowledge this is the first report of the identification of QTL associated with human flavor preferences in any food crop. Key words : sweet corn, RFLP, quantitative trait loci, eating quality, sensory evaluation. PMID:18469876
Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad
Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...
Booth, David A.
Contents (headings of main sections of the Chapter). Introduction. Excitation and Inhibition of Ingestion by Level of Sweetness. Learnt Preferences for Levels of Sweetness. The Learnt Peak of Preference for Level of Sweetener. The Peak of Learnt Facilitation by Any Sensory Factor. Missing the [Ideal] Point. Ingestive Appetite and Food Preference Responses. Each Food Has a Different Taste. Cognitive Mechanisms That Convert Sensing into Ingesting. ...
A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)
Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Kettenbaum, Myriam; Klicker, Kristina
Fitness cues on food packages are a common marketing practice in the food sector. This study aims to find out whether and how fitness cues influence food consumption. The results of two field studies show that, even though eating fitness-cued food does not help consumers become more fit, the claims on the packaging increase both serving size and actual food consumption. This effect is mediated by serving size inferences. Also, consumers feel less guilty and perceive themselves closer to desired fitness levels after having consumed the food. The findings show that packaging cues relating to energy expenditure can increase energy intake despite the fact that consumers are not engaged in any actual physical activity while eating the food. PMID:23395603
Czyzyk, J K; Jakóbisiak, M
We have examined the influence of cyclosporine A (CsA) on thyroid gland function during development of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in CBA (H-2k) mice, delivering the agent in different regimens and doses, either as commercial intravenous preparation or encapsulated into liposomes. The evaluation of autoimmunity was done by the assessment of serum concentration of thyroxine (T4). We showed that a high dose CsA (360 mg/kg) prevented the development of thyroid deficiency whereas a small dose (25-60 mg/kg) potentiated the decrease of T4 serum level. Moreover, we found that the same dose of CsA enclosed in liposomes and of its commercial preparation can have different effect on T4 level in mice with EAT. PMID:8744686
This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412
Morales Pernalete, Adaucio Ramón; Gordillo Gutierrez, Carlos Alfredo; Pérez Alvarado, Carlos José; Marcano Flores, Daniela Alejandra; Pérez Pérez, Francisco Antonio; Flores Navas, Heymir Lorena; Pérez Navea, Jenifer Marian; Pérez Linarez, Mayela Andreina; Meléndez Flores, Patricia María
Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most frequent alteration in eating behavior and can affect adolescents. The aim was to determine the prevalence of BED, risk factors, and its association with obesity in adolescents in a secondary education institution of Barquisimeto, Venezuela, between September 2013 and February 2014. A sample of 500 adolescents of both sexes (252 male), between 11 and 18 years of age was studied. A questionnaire was applied and anthropometric measurements were performed: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-height index. According to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - V, the prevalence of BED was 7.80%. Risk factors were male gender, age > 14 years, body image dissatisfaction, family dysfunction, depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Binge eating disorder was a risk factor for global obesity and central obesity. The prevalence of BED was higher than internationally found for the general population. Important psychosocial risk factors that should be considered in the implementation of prevention and control strategies were identified. PMID:25643689
The central scientific objective of the current dissertation was to take a multidisciplinary approach to make use of the full potential information, both scientific and clinical to aid prevention and treatment of EDs. In our studies we assessed a.) social and individual risk factors in EDs (Study 1), b.) empirical ED subtypes based on drive for thinness (DT) and depression (Study 2) and c.) the classification based on these four different empirical ED subtypes without cluster analysis and bas...
Ross, Arlene Anne
Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationships between an adolescents weight and parenting style, emotional eating, and emotional regulation and lifestyle behaviours to further develop the understanding of the factors that contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. Design: A cross sectional survey design was used. Method: 112 adolescents, aged between 16 and 18 from three secondary schools in Scotland completed a self-report questionnaire on their m...
Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208
Wu, Sam SX; Jeremiah J Peiffer; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R.
Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly o...
Grimm, Eleanor R; Steinle, Nanette I
Understanding why we eat and the motivational factors driving food choices is important to addressing the epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Eating behavior is a complex interplay of physiologic, psychological, social, and genetic factors that influence meal timing, quantity of food intake, and food preference. Here we review the current and emerging knowledge of the genetic influences of eating behavior and how these relate to obesity with particular emphasis on the g...
KLUMP, KELLY L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Sisk, Cheryl L.
Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge...
Keel, Pamela K.; Forney, K. Jean; Tiffany A. Brown; Heatherton, Todd F.
Research supports both concurrent and prospective associations between peer behaviors and disordered eating levels in late adolescent and young adult men and women. However, no study has examined peer influence after a follow-up duration over which peer groups change dramatically. This study examined how college roommates dieting predicted disordered eating levels in women (n=566) and men (n=233) at 10-year follow-up. For women, college roommate dieting significantly predicted Drive for Thin...
Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of excess
Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits - associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders [Ref. (1-3) for reviews], it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n?=?412) of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of excessive appetitive behaviors. PMID:24409156
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby
Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality r...... 1.14 respectively. When comparing two retrospective cohorts it is not possible to draw a definite conclusion, however the present study supports that integrating a somatic unit in a multidisciplinary centre may have a favourable influence on mortality in AN....
Full Text Available Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM, however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death.
Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S.
Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk fact...
Full Text Available La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria está aumentando en los países industrializados y hay evidencia de que son las mujeres jóvenes las que tienen un mayor riesgo para desarrollar este tipo de patologías. Esa es la razón por la que los programas de prevención e intervención son tan importantes. Para desarrollar tales programas es necesario identificar los factores de riesgo relevantes que contribuyen a la aparición de este trastorno. En la presente investigación se analizan variables sociales relacionadas con el riesgo a desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (comparaciones sociales, actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia y la ansiedad social en una muestra no clínica de 375 mujeres. Los resultados muestran que la comparación social está directa e indirectamente (a través de la ansiedad social relacionada de forma positiva con el riesgo para desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, mientras que las actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia lo hace de forma indirecta (a través de la ansiedad social y positiva con los problemas de la conducta alimentaria. Finalmente, se discute la importancia de incluir estas variables sociales en los programas de prevención e intervención.
Micali, N; De Stavola, B; Ploubidis, G; Simonoff, E; Treasure, J; Field, A E
BackgroundEating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors.AimsTo investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children.MethodData were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions.ResultsChildhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys.ConclusionsRisk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865
Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra
Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology. PMID:25936287
Suggestions are given to beginners considering the factors which influence the accuracy of radio-immunological assay (RIA). Contrary to some industrial circulars it was deduced from the investigations that the much cheaper glass tube is just so fit for RIA as the plastic one. Possible pH-shift during the incubation may change in a great extent the rate of the immune reactions. These processes can be only slightly influenced by the change of temperature. More possibilities are suggested to eliminate the disturbance derived from the aspecific reaction of proteins in the samples. At last the determination of four indices is discussed which characterize the confidence to the results of RIA: the limited deviation from the mean result of parallel samples: the reproducibility; the dilution and specificity control. (D.E.)
Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad
Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.
Yong Jun Park; Chang Min Moon; Hwang Jae Yoo
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and prese...
Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward
The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,
Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward
The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,â¦
Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Monica E; Winegard, Ben; Winegard, Bo
The relative impact of genetic and social influences on disordered eating behaviors (DEB) including binging, purging, excessive dieting and negative self-evaluations about weight remain an issue of debate. The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and social influences on DEB. A 7-year prospective analysis of 580 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins was conducted. Estimates of heritability of DEB were obtained using the DF Analysis Model. Regression equations revealed the relative predictive value of sibling's DEB, neurotic personality, maternal warmth and television and video game exposure on DEB. Heritability estimates for DEB were 0.40 for females and 0.48 for males. Among MZ and DZ twin pairs, female sex, neurotic personality and a genetic variable component, but not maternal warmth or school related problems, predicted DEB. Contrary to the expectations of media effects theory, greater media use was associated with lower DEB among DZ twins and had no influence on MZ twins. These results indicate that DEB is highly heritable and that personality variables may play an important role in the formation of DEB. This suggests that it is important to control for genetic variables when analyzing risk factors for DEB. PMID:22278805
Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Lumbers, Margaret
3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversity of each of the national populations based on education, income and urbanization of living...... kitchen facilities, access to good service providers and support from friends and neighbours, all contributed to how varied a diet they ate....
Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others
Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,
Paulla Guimarães Melo
Full Text Available Objective Investigate binge eating (BE prevalence in women according to the obesity degree and assess the associated factors. Methods Cross-sectional study with female adults presenting body mass index (BMI ? 35 kg/m2. The analyzed variables were: sociodemographics, health status, obesity history, lifestyle, eating behavior and obesity degree. In order to analyse BE it was used the Binge Eating Scale (BES, which is considered positive when BES ? 18 points. Prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated with confidence intervals (CI of 95%. Multivariate analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Results BE prevalence was 53.2%, and the prevalence in super superobese women (BMI ? 60 kg/m2 was 75%. After multivariate analysis, associations were observed between the age group 40-49 years old (PR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2-3.4 and the snacking habit (PR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2-2.9. Conclusion The prevalence of BE in severe obese women was high. Association with the snacking habit can be a BE marker that should be monitored in the severely obese individuals that fit this profile.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dropout (DO is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs, but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. Methods All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009 were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed. Results The dropout rates ranged from 20.2% to 51% (inpatient and from 29% to 73% (outpatient. Predictors of dropout were inconsistent due to methodological flaws and limited sample sizes. There is no evidence that baseline ED clinical severity, psychiatric comorbidity or treatment issues affect dropout. The most consistent predictor is the binge-purging subtype of anorexia nervosa. Good evidence exists that two psychological traits (high maturity fear and impulsivity and two personality dimensions (low self-directedness, low cooperativeness are related to dropout. Conclusion Implications for clinical practice and areas for further research are discussed. Particularly, these results highlight the need for a shared definition of dropout in the treatment of eating disorders for both inpatient and outpatient settings. Moreover, the assessment of personality dimensions (impulse control, self-efficacy, maturity fear and others as liability factors for dropout seems an important issue for creating specific strategies to reduce the dropout phenomenon in eating disorders.
Reyna María, Cruz Bojórquez; María Luisa, Ávila Escalante; Héctor Julián, Velázquez López; Damaris Francis, Estrella Castillo.
Full Text Available Los medios de comunicación, el ambiente social y los factores personales desempeñan un papel importante como factores de riesgo de los TCA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación entre las influencias socioculturales del modelo estético corporal con las cogniciones que son caracter [...] ísticas de los TCA, en estudiantes de licenciatura en nutrición. Se contó con 112 participantes (88 mujeres y 24 hombres) estudiantes de la licenciatura en nutrición. 15.9% de las mujeres y el 20.8% de los hombres presentaron insatisfacción corporal. Los hombres presentaron significativamente mayor malestar patológico, influencia de la publicidad y perfeccionismo que las mujeres. Tanto en hombres y mujeres se muestra una correlación significativa entre la interiorización de un cuerpo delgado y la insatisfacción corporal. Casi la mitad de los participantes (48%) presenta una interiorización del modelo estético de delgadez. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre la interiorización de un modelo estético delgado y la insatisfacción corporal, lo cual indica que dicha insatisfacción está mediada por aquellos estándares provenientes de los medios de comunicación. Abstract in english The media, the social environment and personal factors play an important role as risk factors for eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociocultural influences body shape model with cognitions that are characteristic of eating disorders in undergraduate n [...] utrition. Participated 112 students (88 women and 24 men) undergraduate students in nutrition. 15.9% of women and 20.8% of the men had body dissatisfaction. Men showed significantly greater pathological distress advertising influence and perfectionism than women. Both men and women shows a significant correlation between the internalization of a thin body and body dissatisfaction. Almost half of the participants (48%) had an internalization body thin model. Significant correlations were found between the internalization of a thin aesthetic model and body dissatisfaction, which indicates that this dissatisfaction is mediated by those standards from the media.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating habits and psychosocial factors. Results Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 22.7 (±2.4 years and (the age ranged from 18 to 30?years. More than half had regular meals and breakfast (57.6% &, 56.1% respectively. Majority (73.5% consumed fruits less than three times per week, 51.5% had fried food twice or more a week and 59.8% drank water less than 2 liters daily. Eating habits score was significantly low among younger students (1822?years, smokers, alcohol drinkers and those who did not exercise. (ppp Conclusion Most of the students in this study had healthy eating habits. Social and psychological factors were important determinants of eating habits among medical students.
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby
Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality rates in a sample of ED patients (n=998) with a mean follow-up of 12 years. This was compared to previous data from the same catchment area before a multidisciplinary centre was established. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated. To compare the two cohorts, adjusted crude ratios were calculated with the confounding variables: body mass index (BMI), age at referral and diagnosis. In the latest cohort the SMR for AN was 2.89 vs 11.16 in the time before our specialization. SMR for bulimia nervosa (BN) and for eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in the latest cohort were 2.37 and 1.14 respectively. When comparing two retrospective cohorts it is not possible to draw a definite conclusion, however the present study supports that integrating a somatic unit in a multidisciplinary centre may have a favourable influence on mortality in AN. PMID:26391650
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Bilenberg, Niels
Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is well established that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have an increased risk of premature death, whereas mortality data are lacking for the other EDs. This study aimed to establish mortality rates in a sample of ED patients (n=998) with a mean follow-up of 12 years. This was compared to previous data from the same catchment area before a multidisciplinary centre was established. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated. To compare the two cohorts, adjusted crude ratios were calculated with the confounding variables: body mass index (BMI), age at referral and diagnosis. In the latest cohort the SMR for AN was 2.89 vs 11.16 in the time before our specialization. SMR for bulimia nervosa (BN) and for eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in the latest cohort were 2.37 and 1.14 respectively. When comparing two retrospective cohorts it is not possible to draw a definite conclusion, howeverthe present study supports that integrating a somatic unit in a multidisciplinary centre may have a favourable influence on mortality in AN.
GonÃ§alves, SÃ³nia; Silva, Elsa Marina da Costa e Silva; Gomes, AntÃ³nio Rui
This study aims to compare eating behaviours, body satisfaction, exercise and life satisfaction between normal-weight and overweight postmenopausal women, and to examine the predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction among postmenopausal women (n= 294) . The overweight group had more eating disordered behaviour, more body dissatisfaction, and lower physical quality of life. The increase of age predicted less disordered eating. Higher BMI, the perception of an ideal weight lower tha...
The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: tradução para o português e aplicação em mulheres brasileiras The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: translation and administration to Brazilian women
Lara Cristiane Natacci
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e discutir a relação dos comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar entre si e com os parâmetros antropométricos: índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. MÉTODOS: Tradução para o português e aplicação do The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens, com subsequente comparação aos parâmetros antropométricos de 125 mulheres trabalhadoras do Instituto Central do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, escolhidas casualmente em um grupo de 800 interessados em orientação nutricional. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se associações entre a alimentação emocional e o descontrole alimentar, além de associações entre alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: O The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens mostrou-se um instrumento adequado para identificar os comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, padrões de comportamentos cuja análise pode servir como ponto de partida para a adoção de estratégias de abordagem de orientação nutricional em programas de controle de peso.OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed and discussed how cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors interrelate and relate with the anthropometric parameters BMI and waist circumference. METHODS: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire consisting of 21 items was translated into Portuguese, administered to 125 female employees from the Central Unit of the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine Clinics Hospital and compared with the anthropometric data of these women who had been casually selected from a group of 800 individuals interested in nutrition counseling. RESULTS: Emotional eating was found to be associated with bingeing, body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire with 21 items proved to effectively identify cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors. Analysis of these behavior patterns can be the starting point for the implementation of strategies for approaching nutrition counseling in weight-control programs.
Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary
Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016
Toro, J; Galilea, B; Martinez-Mallén, E; Salamero, M; Capdevila, L; Mari, J; Mayolas, J; Toro, E
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and risk factors for their development in female athletes. Two hundred and eighty-three elite sportswomen, competing in 20 different sports, were administered the EAT, the CETCA (the Eating Disorders Assessment Questionnaire, based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria), and two other inventories which evaluated 1) the possible influence on eating disorders of exposure of the body in public and 2) pressure from coaches regarding eating habits, weight, physical appearance and performance. More than 11% of subjects had scores above the cut-off point (>30) on the EAT questionnaire, a proportion similar to that found in a general female population in Spain. On the basis of the CETCA score, AN was putatively diagnosed in 2.5% of the sample, and BN in 20.1%. Though some of these cases may have been EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specified), the proportion of athletes suffering from some kind of eating disorder was five times higher than in the general population (22.6% vs. 4.1%). No differences were found between the sportswomen and the general population in terms of specific risk behaviours and attitudes, but a substantial subgroup of athletes presented two or more of these risk behaviours. Exposure of the body in public seems to be a risk factor for eating disorders in general, and pressure from coaches seems to be a risk factor for bulimia. PMID:16158377
Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)
Tanner, Kelly; Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R
Selective eating is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine a new definition of selective eating, compare behavioral measures between children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating, and determine relationships among behavioral measures and measures of selective eating. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of number of foods eaten compared with a population-based sample. Results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance indicated no overall effect of group for challenging behaviors, sensory reactivity, or repetitive behaviors. Between-participant tests indicated that scores for compulsive behaviors were significantly lower (p = .036) for the selective eating group. Correlations were moderately strong among variables relating to food intake and behavioral variables, but were not significant between selective eating and behavioral variables. Further research is needed to validate the definition of selective eating and to identify targets for intervention. PMID:26565096
I. G. Rudakova
Full Text Available Eating epilepsy (EE is one of the types of reflex epilepsy. The authors give the definition, classification position, possible pathogenic mechanisms and etiological factors associated with EE, as well as the semiology of seizures, the data of neuroimaging and electroencephalography and approaches to patient management and drug treatment. They also describe their observation of an 11-month-old girl with symptomatic focal temporal lobe epilepsy with focal dialeptic seizures provoked by eating.
Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.
Background: Disordered eating patterns continue to surface on college campuses. Studies are needed to examine the potential influence of emotional intelligence on disordered eating behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between perceived emotional intelligence factors and eating disorder symptoms among male and
Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Robinson, Caroline O.; Roth, David L.; West, Delia Smith; Burgio, Kathryn L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between medical, functional, economic, oral health, social, religious, and psychological factors and under-eating in homebound older adults. The focus of the study was on identifying potentially modifiable factors amenable to social and behavioral interventions. Design and Methods: A
Thiemann, Pia; Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Platen, Petra; Auyeung, Bonnie; Herpertz, Stephan
This study examines putative non-sport-specific and sport-specific risk factors for eating disorders (ED) among groups of professional female athletes versus non-athletes. In detail, societal pressure to be thin, its internalisation, body dissatisfaction, sports pressure and early specialisation were investigated. The cross-sectional study included 46 aesthetic and 62 ball game sports athletes, and 108 age-matched non-athletes. Study methods comprised a clinical interview to detect ED and questionnaires. More athletes from aesthetic (17%) than from ball game sports (3%) and non-athletes (2%) suffered from ED. Aesthetic sports athletes did not differ from non-athletes in non-sport-specific factors but obtained higher levels than ball game sports athletes in sport-specific variables (p?body dissatisfaction as significant predictors. The results confirm ED risk for German aesthetic athletes and indicate the importance of sports pressure and body dissatisfaction in explaining athletes' vulnerability. PMID:25828261
Fernando Rodrigo Tortato
Full Text Available The activity period of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous was studied in the Itajaí valley, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, through camera traps during a 15-month survey. The existence of relationships between this behavior and abiotic factors was also investigated. We found that the crab-eating foxs activity is basically nocturnal (54% and crepuscular (25%. It has been classified as cathemeral. However, there were no relationships among the abiotic factors estimated (rainfall, temperature and lunar phases.
Resna Nurhantika Sary
Full Text Available AbstractLatar belakang: Anemia masih merupakan masalah kesehatan pada wanita yang dapat mengganggu performa kerja termasuk pramugari. Tujuan penelitian ialah untuk mengidentifiasi faktor-faktor dominan terhadap anemia pada pramugari. Metode: Penelitian potong lintang dengan metode sampling purposif pada pramugari yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan pada 1-15 Mei 2013. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan formulir khusus untuk penelitian ini. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah karakteristik demografi dan pekerjaan, kebiasaan makan, riwayat haid, indeks masa tubuh (IMT, serta kadar hemoglobin. Kadar hemoglobin berasal dari rekam medik di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan.Â Anemia ialah jika kadar hemoglobin kurang dari 12 g/dl. Hasil: Di antara 225 pramugari yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan, 185 d pramugari berusia 18-46 tahun bersedia untuk berpartisipasi studi ini, dan 28,1% menderita anemia. Frekuensi makan daging merah per minggu, masa kerja total, jenis penerbangan, dan menstruasi merupakan faktor risiko yang dominan yang berhubungan dengan anemia. Faktor risiko yang paling dominan adalah makan daging merah / minggu. Pramugari yang makan daging 3 kali atau lebih dalam per minggu dibandingkan yang kurang dari 3 kali per minggu berisiko 43% lebih kecil mengalami anemia [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 0,57; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 0,32â1,03; P = 0,064]. Pramugari yang mengalami menstruasi berlebihan dibandingkan yang menstruasi normal memiliki risiko 3,5 kali lebih tinggi mengalami anemia (RRa = 3,45; P = 0,000. Kesimpulan: Kebiasaan makan daging kurang dari tiga kali seminggu dan yang mengalami menstruasi berlebihan memiliki risiko lebih tinggi mengalami anemia di antara Pramugari di Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:67-72Kata kunci: anemia, pramugari, daging merah, menstruasi, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Anemia is a health problem in women that can interfere work performance including female flight attendant. This study aimed to identify several dominant risk factors related to anemia in female flight attendants. Method: A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling was conducted to female flight attendant who performing periodic medical check-up at the Civil Aviation Medical Center, Jakarta on May 1-152013. Data collected using structured questionnaire. The data collected were demographic data, job characteristics, the characteristics of eating habits, menstrual history, body mass index, and hemoglobin levels. Hemoglobin levels were taken from flight attendantâs medical records at the Civil Aviation Medical Center, Jakarta. Anemia defined if hemoglobin levels less than12 g/dl. Results: Out of 225 female flight attendants who did medical checkup, 185 of them age 18-46 years old who willing to participate in this study, and 28.1% of them had anemia. Frequency of eating red meat/week, total working period, type of flight, and menstruation were dominant risk factors related to anemia. The most dominant risk factor was of eating red meat/week. Flight attendant who had eat meat for 3 times or more a week compared to less than 3 times a week had 43% less riskof having anemia [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.32 â 1.03; P = 0.064. Flight attendant who had heavy flow menstruation than normal flow menstruation have 3.45 times higher risk of having anemia [RRa = 3.45; P = 0.000].Conclusion: Flight attendant who had eating meat habit less than three times a week and having menstrual heavy flow has a high risk of having anemia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:67-72Key words: anemia, flight attendant, meat, menstruation, Indonesia
Gregory J Privitera; Cooper, Kathryn C.; Alexis R. Cosco
Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies.To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR).Two samples of college students wh...
Gregory J. Privitera
Full Text Available Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies.To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR.Two samples of college students who exhibit HDR, which is a group likely to use behavioral strategies to manage intake, were selected in a prescreening session. Participants were told how fast or slow to eat (Variation 1 or allowed to eat at their own pace (Variation 2. Self-reported satiety during the meal and amount consumed was recorded. The types of foods, macronutrient intakes, weights of foods, order of food intakes, and the dimensions of foods were held constant between groups to control for group differences in the sensory and hedonic qualities of the meals.Eating slower enhanced mid-meal satiety ratings, but only when instructions were given to eat fast or slow (Variation 1. In both variations, eating slower did not reduce amount consumed in the meal, although each variation had sufficient power to detect differences.Eating slower is not likely to be an effective strategy to control intake in a meal among those exhibiting HDR.
Reynolds, Carl L.
A recent study conducted at the University of Illinois on what influences college students to consider the agricultural education curriculum showed that the curriculum choice process is somewhat different for agricultural education majors than for students in the non-agricultural education group. Important influences include vocational agriculture
Relevancia de Factores de Riesgo, Psicopatología Alimentaria, Insatisfacción Corporal y Funcionamiento Psicológico en Pacientes con TCA / Relevant Risk Factors, Current Eating Psychopathology, Body Shape Concern and Psychological Functioning in Eating Disorders
Anna, Carretero García; Luís, Sánchez Planell; Jordi, Rusiñol Estragués; Rosa M.ª, Raich Escursell; David, Sánchez Carracedo.
Full Text Available Objetivo: El primer objetivo del estudio es evaluar restrospectivamente, la relevancia de factores de riesgo en pacientes con Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA) en función de la categoría diagnóstica. El segundo objetivo, es evaluar la psicopatología alimentaria, la insatisfacción corporal y [...] el funcionamiento psicológico en cada grupo diagnóstico. Método: Se evalúa en el momento previo al tratamiento de TCA, un total de 73 pacientes con diferentes criterios diagnósticos: Bulimia Nerviosa Purgativa (BN-P; n=29), la provisional forma diagnóstica del Trastorno por Atracón (TA; n=6), el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Purgativo (TCANE-P; n=17) y el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Restrictivo (TCANE-R; n=21). Resultados: Se hallan como factores de riesgo de consistencia el antecedente de obesidad y el inicio del TCA en la adolescencia. El inicio de la menarquia en la edad temprana no resulta ser un factor de riesgo. El Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) refleja la sintomatología alimentaria de cada cuadro diagnóstico. El grupo BN-P, se caracteriza por presentar mayor severidad en la sintomatología alimentaria. La mayoría de grupos presenta larga duración de la enfermedad, dificultades en la imagen corporal, el funcionamiento psicosocial y características de personalidad. El sentimiento de ineficacia no fue una característica clínica en casos de TA. Conclusiones: El que los antecedentes de obesidad se hayan mostrado como un factor de riesgo de consistencia en los TCA es un argumento más a favor de la necesidad de su prevención. Las dificultades en el funcionamiento psicosocial encontradas en casos clínicos con TA, avalarían la necesidad de líneas de intervención de tipo más interpersonal en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective: The first aim of this study is a retrospective assessment of relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (ED). The second aim is to study eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning assessment in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evalua [...] tion before intervention of 73 patients with Bulimia Nervosa Purging type (BN-P; n=29), Binge Eating Disorder (BED; n=6), Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Purging type (EDNOS-P; n=17) and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Restrictive type (EDNOS-R; n=21). Findings: Consistent risk factors in the precedent of obesity and the beginning of the ED in adolescence. The young age at which menarche occurred was not a risk factor. The eating symptomatology of each diagnostic category reflected the nutritional state. The BN-P group presented a more severe eating symptomatology. The majority of the groups had long duration illness and had difficulties with body shape, social performance, and personality problems. The feeling of ineffectiveness was not a clinical characteristic in Binge eating cases. Conclusion: The precedent of obesity showed up as a consolidated risk factor in eating disorders, supporting the necessity of prevention. Difficulties found in social performance in binge eating support the necessity of interpersonal intervention.
Hábitos alimentares na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares e fatores associados em idosos hipertensos / Eating habits in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and associated factors in elderly hypertensive individuals
Sabrina Dalbosco, Gadenz; Luís Antônio, Benvegnú.
Full Text Available As doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de morte e incapacidade em idosos. Nesta pesquisa, foram identificados hábitos alimentares saudáveis e fatores associados à prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares entre idosos hipertensos. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com coleta de dados primário [...] s em uma unidade de saúde da família pertencente a um município do interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Participaram do estudo 212 idosos hipertensos. Verificou-se maior prevalência de idosos jovens, do sexo feminino, com poucos anos de estudo e de baixa renda. Os hábitos alimentares saudáveis dos idosos hipertensos avaliados estão aquém daqueles preconizados. Fatores socioeconômicos, características de saúde e utilização dos serviços de saúde influenciaram na prática de hábitos alimentares saudáveis. Os resultados desse estudo sugerem que os idosos hipertensos estão encontrando dificuldade para adotar hábitos alimentares saudáveis; contribuem ainda para a definição de estratégias para o trabalho cotidiano de prevenção e controle das doenças cardiovasculares em idosos. Abstract in english Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in the elderly. In this study, healthy eating habits and associated factors in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in elderly hypertensive individuals were identified. It involved a cross-sectional study gathering primary dat [...] a in a family health unit in a city in the interior of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and 212 elderly hypertensive individuals participated in the study. A higher prevalence among the lower age bracket of elderly individuals, female, with little schooling and low income was revealed. Healthy eating habits among the elderly hypertensive individuals assessed are below those recommended in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Social and economic factors, health characteristics and the use of health services influenced the adoption of healthy eating habits. The results of this study suggest that elderly hypertensive individuals find it difficult to adopt healthy eating habits. This contributes further to the definition of strategies for routine prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly.
Courty, Annaig; Godart, Nathalie; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie
Socio-affective difficulties, in particular difficulties in representing, communicating and feeling emotions, may play a critical role in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore the links between alexithymia and two types of difficulties in AN: eating symptoms and social avoidance. Sixty adolescent girls with AN were recruited following hospitalisation in a specialised department. They completed self-administered questionnaires of alexithymia (TAS-20), of central symptoms of the eating disorders (EDI), and of anxious and depressive affects (SCL-90). Anxiety and social avoidance were assessed in the course of a standardised interview (LSAS). These measures were performed at inclusion, and at 6-, 12- and 18-months' follow-up. The relationship between TAS-20 and EDI or LSAS total scale scores across the four time points was assessed using mixed-effects models, including anxiety, depression, BMI, anorexia subtype, and age as co-factors. Partial least square regression was used to refine this multivariate analysis at subscale level, at inclusion and 18 months. Robust associations between TAS-20 and EDI scores were found, independently from anxious and depressive scores, nutritional state and AN subtype. These effects appeared more particularly linked to the implication of the dimensions difficulties identifying and describing feelings, interpersonal mistrust, feelings of inadequacy and interoceptive awareness deficit. There was also a durable association between alexithymia and social anxiety and avoidance, after adjusting for the confounding effects of depression, and anxiety, and the state of starvation. Difficulties in describing feelings appeared particularly involved here. Thus alexithymia does appear as a factor in the persistence of disorders in AN, and difficulties identifying and describing feelings could compound the social difficulties and major the relational isolation of these patients. PMID:25443977
Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John
outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family...... context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on children's healthy eating should be reinforced....
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The 'Fragebogen zum Essverhalten' (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour ('cognitive restraint', 'disinhibition' and 'hunger') as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40-79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p?0.001). Older individuals showed significantly higher mean scores than the younger ones in the domain of cognitive restraint, but lower mean scores in disinhibition and hunger (p?0.001). 45.1% of the males and 69.9% of the females reported specific problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. PMID:25889877
Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim
Eating problems are highly prevalent and seem to show continuity in children. Nevertheless, the effect of different maternal and paternal feeding practices on changes in these problems is not fully understood yet. This study examines short-term continuity in primary school children's overeating, loss of control (over eating), restraint and
Wade, Tracey D.; Davidson, Susan; O'Dea, Jennifer A.
Investigates the enjoyment and perceived value associated with two interventions designed to reduce risk factors for eating disorders in young adolescents, a media literacy program or a self-esteem program. Overall, the media literacy program was the intervention preferred by students. Students in both interventions said that they had learnt to
Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.
... us in our mission. F.E.A.S.T.'s Eating Disorders Glossary Welcome to our comprehensive quick-reference eating ... Conversion Weight Manipulation Weight restoration, weight restored Zinc Eating disorders biology & pharmacology Antidepressants BDNF - brain-derived neurotophic factor ...
Suzane Mota Marques, Costa; Paula Martins, Horta; Luana Caroline, dos Santos.
Full Text Available Publicidad de los alimentos y la exposición a la televisión: Influencia sobre la conducta alimentaria y el estado nutricional de los niños y adolescentes. El estudio objetivó evaluar la influencia de la publicidad de alimentos y la exposición a la televisión en la conducta alimentaria y estado nutri [...] cional de niños y adolescentes. El estudio es transversal con 116 estudiantes de una escuela privada en Brasil. Información sociodemográfica y de la condición de salud fueron evaluadas. Antropometria, el consumo de alimentos, practica de actividad física, hábitos de ver la televisión y el comportamiento en relación con la publicidad de alimentos también fueron investigados. Entre los resultados, una relación de 1:2 fue identificada entre el número de televisores por hogar y los residentes. El exceso de peso estaba presente en 25,8% de los sujetos y 66,4% de ellos veían la televisión mientras comían las refecciones. Los niños fueron expuestos a la televisión por un promedio de 3,0 horas al día (95% IC: 2,9-3,6). Se observó una asociación directa entre la atracción de los alimentos anunciados y la compra del producto (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were eva [...] luated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p
Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam
Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our und...
Ma Teresa Rivera-Gallardo
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgico de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños.Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.
Ma Teresa, Rivera-Gallardo; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Jorge Armando, Barriguete-Meléndez.
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgic [...] o de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños. Abstract in english Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cor [...] tical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.
Novák, Pavel; Vitouová, K.; Potulková, Michaela; Brányik, T.; R?i?ka, Marek
Vol. Session 1. - : -, 2013, T2:P26. ISBN N. [Conference of European Colloid and Interface Society /27./. Sofia (BG), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer * gushing * physical factors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.ecis2013.org/
This paperâs aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the âwhyâ and âhowâ questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...
Slof-Op't Landt, Margarita C T; Bartels, Meike; Middeldorp, Christel M; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Furth, Eric F; Meulenbelt, Ingrid
Genes are involved in eating disorders (EDs) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom of different types of EDs. Perfectionism and impulsivity are potential risk factors for EDs. TPH2 (tryptophan hydroxylase 2) SNP rs1473473 was previously associated with anorexia nervosa and EDs characterized by SV. Could perfectionism or impulsivity be underlying the association between rs1473473 and EDs? Genetic association between TPH2 SNP rs1473473 and perfectionism or impulsivity was first evaluated in a random control group (N = 512). The associations obtained in this control group were subsequently tested in a group of patients with an ED (N = 267). The minor allele of rs1473473 (OR = 1.49) was more frequent in impulsive controls, but also in impulsive patients with an ED (OR = 1.83). The largest effect was found in the patients with an ED characterized by SV (OR = 2.51, p = 0.02). Genetic variation at the TPH2 gene appeared to affect impulsivity which, in turn, might predispose to the SV phenotype. PMID:23239044
Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann
A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)
Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.
Lewis, Gerald R.; And Others
This study of the primary restraining and driving forces that influence Title VII bilingual education programs found the external environment, the local community, to be the main factor influencing institutionalization and self-renewal. The internal environment--the local school, and the local school's organization or central office, school board,
Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole
Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders
Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole
Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disordersâ¦
Warschburger, P; Krentz, E M; Helfert, S
Eating disorders are serious, hard to treat and widely spread. Hence it was the goal of the present project to develop and evaluate a universal preventive concept (Potsdam Prevention at Schools). The POPS programme focuses in an interactive manner on topics such as coping with social pressure, strengthening the media and problem-solving competence and healthy eating. Results from the ITT analysis support its efficacy, even over the course of one year in terms of reduction of body dissatisfaction, perceived media pressure, internalising of the media beauty ideal and disordered eating. PMID:24293024
Russon, Anne E; Compost, Alain; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes
This paper presents new evidence of fish eating in rehabilitant orangutans living on two Bornean islands and explores its contributions to understanding nonhuman primates' aquatic fauna eating and the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating. We assessed the prevalence of orangutans' fish eating, their techniques for obtaining fish, and possible contributors (ecology, individual differences, humans). We identified 61 events in which orangutans tried to obtain fish, including 19 in which they ate fish. All the orangutans were juvenile-adolescent; all the fish were disabled catfish; and most were obtained and eaten in drier seasons in or near shallow, slow-moving water. Orangutans used several techniques to obtain fish (inadvertent, opportunistic and deliberate hand-catch, scrounge, tool-assisted catch) and probably learned them in that order. Probable contributing factors were orangutan traits (age, pre-existing water or tool skills), island features (social density, water accessibility), and local human fishing. Our review of primates' aquatic fauna eating showed orangutans to be one of 20 species that eat aquatic fauna, one of nine confirmed to eat fish, and one of three that use tools to obtain fish. Primate fish eating is also site-specific within species, partly as a function of habitat (e.g., marine-freshwater, seasonality) and human influence (possibly fostered eating fish or other aquatic fauna at most sites, clearly induced it at some). At tropical freshwater sites, fish eating occurred most often in drier seasons around shallow water. Orangutan and primate findings are generally consistent with Stewart's (2010) reconstruction of the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating, but suggest that it, and tool-assisted fish catching, were possible much earlier. PMID:25038033
Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.
Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)
Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use. Proximity, however, was found to not make a significant difference throughout the analysis, suggesting that exposure to wind turbines in any stage of development does not decrease a person's favorable perception towards wind turbines. Results also showed that those who found wind technology to be reliable, are twice as likely to have an overall positive perception and want to implement them into their communities. Socio-economic implications were also seen within the research suggesting those who believe wind turbines will benefit their local community will be more favorable towards developing them in their community.
Trastornos alimentarios maternos y su influencia en la conducta alimentaria de sus hijas(os) / Maternal eating disorders and their influence on eating behavior of the children: a review of the literature
Rosa, Behar A; Marcelo, Arancibia M.
Full Text Available Antecedentes: Existe concluyente evidencia de la influencia de madres con trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) en sus hijas (os). Objetivo: Analizar descriptivamente los diversos aspectos de madres con historia de TCA y sus implicancias en la nutrición, crecimiento y desarrollo de sus hijas ( [...] os). Método: Se efectuó una revisión de la literatura disponible en PubMed y textos de consulta especializados. Resultados: Las madres con TCA previo o actual muestran patrones alimentarios restrictivos, un vínculo afectivo deficitario con sus propias madres, exhiben más comorbilidades psiquiátricas, principalmente depresión y ansiedad; además sentimientos de culpa y vergüenza, cese precoz de la lactancia, elevado control del consumo de alimentos de sus hijas (os) y/o presión para comer, horarios irregulares de comidas, dieta desequilibrada y monótona, preferencia por la delgadez y actitud crítica sobre la silueta corporal de sus hijas (os). La lactancia representa un período crítico para la irrupción o recaída de un TCA por la adaptación que implican los cambios característicos de su figura corporal durante el embarazo. Conclusiones: Existe una particular relación entre la presencia de un TCA materno y su ocurrencia en hijas (os), considerándose un factor de riesgo para su desarrollo. Abstract in english Background: There is conclusive evidence about the influence of mothers with eating disorders (ED) on their children. Objective: To describe different aspects about mothers with ED and its implications in the feeding, growing and development in their children. Method: A review of specialized textboo [...] ks and the available literature in PubMed was made. Results: Mothers with previous or present ED show restrictive eating patterns, a deficient affective bond with their own mothers, exhibit more psychiatric comorbidities, mainly depression and anxiety; in addition, feelings of guilt and shame, early cessation of breastfeeding, high control of food consumption of their children, and/or pressure them to eat, irregular mealtimes, unbalanced and monotonous meals, proneness to slimness, a critical attitude about the body shape of their daughters. Breastfeeding implies a critical period for the irruption or relapse of an ED due to the adjustment to the characteristic body shape changes during pregnancy. Conclusions: There is a particular relationship between a maternal ED and its occurrence in their children, and it can be considered a risk factor for its development.
Silva, Luiz; Gomes, António Rui; MARTINS Carla
This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith...
Burrows, A; COOPER, M
OBJECTIVES: To investigate concerns about weight, shape and eating, dietary restraint, self-esteem and symptoms of depression in overweight girls. To investigate the relationship between concerns and self-esteem and depressive symptoms in this group. METHOD: Eighteen overweight girls and 18 average-weight girls completed the child version of the Eating Disorders Examination, the Harter Self-Perception Profile and the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire. RESULTS: Overweight girls had more c...
. The present PhD thesis is based on evaluation of the dietary effect of this project. There is room for improvement of the dietary habits of Danish children. Dietary habits are influenced by multiple factors across different contexts. The school setting is known as a suitable arena for promotion of...... healthy eating. In Denmark most children eat a packed lunch brought from home. It is challenging to collect dietary data from a pediatric population where recall problems exist and estimation of portion sizes can be complicated. Thus, to measure and assess the dietary effect of an intervention, new valid...... methods are needed. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to evaluate the dietary effect of a school food programme in Danish schools on the quality of lunch consumed by children aged 7-13 years compared to packed lunches brought from home. Furthermore, the aim was to develop appropriate methods to...
Silva, Janiara David; Silva, Amanda Bertolini de Jesus; de Oliveira, Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff; Nemer, Aline Silva de Aguiar
The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP). The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet. PMID:23175415
Athletes are seen as the embodied image of a healthy person: they are fit, thin and muscular. This often comes with the cost of disordered eating or even the development of an eating disorder (ED) when these habits become chronic in their behaviour. Sundgot-Borgen and Torstveit (2004) found that whereas 9% of the Norwegian female controls and 0.5% of the Norwegian male controls showed the characteristics of an ED, EDs were found in 20% of the female elite athletes and 8% of the male elite ath...
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta
The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...
Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W
PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399
Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore
Urszula Teresa Turyna
Breasting father can affect eating difficulties in children. His role is often mediated by the mother's feeleings as the main childs feeder. Despite the change in the social role of the father image it appears to be vital to maintain diversity in the roles of mother and father in the first period of a child's life.
Franko, Debra L; Coen, Emilie J; Roehrig, James P; Rodgers, Rachel F; Jenkins, Amy; Lovering, Meghan E; Dela Cruz, Stephanie
Latina women are vulnerable to poor body image, eating disorders, and obesity, particularly during the college years. This study sought to identify common cultural antecedents of these concerns in order to inform the development of prevention programs for this population. Six groups of university students who identified as Latina (N=27) discussed cultural aspects of body image, eating disorders, and obesity. Thematic analysis identified four main themes: (a) cultural disparities in body-ideal, including the influence of the media and acculturation issues; (b) messages about body shape and weight received by family, peers, and society; (c) difficulties making healthy eating and physical activity choices as a function of college life; and (d) the influence of peers and potential male partners on body satisfaction and body-ideals. These results have implications for the development of programs targeting body dissatisfaction and risk for eating disorders and obesity in Latina college women. PMID:22609033
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifestyle-related behaviors having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, playing outside and watching TV have been indicated to have an association with childhood overweight, but research among young children (below 6?years old is limited. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between these four behaviors and overweight among young children. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data on 5-year-old children (n?=?7505 collected for the study Be active, eat right. Age and sex-specific cut-off points for body mass index of the International Obesity Task Force were used to assess overweight/obesity. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results For children whom had breakfast 2 hours/day, the odds ratio (OR for having overweight (obesity included was, respectively, 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.13-1.95, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51. There was a positive association between the number of risk behaviors present and the risk for having overweight. For children with 3 or all of the risk behaviors having breakfast 2 glasses/day, playing outside 2 hs/day, the OR for overweight was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11-2.71 (all models adjusted for childrens sex and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion Given the positive association between the number of behavioral risk factors and overweight, further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral counseling of parents of toddlers in preventing childhood overweight. In the meantime we recommend physicians to target all four behaviors for counseling during well-child visits.
Johnny Sue Reynolds
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of age on customer dining experience levels at Japanese restaurants in the United States and to determine if there are differences in influential factors between customers of different ages when they eat at Japanese restaurants. To address the objectives of the study, customers who patronized Japanese restaurants were asked to rank the importance of 20 dining experience factors. Researchers give recommendations for restaurateurs to bridge the gap between customers of different age groups in order to gain a competitive edge in todays highly competitive restaurant market.
Ku, L; Sonenstein, F L; Pleck, J H
Analyses of a nationally representative survey of 1,880 15- to 19-year-old men were conducted to examine factors associated with (a) the age when first sexual intercourse occurred and (b) whether a condom or other contraceptive method was used at first intercourse. Discrete time-event history models assessed factors influencing their age until first intercourse. Black males began sexual activity significantly earlier than white or Hispanic males. Males who had been held back in school also be...
Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi
The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumers point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...
Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including cultural image of customers, exciting characteristics, competitive pricing strategies, perception image and previous perceptions.
Low, B L
The main forms of eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia nervosa and obesity. The clinical features, aetiology, treatment and prognosis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa are described to highlight the similarities and differences between these two conditions. Both conditions affect predominantly the young female population with body image disturbance as one of the core symptoms. Whilst the body weight of anorexics are by definition low, most bulimics have normal or near normal body weight. Sufferers of anorexia nervosa tend to deny their illness while those with bulimia are often miserable and acutely aware of their eating difficulties. The aetiological factors in both conditions overlap to a large extent. The outcome of treatment for bulimia is reportedly better than that of anorexia nervosa. Obese people often become depressed and anxious as a result of low self-esteem causing them to seek psychiatric treatment. The severely obese who are placed on very low calorie diets may develop adverse emotional disturbances whilst weight gain may follow a major depressive illness or develop as a side effect of psychotropic medications. A subgroup of the obese population engage in frequent binge eating and preliminary criteria are being developed for this condition called "binge eating disorder". Behaviour therapy is the treatment of choice for obesity. Other forms of treatment include individual and group psychotherapy, use of appetite suppressants and in the severely obese, surgical methods. PMID:7761892
Full Text Available Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population, patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessivenesscompulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. Keywords: psychiatric comorbidity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, SAFA test
Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.
A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30
Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.
This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The
Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.
Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mothers health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277
Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J
The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status an...
Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.
Juliana de Abreu Gonçalves
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crianças e adolescentes quanto às suas características e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combinação dos termos 'crianças', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'transtorno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas português e inglês. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisaram o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares não especificados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os não especificados, mostraram-se comuns na infância e na adolescência. Sua presença foi atribuída principalmente ao ambiente familiar e à exposição aos meios de comunicação. As comorbidades psicológicas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagnóstico do transtorno. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a mídia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influência da mídia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto à magreza. Já no âmbito familiar, o momento das refeições mostrou-se fundamental na determinação do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (déficit no crescimento e ganho de peso, à saúde bucal (queilose, erosão dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das glândulas salivares e aos prejuízos sociais.OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en niños y adolescentes respecto a sus características y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinación de los términos "niños", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alimentar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Se consideraron los artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccionados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposición a los medios de comunicación. Las comorbilidades psicológicas muchas veces acompañan el diagnóstico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el ámbito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostró fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (déficit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso, a la salud oral (queilosis, erosión dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las glándulas salivares y a los perjuicios sociales.OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia', both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to the media. Eating disorders were frequently followed by psychological comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Among the risk factors for eating disorders, social and family environment and the media were the most important ones. The influence of the media and social environment has been related to the worship of thinness. As to family environment, mealtimes appeared to be fundamental in shaping eating behavior and the development of disorders. Eating disorders were associated with nutritional problems (growing impairment and weight gain, oral health (cheilitis, dental erosion, periodontitis, and hypertrophy of salivary glands, and social prejudice.
Atria, Catherine Graczyk
Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.
Hábitos y Trastornos Alimenticios asociados a factores Socio-demográficos, Físicos y Conductuales en Universitarios de Cartagena, Colombia / Eating habits and disorders associated to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors in university students, Cartagena Colombia
Shirly, Sáenz Duran; Farith, González Martínez; Shyrley, Díaz Cárdenas.
Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la prevalencia de hábitos y desórdenes alimenticios en universitarios y relacionarlos con factores socio-demográficos, físicos y conductuales. Diseño. Estudio de corte transversal. Emplazamiento. Municipio de Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participantes. Un total de 1.040 estudia [...] ntes de los programas diurnos y nocturnos de la Universidad de Cartagena. Mediciones principales. Se utilizó una encuesta estructurada para evaluar hábitos alimenticios y aspectos socio-demográficos, EAT-26 y SCOFF para trastornos alimenticios y escala de Holmes and Rahe para la susceptibilidad de enfermar. Se estimó la ocurrencia a través de prevalencias, las relaciones entre variables a través de razones de disparidad y el análisis multivariable mediante regresión logística nominal. Resultados. El motivo más frecuente para no alimentarse bien fue la falta de costumbre y tiempo. La susceptibilidad de enfermar fue del 23,1% y el riesgo de anorexia y bulimia del 14,2%. En el análisis multivariable el mejor modelo con el SCOFF mostró significación estadística con edad (OR: 1,86), susceptibilidad de enfermar (OR: 1,77), dieta (OR: 2,81), problemas de colon (OR: 1,8) y no realizar actividad física (OR: 3,04). Conclusiones. Los hábitos y trastornos de alimentación en estudiantes universitarios están influidos por factores relacionados con el quehacer universitario, siendo necesario considerar este comportamiento alimentario como un problema relevante que interactúa con el buen desarrollo de las actividades académicas. Abstract in english Objective. To describe the prevalence of eating habits and disorders in university students and their relationship with socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors. Design. Cross-sectional study Setting. Municipality of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participants. 1040 students in day and ev [...] ening programmes at the University of Cartagena. Main measurements. A structured questionnaire was used to assess eating habits and socio-demographic factors; EAT-26 and SCOFF for eating disorders and the Holmes and Rahe scale for the susceptibility to disease. Occurrence was estimated by prevalence, assuming confidence 95% intervals. Relationships between variables were evaluated using odds ratios and multivariate analysis using nominal logistic regression. Results. The most common reason for not eating well was the lack of habit and time. Susceptibility to disease was 23.1% and the risk of anorexia and bulimia 14.2%. The best model for logistic regression with SCOFF showed statistical significance with age (OR: 1.86), susceptibility to disease (OR: 1.77), diet (OR: 2.81), colon problems (OR: 1.8), and lack of physical activity (OR: 3.04). Conclusions. Eating habits and disorders in university students are influenced by factors related to university life. This behavior should be considered as a serious problem that one that interferes with the smooth running of academic activities.
Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.
Garner, Ashton; Davis-Becker, Kendra; Fischer, Sarah
Compensatory exercise (exercise performed in an effort to control weight/shape or in response to caloric intake) and thinness expectancies (beliefs that thinness will improve the overall quality of life) are strongly linked to the development, maintenance, severity, and outcome of eating disorders. There is little literature, however, examining the relationship between compensatory exercise and thinness expectancies. The goal of the current study was to examine whether thinness expectancies contribute significant variance in the endorsement of excessive exercise over and above binge eating, restraint, and shape and weight concerns. A total of 677 undergraduate women (mean age=18.73) completed self-report measures of thinness expectancies and eating disorder symptoms (TREI and EDE-Q). There was a significant association between thinness expectancies and frequency of compensatory exercise behavior. Restraint and subjective binge episodes accounted for significant variance in compensatory exercise. Frequency of objective binge episodes did not, nor did endorsement of thinness expectancies. These findings suggest a potential profile of individuals engaging in compensatory exercise as individuals who actively restrict their diets, feel as if they have binged when they violate those restrictions, and feel the need to excessively exercise to compensate for the subjective binges. PMID:25064277
Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.
Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are
Elegido, A.; Gheorghe, A.; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; De Andrés, P.; Graell, M. (Montserrat); Marcos, Ascensión; Nova, Esther
The scientific literature describes relative lymphocytosis as a feature of patients with eating disorders (ED). It seems to occur as an adaptive mechanism triggered by this particular status of malnutrition. Leptin, involved in energy balance and immune stimulation might act as a mediator.
... you're uncomfortably full Eating alone or in secret to avoid embarrassment Feeling distressed, ashamed, or guilty ... eating disorders. One approach involves the study of human genes. Eating disorders run in families. Researchers are ...
Patricia Couceiro; Eric Slywitch; Franciele Lenz
This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA) and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil) allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated ...
Purpose: To identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Patients and methods: We performed a follow-up study on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated from 1984 to 1998. 18/38 patients were resected. Irradiated volume included the primary tumor (or tumor bed) and regional lymph nodes. Thirty-seven patients received in addition chemotherapy consisting of mitoxantrone, 5-fluorouracil and cis-platin, either i.v. (14/38) or i.a. (23/38). The influence of treatment related factors on the overall survival was tested. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model (?/?=25 Gy) and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. Results: Treatment factors influencing overall survival were resection (p=0.02), overall treatment time (p=0.03) and biologically effective dose (p<0.002). Total dose and kind of chemotherapy had no significant influence. Treatment volume had a negative correlation (r=-0.5, p=0.06) with overall survival, without any correlation between tumor size, tumor stage, and treatment volume. In multivariate analysis only biologically effective dose remained significant (p=0.02). Conclusions: Among with surgery, biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatic carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatments splits in radiation therapy. (orig.)
Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie
Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625
Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk
How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.
Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.
There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N
Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside. PMID:24077096
Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong
Body surveillance and body shame are features of objectified body consciousness (OBC) that have been linked to disordered eating, yet the evidence base is largely cross-sectional and limited to samples in certain Western countries. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these factors contribute to the prediction of eating disturbances independent of conceptually related risk factors emphasized within other sociocultural accounts. In this prospective study, body surveillance, body shame, and features of complementary sociocultural models (i.e., perceived appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons, negative affect, body dissatisfaction) were assessed as risk factors for and concomitants of eating disturbances over time. University-age, mainland Chinese women (n = 2144) and men (n = 1017) completed validated measures of eating-disorder pathology and hypothesized risk factors at baseline (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Among women, elevations on T1 measures of sociocultural-model features predicted more T2 eating disturbances, independent of T1 disturbances. After controlling for other T1 predictors, body surveillance and shame made modest unique contributions to the model. Finally, heightened T2 body dissatisfaction, media, and interpersonal appearance pressure, negative affect, and body shame predicted concomitant increases in T2 eating concerns. For men, T1 features of sociocultural accounts (negative affect, body dissatisfaction) but not OBC predicted T2 eating disturbances, along with attendant elevations in T2 negative affect, interpersonal appearance pressure, and body shame. Implications are discussed for theory and intervention that target disordered eating. PMID:26191981
... helplessness, worthlessness, and poor self-image often accompany eating disorders. Other emotional disorders. Other mental health problems, like depression or anxiety, occur along with eating disorders. Stressful ...
Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.
M. L. Portela de Santana
Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones.Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.
M. L., Portela de Santana; H., da Costa Ribeiro Junior; M., Mora Giral; R. M.ª, Raich.
Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes [...] acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and ris [...] k factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.
The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumers point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to answer the question: What are the most common factors influencing effectiveness of internal communications faced by Polish organizations? This article discusses the role of internal communications practices leading to enhancement of organizational performance. In particular, it concentrates on factors impeding the flow of information inside the organization. Later on, the article presents empirical findings. Methodology: Contemporary public relations, internal communications and employee communications texts have been reviewed to identify how internal communications is defined in literatur? and how it influences organization success. Relevant existing research was reviewed and primary research was conducted. The latter consisted of 29 in-depth interviews with employees from various Polish organizations. Results/findings: The article presents interesting results that can be especially useful for internal communications specialists and managers. It is recommended that to gain a fuller picture of the issues underlying the findings, quantitative research with relevant employees should be undertaken.
Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.
S Arman; M. Soltani
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...
Ceccon Eliane; Huante Pilar; Rincón Emanuel
Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succes...
Objectives of the Study: The aim of the research is to define and assess the importance of the factors that influence online shoppers' choices of merchants. The previous literature mainly focuses on loyalty of users to websites and online purchase decision-making process within one website. No literature studies the situation under which the customer has already decided the item to purchase and needs to compare different merchants selling the same item. Since this situation is very common...
Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)
Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Niva, Mari
Background/objectives: Daily practices related to eating are embedded in the social and cultural contexts of everyday life. How are such factors associated with diet quality relative to motivational factors? And, are associations universal or context-specific? We analyze the relationship between...... diet quality and the following practices: social company while eating, the regularity and duration of eating and the activity of watching TV while eating. Subjects/methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based internet survey was conducted in April 2012 with stratified random samples of the...... based on eight food frequency questions focusing on fats, vegetables, fruits and fish in the diet. Results: Eating activities were associated with diet quality even when motivation to eat healthily and sociodemographic factors were controlled for. The number of daily eating events and eating main meals...
Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Ferrer, Marta; Caqueo-Urízar, A.; Moreno, E.
The aim of this article was to study the effect of virtual-reality exposure to situations that are emotionally significant for patients with eating disorders (ED) on the stability of body-image distortion and body-image dissatisfaction. A total of 85 ED patients and 108 non-ED students were randomly exposed to four experimental virtual environments: a kitchen with low-calorie food, a kitchen with high-calorie food, a restaurant with low-calorie food, and a restaurant with high-calorie food. I...
Kim, Sangwon F.
Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet develop...
Young, E M; Fors, S W
This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and selected family factors on consumption of a healthy breakfast and lunch and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was completed by a representative sample (n = 3,155) of students from all high schools in a suburban county near Atlanta, Georgia. Students consuming healthy breakfasts, healthy lunches, and more fruits and vegetables were more likely to be White or Asian (lunch/fruits and vegetables only), better able to communicate with parents or guardians on serious issues, closely monitored by their parents, living with one or both parents, spending less time at home without adults, perceiving themselves at about the right weight or underweight (lunch/breakfast only), male (lunch/breakfast only), and in 9th or 10th grade (breakfast only). These results suggest family factors should be considered in the development and implementation of nutrition interventions. PMID:11816396
Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in...
Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte
Background: College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university stude...
Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, there has been growing interest in m-learning consequently emerging m-learning technology is promising technological and educational business. Nevertheless, m-learning is a new business and the different actors are still trialing by ways of a diversity of business models to overcome in able to achieve a sustainable and profitable place in this market. Numbers of m-learning products providers do not succeed in supplying m-learning products. In this situation not only a suitable business model is vital but also environmental and external factors have impact on mobile learning business model. Overall objective of this study was to survey the business model framework of m-learning with effect of external and environmental factors. Approach: Methodical approach was based on a classification of m-learning actors and its environmental factors. Based on this, we analyzed case studies description and developed main environmental factors that constitute the m-learning environment. Factors were summarized in morphological boxes and then through out its three steps result came up. Results: The results indicated technology, market and regulation are three major environmental factors which were forcing m-learning business model and business model should react to changes of these three factors to keep sustainable business. The research further argued the external factors of m-learning environment in order to understanding and developing the m-learning business and the ways these factors influence the business model of m-learning as well. Conclusion/Recommendations: M-learning business is based on many factors such as technology, changes in society, educational drivers, demand for flexible learning and the new learning paradigm but only three major drivers(technology, market and regulation had considerable effect on m-learning business model and should be taken into account as a result if they change business model should be changed.
Wilson, G Terence
The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms mood intolerance (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire
Qureshi, Kristine; Gershon, Robyn M; Conde, Francisco
The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) is a key strategy used in the United States to assure an adequate surge capacity healthcare workforce for response to disasters. A survey of Hawaiian healthcare providers (n = 1,057) was conducted to identify factors that influence interest, ability, and willingness to join the MRC; 468 (44.3%) healthcare providers responded. Overall, females were more likely to demonstrate an interest in joining the MRC, while physicians and dentists reported lower levels of ability and willingness, in addition to a lower level of interest in joining the MRC than the other professional groups. The most important motivating factor in joining the MRC was altruism and the ability to help one's own community. Respondents reported a number of factors that would influence their decision to join or remain a MRC member. These included: (1) time commitment required; (2) MRC organization and management; (3) provision of MRC-sponsored training or education sessions and continuing education credits; (4) concerns regarding the safety of family members during a disaster; (5) professional liability protection for work performed during MRC operations; and (6) competing personal obligations. Strategies targeting these factors probably will be most effective in recruitment and retention of MRC volunteers as well as members of other public health surge capacity volunteer groups. PMID:18702285
Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.
Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ? 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264
Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne
Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585
Adriana, Amaya Hernández; Juan Manuel, Mancilla Díaz; Georgina L., Alvarez Rayón; Mayaro, Ortega Luyando; Ma. Leticia, Bautista Díaz.
Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue conocer las propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Influencia de Pares sobre la Preocupación Alimentaria en mujeres y hombres mexicanos de entre 10 y 19 años de edad. La muestra fue no probabilística de tipo intencional, conformada por 917 participantes (49 [...] 8 mujeres y 419 hombres). Se realizaron tres piloteos, a partir de estos se consideró necesario derivar dos versiones, una para cada sexo. Se obtuvo un alpha de Cronbach de .94 y .92 para la versión femenina y masculina, respectivamente. El análisis factorial exploratorio arrojó tres factores, los cuales son: mensajes, popularidad con el sexo opuesto e interacción con pares del mismo sexo, es preciso señalar que a pesar de ello ambas versiones no son equiparables. Finalmente, se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio para cada versión, femenina y masculina, que corroboró el modelo factorial propuesto en el análisis exploratorio. A partir de los resultados obtenidos es posible concluir que ambas versiones del inventario constituyen una herramienta útil para evaluar la influencia de pares sobre la preocupación alimentaria. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to know the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns in Mexican female and male population among 10 and 19 years old. The sample was non-probabilistic, composed by 917 participants (females 498 and males 419). After three testing pilo [...] ts it was necessary to carried out two versions, one for each gender. Cronbach's alpha of .94 was obtained for female and .92 for male version. The exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors, which are: messages, likability with peers of the opposite sex and interaction with peers of the same sex, however it is worthy to note that these two versions are not comparable. Finally, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for each version, female and male, which confirmed the factorial model proposed in the exploratory analysis. Based on these results it is possible to conclude that both versions of this inventory are a useful tool to evaluate peer influence on eating concerns.
Walsh, B Timothy
A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the...
The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih
Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.
Jovanovi? Sneana T.
Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didnt recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasnt strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didnt have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.
Full Text Available The health consideration of microwave radiation has been the subject of scientific investigations particularly in the last decades. But there is a few information about the health effect of micro waved food consuming for a long time. The aim of this trial is to evaluate blood iron and also plasma transferrin as a protein transporter of iron in rat after eating microwaved food for a period of 1 year. For this study 64 young Sprague Dawley rats in 4 groups, each 16 (8 males and 8 females, 2 treated and 2 controls, were used under the standard conditions with free access to tap water and standard food. The 2 treated groups were consuming standard rat food pellets heated by 2450 MHz microwave radiation in 30 min for group (A and 5 min for group (B. One of the control group (C were consuming same pellets heated by electric oven at 200Â°C for 30 min and another control group (H were eating the food pellets without any heating by microwave or electric oven. Animals were observed daily and the body weight and food and water consumption were assessed weekly too. In the end of the study the blood samples were taken from the heart of animals after 12 h fasting under ether anesthesia and the serum iron and transferrin analysis was performed on the blood samples. According to the statistical analysis, the level of iron was significantly decreased in all treated groups in comparison with control group of (C and significant decreasing of iron, in female groups of B and male groups of A, in comparison with control (H. But transferrin level was significantly increased in female groups of A and B and male group of A in comparison with control (C and only male group of A in comparison with control (H.
The purpose of the study is to identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. A follow-up study was performed on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated form 1984-1998. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. The conclusion is that biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatis carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatment splits in radiation therapy. (R.P.)
Yager, T. J.
Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.
Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L
In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182
Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh
Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of globalization is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the descriptive-analytic and utilize the available literature and experts opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.
Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance
Stein, A.; Woolley, H; Murray, L.; COOPER, P; Cooper, S.; Noble, F; Affonso, N; Fairburn, CG
BACKGROUND: Certain styles of parental controlling behaviour influence child development. Work with mothers with eating disorders suggests that they may be particularly controlling of their infants. AIMS: To examine the nature and specificity of maternal controlling behaviour in mothers with eating disorders compared with mothers who had experienced postnatal depression and a healthy comparison group. METHOD: Mothers with eating disorders (n=34), postnatal depression (n=39) and a healthy comp...
Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A
Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (Pmeat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (Pmeat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582
Reina, Samantha A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Mooreville, Mira; Courville, Amber B; Brady, Sheila M.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A
Parental feeding practices and sociocultural pressures theoretically influence eating behavior. Yet, whether these factors relate to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is unknown. We assessed if sociocultural pressures were associated with EAH among 90 adolescents (Mage = 15.27, SD = 1.39; 48% female). Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Adolescents completed the Perceived Sociocultural Pressures Scale, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Multidim...
Rosana Marta Kolb
Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.
Lafeber, Harrie N; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A M; van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P F; van Elburg, Ruurd M
In contrast with clinical studies in term infants or older children, it is very difficult to investigate possible immunoregulatory effects of a novel infant formula composition in preterm infants. This is mainly because of the multicausal origin of infections in this high-risk population that is usually admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Possible effects of nutrition composition on onset and incidence of nosocomial infections in these very small infants have to be compared with infections that may have originated in utero. The development of the gastrointestinal tract may be inhibited after severe intrauterine growth retardation, leading to functional impairment of the gut shortly after birth. This may be related to the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis of the newborn. However, this disease in very small preterm infants is possibly also related to the initiation of oral feeding and/or the amount of feeding. Specific infection risks of neonatal intensive care as a result of invasive techniques such as artificial ventilation or total parenteral nutrition using indwelling umbilical and/or Silastic lines and so-called "all-in-one" mixtures may influence the incidence of infections. Widespread use of intravenous antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit may create an even larger infection risk. Investigation of possible immunomodulatory effects of factors such as prebiotics and probiotics added to the nutrition of preterm infants should always be considered along with other nutritional factors known to influence the immature immune system. PMID:18716192
S., Kraatz; W., Berg; R., Brunsch.
Full Text Available The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of [...] dairy farming is assessed on the basis of direct and indirect energy inputs. The comparison of different replacement rates and milk yields shows clearly that both have a considerable influence on the energy intensity of dairy farming. The feed energy requirement/kg milk produced is decreased with an increase in individual performance of the animals. Nevertheless, this effect diminishes gradually with milk yields higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year. Additionally, energy demand increases with higher replacement rates of cows. Milk yields higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year can clearly not compensate for the increase in the cumulative energy demand. Therefore milk yields considerably higher than 8 000 kg/cow/year are not advisable from the view-point of the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply. A decreasing service life of the dairy cows (increasing replacement rate) causes a higher energy demand per kg milk, but its influence is only marginal.
Influência da periodização do treinamento sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares em nadadoras / Influence of training periodization on risk behaviors to eating disorders in female swimmers
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar a influência da periodização do treinamento sobre os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares (TA) em atletas do sexo feminino. Participaram 28 nadadoras com idade entre 12 e 16 anos. Utilizaram-se as subescalas do Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para avaliar co [...] mportamentos de risco para os TA. As nadadoras foram avaliadas ao longo de um macrociclo de treinamento, contendo as etapas: preparatório geral, preparatório específico, competitivo e polimento. Os achados demonstraram aumento da frequência dos comportamentos restritivos (p Abstract in english The objective was to analyze the influence of the periodization of training on risk behaviors to eating disorders (ED) in female athletes. Participated 28 swimmers aged between 12 and 16 years. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess risk behaviors to ED. The swimmers w [...] ere evaluated over a macro-cycle, comprising the following steps: overal preparation, specific preparation, competitive and tapering. The findings showed that frequency of restrictive (p
Striegel-Moore, RH; Fairburn, CG; Wilfley, DE; Pike, KM; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify in white women risk factors specific to binge-eating disorder (BED) and for psychiatric disorders in general, and to compare black and white women on risk factors for BED. METHOD: A case-control design was used. Participants were recruited from the community and included 162 women who met DSM-IV criteria for BED and two comparison groups of women with no history of clinically significant eating disorder symptoms. The comparison women were matched to B...
Sepúlveda, Ana R; Graell, Montserrat; Berbel, Enrique; Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Botella, Juan; Carrobles, José A; Morandé, Gonzalo
The aim of this study was to examine and identify the psychological, clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with emotional well-being by type of caregiver. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 185 primary caregivers and 92 secondary caregivers of patients with an eating disorder using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Experience of Caregiving Inventory and the Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale. According to a multiple regression analysis, a total of four models were obtained accounting for 42%-47% of the variance in emotional well-being. The variable that accounted for most of the variance of emotional well-being in three of the models was the impact of nutrition. Improving aspects of the relationships with the patients reduced anxiety and depression levels in primary caregivers. Similarly, a positive personal experience reduced depression in secondary caregivers. A higher education level was associated with decreased anxiety levels in both types of caregivers. Specific family interventions including both types of caregivers may be useful for providing emotional and adaptive personal coping skills. PMID:21796734
Popadi? Silvija M.
Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13, operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1, the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS, and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05 influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.
Full Text Available Teaching and learning a foreign language is a social process which requires theinteraction of two important parts of the process, the teacher and the students, in a socialenvironment. As this process takes place in a social context, it is inevitable toexperience some problems while teaching the students having different needs, interestsand levels. These problems may be caused by the students, teachers as well as thephysical environment in which teaching and learning take place. It is clear that languageteaching skill is not enough to handle these problems; teachers also need classroommanagement skills so that they are able to manage their classrooms. It is believed thatsuccessful classroom management is highly related to effective instruction. Asclassroom management is a general term that is affected by many factors, theeffectiveness of classroom environment depends on how teachers cope with thesefactors and provide their students with a positive and friendly classroom atmosphere. Itis clear that a detailed analysis of the factors that affect successful classroommanagement and adequate teacher training on how to cope with them will makeunmanageable classrooms manageable which will immediately result in effectiveteaching and learning process. In this article, factors that influence successful classroommanagement will be analyzed and possible solutions to these problems will bepresented.
Marinac, Catherine R.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Natarajan, Loki; Linda C. Gallo; Breen, Caitlin I.; Patterson, Ruth E.
Emerging evidence suggests that there is interplay between the frequency and circadian timing of eating and metabolic health. We examined the associations of eating frequency and timing with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers putatively associated with breast cancer risk in women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009â2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1) proportion of calories consumed in ...
Shafran, Yigal; Wolowelsky, Joel B
The relationship between religion and eating concerns is receiving increasing empirical attention; and because religion seems to be important to many women with eating concerns, there is an interest in investigating the role religion plays and ways that religion might be employed therapeutically. Research has indicated that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors. An aspect of religiosity that is unique to Judaism is Halakhah, the system of Jewish Law and Ethics which informs the life of a religiously observant orthodox Jew. In this note, we briefly describe how Halakhah approaches the issues of appetite and satiety in eating meals. These might well contribute to the protective influence regarding tendencies for eating disorders in a person whose culture demands an awareness of and commitment to halakhic norms. Some of the most significant characteristics of disordered eating-lack of appetite, disturbed satiated response, withdrawal from community and decreased spirituality-correlate inversely with the halakhic requirements of eating a meal. We suggest that future studies of orthodox Jewish women measuring eating-order symptomatology and its correlation with religiosity might focus not only on well-known indicators of halakhic adherence such as kashrut and Sabbath observance, but also on the specifics of how their kosher meals are eaten, including ritually washing one's hands before eating, saying the appropriate blessing before and after eating, eating the required two meals on the Sabbath, and fully participating in the Passover Seder meal. PMID:23757253
Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L
Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived emotional over-eating in the child. PMID:26792767
Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student?s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky?s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky?s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor?patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student?s personality.
Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.
The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes may need to be considered if groundwater composition is found to change with time. (author, shortened). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs
Rajasekhar, Praveen T; Rees, Colin J; Nixon, Catherine; East, James E; Brown, Sally
Purpose - The quality improvement in colonoscopy study was a region wide service improvement study to improve adenoma detection rate at colonoscopy by implementing evidence into routine colonoscopy practice. Implementing evidence into clinical practice can be challenging. The purpose of this paper is to perform a qualitative interview study to evaluate factors that influenced implementation within the study. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff in endoscopy units taking part in the quality improvement in colonoscopy study, after study completion. Units and interviewees were purposefully sampled to ensure a range of experiences was represented. Interviews were conducted with 11 participants. Findings - Key themes influencing uptake of the quality improvement in colonoscopy evidence bundle included time, study promotion, training, engagement, positive outcomes and modifications. Areas within themes were increased awareness of quality in colonoscopy (QIC), emphasis on withdrawal time and empowerment of endoscopy nurses to encourage the use of quality measures were positive outcomes of the study. The simple, visible study posters were reported as useful in aiding study promotion. Feedback sessions improved engagement. Challenges included difficulty arranging set-up meetings and engaging certain speciality groups. Originality/value - This evaluation suggests that methods to implement evidence into clinical practice should include identification and empowerment of team members who can positively influence engagement, simple, visible reminders and feedback. Emphasis on timing of meetings and strategies to engage speciality groups should also be given consideration. Qualitative evaluations can provide important insights into why quality improvement initiatives are successful or not, across different sites. PMID:26771057
Dennehy John J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible ? lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of ? lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.
... what causes eating disorders, although there are many theories about it. Many people who develop an eating ... therapists, and working with dietitians and other professionals. Learning to be comfortable at your healthy weight is ...
... shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too thin, but you ... Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and ...
... what causes eating disorders, although there are many theories about it. Many people who develop an eating ... in a person's treatment and recovery. Therapy or counseling is a very important part of getting better ...
Full Text Available La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria está aumentando en los países industrializados y hay evidencia de que son las mujeres jóvenes las que tienen un mayor riesgo para desarrollar este tipo de patologías. Esa es la razón por la que los programas de prevención e interven [...] ción son tan importantes. Para desarrollar tales programas es necesario identificar los factores de riesgo relevantes que contribuyen a la aparición de este trastorno. En la presente investigación se analizan variables sociales relacionadas con el riesgo a desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (comparaciones sociales, actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia y la ansiedad social) en una muestra no clínica de 375 mujeres. Los resultados muestran que la comparación social está directa e indirectamente (a través de la ansiedad social) relacionada de forma positiva con el riesgo para desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, mientras que las actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia lo hace de forma indirecta (a través de la ansiedad social) y positiva con los problemas de la conducta alimentaria. Finalmente, se discute la importancia de incluir estas variables sociales en los programas de prevención e intervención. Abstract in english Eating disorders prevalence's rates are increasing in Western countries and there is evidence to suggest that young women are at the highest risk of developing this kind of disorders. That is the reason why prevention and intervention programs are so important. To develop these types of programs it [...] is necessary to identify relevant risk factors contributing to this disorder. In the current research social risk variables to develop eating disorders (social comparisons, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance and social anxiety) have been measured in a 375 women non clinical sample. Results have shown that social comparisons are direct and indirect (trough social anxiety) positively related with the risk to develop eating disorders and that sociocultural attitudes toward appearance are just indirect (trough social anxiety) and positively related to eating disorders. Finally, the importance of including these social variables in prevention and intervention programs is discussed.
Fairburn, CG; Harrison, PJ
Eating disorders are an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity in adolescent girls and young adult women. They are much less frequent in men. Eating disorders are divided into three diagnostic categories: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and the atypical eating disorders. However, the disorders have many features in common and patients frequently move between them, so for the purposes of this Seminar we have adopted a transdiagnostic perspective. The cause of eating disorder...
Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; García-Cruz, Patricia; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Magallares, Alejandro; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada
The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP), as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight perception, perception of physical fitness, self-esteem, and food intake, as well as with weight control-related variables. A total of 281 participants (aged 18.38 ± 6.31) were studied. The factor analysis yielded three factors: cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE). The internal consistency of the TFEQ-SP was determined by means of Cronbach's ? coefficient, with values ranging between 0.75 and 0.87. Higher scores on CR were found in women (p obese participants (p < 0.001), participants with lower self-esteem (p < 0.05), participants who overestimated their weight (p < 0.001), participants who weighed themselves frequently (p < 0.001) and those who were about to go on a diet (p < 0.001). Higher EE scores were found in participants with lower self-esteem scores (p < 0.05), among participants with a poorer perception of their physical fitness (p < 0.01) and when participants were about to diet (p < 0.05). Higher scores on UE were observed in case of poorer perception of physical fitness (p < 0.05). The validation study of the TFEQ-SP meets the requirements for measuring the three different facets of eating behavior: CR, UE, and EE. PMID:25486370
Full Text Available Problem statement: Student retention becomes one of the most significant issues that administrators of colleges and universities must deal with in today?s highly competitive market. Approach: In fact retaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out its mission. A high rate of attrition is not only a fiscal problem for schools, but a symbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose. Results: There are many ways to keep students retain at the same college until graduation, some easier than people may think but great changes will have to be made in order for schools to complete these transformations. This study is a descriptive study about the factors that influence student retention rate at a higher educational institution. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the previous studies of the similar topic and a random sample survey, this study identifies the possible push and pull factors that promote student leave from a specific college and transfer to other colleges to continue their college studies, it probes the implementable solutions to help the college to maintain and increase the student retention rate.
Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing
Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called brite or beige adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.
Farstad, Sarah M; von Ranson, Kristin M; Hodgins, David C; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Schopflocher, Don P
This study investigated the degree to which facets of impulsiveness predicted future binge eating and problem gambling, 2 theorized forms of behavioral addiction. Participants were 596 women and 406 men from 4 age cohorts randomly recruited from a Canadian province. Participants completed self-report measures of 3 facets of impulsiveness (negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of persistence), binge-eating frequency, and problem-gambling symptoms. Impulsiveness was assessed at baseline, and assessments of binge eating and problem gambling were followed up after 3 years. Weighted data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found evidence of transdiagnostic and disorder-specific predictors of binge eating and problem gambling. Negative urgency emerged as a common predictor of binge eating and problem gambling among women and men. There were disorder-specific personality traits identified among men only: High lack-of-persistence scores predicted binge eating and high sensation-seeking scores predicted problem gambling. Among women, younger age predicted binge eating and older age predicted problem gambling. Thus, there are gender differences in facets of impulsiveness that longitudinally predict binge eating and problem gambling, suggesting that treatments for these behaviors should consider gender-specific personality and demographic traits in addition to the common personality trait of negative urgency. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25961146
Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate eating behavior is high in athletes. However, little is known about the factors that affect this phenomenon in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction and level of psychological commitment to exercise (LPCE with inadequate eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports. Forty-seven female athletes practicing aesthetic sports (artistic gymnastics, synchronized swimming and high diving, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years, participated in the study. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to evaluate the risk behavior for eating disorders, body dissatisfaction and LPCE, respectively. Skinfold thickness was measured to calculate body fat percentage of the athletes. The results revealed a significant association between body dissatisfaction and eating behavior and between LPCE and risk behavior for eating disorders. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all variables, except for fat percentage, influenced the eating behavior of young athletes. This analysis also indicated an influence of body fat percentage and body dissatisfaction on CES scores. It was concluded that body dissatisfaction and LPCE are factors that predispose to risky eating behaviors in athletes from aesthetic sports.
Adejumo, Adebayo O
This cross-sectional survey investigated the role of dispositional (self-efficacy and self esteem), and situational factors (distractibility and perceived food variety) as determinants of food eating behaviour (FEB). Hospital employees (N500) in Nigeria's premier teaching Hospital participated. Results showed that self-efficacy and self-esteem jointly predicted cognitive restraint dimension of FEB (F(2499) = 26.00; R2 = 0.10; p assertiveness to reduce distractibility and eating disorders was highlighted towards maintaining health and efficiency at work is recommended. PMID:22073876
Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.
Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência do comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Parece que a insatisfação corporal (IC, a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômico (NE, além da etnia, podem ser fatores de risco para o CAI. OBJETIVO: Associar IC, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE, adiposidade corporal (AC, estado nutricional (EN, NE e etnia ao CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar o CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale foram utilizados para mensurar IC e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a AC segundo sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC e classificar o EN. O NE foi avaliado pelo Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário que buscava avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram associação do CAI com IC, GCPE e NE no sexo feminino (p BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that the prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior (CAI among young people has increased in recent years. It seems that body dissatisfaction (IC, the practice of excessive exercise, body composition, the socioeconomic status (NE, and ethnicity may be risk factors for CAI. OBJECTIVE: To associate IC, degree of psychological impairment to exercise (GCPE, adiposity (AC, nutritional status (EN, NE and ethnicity with CAI in adolescents. METHODS: Participants 362 young people of both sexes aged between 10 and 19 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess the CAI. The Body Shape Exercise Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale were used to measure IC and GCPE, respectively. We evaluated skinfold thickness is to classify the AC second sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the index of mass (BMI and classify the EN. The NE was evaluated by Brazil Economic Classification. Questionnaire was used that sought to assess ethnicity, age and sex. RESULTS: The results showed association of CAI with IC, GCPE and NE in females (p < 0.05. Among boys, IC, AC and EN were associated with CAI (p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: It was concluded that IC was the main predictor of risk for the CAI.
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Fabiane Frota da Rocha, Morgado; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência do comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Parece que a insatisfação corporal (IC), a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômico (NE), além da etnia, podem ser fatores [...] de risco para o CAI. OBJETIVO: Associar IC, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), adiposidade corporal (AC), estado nutricional (EN), NE e etnia ao CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar o CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale foram utilizados para mensurar IC e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a AC segundo sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e classificar o EN. O NE foi avaliado pelo Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário que buscava avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram associação do CAI com IC, GCPE e NE no sexo feminino (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that the prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior (CAI) among young people has increased in recent years. It seems that body dissatisfaction (IC), the practice of excessive exercise, body composition, the socioeconomic status (NE), and ethnicity may be risk factors for [...] CAI. OBJECTIVE: To associate IC, degree of psychological impairment to exercise (GCPE), adiposity (AC), nutritional status (EN), NE and ethnicity with CAI in adolescents. METHODS: Participants 362 young people of both sexes aged between 10 and 19 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess the CAI. The Body Shape Exercise Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale were used to measure IC and GCPE, respectively. We evaluated skinfold thickness is to classify the AC second sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the index of mass (BMI) and classify the EN. The NE was evaluated by Brazil Economic Classification. Questionnaire was used that sought to assess ethnicity, age and sex. RESULTS: The results showed association of CAI with IC, GCPE and NE in females (p
Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)
Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures. PMID:18560693
Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Mónica E; Garza, Adolfo; Galindo, Mariza
The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure. PMID:23344652
Pedersen, Susanne; GrØnhØj, Alice
It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study hasa number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on children's healthy eating should be reinforced.
Gelar Satya Budhi
Full Text Available This article attempts to identify factors affecting participation in payment of irrigation service fees. There are five variables comprising demographic and economic of land variables were tested to find the variables that influenced the participation significantly. The five variables tested consisted of age and formal education as demographic variables; land productivity, land size, and land tenure as the economic of land variables. The results showed that formal education (demographic variable had positive relationship and land size (economic of land variable had negative relationship with the participation. Positive relationship between formal education and participation in payment of irrigation service fees meant that the participation increased as farmers education increased. Meanwhile, negative relationship between land size and the participation in payment of irrigation service fees showed that the farmers participation wouldincrease as the land size owned by farmers decreased. In other words, participation in payment of irrigation service fees was higher among farmers with small lands rather than that among farmers with large lands.
Hannah M. W., Salim; Andre R. O., Cavalcanti.
Full Text Available O código genético é degenerado, isto é, o mesmo amino ácido pode ser codificado por vários codons. Apesar de codificarem o mesmo amino ácido, estes codons sinônimos não são utilizados da mesma forma em genomas diferentes, e mesmo em um único genoma o padrão de uso dos codons sinônimos pode variar mu [...] ito entre os genes, ou ainda ao longo de um único gene. Com a recente introdução de seqüências genômicas completas as razões destes desvios no uso de codons estão começando a ser entendidas. Neste artigo nós vamos apresentar alguns dos fatores propostos para as variações no uso de codons sinônimos e as forças seletivas que podem influenciar tais variações. Abstract in english The genetic code is degenerate, i.e. some amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. Although coding for the same amino acid, synonymous codons are not equally used in different genomes, and even in a single genome the synonymous codon usage can vary widely among genes, or even along the gene [...] sequences. With the recent advent of full genome sequences we are starting to unravel the reasons for these deviations. In this review we will cover some of the proposed factors that might cause different codon usage bias and the selective forces influencing it.
A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE principles into daily living and how these factors change over time
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people's ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174
A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time
Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants\\' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people\\'s ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174
Wolfenden, Luke; Finch, Meghan; Nathan, Nicole; Weaver, Natasha; Wiggers, John; Yoong, Sze Lin; Jones, Jannah; Dodds, Pennie; Wyse, Rebecca; Sutherland, Rachel; Gillham, Karen
Many early childhood education and care (ECEC) services fail to implement recommended policies and practices supportive of healthy eating and physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether certain theoretically-based factors are associated with implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in a sample of ECEC services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with Service Managers of ECEC services. The survey assessed the operational characteristics, policy, and practice implementation, and 13 factors were suggested by Damschroder's Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to impede or promote implementation. Logistic regression analyses found a significant association between implementation factor score and full implementation (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.18-1.61; p?=?obesity prevention interventions in this setting by developing interventions that address such factors. PMID:26327938
Full Text Available Twin studies of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are reviewed. Historically, eating disorders (ED was viewed as a disorders primarily inï¬uenced by sociocultural factors, however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for ED and substantially contribute to the observed association between ED and other disorders and personal traits (major depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, perfectionism. Among environmental factors nonshared (unique environment plays the main role, except of early puberty.
This PhD thesis contributes with knowledge about adolescent healthy eating by studying consumer socialisation, social influence and behavioural change in relation to adolescent healthy eating. The introduction provides the important reasons for studying adolescents and healthy eating and explains that a more holistic approach is needed in order to respond to the rising levels of overweight among adolescents. It is important to understand the development of and influences on adolescent healthy eating behaviour and the possibilities for promoting healthy eating through interventions. By reviewing relevant literature on consumer socialisation, social influence and behaviour change through interventions employing feedback in relation to adolescent healthy eating, it is argued that a socio-cognitive approach to consumer socialisation and behaviour change provides a richer and more nuanced understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents and friends compared to personal factors impact adolescents healthy eating? 3. How can a feedback intervention based on socio-cognitive theory and using text messaging improve adolescent healthy eating and why? The first research question is answered in research paper 1. Since the area of family interaction and family members roles regarding healthy eating socialisation is underexposed, the study aimed at exploring adolescents and parents awareness of and involvement in healthy eating and investigated how they related it to their roles in the healthy eating socialisation taking place within the family. As a follow-up on a healthy eating intervention, 38 adolescents and their respective families participated in depth-interviews and a practical exercise on daily fruit and vegetable intake. Results demonstrated that adolescentswere found to adopt two strategies: a direct one placing demands on parents or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating, but with adolescents as active players confirming the notion of consumer socialisation as bidirectional processes. The study supplements previous research by including adolescents immediate family as a unit of analysis. By taking an intra-familiar systemic approach to studying family socialisation, this paper contributes with identifying and understanding barriers and facilitators of adolescents healthy eating. The second research question is answered in research paper 2. The paper aimed at testing whether the common belief that children become increasingly influenced by friends at the expense of parents during adolescence is also true for healthy eating. Surveys were completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. The paper draws on Social Cognitive Theory and The Focus Theory of Normative Conduct and finds that parents remain the main influencer with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating by comparing the influence of entangled social spheres (parents and friends) while also controlling for personal factors such as the adolescents self-efficacy and outcome expectations. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The implications of the study are that (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions, and (3) parents awareness of their influence on adolescents healthy e
Allen, Karina L.; Byrne, Susan M.; Forbes, David; Oddy, Wendy H.
A sample of 14-year-old boys and girls were studied using previously collected biomedical, familial, antenatal, demographic, and social data to identify prospective predictors of eating disorders. Findings suggest that parents' perceptions on their child's weight were more powerful predictors of the development of eating disorders compared to
Allen, Karina L.; Byrne, Susan M.; Forbes, David; Oddy, Wendy H.
A sample of 14-year-old boys and girls were studied using previously collected biomedical, familial, antenatal, demographic, and social data to identify prospective predictors of eating disorders. Findings suggest that parents' perceptions on their child's weight were more powerful predictors of the development of eating disorders compared toâ¦
Cristina, Romeo T.
Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animals bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.
Patton, G C
Concepts of eating disorders have altered so that anorexia nervosa is now recognized as an important but uncommon syndrome within a spectrum of disordered eating. Behaviours used by dieters constitute the mild end of the eating disorder spectrum. Dieting in young women is for the most part a transient and benign activity without longer-term consequences. However, a group of dieters do progress to develop the symptoms and behaviour of eating disorders, so that dieting has been associated with an eight-fold rise in the risk of later eating disorder. Dieting or factors closely associated may account for most eating disorders in young women. Many antecedents of eating disorder appear to operate through increasing the risk of dieting rather than determining eating disorders specifically. Only the development of further neurotic and depressive symptoms characterizes dieters progressing to eating disorders. As the evidence implicating dieting in the origin of eating disorders becomes stronger so strategies for primary prevention become clearer. PMID:1389090
Kuzmin Oleg Ye.
Full Text Available The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.
Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack
Marinac, Catherine R; Sears, Dorothy D; Natarajan, Loki; Gallo, Linda C; Breen, Caitlin I; Patterson, Ruth E
Emerging evidence suggests that there is interplay between the frequency and circadian timing of eating and metabolic health. We examined the associations of eating frequency and timing with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers putatively associated with breast cancer risk in women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009-2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1) proportion of calories consumed in the evening (5 pm-midnight), (2) number of eating episodes per day, and (3) nighttime fasting duration. Linear regression models examined each eating frequency and timing exposure variable with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Each 10 percent increase in the proportion of calories consumed in the evening was associated with a 3 percent increase in CRP. Conversely, eating one additional meal or snack per day was associated with an 8 percent reduction in CRP. There was a significant interaction between proportion of calories consumed in the evening and fasting duration with CRP (p = 0.02). A longer nighttime fasting duration was associated with an 8 percent lower CRP only among women who ate less than 30% of their total daily calories in the evening (p = 0.01). None of the eating frequency and timing variables were significantly associated with HOMA-IR. These findings suggest that eating more frequently, reducing evening energy intake, and fasting for longer nightly intervals may lower systemic inflammation and subsequently reduce breast cancer risk. Randomized trials are needed to validate these associations. PMID:26305095
Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bishop, Hillary L; Greaney, Mary L; Whiteley, Jessica A
Nontraditional college students (older, part-time, and/or working) have less healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors compared to traditional students, yet few health promotion efforts focus on nontraditional students. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore factors affecting nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional students. Fourteen semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nontraditional undergraduate students attending a large university. The sample had a median age of 25 (range, 21-64), 57% were men, 43% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 57% were employed (mean 22 hours/week). Data were coded using a systematic team-based approach. Consistent themes (mentioned by 4+ students) were identified and categorized into three domains: home, work, and school. Home (themes: neighborhood characteristics, family, partners), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: cafeteria, vending machines) factors consistently influenced positive nutrition behaviors. Similarly, home (themes: neighborhood including safety, friends from home, partner,), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: not having a car, campus structure, campus gym, friends at school) factors consistently influenced positive physical activity. Financial resources and perceptions of autonomy had influence across domains. Results indicate consistent influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors across home, work, and school domains for nontraditional college students. Study findings suggest possible, and sometimes unconventional, intervention strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity. For example, when cafeteria meal plans are not offered and financial constraints limit eating at the cafeteria, encouraging healthful choices from vending machines could be preferable to not eating at all. PMID:23146772
Leslie, Jodi H; Braun, Kathryn L.; Novotny, Rachel; Mokuau, Noreen
Worksite health promotion programs can reduce prevalence of chronic disease among employees, but little research has been done to discern whether they meet the needs and incorporate the preferences of workers of different occupational types. The objective of this study is to examine differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity and preferences for programs among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers in Hawaii. A total of 57 employees from a major health care corporat...
Shreyash Jayantilal Gandhi
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence period is crucial position in the life, characterized by rapid rate of growth. It is a need to study risk factors among this group so applicability of primary prevention can be planned. It is essential to know that whether future care providers are having any risk of acquiring life style disorders as they will be the future role models of society. Objectives: To study the dietary and other risk factors for acquiring life style related disorders and to correlate various anthropometry measurements with these risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study. All medical, physiotherapy and nursing students from Government Medical College, Surat having met with age criteria of adolescent (17-19 as per WHO were included in the study. Pre tested structured self-administered questionnaire was used. It was having questions on various risk factors of acquiring life style related disorders and having anthropometry measurements to correlate. Data were entered and analyzed in MS excel. Results: Total 290 participants were enrolled, out of them 240 (82.76% were females and 50 (17.24% were males. Out of those, 153 (52.75% were having a habit of eating outside the home at least once in a week. 80 (27.5% participants reported that they never play outdoor games, 18 (6.21% reported that they never do exercise. 21 (7.24% were having BMI and #8805;25, From this total 21 participants, 17 (5.86% were females and 4 (1.38% were males. Out of total 240 females, 20 were having Waist Hip Ratio (WHR >0.85, while no male is having WHR >1. Conclusion: Primary preventive measures for dietary change should be applied among future care providers. Life style change should also be advised to reduce the risk for life style disorders. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 645-649
Ahmad Farah; Celasun Nalan; Gucciardi Enza; Stewart Donna E
Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...
Brenda Robles; Lisa V. Smith; Mirna Ponce; Jennifer Piron; Tony Kuo
Although US obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by ...
O papel dos factores socioculturais no desenvolvimento das perturbações do comportamento alimentar: Uma revisão da literatura / The role of social and cultural factors in the development of eating disorders: A literature review
Sónia F., Gonçalves; Bárbara C., Machado; Paulo P.P., Machado.
Full Text Available As perturbações do comportamento alimentar são perturbações graves que se caracterizam por alterações significativas ao nível do comportamento alimentar associadas a uma preocupação extrema com o peso e forma corporais. Estas perturbações são mais frequentes em sociedades ocidentais, que enfatizam u [...] ma imagem corporal feminina magra. Talvez por esta razão, os factores socioculturais têm sido, muitas vezes, apontados, como os factores responsáveis pelo aumento da incidência das perturbações do comportamento alimentar. No entanto, a discrepância entre os valores de prevalência das perturbações do comportamento alimentar e o número total de pessoas expostas à pressão social para um corpo magro e tubular, questiona a importância desta exposição no desenvolvimento das patologias alimentares. O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão de estudos que procuram mostrar o papel etiológico dos factores socioculturais no desenvolvimento das perturbações do comportamento alimentar e a razão destas patologias, serem denominadas de culture-bound syndromes, bem como algumas perspectivas alternativas a estes modelos conceptuais que procuram revelar a fragilidade dos modelos etiológicos que enfatizam a importância destes factores na complexa etiologia das perturbações do comportamento alimentar. Abstract in english Eating disorders are serious disorders characterized by major changes in eating behaviour associated with extreme preoccupations with weight and physical shape. The aetiology of these disorders is, like other psychopathologies, considered to be complex and multifactorial. Eating disorders are more c [...] ommon in western societies that value a female thin body image as beauty ideal. Perhaps for that reason, sociocultural factors are often seen as responsible for the increase of the incidence of eating disorders. However, the discrepancy between the values of the prevalence of eating disorders and the total number of people submitted to the social pressure to thinness related to personal and interpersonal success, questioned the importance of that exposure in the development of eating disorders. The present paper presents a review of studies that shows the role of sociocultural factors in the development of eating disorders and the reason why these disorders are called culture-bound syndromes, as well some alternative perspectives that show the fragility of aetiologic models that emphasize the importance of these factors in the complex etiology of eating disorders.
Masud, E. [ed.
This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)
A multitude of empirical studies clearly demonstrates that the origin and course of eating disorders is closely linked to family factors. The influence is exerted in a direct way by conveying attitudes towards food, eating, weight, shape and appearance within the family and in a more indirect way by the family relationships. Families of bulimics differ from those of anorexics by a higher degree of conflict, impulsivity, expressiveness and by lower affective resonance and cohesion. Family therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of eating disorders. A sketch of a family therapy describes the conflict oriented approach which includes behavioral elements in oder to stabilize the eating behavior and the weight. PMID:15918543
Yilmaz Z; Hardaway JA; Bulik CM
Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik13 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development ...
Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J
The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status and change in weight status in children from preschool (baseline) to preadolescence as a function of eating attitudes and PROP phenotype. Other measures included self-reported food intakes and physical activity by activity monitor. Seventy-three lean (BMI percentile=57.7±3.2%) children with mean age=10.3±0.5yrs, participated in the follow up. There were no group differences in energy intake, current BMI-percentile or change in BMI percentile from baseline by PROP phenotype in either boys or girls. However, there was a trend for non-taster girls to show a downward shift in BMI-percentile at follow up. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that baseline BMI percentile and physical activity energy expenditure were the strongest predictors of current weight (28.5% variance),followed by child restraint, the taster×gender interaction, and the maternal BMI×maternal emotional eating interaction, accounting for 7.1%, 6.0% and 4.8% of variance in the model, respectively. These findings suggest that PROP status and eating attitudes are modest predictors of weight status in preadolescent children. PMID:23680431
Kegan Benjamin; Hawkins Katherine D; Harshaw Lauren; Goldberg Justin; Burkhart John Q; Blue Jarrod D; Paradise Christopher J; Krentz Tyler; Smith Leslie; Villalpando Shawn
Abstract Background Abiotic and biotic factors in a local habitat may strongly impact the community residing within, but spatially structured metacommunities are also influenced by regional factors such as immigration and colonization. We used three years of monthly treehole census data to evaluate the relative influence of local and regional factors on our study system. Results Every species responded to at least one of three local environmental factors measured: water volume, leaf litter ma...
El papel del perfeccionismo en la insatisfacción corporal, la influencia sociocultural del modelo de delgadez y los síntomas de trastorno del comportamiento alimentario / Perfectionism in body dissatisfaction, sociocultural influence of the thinness model and symptoms of eating disorders
KARINA, FRANCO PAREDES; JUAN MANUEL, MANCILLA DÍAZ; ROSALÍA, VÁZQUEZ ARÉVALO; GEORGINA, ÁLVAREZ RAYÓN; XÓCHITL, LÓPEZ AGUILAR.
Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue analizar si los componentes de la conducta perfeccionista explican la insatisfacción corporal (IC), la influencia socio-cultural del modelo de delgadez (ISMD) y los síntomas de Trastorno del Comportamiento Alimentario (TCA). Participaron 30 mujeres con Bulimia Nervio [...] sa (BN), 35 con Trastorno Alimentario no Especificado (TANE) y 63 sin TCA. El análisis de regresión mostró que la Preocupación por los Errores (PE) y la Indecisión de Acción explicaron la IC y la ISMD en BN; mientras que PE solo explicó la ISMD en TANE. Se concluye que solo dos componentes del perfeccionismo explican significativamente la interiorización del ideal de delgadez y la IC, las cuales son consideradas factores de riesgo importantes para los TCA. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD), sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM) and symptoms of eating disorders (ED). The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Spec [...] ified (EDNOS) and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM) and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.
MILTIADIS PROIOS; ELENI KAVAZIDOU; IOANNIS LIOLIOS; GEORGE DOGANIS; KATERINA PETROU; AGATHOKLIS TSATSOULIS; ANNA TSILIGIROGLOU-FACHANTIDOU
The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the TFEQ-R18. The project was conducted in Greek population; thus, the questionnaire was translated in Greek language. 495 males and females aged between 12-45 years old participated in the present study. There were used a series of CFA techniques for structure analysis. Confirmatory and exploratory analyses were conducted. Several criteria were used to test the hypotheses factor structures of the AIMS. The results of CFAs s...
Jon, Arcelus; Jonathan, Baggott; Debbie, Whight; Lesley, McGrain; Lesley, Meadows; Christopher, Langham.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores de pronóstico del tratamiento de la bulimia nerviosa con terapia interpersonal. Diseño: 80 pacientes con el diagnostico de Bulimia Nerviosa (BN) o trastornos del comportamiento alimentario no especificados con características de BN (TCANE) fueron tratados con 16 ses [...] iones de terapia interpersonal. Los pacientes fueron evaluados utilizando una entrevista semi-estructural (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC). También completaron una batería de cuestionarios para evaluar los niveles de estima personal (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale -RSE), la psicopatología de los trastornos de la alimentación (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), la función interpersonal (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning-IIP-32) y los niveles de depresión (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Método: El pronóstico de interés fue definido por la variable de remisión y recuperación. Para el análisis del estudio se realizaron una serie de regresiones logísticas. Resultado: Baja estima personal, y una menor patología en la función interpersonal fueron los factores de peor pronóstico. Conclusión: Aunque la terapia interpersonal es un tratamiento efectivo para las personas que sufren de bulimia nerviosa, los pacientes con estas patologías con baja estima personal y menos problemas interpersonales deberían de ser tratados con otro tipo de terapia. Abstract in english Objective: To determine predictors of treatment outcomes in patients with Bulimic Eating Disorders treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). Design: Following initial assessment, 80 patients with diagnoses of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), entered treatmen [...] t in the form of 16 sessions of IPT. Patients were assessed using a validated semi-structure interview (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC) and completed measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale-RSE), eating psychopathology (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning- IIP-32), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Method: Remission and recovery after 16 sessions of IPT were the two outcomes of interest. Univariate analysis and a series of backwards stepping logistic regressions were performed to determine the variables associated with remission and recovery. Result: Low self-esteem and less interpersonal problems were the main predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: As patients with Bulimic Disorders with low levels of interpersonal problems and high levels of low self-esteem are likely to do less well with IPT, different type of treatment should be offered to them. A randomized controlled trial could explore this hypothesis in more detail.
Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong
Even though reliable eating disorder risk factors have been identified among adolescent girls, little is known about predictors of increased vulnerability within specific phases of adolescence or among adolescent boys, particularly in highly populated non-Western contexts. In this study, early and middle adolescent boys (n?=?1,271) and girls (n?=?1,415) from Chongqing, China completed validated measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and 2 years follow-up. Multivariate models for boys of each age group indicated increases in disordered eating at follow-up were predicted by higher initial body mass index, negative affect and body dissatisfaction levels as well as attendant increases in perceived appearance pressure from mass media, body dissatisfaction, negative affect between assessments. High baseline levels of reported appearance pressure from parents and dating partners contributed, respectively, to prediction models of younger and older boys. More distinct constellations of significant predictors emerged in multivariate models of early versus middle adolescent girls. Together, findings indicated body dissatisfaction and negative affect were fairly robust risk factors for exacerbations in disturbances across samples while risk factors such as perceived pressure from desired/prospective dating partners were salient only during particular phases of adolescence. PMID:24221725
Full Text Available Ecological factors is generally refers to only important factor in a variety of biological impact of environmental factors and it is to determine the distribution of habitats. To analyze the Yunnan Bambusoideae affecting habitat distribution ecological factors principal component, first analyze the basic theory and geometric meaning of the Principal Component. Based on this analysis to determine the steps, we selected hollow bamboo genera hollow bamboo as a typical case of bamboo species for this analysis. The second to standardize ecological factors data, building Habitat distribution Factor correlation matrix to determine y1, y2, y3 as three main components. Evaluate the habitat distribution of hollow bamboo by principal component analysis.
Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto; Mercedes Ezquerra-Cabrera; Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera; Rocío Carbonero-Carreño
The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 s...
White, M.A.; Masheb, R. M.; Grilo, C. M.
This study examined the degree of misreport in weight, height, and BMI among overweight adults (n=392) with binge eating disorder (BED) and tested whether the degree of misreport was associated with eating disorder psychopathology and psychological variables. Male (n=97) and female (n=295) participants self-reported height and weight and were subsequently measured by clinic staff. Participants also completed a series of diagnostic interviews and self-report assessments. Discrepancies between ...
du Plessis, Karin
To date there has been a theoretical and empirical gap in workplace-centered health promotion research-particularly as it applies to blue-collar men's diets. To begin addressing the paucity of research, five qualitative focus groups (N = 53) were conducted in Australian training colleges to explore the dietary behaviors of apprentices. Thematic analysis was used by the researcher who concludes that although some apprentices were health conscious and attempted to eat healthy foods, many had diets high in saturated fats and sugar. These types of diets are associated with increased risks for developing chronic disease and are associated with decreased life expectancy. As such it poses a serious challenge for health promoters. Apprentices' dietary practices were also found to be moderated by convenience, availability, and cost of foods in their environment. Their nutritional beliefs, significant others, colleagues in the workplace, and their body image also influence their food choices. PMID:21862566
Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.
The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,
Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.
The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,â¦
Roath, S.; And Others
New entrants to four medical schools in Britain were questioned with regard to factors that made them choose one medical school over another. Factors revealed in approximately 400 replies included: application acceptance; buildings and facilities; emphasis on community medicine; and availability of living accommodations. (Author/LBH)
Becker, Carolyn Black; McDaniel, Leda; Bull, Stephanie; Powell, Marc; McIntyre, Kevin
Female athletes are at least as at risk as other women for eating disorders (EDs) and at risk for the female athlete triad (i.e., inadequate energy availability, menstrual disorders, and osteoporosis). This study investigated whether two evidence-based programs appear promising for future study if modified to address the unique needs of female athletes. Athletes were randomly assigned to athlete-modified dissonance prevention or healthy weight intervention (AM-HWI). ED risk factors were asses...
Franzoni, Emilo; Monti, Morena; Pellicciari, Alessandro; Muratore, Carlo; Verrotti, Alberto; Garone, Caterina; Cecconi, Ilaria; Iero, Luisa; Gualandi, Stefano; Savarino, Francesca; Gualandi, Paola
In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI) and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an inf...
Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D.; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L
Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors under...
Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J
A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571
Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline
There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a
Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta
Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...
YAO Huili; Zhang, Yaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Crowdfunding - as a booming innovative internet-based financial model is one of the solution to SMEs and entrepreneurs to develop new products in a difficult financing situation. Factors were extracted by studying the process of crowdfunding, combined with relevant literature. Applying the method of optimal scaling regression, this paper researched into the influential factors affecting crowdfunding project financing, based on a survey about 314 projects funded in crowdfunding website in 2013...
GUPTA, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
N Gupta; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, I.A., van der; Frewer, L.J.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...
The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly...
The diploma thesis Pedagogical factors influencing pupil achievement at the primary education level aims to establish the pedagogical factors which could improve the learning outcomes of Slovenian pupils. The Slovenian educational system has been thus compared to the Finnish educational system since the latter is very successful and ranked top in international research. I have been dealing with the factors which have influence on the majority of the class and the students who are achieving po...
Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D
median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...
Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Bauer, Stefan; Otto, Sebastian; Trautmann, Thomas
In conclusion, it is shown in this paper that surface albedo variations over desert regions can have a significant influence on the solar and net radiative forcing of desert dust. It is furthermore concluded that desert dust has mostly a cooling effect over oceans, and a warming effect over highly reflecting desert regions. The widespread non-sphericity of the dust particles causes a challenge; it yields an additional contribution to the cooling effect. It is also concluded here that it might...
VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN PÚBERES MEXICANOS / VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS
Teresita de Jesús, Saucedo-Molina; Claudia, Unikel-Santoncini.
Full Text Available Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para púberes mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que evalúe factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y método: El cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra no probabilística, de púberes estudiantes de la [...] ciudad de México (504 hombres y 511 mujeres), con edades de 11 a 15 años de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realizó un análisis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y un análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación oblimin por el método de máxima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada) y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada). Conclusión: El instrumento resultó válido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal. Abstract in english Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female student [...] s in México City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha) and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %), and females 0,83 (57,6%) of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.
VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN PÚBERES MEXICANOS VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS
Teresita de Jesús Saucedo-Molina
Full Text Available Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para púberes mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que evalúe factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y método: El cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra no probabilística, de púberes estudiantes de la ciudad de México (504 hombres y 511 mujeres, con edades de 11 a 15 años de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realizó un análisis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach y un análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación oblimin por el método de máxima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada. Conclusión: El instrumento resultó válido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal.Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female students in México City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %, and females 0,83 (57,6% of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.
J., Aschemann-Witzel; F.J.A., Pérez-Cueto; M., Strand; W., Verbeke; T., Bech-Larsen.
Full Text Available Introducción: Rara vez se ha evaluado la efectividad de las campañas e intervenciones de información pública. Por ello, el estudio de actividades exitosas podría contribuir al desarrollo y puesta en práctica en el futuro de campañas e intervenciones a favor de una alimentación saludable Objetivos: E [...] l objetivo del presente estudio de campañas de información sobre alimentación saludable fue primeramente la identificación de los factores de éxito de las mismas, y seguidamente la descripción de sus inter-relaciones. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 11 representantes de industrias alimentarias cuyas campañas fueron identificadas como exitosas en una etapa previa del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron luego analizadas con respecto a los factores de éxito potenciales. Estos últimos fueron posteriormente utilizados para desarrollar un modelo de factores de éxito y sus interrelaciones. Resultados: El éxito de los casos estudiados fue atribuido primeramente a las características del ambiente macro, o a una colaboración entre los sectores público y privado. Segundo, se identificó al compromiso de las comunidades, elementos de empoderamiento del grupo objetivo y a la ejecución de medidas de marketing social. Tercero, el éxito puede atribuirse a la adopción por parte de la ciudadanía de las campañas y los cambios estructurales consecuentes. Conclusiones: El modelo y los factores de éxito identificados resaltan que el éxito puede originarse en tres fases cruciales, el diseño y montaje de la campaña, su ejecución y finalmente, su interacción con la ciudadanía. El modelo puede servir como guía para el desarrollo de campañas en el futuro. Abstract in english Introduction: Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. Objectives: The study of public campaigns and in [...] terventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. Results: It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. Conclusions: The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.
M. Kür?ad Özlen
Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and students self efficacy.
WANG, XIN; Larry E. Humes
This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, male65, female65 and male85, that differed in talker (male?female) and presentation level (65?85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 ...
Loreni Augusta, Pivetta; Regina M. V., Gonçalves-Silva.
Full Text Available O episódio de compulsão alimentar é caracterizado pela ingestão de grande quantidade de alimentos em tempo delimitado acompanhada de perda de controle sobre o que/quanto se come. O estudo objetivou estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos episódios de compulsão alimentar. Estudo transversal [...] com 1.209 adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos. Para o diagnóstico dos episódios de compulsão alimentar utilizou-se o Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso - Revisado (QEWP-R). Foi realizada análise através da regressão de Poisson com abordagem hierárquica. A prevalência de episódios de compulsão alimentar foi 24,6% (IC95%: 22,3-27,2) e os fatores que permaneceram associados foram: sexo feminino (RP = 1,93; IC95%: 1,47-2,53), idade de 15 a 18 anos (RP = 1,54; IC95%: 1,01-2,37) e 19 anos (RP = 2,60; IC95%: 1,15-5,86), uso de bebidas alcoólicas mais de três vezes por mês (RP = 1,54; IC95%: 1,03-2,33) e flutuações de peso (RP = 1,76; IC95%: 1,33-2,31). Conclui-se que a prevalência de episódios de compulsão alimentar foi alta e associada ao sexo feminino, idade, uso de bebidas alcoólicas e flutuação de peso. Abstract in english Binge eating means ingesting a large amount of food during a certain period of time, followed by a sensation of lack of control over what and how much has been eaten. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of binge eating episodes and associated factors in teenagers. The cross-sectional study in [...] cluded 1,209 teenagers (14 to 19 years old). Diagnosis of binge eating was based on the revised Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. The analysis used Poisson regression with a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of binge eating episodes was 24.6% (95%CI: 22.3-27.2), and factors that remained associated were: female gender (HR = 1.93; 95%CI: 1.47-2.53); age 15 to 18 (HR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.01-2.37) and age 19 (HR = 2.60; 95%CI: 1.15-5.86); alcohol consumption more than 3 times a month (HR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.03-2.33); and current weight oscillation (HR = 1.76; 95%CI: 1.33-2.31). In conclusion, prevalence of binge eating episodes was high and associated with female gender, age, alcohol consumption, and weight oscillation.
Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon
Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's
Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.
The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males
Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii
Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.
Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet
Recent research by Herman, Polivy, and their colleagues has been concerned with the determinants of self-control and disinhibition in dieters. The present paper summarizes a number of studies in which the reactions of dieters and nondieters to a variety of disinhibitory factors (preloading, emotional arousal, intoxication) were investigated. The
One third of undergraduate students enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities are considered nontraditional as defined by the single criterion of being aged 25 years and older. Nontraditional students have significantly lower graduation rates than traditional students. Using a role theory perspective this mixed-methods study examines the factors
Seyfried, Shirley Halpin; And Others
Describes a replication study in which the following factors were found to be significant in recruiting and retaining faculty: opportunity to utilize own knowledge in area of choice, nature of teaching load and assignment, available clinical facilities for student experiences, curriculum of program to which appointment was sought and opportunities
Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio
The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger)âÃâ2 (portion size: small vs. big)âÃâ2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25934089
The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas fo...
Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio (S.I.); Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; Olalla, Patricia García de; Joan A. Caylà
According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with...
Proto, V.; F. Gioffré; M.T. Maresca di Serracapriola; F. Masucci; A. Di Francia
Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU) content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995). In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........
Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha
The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. PMID:25521518
Perfeccionismo y factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros / Perfectionism and risk factors for the development of eating disorders in Spanish adolescents of both genders
Lidia, Pamies; Yolanda, Quiles.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las dimensiones del perfeccionismo que estaban relacionadas con conductas alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros, así como analizar si existían diferencias significativas en estas dimensiones entre los adolescentes con mayor y menor [...] riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria. Método: se administró la adaptación española de The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) y el EAT- 40 a una muestra representativa de 2142 adolescentes de la provincia de Alicante(1130 chicas y 1012 chicos), con una media de edad de 13.96 años (DT = 1.34). Resultados: el perfeccionismo auto-orientado y el prescrito socialmente estaban relacionados de forma positiva con la puntuación total en el EAT-40 y los diferentes factores que lo componen, en ambos géneros. Los adolescentes con mayor riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno alimentario presentaban un mayor perfeccionismo auto-orientado y prescrito socialmente que los adolescentes con menor riesgo de desarrollar el problema. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de identificar estas tendencias perfeccionistas en los adolescentes antes de que se conviertan en conductas patológicas, como un medio para prevenir el desarrollo de un trastorno alimentario. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the dimensions of perfectionism that are linked to risk eating behaviors in a representative sample of Spanish adolescents of both genders, and analyze the differences in these dimensions between adolescents with high and low eating disorder risk. Method: 2142 ado [...] lescents from Alicante (1130 girls and 1012 boys), mean age 13.96 years (SD = 1.34), completed the Spanish version of the The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) and the EAT-40.Results: Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism were positively associated with EAT-40 total score, and with the different factors that comprise it, in both genders. Adolescents with high risk of developing an eating disorder showed higher Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism than adolescents with low risk of developing the disorder. Conclusion: These results suggest that it is necessary to identify these perfectionist tendencies in adolescents before they become pathological behaviors, in order to prevent the development of an eating disorder.
Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam
Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646
... of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Director, Johns Hopkins Eating Disorders Program The Johns Hopkins University Connect with APA Follow APA on Twitter Like us on Facebook Patient Stories Helenas Story Helena was a 16- ...
... fine" and head to the freezer for the ice cream. But can that pint of Rocky Road really ... eat things like pizza, while sad people prefer ice cream and cookies. Bored people crave salty, crunchy things, ...
Imperatori, Claudio; Innamorati, Marco; Lamis, Dorian A; Contardi, Anna; Continisio, Massimo; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta
In the present study, we evaluated the dimensionality and psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Binge Eating Scale (BES) in a 669 (127 men and 542 women) obese and overweight patients seeking weight loss treatment. All participants were administered the Italian version of the BES. Fit statistics for the alternative SEM models demonstrated that both the one-factor and competing two-factor models had a comparable fit to the data. Thus, we selected the one-factor model as the most parsimonious. The BES had good internal consistency reliability (??=?0.89) with a moderate mean inter-item correlation (rii ?=?0.34). Given that we were not able to clearly determine the best model among the competing two-factor models and a comparable fit of these models with the one-factor model, we have suggested that the one-factor model is the best fitting model describing the dimensionality of the BES. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26147590
Saayman, Melville; Du Plessis, Engelina
Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in th...
Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.
SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA
Full Text Available This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking while Primary and Secondary Influence was rated the least impacting factor. Both Utilitarian Outcomes and Availability of Internet were rated as second most impacting factor followed by Availability, Cost, Ease of Use, Security, Trust and Self Confidence.
Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael
In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life. PMID:24028035
Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patients health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of ones own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.
The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)
Magistris, Tiziana de; Gracia Royo, Azucena; Barreiro Hurlé, Jesús
This study aims at testing a theoretical model explaining why people follow healthy eating habits and in particular to identify how the nutritional labels use influences this behavioural pattern. The results indicate that the individuals who utilise more often the nutritional labels follow healthier eating habits, such as avoiding snacking between meals, a lower intake of salt and avoiding the fat intake. According the factors explaining the label use, the health knowledge, the bad heal...
Milos, Gabriella F; Baur, Volker; Muehlebach, Sabina; SPINDLER, ANJA
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (ED) are classified into Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Prospectively, the diagnostic instability within ED is high, but it is not clear which factors may account for this instability. So far, there is no evidence of whether psychiatric comorbidity may play a role in ED diagnostic crossover. We sought to determine possible influences of comorbidities of axis I and II on diagnostic crossover within ED. METHODS:...
K. R. Sowmya; N.Panchanatham
Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the...
Yulihasri Eri; Md. Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud
On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing students buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence students buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public institution of higher l...
Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wagner, Mark C.; Patel, Monica; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Rhodes, George J.; Wang, Exing; Wean, Sarah E.; Clendenon, Sherry S.; Molitoris, Bruce A
Different laboratories recently reported incongruous results describing the quantification of albumin filtration using two-photon microscopy. We investigated the factors that influence the glomerular sieving coefficient for albumin (GSCA) in an effort to explain these discordant reports and to develop standard operating procedures for determining GSCA. Multiple factors influenced GSCA, including the kidney depth of image acquisition (1020 ?m was appropriate), the selection of fluorophore (pr...
McDowell, N.; McKenna, J; Naylor, P J
OBJECTIVE: To investigate what factors may influence practice nurses to promote physical activity. METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent to all practice nurses in the county of Avon, UK in 1994. Specifically, the questionnaire survey explored whether patient, provider, and practice factors influenced practice nurses promotion behaviour. In addition, the stages of change model was used to measure current levels of promoting behaviour. RESULTS: A response rate of 80.9% was achieved. Over 80%...
Hasan, Maher Mohamad
The important problems for marketing companies in the Czech Republic are how to exposure determinants that lead consumer to decision of buying certain products and which factors influence the consumer purchasing, Through this, Czech marketing companies can understand deeply their consumer behaviour and issue suitable strategies so they can develop their companies and whole industry more. The objective of the study is: To exploit the factors that influence buying decision when buying certain p...
Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii
Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to rank 17 important facto...
Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...
Lawver, Rebecca Grace
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence senior level agricultural education students' choice to become secondary agriculture teachers. This study focused on the extent to which beliefs and attitude influenced students' intent to select a teaching secondary agricultural education as a career. The Agricultural
Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.
Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.
Vitor Francisco Dalla Corte
Full Text Available A change in the profile of food consumption is occurring because of the new context of demographic growth, the increase of income in developing economies, and urbanization. In Brazil, consumption patterns have trended from fresh to processed food and internal and external growth in demand has led to opportunities that require new and higher levels of technological innovation and associated managerial skill. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of innovation on a key Brazilian food industry: wheat product markets. Results showed that while most firms did not innovate in the past year, new investments in R&D were important for innovation to occur compared to other factors such as the size of the company, the integration in supply chain, and the age of the company. These results demonstrate that innovation is not a random or unpredictable process, but a complex and diverse process that may be specific to each industry.
Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.
Full Text Available Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik13 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate-gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, animal models, genome-wide association studies, high-throughput sequencing
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; GrÃ¸nhÃ¸j, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino
socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents and government publicity asked them to eat healthy food more often than teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. In terms of alternative advertising appeals discouraging...... questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed in three public secondary schools. Findings - Results showed that respondents frequently ate out with friends and frequently consumed a range of relatively unhealthy food (candies, chips, and soft drinks). They perceived that a balanced diet and eating...... at a regular time were the most important attributes of healthy eating. In terms of situational influences on their consumption, respondents most likely ate unhealthy food at parties, when eating out or with friends. They most likely ate healthy food at home and when they were sick. Looking at...
Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D
Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions. PMID:26857889
... functioning emotional well-being energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good choices at a fast-food restaurant, the mall, or even the school cafeteria. ...
Fernandes, Sofia; Cardoso, Ana Paula; Abrantes, José Luís; Ferreira, Manuela; Guiné, Raquel, co-orient.
Introduction: Food Education as a means of promoting a healthy diet is very important nowadays, given the problems identified in the eating habits of the youngs, resulting in public health problems. The intervention strategies havent proved to be very effective and therefore children and young students still reveal inadequate diets and sedentary lifestyles. Objectives: Verify the level of knowledge about food and habits of the students; Analyze how the information provided by educators ...
Input data from Students Food Behavior, Preference and Lifestyle Questionnaire conducted with 376 students from University Dunarea de Jos Galati (UDJG) were analyzed from socio-demographic criteria. The sample socio-demoraphic characteristics of the student population were investigated beside the general food & eating habits by gender. In the current study, most than three quart of students (76.06%) was of correct (normal) weight. Nearly 65.15% of the students reported having regular daily ...
Rolland, Jannick Paule Yvette
An important goal in medical imaging is the assessment of image quality in a way that relates to clinical efficacy. An objective approach is to evaluate the performance of diagnosis for specific tasks, using ROC analysis. We shall concentrate here on classification tasks. While many factors may confine the performance achieved for these tasks, we shall investigate two main limiting factors: image blurring and object variability. Psychophysical studies followed by ROC analysis are widely used for system assessment, but it is of great practical interest to be able to predict the outcome of psychophysical studies, especially for system design and optimization. The ideal observer is often chosen as a standard of comparison for the human observer since, at least for simple tasks, its performance can be readily calculated using statistical decision theory. We already know, however, of cases reported in the literature where the human observer performs far below ideal, and one of the purposes of this dissertation is to determine whether there are other practical circumstances where human and ideal performances diverge. Moreover, when the complexity of the task increases, the ideal observer becomes quickly intractable, and other observers such as the Hotelling and the nonprewhitening (npw) ideal observers may be considered instead. A practical problem where our intuition tells us that the ideal observer may fail to predict human performance occurs with imaging devices that are characterized by a PSF having long spatial tails. The investigation of the impact of long-tailed PSFs on detection is of great interest since they are commonly encountered in medical imaging and even more generally in image science. We shall show that the ideal observer is a poor predictor of human performance for a simple two-hypothesis detection task and that linear filtering of the images does indeed help the human observer. Another practical problem of considerable interest is the effect of background nonuniformity on detectability since, it is one more step towards assessing image quality for real clinical images. When the background is known exactly (BKE), the Hotelling and the npw ideal observers predict that detection is optimal for an infinite aperture; a spatially varying background (SVB) results in an optimum aperture size. Moreover, given a fixed aperture size and a BKE, an increase in exposure time is highly beneficial for both observers. For SVB, on the other hand, the Hotelling observer benefits from an increases in exposure time, while the npw ideal observer quickly saturates. In terms of human performance, results show a good agreement with the Hotelling-observer predictions, while the performance disagrees strongly with the npw ideal observer.
Jeffrey C. Wayman
Full Text Available This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.
Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin
Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Childrenâs Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with âfood fussinessâ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (âdislike towards foodâ) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating behaviours. Obese adolescents were found to display a lack of dislike towards food. Future longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to further understand behavioural phenotypes of obesity to guide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24349385
... NHLBI on Twitter. Description of the DASH Eating Plan DASH is a flexible and balanced eating plan that helps creates a heart-healthy eating style for life. The DASH eating plan requires no special foods and instead provides daily ...
Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar
Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.
The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research
In the modern energy carriers producion is very important to know the impacts of several factors which influence the final quality of briquets. In our department we realized opening measurements of some factors impact on the briquet quality. I monitored the impact of compacting pressure, fraction largeness and the material humidity. In this contribution, I would like to describe this opening experimental research.
Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy
This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).
In the modern energy carriers production is very important to know the impacts of several factors which influence the final quality of briquets. In our department we realized opening measurements of some factors' impact on the briquette quality. I monitored the impact of compacting pressure, fraction largeness and the material humidity. In this contribution, I would like to describe this opening experimental research. (authors)
Nina Nevanperä; Raimo Lappalainen; Eeva Kuosma; Leila Hopsu; Jukka Uitti; Jaana Laitinen
Background: Occupational burnout is associated with diminished psychological flexibility and higher emotional (EE) and uncontrolled eating (UE). Psychological flexibility could be a mediating factor between burnout and eating behaviour. Objectives: To investigate differences in eating behaviour between those with different levels of psychological flexibility, and the association of the interaction between psychological flexibility and occupational burnout with eating behaviour. Design: The pa...
Juliana de Abreu, Gonçalves; Emilia Addison M., Moreira; Erasmo Benício S. de M., Trindade; Giovanna Medeiros R., Fiates.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crianças e adolescentes quanto às suas características e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combinação dos termos 'crianças', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'trans [...] torno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas português e inglês. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisaram o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares não especificados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os não especificados, mostraram-se comuns na infância e na adolescência. Sua presença foi atribuída principalmente ao ambiente familiar e à exposição aos meios de comunicação. As comorbidades psicológicas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagnóstico do transtorno. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a mídia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influência da mídia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto à magreza. Já no âmbito familiar, o momento das refeições mostrou-se fundamental na determinação do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (déficit no crescimento e ganho de peso), à saúde bucal (queilose, erosão dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das glândulas salivares) e aos prejuízos sociais. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en niños y adolescentes respecto a sus características y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinación de los términos "niños", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alim [...] entar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Se consideraron los artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccionados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposición a los medios de comunicación. Las comorbilidades psicológicas muchas veces acompañan el diagnóstico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el ámbito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostró fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (déficit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso), a la salud oral (queilosis, erosión dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las glándulas salivares) y a los perjuicios sociales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia' [...] , both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to the media. Eating disorders were frequently followed by psych
Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.
Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...
Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami
The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...
Factores de riesgo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en jóvenes escolarizados en Cundinamarca (Colombia) / Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among School-Aged Young People in Cundinamarca (Colombia)
Sandra, Piñeros Ortíz; Jenny, Molano Caro; Clara, López de Mesa.
Full Text Available Introducción: El diagnóstico precoz de un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) es determinante para evitar complicaciones graves a lo largo de la vida. Pocos estudios en Colombia han examinado sus características clínicas y comorbilidad en la población escolar. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuenc [...] ia de TCA, sus factores de inicio y mantenimiento, así como sus subtipos clínicos y comorbilidad en una población escolarizada. Método: Estudio de base comunitaria y corte transversal con 937 estudiantes entre 12 y 20 años de edad, de Bogotá y la sabana centro de Cundinamarca, que respondieron la EAT-26, encuesta de factores de inicio y mantenimiento de TCA, y la Zung de ansiedad y depresión. Los casos probables fueron contactados para entrevista clínica psiquiátrica. Resultados: Se detectaron 141 casos probables de TCA, la mayoría en mujeres (p Abstract in english Introduction: The early diagnosis of Eating Disorders (ED) is decisive in order to prevent serious complications during lifetime. In Colombia, few studies have assessed the clinical characteristics and comorbidity of ED in students. Objective: To determine the frecuency of ED, its onset and maintena [...] nce factors, as well as its clinical subtypes and comorbidity in student population. Method: Cross sectional and community based study with 937 students, ages 10 to 12, from Bogotá and Sabana Centro-Cundinamarca, who answered the EAT- 26, a survey on onset and maintenance factors for ED, and the Zung depression and anxiety scales. Results: 141 probable cases of ED were detected, predominantly among women (p
Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara
Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors. PMID:25661846
The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children. PMID:19447694
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Flavia Marcele, Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência de comportamentos de risco para condutas de alimentação inapropriada (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Tem sido proposto que a insatisfação corporal, a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômi [...] co e a origem étnica podem ser fatores de risco para CAI. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de insatisfação corporal, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), adiposidade corporal, estado nutricional, nível econômico e etnia com CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 562 jovens, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 15 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para avaliar CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) e a Commitment Exercise Scale (CES) foram utilizadas para mensurar insatisfação corporal e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a adiposidade corporal segundo o sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e determinar o estado nutricional. Nível econômico foi avaliado de acordo com o Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário para avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. Conduziu-se regressão logística binária para determinar associações entre as variáveis da pesquisa. RESULTADOS: Houve associação de CAI com insatisfação corporal, GCPE e nível econômico no sexo feminino (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the a [...] ssociation of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES) were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI) and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p
Capacidad Discriminante y Clasificación Correcta de la Escala de Factores de riesgo Asociados con Trastornos de la alimentación (EFRATA-II) / Discriminatory power and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disorders (EPHRATA-II)
Romana Silvia, Platas Acevedo; Gilda, Gómez-Peresmitré; Rodrigo, León Hernández; Gisela, Pineda García; Rebeca, Guzmán Saldaña.
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue establecer la capacidad discriminante y de clasificación correcta de la Escala de Factores de Riesgo Asociados con Trastornos Alimentarios (EFRATA-II), para niños y niñas. La muestra no aleatoria quedó formada por 934 estudiantes de escuelas públicas: 474 niñas y 460 niño [...] s con edad promedio de 10.6 años (DE = .80). El análisis discriminante, con el método D de Mahalanobis, arrojó una clasificación correcta de 100% de los casos en alto y bajo riesgo. La dimensión de sobre ingesta alimentaria por compensación psicológica fue la más relevante, seguida por la de dieta crónica y restringida. La EFRATA-II es un indicador adecuado para la estimación de factores de riesgo en la conducta alimentaria de preadolescentes, y representa una aportación valiosa en el desarrollo de programas preventivos para trastornos de la alimentación. Abstract in english The increased frequency of binge eating behavior, and its relationship to overweight and obesity, expressed a national and international real health problem. The aim of the study was to establish the discriminatory and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disord [...] ers (Ephrata-II), for boys and girls. The non random sample was formed by 934 public school students: 474 girls and 460 boys with a mean age of 10.6 years (SD=.80). Discriminant analysis with Mahalanobis D method, yielded a correct classification of 100% of cases at high and low risk. The food overeating dimension of psychological compensation was the most relevant, followed by chronic restricted diet. The Ephrata-II is a suitable indicator for estimation of risk factors in eating behavior of tweens, and represents a valuable contribution in the development of prevention programs for eating disorders.
Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.
Full Text Available Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.
Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.
Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.
Full Text Available ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...
Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J
There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area. PMID:25663236
Schuppli, C A; Fraser, Mrs. D.
Research ethics committeesanimal ethics committees (AECs) for animal?based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjectshave a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a m...
Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students performance, students involvement in extracurricular activities or universitys attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.
Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech
Full Text Available Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the outcome of eating disorders in Polish teenage patients. Material and methods. Analyses covered the data of 47 patients diagnosed with any of the eating disorders according to DSM IV consulted for the first time in the outpatients clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit between 2002/2004 in Krakow (DGN1, Poland and then followed up between 2009/2011 (DGN2. The influence of the number of variables collected at DGN1 on outcomes was analysed. Results. The outcomes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are influenced by some aspects of clinical picture, patients objective family situation, their self-image and the perception they have of their family relations. The co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and younger age of parents proved to be the most clinically important negative outcome predictors in the whole group of eating disorders. Discussion. The small size of group in the follow-up study is the most important limitating factor. Conclusion. Outcomes in eating disorders are affected by several psycho-bio-social factors common to all patients and specific for the diagnosis type they initially present.
A survey of experimental results is presented, pertaining to radiation blistering of a considerable number of materials (stainless steels, alloys with high nickel content, alloys of refractory metals) under helium ion irradiation with energies of 20-100 keV under conditions corresponding to the plasma-wall interaction: bombardment at various angles of incidence and cyclic irradiation in a wide spectrum of ion incidence angles; influence of external action, including thermocyclic; influence of preceding neutron and proton irradiation. It has been shown that external factors have a complex influence on blister parameters and erosion coefficients of materials. A study has been carried out on the influence of aluminium coatings, alloying additions, phase state of material and microstructure on the nature and degree of surface erosion. Complex influence of element and phase composition, as well as microstructural changes during heat treatment and welding on radiation erosion have been established. (orig.)
Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.
The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...
Rikani, Azadeh A; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M.; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; Waheed, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J
The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusi...
Influência do estado nutricional no risco para transtornos alimentares em estudantes de nutrição / Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status
Janiara David, Silva; Amanda Bertolini de Jesus, Silva; Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff de, Oliveira; Aline Silva de Aguiar, Nemer.
Full Text Available Avaliar a relação entre a alteração do comportamento alimentar, associado à insatisfação com a imagem corporal, e o estado nutricional de universitárias de Nutrição. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 175 universitárias do Curso de Nutrição (ENUT/UFOP). Foram aplicados os questionários Eating Att [...] itudes Test-26 (EAT-26) e o Body Shape Questionare (BSQ) e realizadas medidas antropométricas. 21,7% das estudantes apresentaram alto risco para transtornos alimentares e 13,7% apresentaram insatisfação com a imagem corporal. A maioria das estudantes com BSQ e EAT-26 positivos estava eutrófica. As estudantes com excesso de peso, aumento do percentual de gordura corporal (% GC) e do perímetro da cintura (PC) apresentaram risco 5 a 9 vezes maiores de alteração do comportamento alimentar. Houve associação positiva entre os parâmetros antropométricos com a pontuação dos questionários EAT-26 e BSQ. Futuras nutricionistas com excesso de peso apresentaram maior risco de estarem insatisfeitas com a sua imagem corporal e de desenvolverem transtornos alimentares. A utilização de outros parâmetros antropométricos, além do IMC, pode ser útil na triagem de indivíduos suscetíveis ao surgimento de preocupações excessivas com o peso corporal e a alimentação. Abstract in english The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP) [...] . The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.
Influência do estado nutricional no risco para transtornos alimentares em estudantes de nutrição Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status
Janiara David Silva
Full Text Available Avaliar a relação entre a alteração do comportamento alimentar, associado à insatisfação com a imagem corporal, e o estado nutricional de universitárias de Nutrição. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 175 universitárias do Curso de Nutrição (ENUT/UFOP. Foram aplicados os questionários Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 e o Body Shape Questionare (BSQ e realizadas medidas antropométricas. 21,7% das estudantes apresentaram alto risco para transtornos alimentares e 13,7% apresentaram insatisfação com a imagem corporal. A maioria das estudantes com BSQ e EAT-26 positivos estava eutrófica. As estudantes com excesso de peso, aumento do percentual de gordura corporal (% GC e do perímetro da cintura (PC apresentaram risco 5 a 9 vezes maiores de alteração do comportamento alimentar. Houve associação positiva entre os parâmetros antropométricos com a pontuação dos questionários EAT-26 e BSQ. Futuras nutricionistas com excesso de peso apresentaram maior risco de estarem insatisfeitas com a sua imagem corporal e de desenvolverem transtornos alimentares. A utilização de outros parâmetros antropométricos, além do IMC, pode ser útil na triagem de indivíduos suscetíveis ao surgimento de preocupações excessivas com o peso corporal e a alimentação.The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF and waist circumference (WC had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.
Sylvie, Amanda K; Jiang, Qianzhi; Cohen, Nancy
Many environmental settings and influences can affect food choices and eating behaviors in the growing population of community-dwelling older adults. Using the Social Ecological model, an expert panel participated in online discussions and an Analytic Hierarchy Process survey to identify the most important and changeable environmental settings and enabling factors that promote healthy eating in older adults. Food stores were rated most important when considering accessibility and affordability. Congregate nutrition sites were important for social support along with supporting access and affordability of healthful foods and living accommodations. Senior housing, health care, and religious settings also contributed to the goal of promoting healthful eating in aging adults. Restaurants were rated of lower importance. Based on these results, it is recommended that community food policies include the nutritional needs of older adults by addressing food accessibility and affordability, social support, and living accommodations, with a focus on congregate nutrition sites, food stores, senior housing, health care, and religious organizations. PMID:23663214
Mojtaba Khalesi Ardakani
Full Text Available Tourism industry plays an essential role on development of economy and it is considered as one of green industries. Many countries try to promote investment on tourism to create various job opportunities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on tourism industry in city of Yazd, Iran. The proposed study uses three multiple criteria decision making techniques namely, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW and Taxonomy to rank 40 factors. The results indicate that factors such as Being located in the center axis of communication, Strengths in transportation, The ease of access to tourism destinations and Sufficient knowledge of some historical attractions are among important factors influencing tourism industry.
Abbas Saleh Ardestani; Kaveh Teymournezhad; Sajad Ahmadvand
This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran...
Majid Zamiri; Shadiya Mohamed S; Baqutayan
This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS) University Technology Malaysia (UTM) to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the ...
Majid Zamiri; Dr. Shadiya Mohamed S. Baqutayan
This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS) University Technology Malaysia (UTM) to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the rel...
Dan Shen; Yi (Leaf) Zhang
The single yarn strength CV value is one important index to measure the quality of yarn. Taking pure cotton and polyester cotton blended yarn as research objects, in this article, we systematically analyze the effects of some factors such as raw material blended ratio, yarn unevenness and twist unevenness on single yarn strength CV value, and use the mathematic analysis method to obtain the relationships between various influencing factors with single yarn strength value, and the result posse...
Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study were to investigate microtransaction based monetization models in games, and to find factors that influence their success and suitability. The research goal was to interview players, in order to get answers regarding their motivations behind microtransaction purchasing in games. Academic background and methodology The literature review focused on virtual goods research. Overall, there were many factors identified that impact ...
M.Z. Goldani; L.S.B. Haeffner; Agranonik, M.; Barbieri, M.A.; Bettiol, H.; Silva, A A M
The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class) on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of th...
Mojtaba Esmaeeli; Hamid Bagheri; Sina Nobahari; Naser Azad; Mohammad Rikhtegar
These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distr...
Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee
Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials). We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique ...
Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang
Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new...
Ahmad Kabir; Mohammad Shahidul Islam; Muhammad Shibbir Ahmed; M. A. Khalique Barbhuiya
This study, based on 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), attempts to identify important factors influencing infant and child mortality. Application of Cox`s proportional hazard model suggest that socio-economic status of the parents are associated with child survival. The factors that have received the most attention are maternal education, sanitation and access to safe drinking water. For instance, risk of infant mortality is 13% lower among the women having primary educ...
SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA; M. V. SURYANARAYANA
This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking w...
Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grønhøj, Alice
Purpose - We study the extent of change in parents fruit and vegetable consumption during a period when their children participate in a school-based healthy eating intervention. Design/methodology/approach - 256 12-year old Danish schoolchildren took part in a text-message feedback intervention...... promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. One parent of each child filled out self-administered questionnaires at three points during the 40-week long study period. In the questionnaire, stated consumption, perceived influence factors on their consumption and self-efficacy and self-regulation were measured....... Findings - Only half of the parents stated that they met the five a day target. These parents reported good availability of fruit and vegetables in their household, high consumption among their friends and frequent exercise and they were characterised by high self-efficacy levels. Stated consumption...
Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Olson, Beth; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry; Bock, Margaret A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Bruhn, Christine; Goldberg, Dena; Misner, Scottie; Wang, Changzheng; Zaghloul, Sahar
Objective: To explore at-home and away-from-home eating patterns influencing Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white preadolescents' intake of calcium-rich food from a parental perspective. Design: Individual semistructured interviews. Setting: Home or community site. Participants: Convenience sample (n = 201) of self-reported Asian (n = 54),
Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro
Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...
Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.
Nicklaus, Sophie; Issanchou, Sylvie
Introduction: Diets of young children in many European countries are not ideal (too many lipids; not enough fruit and vegetables). Early nutrition may have an impact on health in later life (diabetes, obesity, heart problems) and the first two years of life are of crucial importance in the acquisition of food habits. The HabEat project aims at understanding better of how food habits are formed and can be changed, in infants and children (< 5 years). Methods: With 11 beneficiaries from 6 Euro...
... not to mention other stuff, like caffeine. continue Tips for Eating at a Restaurant Most restaurant portions are way larger than the ... of your dish home. Here are some other restaurant survival tips: Ask for sauces and salad dressings on the ...
Kennedy, John J., Jr.
The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. Aâ¦
CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)
Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma
Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.
Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli
This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of
Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.
Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A
A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101
Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah
Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)
Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin
Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are
Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...
Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university
Givens, Sharon Leenese
This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly
Fisher, Molly H.
This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,
Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessiveâcompulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.
Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD
Gurak, Douglas T.; Dean, Gillian
Examines the influence of factors associated with the remarriage market on two outcome areas: (1) the probability of remarriage and the interval between marital events; and (2) the selectivity of spouse characteristics. Findings are consistent with a remarriage market perspective. (Author)
Stewart, David A.
The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)
The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include
Siddalingappa, Hugara; Murthy M.R, Nrayana; Kulkarni, Praveen; N.C, Ashok
Background: With decreasing Infant Mortality Rate, Perinatal Mortality is gaining importance as it takes into consideration most of the factors influencing child birth and its survival, mortality during this period is a better indicator of quality of Maternal and Child Health services.
Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.