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1

Influence of Biological, Social and Psychological Factors on Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Female University Students in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-...

Da Cunha Feio Costa, Larissa; Assis Guedes Vasconcelos, Francisco; Peres, Karen Glazer

2010-01-01

2

Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour…

Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

2011-01-01

3

Factores influyentes en el comportamiento alimentario infantil / Factors that influence eating behavior of children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La razón por la que los niños tienen determinadas características en el consumo de alimentos es un tema que preocupa tanto a padres, como a profesionales e investigadores cercanos a esta área de estudio. Aquí se buscó comprender los factores que hoy día son reconocidos como influyentes en el consumo [...] de alimentos por parte de la población infantil. Para ello se revisó literatura científica publicada desde enero de 2002 hasta abril de 2013; la revisión se adelantó en las bases de datos: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost y Redalyc. Se obtuvieron 57 documentos acordes a los criterios de inclusión definidos. Dicho ejercicio llevó a clasificar la información encontrada en condiciones individuales, características del entorno y estrategias frecuentes que pueden influir en el consumo. La revisión realizada permite concluir que hoy en día, más que hablar solo de consumo, la mirada se traslada al comportamiento alimentario. Esto incluye las características de los alimentos consumidos, lugares, experiencias, compañías, entre otros aspectos, que forman parte de un patrón de conducta alrededor de los alimentos. De esta manera, se evidencian campos de intervención e investigación en aspectos tales como conducta alimentaria por género, rasgos genéticos y estado nutricional; también se exploran creencias y experiencias alrededor de los alimentos, grupos sociales influyentes, características organolépticas de las preparaciones y estrategias de promoción que involucran mucho más que trasmitir conocimiento acerca de lo saludable, entre otros. Abstract in english Why children have certain characteristics in food consumption is a matter of concern to both parents, as professionals and researchers in their exercise near this age group. This paper aim is to understand factors and mechanisms influencing in the decision of food intake by children. Scientific lite [...] rature published was revised, from January 2002 to April 2013, in the databases: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost and Redalyc. 57 papers were obtained with the inclusion criteria used. This exercise led to classify the information found in individual conditions, characteristics of the setting and common strategies that may influence food consumption. Today, more than just talk about consumption, the works attends the feeding behavior, which includes the characteristics of the food consumed, places, experiences, companies, among others, as part of a pattern of behavior around food. This led to identify areas of intervention and research such as eating behavior by gender, genetic characteristics and nutritional status. And, the beliefs and experiences around food, influential social groups, organoleptic characteristics of recipes and promotion strategies, involve much more than transmit knowledge about how to be healthy, among others.

Mónica del Pilar, Díaz-Beltrán.

2014-04-01

4

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Disordered Eating: An Adoption Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Twin studies indicate significant genetic, but little shared environmental, influences on eating disorders. However, critics argue that study limitations constrain the conclusions that can be drawn. Adoption studies avoid many of these limitations, but to date, no adoption studies of eating pathology have been conducted. The current study was the first adoption study to examine genetic/environmental effects for disordered eating. Participants included 123 adopted and 56 biological female sibling pairs. Disordered eating (i.e., overall eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, binge eating) was assessed using the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey. Biometric model-fitting indicated significant genetic influences (59–82%) on all forms of disordered eating, with nonshared environmental factors accounting for the remaining variance. Shared environmental factors did not contribute significantly to any disordered eating symptom. Our findings bolster those from twin studies and provide critical evidence of significant genetic effects on disordered eating symptoms. PMID:19899849

Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

2009-01-01

5

Influência de fatores afetivos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre o comportamento alimentar em jovens atletas / Influence of affective, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on eating behavior in young athletes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a influência de diversos fatores sobre o comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI) em jovens atletas femininas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 116 esportistas. Avaliou-se o CAI mediante aplicação do Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). A insatisfação corporal e o comprom [...] etimento psicológico ao exercício foram avaliados pelo Body Shape Questionnaire e pelo Commitment Exercise Scale, respectivamente. O nível econômico foi obtido pelo "Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil". Aferiram-se peso e estatura para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e dobras cutâneas para estimar o percentual de gordura. Conduziu-se regressão linear múltipla utilizando o software SPSS 17.0 e adotando nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADO: A insatisfação corporal, seguida do percentual de gordura, foram as únicas variáveis que modularam as pontuações do EAT-26. Contudo, o modelo de regressão linear múltipla explicou um terço da variância do CAI nessas esportistas. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o CAI de atletas femininas foi influenciado basicamente pela insatisfação corporal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of various factors on the inadequate eating behavior (IEB) in young female athletes. METHODS: Participants 116 athletes. The IEB was evaluated by applying IEB of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The body dissatisfaction and psychologic [...] al commitment to exercise were assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale, respectively. The economic level was obtained by the "Classification Criteria Economic Brazil". Body weight and height to calculate the index of mass (BMI) and skinfold thickness to estimate the percentage of fat. We carried out multiple linear regression using the SPSS 17.0 software and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULT: The body dissatisfaction, followed by the percentage of fat were the only variables that modulate the EAT-26 scores. However, the multiple linear regression model explained 1/3 of the variance of these IEB sportsmen. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the IEB was influenced female athletes primarily by body dissatisfaction.

Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Flávio Garcia de, Oliveira; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.

6

Influência de fatores afetivos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre o comportamento alimentar em jovens atletas Influence of affective, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on eating behavior in young athletes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a influência de diversos fatores sobre o comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI em jovens atletas femininas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 116 esportistas. Avaliou-se o CAI mediante aplicação do Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. A insatisfação corporal e o comprometimento psicológico ao exercício foram avaliados pelo Body Shape Questionnaire e pelo Commitment Exercise Scale, respectivamente. O nível econômico foi obtido pelo "Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil". Aferiram-se peso e estatura para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC e dobras cutâneas para estimar o percentual de gordura. Conduziu-se regressão linear múltipla utilizando o software SPSS 17.0 e adotando nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADO: A insatisfação corporal, seguida do percentual de gordura, foram as únicas variáveis que modularam as pontuações do EAT-26. Contudo, o modelo de regressão linear múltipla explicou um terço da variância do CAI nessas esportistas. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o CAI de atletas femininas foi influenciado basicamente pela insatisfação corporal.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of various factors on the inadequate eating behavior (IEB in young female athletes. METHODS: Participants 116 athletes. The IEB was evaluated by applying IEB of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. The body dissatisfaction and psychological commitment to exercise were assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale, respectively. The economic level was obtained by the "Classification Criteria Economic Brazil". Body weight and height to calculate the index of mass (BMI and skinfold thickness to estimate the percentage of fat. We carried out multiple linear regression using the SPSS 17.0 software and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULT: The body dissatisfaction, followed by the percentage of fat were the only variables that modulate the EAT-26 scores. However, the multiple linear regression model explained 1/3 of the variance of these IEB sportsmen. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the IEB was influenced female athletes primarily by body dissatisfaction.

Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

2012-01-01

7

Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

2012-01-01

8

Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

2010-01-01

9

Environmental influences on youth eating habits: insights from parents and teachers in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Youth obesity has increased over the past two decades in South Korea. Researchers employed in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with parents and teachers from 26 schools in metropolitan South Korea, to examine environmental factors affecting youth eating habits. Home environment and exposure to healthy foods were the most important factors influencing healthy eating habits. Families with working mothers eat out more than do families with stay-at-home mothers. Poor nutrition education is associated with low vegetable intake in elementary school lunches. A cultural emphasis on academic achievement adversely affects children's eating practices. Findings can guide future studies and inform program development. PMID:24884552

Park, Sohyun; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lawrence, Robert; Gittelsohn, Joel

2014-01-01

10

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Disordered Eating: An Adoption Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twin studies indicate significant genetic, but little shared environmental, influences on eating disorders. However, critics argue that study limitations constrain the conclusions that can be drawn. Adoption studies avoid many of these limitations, but to date, no adoption studies of eating pathology have been conducted. The current study was the first adoption study to examine genetic/environmental effects for disordered eating. Participants included 123 adopted and 56 biological female sibl...

Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Mcgue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

2009-01-01

11

Eating pathology in female gymnasts: potential risk and protective factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although participation in sports that emphasize aestheticism, such as women's gymnastics, are associated with higher rates of eating pathology, little is known about the risk and protective factors involved in this process. We established and tested a model proposing that body surveillance and body shame are processes by which pubertal development and training may uniquely contribute to pathological eating by sampling 100 competitive female gymnasts via questionnaires. We further tested whether self-esteem moderated several model relationships. Results demonstrated that pubertal development was associated with higher levels of body surveillance, body shame and disordered eating; whereas greater time spent training was associated with lower levels of body shame and disordered eating. Finally higher self-esteem was associated with lower levels of disordered eating, less body surveillance, and less body shame. Potential risk and protective factors for the development of eating pathology in female gymnasts are discussed. PMID:25173666

Harriger, Jennifer A; Witherington, David C; Bryan, Angela D

2014-09-01

12

FAMILY ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON CHILDREN’S EATING BEHAVIOR  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents can influence children’s dietary behaviors within the home family environment. This presentation will review current research identifying family environmental influences on eating, and how these influences can be used in targeted interventions. For example, the foods available in both home a...

13

Influence of eating behaviors on short-term weight loss by orlistat and anorectic agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little data exists concerning whether eating behaviors determine the response to orlistat treatment, especially with added anorectic agents. This study was a sub-investigation of a 12-week randomized controlled trial for the additive effect of orlistat on sibutramine treatment. The analysis presented here was restricted to 98 women who had fulfilled the protocol. The Dutch eating behavior questionnaire and three-factor eating questionnaire were used to assess eating behaviors. Scores of emotional eating, external eating, disinhibition and hunger are significantly interrelated. Using multiple logistic analysis with adjustment for potential confounders, such as age, initial BMI and the other 2 eating behavior scores, traits of emotional eating (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13-0.74) and disinhibition (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40-0.82) have a significant influence on prediction for additional 5% weight loss in the treatment with orlistat and sibutramine. Subjects with less vulnerability to emotional cues had significantly more weight loss with orlistat treatment and anorectic agents. PMID:24411757

Kim, Kyoung Kon; Suh, Heuy Sun; Hwang, In Cheol; Ko, Ki Dong

2014-01-01

14

Risk factors and patterns of onset in binge eating disorder.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined risk factors in women with binge eating disorder (BED) who began binging before dieting (binge-first [BF]) compared with women with BED who began dieting before binging (diet-first [DF]). It further aimed to replicate findings regarding eating disorder and general psychopathology among BF versus DF subtypes. METHOD: One hundred fifty-five women with BED completed the Oxford Risk Factor Interview to retrospectively assess risk factors occurring before eati...

Manwaring, Jl; Hilbert, A.; Wilfley, DE; Pike, Km; Fairburn, Cg; Dohm, Fa; Striegel-moore, Rh

2006-01-01

15

Family functioning and risk factors for disordered eating.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated whether any of seven factors of family dysfunction predicted five risk factors for developing eating disorders in young adult women. Participants completed demographic questions, the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (Slade & Dewey, 1986) online. Five stepwise multiple regressions evaluated whether FAD scores predicted any of the eating disorder risk factors. Unhealthy affective responsiveness predicted general dissatisfaction and social and personal anxiety, and unhealthy general functioning predicted adolescent problems. No FAD factors predicted perfectionism or weight control. These results confirm the importance of families' affective responsiveness and general functioning to the risk of developing eating disorders. However, the lack of relationship among problem-solving, communication, roles, affective involvement, or behavior control with any of the risk factors for eating disorders warrants further investigation. PMID:24183144

Lyke, Jennifer; Matsen, Julie

2013-12-01

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The Possible Influence of Impulsivity and Dietary Restraint on Associations between Serotonin Genes and Binge Eating  

Science.gov (United States)

Although serotonin (5-HT) genes are thought to be involved in the etiology of bulimia nervosa and binge eating, findings from molecular genetic studies are inconclusive. This may be due to limitations of past research, such as a failure to consider the influence of quantitative traits and gene-environment interactions. The current study investigated these issues by examining whether quantitative traits (i.e., impulsivity) and environmental exposure factors (i.e., dietary restraint) moderate 5-HT gene/binge eating associations in a sample of young women (N = 344). Binge eating was assessed using the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). Impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Version 11. Dietary restraint was measured with a factor score derived from common restraint scales. Saliva samples were genotyped for the 5-HT2a receptor T102C polymorphism and 5-HT transporter promoter polymorphism. As expected, impulsivity and dietary restraint were associated with binge eating. Although the T allele of the 5-HT2a receptor gene and the s allele of the 5-HTT gene were associated with higher levels of impulsivity, there were no main effects of 5-HT genotypes on any binge eating measure, and interactions between genotypes, impulsivity, and dietary restraint were non-significant. In conclusion, we found no evidence to suggest that dietary restraint or impulsivity moderate associations between binge eating and these 5-HT genes. Future research should continue to explore interaction effects by examining larger samples, assessing dietary intake directly, and investigating other genes, traits, and environmental factors that may be related to binge eating and bulimia nervosa. PMID:19493540

Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Larson, Christine L.; Klump, Kelly L.

2009-01-01

17

Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes / Influencia de los Factores Psicológicos, Antropométricos y Sociodemográficos Sobre los Síntomas de los Trastornos Alimentarios en Jóvenes Deportistas / Influência de Fatores Psicológicos, Antropométricos e Sociodemográficos Sobre os Sintomas de Transtornos Alimentares em Jovens Atletas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência de fatores psicológicos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares (TAs) em jovens atletas. Participaram 580 adolescentes de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), o [...] Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale para avaliar o comportamento de risco para TAs, a insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC) e o grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos. Os achados da regressão múltipla evidenciaram que somente a IC e o percentual de gordura modularam significativamente ( p Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue analizar la influencia de factores psicológicos, antropométricos y sociodemográficos en los comportamientos de riesgo para TA en atletas jóvenes. Participantes fueron 580 adolescentes de ambos sexos. Se utilizó el Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire y Commitment [...] Exercise Scale para evaluar los comportamientos de riesgo para los TA, la insatisfacción con el imagen corporal (IC) y el grado de compromiso psicológico para ejercer (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, talla y pliegues cutáneos se midieron. Los resultados de regresión múltiple mostraron que sólo el IC y el porcentaje de grasa modula de manera significativa ( p Abstract in english The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED) in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Body Shape Ques [...] tionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD) and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE), respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p

Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião de Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.

2014-04-01

18

Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Secondary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether behavioral differences (exercise, dieting, changing eating habits, taking pills, or vomiting/taking laxatives to lose weight) exist when identifying the major influencing factors (media, family, friends, teacher/coach, and doctor/nurse) among Black and White men's and women's self-perceptions of body weight. Respondents…

Thatcher, William; Rhea, Deborah

2003-01-01

19

Problematic eating behaviors among bariatric surgical candidates: A psychometric investigation and factor analytic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, depression) are routinely assessed in bariatric pre-surgical programs, as high levels of psychopathology are consistently related to poor program outcomes (e.g., failure to lose significant weight pre-surgery, weight regain post-surgery). Behavioral factors related to poor program outcomes and ways in which behavioral and psychological factors interact, have received little attention in bariatric research and practice. Potentially problematic behavioral factors are queried by Section H of the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI-H), in which respondents indicate the relevance of certain eating behaviors to obesity. A factor analytic investigation of the WALI-H serves to improve the way in which this assessment tool is interpreted and used among bariatric surgical candidates, and subsequent moderation analyses serve to demonstrate potential compounding influences of psychopathology on eating behavior factors. Bariatric surgical candidates (n =362) completed several measures of psychopathology and the WALI-H. Item responses from the WALI-H were subjected to principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Results revealed a three-factor model including: (1) eating in response to negative affect, (2) overeating/desirability of food, and (3) eating in response to positive affect/social cues. All three behavioral factors of the WALI-H were significantly associated with measures of depression and anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed that depression did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and any eating behavior factor. Although single forms of psychopathology are related to eating behaviors, the combination of psychopathology does not appear to influence these problematic behaviors. Recommendations for pre-surgical assessment and treatment of bariatric surgical candidates are discussed. PMID:25464064

Gelinas, Bethany L; Delparte, Chelsea A; Wright, Kristi D; Hart, Regan

2015-01-01

20

Weighing in on the Issue: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of Selected Individual Factors and the Sports Context on the Developmental Trajectories of Eating Pathology among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain…

Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Eating concerns and media influences in an Irish adolescent context.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

OBJECTIVE: EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes. METHOD: Students were screened using the EAT-26, EDI-III and a study-specific questionnaire. A sub-sample of parents\\' views was included. RESULTS: Three thousand and thirty-one students (mean age 14.74) and 56 parents enrolled. The majority (71.4%) of adolescents felt adversely affected by media portrayal of body weight and shape, with more than a quarter (25.6%) believing it to be \\'far too thin\\'. A significant correlation between media impact and high EAT scores (chi2 = 450.78, df = 2, p < 0.05) and EDI-III scores (chi2 = 387.51, df = 4, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Parents also view media portrayal as too thin (94.7%), less than half are adversely affected by it (49.2%) but the majority (71.9%) believe their children to be. CONCLUSION: Media portrayal of body weight and shape is correlated with eating psychopathology and may affect adolescents more than adults. School psycho-educational programmes and media policies are urgently needed to minimise any detrimental effect.

McNicholas, Fiona

2012-02-01

22

The Possible Influence of Impulsivity and Dietary Restraint on Associations between Serotonin Genes and Binge Eating  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although serotonin (5-HT) genes are thought to be involved in the etiology of bulimia nervosa and binge eating, findings from molecular genetic studies are inconclusive. This may be due to limitations of past research, such as a failure to consider the influence of quantitative traits and gene-environment interactions. The current study investigated these issues by examining whether quantitative traits (i.e., impulsivity) and environmental exposure factors (i.e., dietary restraint) moderate 5...

Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Larson, Christine L.; Klump, Kelly L.

2009-01-01

23

The influence of hot and cool executive function on the development of eating styles related to overweight in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies linking executive function (EF) and overweight suggest that a broad range of executive functions might influence weight via obesity-related behaviors, such as particular eating styles. Currently, however, longitudinal studies investigating this assumption in children are rare. We hypothesized that lower hot and cool EF predicts a stronger increase in eating styles related to greater weight gain (food approach) and a weaker increase in eating styles related to less weight gain (food avoidance) over a 1-year period. Hot (delay of gratification, affective decision-making) and cool (attention shifting, inhibition, working memory updating) EF was assessed experimentally in a sample of 1657 elementary-school children (German school classes 1-3) at two time points, approximately one year apart. The children's food-approach and food-avoidance behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires at both time points. As expected, lower levels of hot and cool EF predicted a stronger increase in several food-approach eating styles across a 1-year period, mainly in girls. Unexpectedly, poorer performance on the affective decision-making task also predicted an increase in certain food-avoidance styles, namely, slowness in eating and satiety responsiveness, in girls. Results implicate that lower EF is not only seen in eating-disordered or obese individuals but also acts as a risk factor for an increase in particular eating styles that play a role in the development of weight problems in children. PMID:25528693

Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

2015-04-01

24

Does personality influence eating styles and food choices? Direct and indirect effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a random sample (N?=?951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. PMID:25308432

Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

2015-01-01

25

Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.

Forrester-Knauss Christine

2012-09-01

26

Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: The influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N=790) in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands from 2009–2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality...

Lucea, Marguerite B.; Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Campbell, Doris W.

2012-01-01

27

[Eating disorders in men].  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite of being perceived as 'woman's diseases', eating disorders were described among boys and adult men. This article presents epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in men. The clinical presentation of eating disorders in men was described and compared with similar data from the female population. Moreover, a significance of selected risk factors, specifically those referring to men, was discussed. These are: the disturbance of body perception, personality traits and potential association of eating disorders with sexual orientation. Efficacy of different psychotherapy approaches aimed at eating disorders was summarized. Rules governing psychotherapy of men suffering from eating disorders were described. Specific features of eating disorders' aetiology were taken into account together with characteristic difficulties influencing treatment. PMID:19697523

Bak, Daniel

2008-01-01

28

Preliminary Evidence that Estradiol Moderates Genetic Influences on Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors During Puberty  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Puberty moderates genetic influences on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, with little genetic influence before puberty but large (? 50%) genetic effects during and after puberty. To date, however, nothing is known about the mechanisms that underlie these effects. Estradiol is a particularly promising candidate, as estrogens become elevated at puberty and regulate gene transcription within neurotransmitter systems important for eating-related phenotypes. The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether estradiol levels moderate genetic influences on disordered eating during puberty. Methods Participants included 198 female twins (ages 10-15 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed with the total score, weight preoccupation, body dissatisfaction, and binge eating/compensatory behavior subscales of the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey. Afternoon saliva samples were assayed for estradiol levels. Moderation of genetic effects was examined by comparing twin correlations in low versus high estradiol groups. Results In the low estradiol group, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin correlations for all MEBS scales were similar, suggesting little genetic influence. In the high estradiol group, the MZ twin correlation was more than double the DZ twin correlation, indicating the presence of genetic effects. Findings could not be accounted for by age, body mass index, or the physical changes of puberty. Conclusions Estradiol may be one important moderator of genetic effects on disordered eating during puberty. Larger twin studies are needed to replicate this pilot work and quantify the extent of genetic moderation. PMID:20059800

Klump, Kelly L.; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl; Burt, S. Alexandra

2010-01-01

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Maternal Eating Disorders Influence Sex Ratio at Birth  

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We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower p...

Bulik, Cynthia M.; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-kjennerud, Ted

2008-01-01

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A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents  

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There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

2011-01-01

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Parental influence on eating behavior: Conception to adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

The first years of life mark a time of rapid development and dietary change, as children transition from an exclusive milk diet to a modified adult diet. During these early years, children's learning about food and eating plays a central role in shaping subsequent food choices, diet quality, and wei...

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Relationship between Socio-Demographic Factors and Eating Practices in a Multicultural Society  

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There is currently a dearth of information pertaining to socio-demographic factors and eating practices in a multicultural country like Mauritius. This study was therefore undertaken to probe the different eating practices among an adult sample population in Mauritius in an endeavor to establish significant relationships, if any, with common socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. A self-designed questionnaire, (randomly distributed to n = 387 adults), pertaining to socio-demographic va...

Deerajen Ramasawmy; Subratty, Anwar H.; Mahomoodally, Fawzi M.; Krige, Stephanie M.

2012-01-01

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A Set of Meta-Analytic Studies on the Factors Associated with Disordered Eating  

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Objective: To consolidate knowledge from research on associates of disordered eating to guide future research efforts, asking “which factors are associated with the presence of disturbed eating/ anorexia/ bulimia?” Method: We reviewed 232 studies, comprising 87,878 participants, through 74 individual meta-analyses under 12 associative factor category headings.Results: Race had no association (r = .02), whilst anxiety (r = .47) and depression (r = .39) were modestly associated with disorde...

Vince, Emma P.; Ian Walker

2008-01-01

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A study of factors influencing advanced puberty  

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Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

Yong Jun Park

2010-02-01

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Emergent factors in Eating Disorders in childhood and preadolescence  

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Full Text Available Abstract We have reviewed the literature related to the current advances in comprehension of Eating Disorders (ED in childhood and preadolescence. The state of art regarding the psychodynamic models concerning the onset of ED are explained. DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria are discussed, pointing out their little value in the characterization of early eating difficulties. Historic and new diagnostic classifications are displayed in detail. We provided a clearer description of subclinical patterns. Finally we focus on the key role of the paediatrician in detecting and managing parental concerns regarding feeding.

Pellicciari Alessandro

2010-07-01

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Risk factors to eating disorders in students of the Universidad de Manizales.  

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Objective: To identify risk factors for eating disorders instudents of the University of Manizales. Materials andmethods: The total sample was of 165 of 3610 totalregistered students. Each student has completed aquestionnaire composed by a demographic survey, theZung´s scales for depressiono or anxiety, the EatingDisorders Inventory (EDI-2) and the family Apagar; height,weight, mass corporal index and percent fat data also wereobtained. Results: 12.7% of the population presented EDI-2risk fa...

Álvaro Andrés Cano Correa; Jose Jaime Castaño Castrillón; Diego Andrés Corredor Zuluaga; Ángela Maria García Ortiz; Mildreth Gonzales Bedoya; Olga Liliana LLoreda Chala; Keyris Viviana Lucero Angulo; Juliana Otiz Restrepo; Martha Lucía Paez Cala; Leidy Johana Patiño Ramírez; Luz Helena Pérez Blanco; Carlos Alejandro Villegas Quintero; Alejandra Zuluaga Cardona

2007-01-01

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The father-daughter relationship and individual risk factors in the development of eating disorders  

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Eating disorders are a major mental and physical health concern in the United States and have been linked to various preventable risks. Known youth risk factors such as youth weight concerns, delinquency, and depression are associated with negative father-adolescent relationships as well as eating disorder development. The author performed a secondary data analysis using a large representative sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) (N = 5, 292). Structur...

Davyromano, Evie Cristina

2013-01-01

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Ramadan Bazaar and Ramadan Buffets: The Possible Influence on Eating Behavior and Health among Malaysian Muslims  

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Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right mea...

Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed; Nurul Hidayah Nazri; See?Ling Loy

2013-01-01

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The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents  

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There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

2009-01-01

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Propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Tres Factores de la Alimentación (TFEQ) / Psychometric properties of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar la consistencia interna, el análisis de factores y la validez de criterio de tipo concurrente y discriminante del Cuestionario de Tres Factores de la Alimentación (TFEQ). Participaron 604 mujeres (x? = 20.28, DE = 5.70), quienes completaron una batería [...] de cuestionarios: TFEQ, Cuestionario de Actitudes ante la Alimentación (EAT-40) y Cuestionario de Bulimia (BULIT). Los resultados señalan un coeficiente de consistencia interna adecuada (? =.87) y una estructura factorial de dos factores (restricción alimentaria y desinhibición), los cuales explican el 30 % de la varianza total. Los análisis de la validez concurrente y discriminante, muestran datos satisfactorios. Por tanto, el TFEQ es un instrumento adecuado para evaluar la patología alimentaria. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the internal consistency, the factor analysis and the concurrent and discriminate validity of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). 604 women (x? = 20.28, SD = 5.70), completed TFEQ, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and Bulimia Test (BULIT). Re [...] sults showed an appropriate internal consistency coefficient (? = .87) and a structure of two factors (dietary restraint and disinhibition), which explain 30% of the total variance. The analysis of concurrent and discriminant validity showing satisfactory data. Therefore, the TFEQ is an appropriate instrument for assessing eating pathology.

Xochitl, López-Aguilar; Juan Manuel, Mancilla-Díaz; Rosalia, Vázquez-Arévalo; Karina, Franco-Paredes; Georgina Leticia, Alvarez-Rayón; Ma. Trinidad, Ocampo Téllez-Girón.

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Factores familiares asociados a los Trastornos Alimentarios: una revisión / Family factors associated to Eating Disorders: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde una perspectiva multifactorial el presente trabajo es una revisión sobre los factores familiares asociados a los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA), considerando las aportaciones teóricas y empíricas propuestas en artículos nacionales e internacionales. Los resultados de la búsqueda s [...] obre TCA y familia, indican que los principales tópicos investigados son: funcionamiento familiar, relaciones hija-padres, experiencias estresantes, psicopatología familiar, actitudes y conductas hacia el peso, alimentación e imagen corporal en las familias afectadas. Se concluye reconociendo la heterogeneidad de las familias con TCA y la compleja combinación de factores familiares asociados a la psicopatología alimentaria. Se sugiere mayor investigación sobre: funcionamiento familiar de las personas con TCANE, el papel del padre, factores de protección, afrontamiento al estrés, imagen corporal y alimentación familiar. Abstract in english From a multifactorial perspective this study present a review about the family factors associated to eating disorders, considering theoretical and empirical contributions in national and international journals articles . The find of the research about the Eating Disorders and Family, indicate that t [...] he principal topics investigated are: family functioning, daughters and fathers relationships, stressful experiences, family psychopathology, attitudes and behaviors about weigh, eating and body image in the affected families. We conclude recognizing the heterogeneity of the families with Eating Disorders and the complex combination of family factors associated to eating psychopathology. More research is suggested about: family functioning in EDNOS patients, the father's role, protective factors, coping stress, body image and family food.

Ana Olivia, Ruíz Martínez; Rosalía, Vázquez Arévalo; Juan Manuel, Mancilla Díaz; Carme, Viladrich i Segués; María Elizabeth, Halley Castillo.

2013-06-01

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Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating, and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada. Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight, and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight at 4.5 years than were children who were never overeaters. Conclusion Given the association between eating behaviours and bodyweight among 4.5-year-old children, particularly among those from less educated, lower income families and younger mothers, health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity and underweight with focussed messages and strategies for the management of emerging problematic eating behaviours.

Peterson Kelly

2007-04-01

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Relationship between Socio-Demographic Factors and Eating Practices in a Multicultural Society  

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Full Text Available There is currently a dearth of information pertaining to socio-demographic factors and eating practices in a multicultural country like Mauritius. This study was therefore undertaken to probe the different eating practices among an adult sample population in Mauritius in an endeavor to establish significant relationships, if any, with common socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. A self-designed questionnaire, (randomly distributed to n = 387 adults, pertaining to socio-demographic variables, vegetarianism, breakfast patterns, eating out of home meals (OHMs, food frequency questions and dieting practices were asked. Males (21 - 40 yrs had a significantly (p < 0.05 higher consumption of OHM at lunch. Higher mean frequencies of consuming OHMs were found amid specific groups (e.g. amongst professionals as compared to each of manual workers, unemployed, retired and self-employed which also depicted significantly lower percentages of adhesion to the WHO recommended daily intake of vegetables. Oily foods were frequently consumed by males (41 - 60 yrs whereas none of the socio-demographic factors assessed revealed a significant relationship (p > 0.05 to adherence to the recommendations for the consumption of fish. The socio-demographic factors most influential towards eating practices were gender, age and socio-economic status represented by education and occupation. In conclusion, relationships recorded in the present study were comparable to Western eating practices and the availability of certain foods has compelled Mauritians to develop its own and unique eating patterns which can be of relevance in providing accurate health targets for future nutrition interventions in Mauritius.

Deerajen Ramasawmy

2012-03-01

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Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices  

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Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targete...

Karagas, Margaret R.; Marie?n, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Oken, Emily; Choi, Anna Lai; Korrick, Susan Abigail; Sunderland, Elsie

2012-01-01

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Influence of Family Modelling on Children’s Healthy Eating Behaviour  

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Full Text Available The development of eating behaviours is a dynamic process that begins in infancy and continues throughout life, being strongly influenced by the family models. Our study aimed to evaluate the food behaviour in children aged 11, 13 and 15 years old in relation to the family models. We did a cross-sectional study in 206 school children from Sibiu county (rural and urban areas using the Romanian version of HBSC questionnaire. We analysed the frequency of breakfast and dinner with the family, the lunch circumstances, the frequency of snacks during playtime or computer work, the family influence on the consumption of certain unhealthy foods, the frequency of fast-food restaurants attendance and the compliance of family dining rules. High proportions of children were found not to have breakfast with family, to eat snacks during playtime and to receive soft drinks, sweets and chips without restriction. Also a high proportion of children in urban areas use to have the lunch at school (as a snack due to the school program. By opposite, the situation seemed much better in relation to dinner, most of the children having daily dinners with their parents. Also a low percent of children use to visit the fast food restaurants. Moderate compliance was found in relation to family dining rules. This results are quite concerning, showing limited involvement of the parents and moderate influence of family modelling in relation to the children eating behaviour.

Carmen Daniela DOMNARIU

2013-06-01

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Chemosensory influences on eating and drinking, and their cognitive mediation  

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Contents (headings of main sections of the Chapter). Introduction. Excitation and Inhibition of Ingestion by Level of Sweetness. Learnt Preferences for Levels of Sweetness. The Learnt Peak of Preference for Level of Sweetener. The Peak of Learnt Facilitation by Any Sensory Factor. Missing the [Ideal] Point. Ingestive Appetite and Food Preference Responses. Each Food Has a Different Taste. Cognitive Mechanisms That Convert Sensing into Ingesting. ...

Booth, David A.

2014-01-01

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Binge Eating Proneness Emerges during Puberty in Female Rats: A Longitudinal Study  

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Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge...

Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

2011-01-01

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Environmental risk factors and therapeutical implications in eating disorders  

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[spa] El objetivo principal de esta tesis ha sido el abordar los Trastornos de la alimentación (TCA) desde una aproximación multidisciplinar, que nos ayude a combatir los TCA desde una perspectiva traslacional, en la que confluyan investigaciones básicas y aplicadas. En nuestros estudios hemos analizado en profundidad los siguientes aspectos: a.) Factores clínicos y comorbilidad [especialmente abuso de sustancias en TCA] (Estudios 1 a 3); b.) Correlatos psicosociales, conductuales y ambie...

Krug, Isabel

2008-01-01

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Risk factors and clinical correlates in eating disorders  

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El objetivo central de esta tesis ha sido, desde una perspectiva multidisciplinar, integrar los conocimientos clínicos y científicos para contribuir en el avance de la prevención y tratamiento de los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA). En estos estudios, se han explorado una serie de aspectos como a) factores de riesgo sociales e individuales en los TCA (estudio 1), b) identificación de subtipos empíricos de los TCA, basados en el impulso a la delgadez y la realización de dieta...

Gunnard, Katarina

2012-01-01

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A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: shared associations with seasonality and personality factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits - associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders [Ref. (1-3) for reviews], it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n?=?412) of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of excessive appetitive behaviors. PMID:24409156

Davis, Caroline

2013-01-01

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A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors  

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Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of excess

CarolineDavis

2013-12-01

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Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: Distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?  

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Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk fact...

Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S.

2013-01-01

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Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

2004-01-01

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"She got more than me". Social comparison and the social context of eating.  

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Eating is a social activity for most people. Other people influence what and how much an individual chooses and eats. Such social influence on eating has long been recognized and studied, but we contend here that one important social influence factor, social comparison, has been largely overlooked by researchers. We review the literature on comparing oneself to others on eating and weight-related dimensions, which appears to have an effect not only on eating per se, but also on self-image, body dissatisfaction, and emotions. Social comparison processes may well underlie many of the social influence findings discussed in this special issue. PMID:25128833

Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

2015-03-01

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[The role of family and socio-cultural factors in the development of eating disorders].  

Science.gov (United States)

A great number of publications in the international literature have revealed the possible part of biological factors in eating disorders and as well as characteristics of the patients' personality that favour or contribute in the development of these disorders. The research in etiology, however, includes the examination of family and socio-cultural factors. The aim of the present paper was to concentrate bibliographic data related to the family and socio-cultural factors that form the conditions under which anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa develop, excluding articles about binge-eating disorder. Articles from 1995 to 2005 were included through search in the files of the electronic database Medline (PubMed) on terms of inventory (MESH) for both disorders. About the role of the family environment, it was found that the factors studied more were family dysfunction, overprotection and sexual or physical abuse. As for the socio-cultural factors it is not perfectly clear whether the western standards of life are linked to the development of these disorders or if there is simply a lack of culturally sensitive instruments to detect these disorders in their different possible forms in the non-western world. An important finding is that there are not enough researches to show clearly any negative part played by the mass media. PMID:22214871

Spanou, E; Morogiannis, F

2010-01-01

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Cultural Factors Influencing Children's Pain  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political and legal, economic, educational factors was used as framework for the analysis.Results: Religious and philosophical factors, kinship and social factors, cultural values and lifeways, political and legalfactors, and economical and educational factors were found to be related to children's pain. The relation was focused onboth acute, recurrent and chronic pain.Discussion and conclusions: In a global view, there are several cultural factors that are related to children's pain indifferent settings. Many of these factors are culturally valued and could be difficult to modify. More research is neededto understand specific cultural influences that maintain traditions and practices leading to children's suffering from pain.Implications for practice: Nurses should be aware of cultural factors that may have influence on children's pain. Byproviding information to children and their parents some of these traditions and cultural factors might be modified.

Anna-Maija Pietilä

2009-01-01

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Evaluación de factores de riesgo de TCA en estudiantes de nutrición / Evaluation of risk factors for eating disorders in students of nutrition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los medios de comunicación, el ambiente social y los factores personales desempeñan un papel importante como factores de riesgo de los TCA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación entre las influencias socioculturales del modelo estético corporal con las cogniciones que son caracter [...] ísticas de los TCA, en estudiantes de licenciatura en nutrición. Se contó con 112 participantes (88 mujeres y 24 hombres) estudiantes de la licenciatura en nutrición. 15.9% de las mujeres y el 20.8% de los hombres presentaron insatisfacción corporal. Los hombres presentaron significativamente mayor malestar patológico, influencia de la publicidad y perfeccionismo que las mujeres. Tanto en hombres y mujeres se muestra una correlación significativa entre la interiorización de un cuerpo delgado y la insatisfacción corporal. Casi la mitad de los participantes (48%) presenta una interiorización del modelo estético de delgadez. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre la interiorización de un modelo estético delgado y la insatisfacción corporal, lo cual indica que dicha insatisfacción está mediada por aquellos estándares provenientes de los medios de comunicación. Abstract in english The media, the social environment and personal factors play an important role as risk factors for eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociocultural influences body shape model with cognitions that are characteristic of eating disorders in undergraduate n [...] utrition. Participated 112 students (88 women and 24 men) undergraduate students in nutrition. 15.9% of women and 20.8% of the men had body dissatisfaction. Men showed significantly greater pathological distress advertising influence and perfectionism than women. Both men and women shows a significant correlation between the internalization of a thin body and body dissatisfaction. Almost half of the participants (48%) had an internalization body thin model. Significant correlations were found between the internalization of a thin aesthetic model and body dissatisfaction, which indicates that this dissatisfaction is mediated by those standards from the media.

Reyna María, Cruz Bojórquez; María Luisa, Ávila Escalante; Héctor Julián, Velázquez López; Damaris Francis, Estrella Castillo.

2013-06-01

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Social and psychological factors affecting eating habits among university students in a Malaysian medical school: a cross-sectional study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demog...

Ganasegeran Kurubaran; Ar, Al-dubai Sami; Qureshi Ahmad M; Aa, Al-abed Al-abed; Am, Rizal; Aljunid Syed M

2012-01-01

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Social and psychological factors affecting eating habits among university students in a Malaysian medical school: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating habits and psychosocial factors. Results Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 22.7 (±2.4 years and (the age ranged from 18 to 30?years. More than half had regular meals and breakfast (57.6% &, 56.1% respectively. Majority (73.5% consumed fruits less than three times per week, 51.5% had fried food twice or more a week and 59.8% drank water less than 2 liters daily. Eating habits score was significantly low among younger students (18–22?years, smokers, alcohol drinkers and those who did not exercise. (ppp Conclusion Most of the students in this study had healthy eating habits. Social and psychological factors were important determinants of eating habits among medical students.

Ganasegeran Kurubaran

2012-07-01

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What factors influence mitigative capacity?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors - income, abatement cost and opportunity cost - that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation. (author)

Winkler, H. [University of Cape Town (South Africa). Energy Research Centre; Baumert, K. [World Resources Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Blanchard, O. [Laboratoire d' Economie de la Prodution et de l' Integration Internationale-Energie et Politiques de l' Environnement, Grenoble (France); Burch, S.; Robinson, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

2007-01-15

 
 
 
 
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What factors influence mitigative capacity?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly rk force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

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Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. PMID:22885453

Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

2012-12-01

63

Social and Cultural Factors Related to Eating Problems among Adolescents in Norway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Administered Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) to 11,315 Norwegian adolescents. Scores showed only minor variations according to social class and none according to urbanization and region. Adolescent girls involved in aesthetic sports dieted marginally more than other sporting girls. Non-Western immigrant adolescents had higher EAT scores as compared to…

Wichstrom, Lars; And Others

1994-01-01

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Relevancia de Factores de Riesgo, Psicopatología Alimentaria, Insatisfacción Corporal y Funcionamiento Psicológico en Pacientes con TCA / Relevant Risk Factors, Current Eating Psychopathology, Body Shape Concern and Psychological Functioning in Eating Disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El primer objetivo del estudio es evaluar restrospectivamente, la relevancia de factores de riesgo en pacientes con Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA) en función de la categoría diagnóstica. El segundo objetivo, es evaluar la psicopatología alimentaria, la insatisfacción corporal y [...] el funcionamiento psicológico en cada grupo diagnóstico. Método: Se evalúa en el momento previo al tratamiento de TCA, un total de 73 pacientes con diferentes criterios diagnósticos: Bulimia Nerviosa Purgativa (BN-P; n=29), la provisional forma diagnóstica del Trastorno por Atracón (TA; n=6), el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Purgativo (TCANE-P; n=17) y el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Restrictivo (TCANE-R; n=21). Resultados: Se hallan como factores de riesgo de consistencia el antecedente de obesidad y el inicio del TCA en la adolescencia. El inicio de la menarquia en la edad temprana no resulta ser un factor de riesgo. El Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) refleja la sintomatología alimentaria de cada cuadro diagnóstico. El grupo BN-P, se caracteriza por presentar mayor severidad en la sintomatología alimentaria. La mayoría de grupos presenta larga duración de la enfermedad, dificultades en la imagen corporal, el funcionamiento psicosocial y características de personalidad. El sentimiento de ineficacia no fue una característica clínica en casos de TA. Conclusiones: El que los antecedentes de obesidad se hayan mostrado como un factor de riesgo de consistencia en los TCA es un argumento más a favor de la necesidad de su prevención. Las dificultades en el funcionamiento psicosocial encontradas en casos clínicos con TA, avalarían la necesidad de líneas de intervención de tipo más interpersonal en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective: The first aim of this study is a retrospective assessment of relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (ED). The second aim is to study eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning assessment in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evalua [...] tion before intervention of 73 patients with Bulimia Nervosa Purging type (BN-P; n=29), Binge Eating Disorder (BED; n=6), Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Purging type (EDNOS-P; n=17) and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Restrictive type (EDNOS-R; n=21). Findings: Consistent risk factors in the precedent of obesity and the beginning of the ED in adolescence. The young age at which menarche occurred was not a risk factor. The eating symptomatology of each diagnostic category reflected the nutritional state. The BN-P group presented a more severe eating symptomatology. The majority of the groups had long duration illness and had difficulties with body shape, social performance, and personality problems. The feeling of ineffectiveness was not a clinical characteristic in Binge eating cases. Conclusion: The precedent of obesity showed up as a consolidated risk factor in eating disorders, supporting the necessity of prevention. Difficulties found in social performance in binge eating support the necessity of interpersonal intervention.

Anna, Carretero García; Luís, Sánchez Planell; Jordi, Rusiñol Estragués; Rosa M.ª, Raich Escursell; David, Sánchez Carracedo.

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Tranformation factors for doses in connection with internal doses obtained via inhalation or via eating of different articles of food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes a method for the calculation of transformation factors for internal doses. These factors will be used to calculate radiation doses in connection with internal contamination. The radioactivity is assumed to enter the body either via the inhalation of radioactive air or via the eating of contaminated articles of food. Tables of calculated transformation factors for internal doses are given. (E.R.)

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Alexithymia, a compounding factor for eating and social avoidance symptoms in anorexia nervosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-affective difficulties, in particular difficulties in representing, communicating and feeling emotions, may play a critical role in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore the links between alexithymia and two types of difficulties in AN: eating symptoms and social avoidance. Sixty adolescent girls with AN were recruited following hospitalisation in a specialised department. They completed self-administered questionnaires of alexithymia (TAS-20), of central symptoms of the eating disorders (EDI), and of anxious and depressive affects (SCL-90). Anxiety and social avoidance were assessed in the course of a standardised interview (LSAS). These measures were performed at inclusion, and at 6-, 12- and 18-months' follow-up. The relationship between TAS-20 and EDI or LSAS total scale scores across the four time points was assessed using mixed-effects models, including anxiety, depression, BMI, anorexia subtype, and age as co-factors. Partial least square regression was used to refine this multivariate analysis at subscale level, at inclusion and 18 months. Robust associations between TAS-20 and EDI scores were found, independently from anxious and depressive scores, nutritional state and AN subtype. These effects appeared more particularly linked to the implication of the dimensions difficulties identifying and describing feelings, interpersonal mistrust, feelings of inadequacy and interoceptive awareness deficit. There was also a durable association between alexithymia and social anxiety and avoidance, after adjusting for the confounding effects of depression, and anxiety, and the state of starvation. Difficulties in describing feelings appeared particularly involved here. Thus alexithymia does appear as a factor in the persistence of disorders in AN, and difficulties identifying and describing feelings could compound the social difficulties and major the relational isolation of these patients. PMID:25443977

Courty, Annaig; Godart, Nathalie; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie

2015-01-01

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Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.

Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian

2008-12-01

68

Factors influencing pacing in triathlon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

Wu SSX

2014-09-01

69

Healthy Eating  

Science.gov (United States)

This Project will help you to discover how you're eating, and how that affects your life. You will also use the tools provided to help make healthy eating choices. First, Calculate your Body Mass Index using the BMI Calculator. Then, after exploring the website, answer these questions: 1) What exactly is the BMI? 2) What are two limitations of the BMI Calculator? 3) What is a healthy BMI for YOU (age group height? 4) List 7 other risk factors that can contribute to heart ...

Brobison

2010-12-03

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The role of emotional eating and stress in the influence of short sleep on food consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status. PMID:24148250

Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J

2014-01-01

71

Orangutan fish eating, primate aquatic fauna eating, and their implications for the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents new evidence of fish eating in rehabilitant orangutans living on two Bornean islands and explores its contributions to understanding nonhuman primates' aquatic fauna eating and the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating. We assessed the prevalence of orangutans' fish eating, their techniques for obtaining fish, and possible contributors (ecology, individual differences, humans). We identified 61 events in which orangutans tried to obtain fish, including 19 in which they ate fish. All the orangutans were juvenile-adolescent; all the fish were disabled catfish; and most were obtained and eaten in drier seasons in or near shallow, slow-moving water. Orangutans used several techniques to obtain fish (inadvertent, opportunistic and deliberate hand-catch, scrounge, tool-assisted catch) and probably learned them in that order. Probable contributing factors were orangutan traits (age, pre-existing water or tool skills), island features (social density, water accessibility), and local human fishing. Our review of primates' aquatic fauna eating showed orangutans to be one of 20 species that eat aquatic fauna, one of nine confirmed to eat fish, and one of three that use tools to obtain fish. Primate fish eating is also site-specific within species, partly as a function of habitat (e.g., marine-freshwater, seasonality) and human influence (possibly fostered eating fish or other aquatic fauna at most sites, clearly induced it at some). At tropical freshwater sites, fish eating occurred most often in drier seasons around shallow water. Orangutan and primate findings are generally consistent with Stewart's (2010) reconstruction of the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating, but suggest that it, and tool-assisted fish catching, were possible much earlier. PMID:25038033

Russon, Anne E; Compost, Alain; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes

2014-12-01

72

Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria como factor de riesgo para osteoporosis Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgico de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños.Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.

Ma Teresa Rivera-Gallardo

2005-07-01

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Dietary Restraint Moderates Genetic Risk for Binge Eating  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary restraint is a prospective risk factor for the development of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Although many women engage in dietary restraint, relatively few develop binge eating. Dietary restraint may only increase susceptibility for binge eating in individuals who are at genetic risk. Specifically, dietary restraint may be a behavioral “exposure” factor that activates genetic predispositions for binge eating. We investigated this possibility in 1,678 young adolescent and adult same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study and the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Twin moderation models were used to examine whether levels of dietary restraint moderate genetic and environmental influences on binge eating. Results indicated that genetic and non-shared environmental factors for binge eating increased at higher levels of dietary restraint. Importantly, these effects were present after controlling for age, body mass index, and genetic and environmental overlap among dietary restraint and binge eating. Results suggest that dietary restraint may be most important for individuals at genetic risk for binge eating, and the combination of these factors could enhance individual differences in risk for binge eating. PMID:21171725

Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Klump, Kelly L.

2010-01-01

74

Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C ve humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)

75

Cultural Eating Practices among Jordanians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Culture has an enormous impact on individuals’ food choices and practices. This research aimed to screen cultural eating practices among Jordanians. Jordanian adults (N = 4750 completed a survey with regard to common eating practices in Jordan. Practices were classified into 4 themes, namely regular eating practices (7 practices, seasonal eating practices (4 practices, eating practices in social occasions (6 practices, and eating practices in religious occasions (10 practices. Interestingly, most nutritional practices during Ramadan and Eids (religious occasions were agreed upon from 100% of the participating sample. In conclusion, culture in Jordan has a huge influences eating practices and food choice. Negative culture’s influence over eating practices may exist, thus increasing awareness about unhealthy eating practices related to culture is necessary.

Fwzieh Hammad

2012-06-01

76

Possible risk factors in the development of eating disorders in overweight pre-adolescent girls.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate concerns about weight, shape and eating, dietary restraint, self-esteem and symptoms of depression in overweight girls. To investigate the relationship between concerns and self-esteem and depressive symptoms in this group. METHOD: Eighteen overweight girls and 18 average-weight girls completed the child version of the Eating Disorders Examination, the Harter Self-Perception Profile and the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire. RESULTS: Overweight girls had more c...

Burrows, A.; Cooper, M.

2002-01-01

77

Individual differences in the relationship between ovarian hormones and emotional eating across the menstrual cycle: a role for personality?  

Science.gov (United States)

Within-person changes in estradiol and progesterone predict changes in binge eating tendencies across the menstrual cycle. However, all women have menstrual-cycle fluctuations in hormones, but few experience binge eating. Personality traits may be critical individual difference factors that influence who will engage in emotional eating in the presence of a vulnerable hormonal environment. Women (N=239) provided self-reports of emotional eating and saliva samples for hormone measurement for 45 consecutive days. Negative urgency and negative emotionality were measured once and were examined as moderators of hormone-emotional eating associations. Consistent with prior research, within-person changes in the interaction between estradiol and progesterone predicted emotional eating. Neither negative urgency nor negative emotionality interacted with changes in estradiol and progesterone to predict changes in emotional eating. Additional factors, other than the two personality traits examined, may account for individual differences in within-person associations between hormones and emotional eating. PMID:23557813

Racine, Sarah E; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Sisk, Cheryl L; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L

2013-04-01

78

Eating pattern of vegetarian diet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA) and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil) allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated ...

Patricia Couceiro; Eric Slywitch; Franciele Lenz

2008-01-01

79

Stress and eating behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.

Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk

2010-01-01

80

Binge eating proneness emerges during puberty in female rats: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge during puberty. Two independent samples of female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30 and n = 36) were followed longitudinally across pre-early puberty, mid-late puberty, and adulthood. Binge eating proneness was defined using the binge eating resistant (BER)/binge eating prone (BEP) model of binge eating that identifies BER and BEP rats in adulthood. Across two samples of rats, binge eating proneness emerged during puberty. Mixed linear models showed little difference in palatable food intake between BER and BEP rats during pre-early puberty, but significant group differences emerged during mid-late puberty and adulthood. Group differences could not be accounted for by changes in nonpalatable food intake or body weight. Similar to patterns in humans, individual differences in binge eating emerge during puberty in female rats. These findings provide strong confirming evidence for the importance of biological risk factors in developmental trajectories of binge eating risk across adolescence. PMID:21574664

Klump, Kelly L; Suisman, Jessica L; Culbert, Kristen M; Kashy, Deborah A; Sisk, Cheryl L

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria como factor de riesgo para osteoporosis / Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgic [...] o de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños. Abstract in english Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cor [...] tical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.

Ma Teresa, Rivera-Gallardo; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Jorge Armando, Barriguete-Meléndez.

2005-07-01

82

Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria como factor de riesgo para osteoporosis / Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgic [...] o de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños. Abstract in english Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cor [...] tical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.

Ma Teresa, Rivera-Gallardo; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Jorge Armando, Barriguete-Meléndez.

2005-07-01

83

Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders  

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Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

Bedriye Oncu

2013-03-01

84

Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

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Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.

Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto

2013-11-01

85

Factors Influencing Web Search Strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the influence of question-related variables (closed/open and predictable/unpredictable) on a Web user's choice of search strategy in the initial stage of a search. Search strategies considered include direct address, subject directory, and search engine. Objectives were to determine the adaptiveness of Web users in choosing an…

White, Marilyn Domas; Iivonen, Mirja

86

Sexual Orientation and Gender as Factors in Socioculturally Acquired Vulnerability to Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness based on desire to please men. Findings from 53 lesbian, 59 gay, 62 heterosexual female, and 63 heterosexual male college students generally confirmed…

Siever, Michael D.

1994-01-01

87

Cultural Factors Influencing Children's Pain  

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Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political a...

Anna-Maija Pietilä; Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen; Päivi Kankkunen; Merja Nikkonen

2009-01-01

88

Thymic output: influence factors and molecular mechanism.  

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Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines, sphingosine1-phosphate (S1P), transcription factors such as Foxj1, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output. PMID:17092431

Jin, Rong; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Weifeng

2006-10-01

89

Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility  

Science.gov (United States)

... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

90

Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

1999-01-01

91

Psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders in Hispanic females of diverse ethnic background and non-Hispanic females.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated differences in psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders among university females (n=406) of diverse Hispanic background (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American/Mexican, Dominican, Venezuelan) and among White non-Hispanic (n=102) female students. Risk factors were assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Factor Questionnaire (PRFQ) which includes four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. There were significant differences among the groups in total PRFQ score, F(7,499)=2.76, PCubans (21.99+0.24) and Brazilians (21.46+0.96). There was also a significant, F(7,498)=2.70, P<.009, difference among the groups in Ideal Body Image score. Puerto Ricans had the highest score and Brazilians the lowest. Acknowledging that differences in psychosocial risk factors exist among Hispanic females of diverse background can assist us in creating more targeted approaches for the prevention of potential eating disorders in this population. PMID:17174845

George, Valerie A; Erb, Allison F; Harris, Cristen L; Casazza, Krista

2007-01-01

92

Factors influencing school connectedness: Chinese adolescents' perspectives  

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This study explored the concept of school connectedness and the factors that may influence its development with a sample of Chinese adolescents. Six focus groups involving 52 high school students were conducted using a set of predetermined discussion topics. Results indicated that the students fully understood the notion of school connectedness and could identify a number of key influences affecting its development. These factors could be grouped under several domains including teacher care, ...

Yuen, M.; Lau, Psy; Lee, Qay; Gysbers, Nc; Chan, Rmc; Fong, Rw; Chung, Yb; Shea, Pmk

2011-01-01

93

Factors Influencing Household Food Security Status  

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Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, impaired physical and mental development and reduced productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the Influencing factors on the household food insecurity status. This cross-sectional study conducted on 2500 households selected from Qaresoo region in the northwest of Iran. Household food security status measured by a validated short questionnaire including six questions and other required data (influencing factors) obtained alongsid...

Sharafkhani Rahim; Dastgiri Saeed; Gharaaghaji Asl Rasool; Ghavamzadeh Saeed

2011-01-01

94

ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS  

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Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

Zizi GOSCHIN

2006-12-01

95

Factors associated with dropout from treatment for eating disorders: a comprehensive literature review  

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Abstract Background Dropout (DO) is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs), but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. Methods All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009) were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed.

Tomba Elena; Pierò Andrea; Fassino Secondo; Abbate-Daga Giovanni

2009-01-01

96

A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows  

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Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

Lawlor Peadar G

2007-06-01

97

Propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Influencia de Pares sobre la Preocupación Alimentaria / Psychometric properties of the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito del presente estudio fue conocer las propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Influencia de Pares sobre la Preocupación Alimentaria en mujeres y hombres mexicanos de entre 10 y 19 años de edad. La muestra fue no probabilística de tipo intencional, conformada por 917 participantes (49 [...] 8 mujeres y 419 hombres). Se realizaron tres piloteos, a partir de estos se consideró necesario derivar dos versiones, una para cada sexo. Se obtuvo un alpha de Cronbach de .94 y .92 para la versión femenina y masculina, respectivamente. El análisis factorial exploratorio arrojó tres factores, los cuales son: mensajes, popularidad con el sexo opuesto e interacción con pares del mismo sexo, es preciso señalar que a pesar de ello ambas versiones no son equiparables. Finalmente, se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio para cada versión, femenina y masculina, que corroboró el modelo factorial propuesto en el análisis exploratorio. A partir de los resultados obtenidos es posible concluir que ambas versiones del inventario constituyen una herramienta útil para evaluar la influencia de pares sobre la preocupación alimentaria. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to know the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns in Mexican female and male population among 10 and 19 years old. The sample was non-probabilistic, composed by 917 participants (females 498 and males 419). After three testing pilo [...] ts it was necessary to carried out two versions, one for each gender. Cronbach's alpha of .94 was obtained for female and .92 for male version. The exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors, which are: messages, likability with peers of the opposite sex and interaction with peers of the same sex, however it is worthy to note that these two versions are not comparable. Finally, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for each version, female and male, which confirmed the factorial model proposed in the exploratory analysis. Based on these results it is possible to conclude that both versions of this inventory are a useful tool to evaluate peer influence on eating concerns.

Adriana, Amaya Hernández; Juan Manuel, Mancilla Díaz; Georgina L., Alvarez Rayón; Mayaro, Ortega Luyando; Ma. Leticia, Bautista Díaz.

2011-12-01

98

INFLUENCE OF AGE ON CUSTOMER DINING EXPERIENCE FACTORS AT U.S. JAPANESE RESTAURANTS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of age on customer dining experience levels at Japanese restaurants in the United States and to determine if there are differences in influential factors between customers of different ages when they eat at Japanese restaurants. To address the objectives of the study, customers who patronized Japanese restaurants were asked to rank the importance of 20 dining experience factors. Researchers give recommendations for restaurateurs to bridge the gap between customers of different age groups in order to gain a competitive edge in today’s highly competitive restaurant market.

Johnny Sue Reynolds

2006-10-01

99

Psychometric Properties, Norms, and Factor Structure of the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey–Revised in a Large Sample of Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey–Revised (DEPS-R) in a large sample of young patients with type 1 diabetes, to establish norms, and to validate it against the Eating Attitudes Test–12 (EAT-12). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 770 children and adolescents aged 11–19 years with type 1 diabetes completed the DEPS-R and the EAT-12. In addition, age- and sex-standardized BMI and HbA1c data were obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. In addition to tests of validity, principal axis factoring was conducted to investigate the factor structure of the 16-item DEPS-R. RESULTS The DEPS-R demonstrated satisfactory Cronbach ? (0.89) and was significantly correlated with the EAT-12 (0.65; P < 0.01), indicating convergent validity. The mean (SD) DEPS-R scores were 11.0 (10.7) for the total sample and 7.7 (7.4) and 14.2 (2.4) for males and females, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study replicates and extends previous research demonstrating the psychometric properties of the abbreviated 16-item DEPS-R. Findings support the utility of this important screening tool to identify disturbed eating in young patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23536586

Wisting, Line; Frøisland, Dag Helge; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

2013-01-01

100

Feel your food. The influence of tactile sensitivity on picky eating in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children who are very picky in eating frequently refuse the intake of foods. This rejection is not only based on the evaluation of taste, but also on tactile qualities of foods. It matters whether food is crispy or slimy, consistent, or with bits and pips. It is hypothesised that children who are more sensitive to touch and dislike the feel of various tactile stimuli in general, are also more dismissive of tactile stimulation in their mouth and therefore more selective in their eating. In the present study, 44 children between the ages of 4 and 10 were asked to feel different tactile stimuli with their hands and to taste different foods. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the evaluations of the two modalities, especially for the younger subjects. This suggests that tactile sensitivity might play a role in the acceptance of food. Future research could explore if training children to tolerate more tactile stimuli would also increase their appreciation of a wider variety of foods. PMID:25261102

Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita; Havermans, Remco C

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Molecular Genetic Studies of Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

We review association studies that have examined the genetic basis of eating disorders. Overall, findings suggest that serotonin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and estrogen genes may be important for the development of the disorders. These neuronal systems influence behavioral and personality characteristics (e.g., anxiety, food intake) that are disrupted in eating disorders. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes and inclusion of behavioral and personality covariates in analyses. Consideration of the mechanisms of genetic effects and interactions between genes and environment is also needed to extend conceptualizations of the genetic basis of these disorders. PMID:20539827

Klump, Kelly L.; Culbert, Kristen M.

2010-01-01

102

Ovarian Hormone Influences on Dysregulated Eating: A Comparison of Associations in Women with versus without Binge Episodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in emotional eating across the menstrual cycle. However, prior studies have not examined whether the nature of associations varies across dysregulated eating severity. The current study determined whether the strength and/or nature of hormone/dysregulated eating associations differ based on the presence of clinically diagnosed binge episodes (BEs). Participants included 28 women with BEs and 417 women without BEs who provided salivary hormone samples, ratings of emotional eating, and BE frequency for 45 days. Results revealed stronger associations between dysregulated eating and ovarian hormones in women with BEs as compared to women without BEs. The nature of associations also differed, as progesterone moderated the effects of lower estradiol levels on dysregulated eating in women with BEs only. Although hormone/dysregulated eating associations are present across the spectrum of pathology, the nature of associations may vary in ways that have implications for etiological models and treatment. PMID:25343062

Klump, Kelly L; Racine, Sarah E; Hildebrandt, Britny; Burt, S Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Sisk, Cheryl L; Boker, Steven; Keel, Pamela K

2014-09-01

103

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and associations with infant weight, gender and feeding mode in an Australian sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ) in an Australian community sample of mother-infant dyads. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between the BEBQ subscales and infant gender, weight and current feeding mode. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) utilising structural equation modelling examined the hypothesised four-factor model of the BEBQ. Only mothers (N=467) who completed all items on the BEBQ (infant age: M=17 weeks, SD= weeks) were included in the analysis. The original four-factor model did not provide an acceptable fit to the data due to poor performance of the Satiety responsiveness factor. Removal of this factor (three items) resulted in a well-fitting three-factor model. Cronbach's ? was acceptable for the Enjoyment of food (?=0.73), Food responsiveness (?=0.78) and Slowness in eating (?=0.68) subscales but low for the Satiety responsiveness (?=0.56) subscale. Enjoyment of food was associated with higher infant weight whereas Slowness in eating and Satiety responsiveness were both associated with lower infant weight. Differences on all four subscales as a function of feeding mode were observed. This study is the first to use CFA to evaluate the hypothesised factor structure of the BEBQ. Findings support further development work on the Satiety responsiveness subscale in particular, but confirm the utility of the Enjoyment of food, Food responsiveness and Slowness in eating subscales. PMID:25009080

Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; de Jersey, Susan J

2014-11-01

104

Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... is often accompanied by feelings of disgust or shame. The binge eating and purging cycle can happen ... and high blood pressure. They also experience guilt, shame, and distress about their binge eating, which can ...

105

Eat Right  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov . Diabetes Public Health Resource Share Compartir Eat Right On this Page What healthy food choices should ... exchange method ( www.diabetes.org ). Related Materials Eat Right - Other Resources Take Charge of Your Diabetes The ...

106

Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... what causes eating disorders, although there are many theories about it. Many people who develop an eating ... therapists, and working with dietitians and other professionals. Learning to be comfortable at your healthy weight is ...

107

[Eating disorders].  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

2015-02-01

108

Influence of Microwaved Food Eating on Blood Iron and Transferrin in Rat  

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Full Text Available The health consideration of microwave radiation has been the subject of scientific investigations particularly in the last decades. But there is a few information about the health effect of micro waved food consuming for a long time. The aim of this trial is to evaluate blood iron and also plasma transferrin as a protein transporter of iron in rat after eating microwaved food for a period of 1 year. For this study 64 young Sprague Dawley rats in 4 groups, each 16 (8 males and 8 females, 2 treated and 2 controls, were used under the standard conditions with free access to tap water and standard food. The 2 treated groups were consuming standard rat food pellets heated by 2450 MHz microwave radiation in 30 min for group (A and 5 min for group (B. One of the control group (C were consuming same pellets heated by electric oven at 200°C for 30 min and another control group (H were eating the food pellets without any heating by microwave or electric oven. Animals were observed daily and the body weight and food and water consumption were assessed weekly too. In the end of the study the blood samples were taken from the heart of animals after 12 h fasting under ether anesthesia and the serum iron and transferrin analysis was performed on the blood samples. According to the statistical analysis, the level of iron was significantly decreased in all treated groups in comparison with control group of (C and significant decreasing of iron, in female groups of B and male groups of A, in comparison with control (H. But transferrin level was significantly increased in female groups of A and B and male group of A in comparison with control (C and only male group of A in comparison with control (H.

2008-01-01

109

Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping  

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The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...

Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta

2013-01-01

110

Influence of psychiatric disorder on the controlling behaviour of mothers with 1-year-old infants. A study of women with maternal eating disorder, postnatal depression and a healthy comparison group.  

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BACKGROUND: Certain styles of parental controlling behaviour influence child development. Work with mothers with eating disorders suggests that they may be particularly controlling of their infants. AIMS: To examine the nature and specificity of maternal controlling behaviour in mothers with eating disorders compared with mothers who had experienced postnatal depression and a healthy comparison group. METHOD: Mothers with eating disorders (n=34), postnatal depression (n=39) and a healthy comp...

Stein, A.; Woolley, H.; Murray, L.; Cooper, P.; Cooper, S.; Noble, F.; Affonso, N.; Fairburn, Cg

2001-01-01

111

Influência da periodização do treinamento sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares em nadadoras / Influence of training periodization on risk behaviors to eating disorders in female swimmers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi analisar a influência da periodização do treinamento sobre os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares (TA) em atletas do sexo feminino. Participaram 28 nadadoras com idade entre 12 e 16 anos. Utilizaram-se as subescalas do Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para avaliar co [...] mportamentos de risco para os TA. As nadadoras foram avaliadas ao longo de um macrociclo de treinamento, contendo as etapas: preparatório geral, preparatório específico, competitivo e polimento. Os achados demonstraram aumento da frequência dos comportamentos restritivos (p Abstract in english The objective was to analyze the influence of the periodization of training on risk behaviors to eating disorders (ED) in female athletes. Participated 28 swimmers aged between 12 and 16 years. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess risk behaviors to ED. The swimmers w [...] ere evaluated over a macro-cycle, comprising the following steps: overal preparation, specific preparation, competitive and tapering. The findings showed that frequency of restrictive (p

Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.

2014-03-01

112

Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

Bollenrath, F

1941-01-01

113

Factors influencing first intercourse for teenage men.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analyses of a nationally representative survey of 1,880 15- to 19-year-old men were conducted to examine factors associated with (a) the age when first sexual intercourse occurred and (b) whether a condom or other contraceptive method was used at first intercourse. Discrete time-event history models assessed factors influencing their age until first intercourse. Black males began sexual activity significantly earlier than white or Hispanic males. Males who had been held back in school also be...

Ku, L.; Sonenstein, F. L.; Pleck, J. H.

1993-01-01

114

A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

Naser Azad

115

Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bitterness and astringency are found in a variety of foods, including nuts, fruits, chocolate, tea, wine, and soymilk. In fruits and beverages, the taste of bitterness and the tactile sensation of astringency are elicited primarily by flavanol polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins). Variations in proanthocyanidin composition, such as polymer size, extent of galloylation, and formation of derivatives, affect both bitterness and astringency. In beverages, other factors also influence these sensations, including the pH and the levels of ethanol, sweetness, and viscosity. Similarly, foods eaten with beverages can influence astringency. For example, eating dark chocolate increases the astringency of red wine more than does milk chocolate. Individuals perceive astringency differently because of variations in salivary flow rates, and preferences for and acceptance of a product may vary tremendously among individuals; decreasing bitterness and/or astringency may not increase preference. Factors influencing bitterness, astringency, and individual preference decisions are discussed. PMID:15640499

Lesschaeve, Isabelle; Noble, Ann C

2005-01-01

116

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from ano...

?ilda Pe?ari?; Miroslav Tu?man

2010-01-01

117

Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

118

Factors that influence retirement self-actualisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on an investigation of factors that influence self-actualisation during retirement. Opsomming In hierdie artikel word verslag gedoen oor ‘n ondersoek na faktore wat self-aktualisering gedurende aftrede beïnvloed. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Kerr, Pam P.; Salomé Schulze

2004-01-01

119

Body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise and eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate eating behavior is high in athletes. However, little is known about the factors that affect this phenomenon in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction and level of psychological commitment to exercise (LPCE with inadequate eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports. Forty-seven female athletes practicing aesthetic sports (artistic gymnastics, synchronized swimming and high diving, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years, participated in the study. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to evaluate the risk behavior for eating disorders, body dissatisfaction and LPCE, respectively. Skinfold thickness was measured to calculate body fat percentage of the athletes. The results revealed a significant association between body dissatisfaction and eating behavior and between LPCE and risk behavior for eating disorders. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all variables, except for fat percentage, influenced the eating behavior of young athletes. This analysis also indicated an influence of body fat percentage and body dissatisfaction on CES scores. It was concluded that body dissatisfaction and LPCE are factors that predispose to risky eating behaviors in athletes from aesthetic sports.

Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

2013-09-01

120

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

?ilda Pe?ari?

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Following family or friends: Social norms in adolescent healthy eating  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study hasa number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on children's healthy eating should be reinforced.

Pedersen, Susanne; GrØnhØj, Alice

2014-01-01

122

Following family or friends. Social norms in adolescent healthy eating.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced. PMID:25088047

Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

2015-03-01

123

Climate change as an unexpected co-factor promoting coral eating seastar (Acanthaster planci) outbreaks  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral reefs face a crisis due to local and global anthropogenic stressors. A large proportion of the ~50% coral loss on the Great Barrier Reef has been attributed to outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns-seastar (COTS). A widely assumed cause of primary COTS outbreaks is increased larval survivorship due to higher food availability, linked with anthropogenic runoff . Our experiment using a range of algal food concentrations at three temperatures representing present day average and predicted future increases, demonstrated a strong influence of food concentration on development is modulated by temperature. A 2°C increase in temperature led to a 4.2–4.9 times (at Day 10) or 1.2–1.8 times (Day 17) increase in late development larvae. A model indicated that food was the main driver, but that temperature was an important modulator of development. For instance, at 5000?cells ml?1 food, a 2°C increase may shorten developmental time by 30% and may increase the probability of survival by 240%. The main contribution of temperature is to ‘push' well-fed larvae faster to settlement. We conclude that warmer sea temperature is an important co-factor promoting COTS outbreaks. PMID:25672480

Uthicke, S.; Logan, M.; Liddy, M.; Francis, D.; Hardy, N.; Lamare, M.

2015-01-01

124

Influence of organizational factors on safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

1990-01-01

125

Influence of organizational factors on safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

126

The Influencing Factors of Coal Reservoir Permeability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The permeability of coal reservoir is the most important influencing factor for choosing favorable area and production of coalbed methane, this article takes a detailed analysis of coal rank, thickness of coal seam, coal structure, construct curvature, effective stress, Klingberg effect and matrix shrinkage effect on reservoir permeability with comprehensive information consulting, literature review methods. The results show that coal reservoir is dual pore structure; the degree of development of fracture directly influences the size of the coal seam permeability. The growth of natural fracture density and lithotype band or negatively correlate to the layer thickness.

LIU Jun-shan

2014-03-01

127

Ranking different factors influencing flight delay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

Meysam Kazemi Asfe

2014-07-01

128

Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

Nagarkoti, Bishal

2014-01-01

129

Fatores associados ao comportamento alimentar inadequado em adolescentes escolares / Factors associated with inappropriate eating behavior in adolescent students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência do comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Parece que a insatisfação corporal (IC), a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômico (NE), além da etnia, podem ser fatores [...] de risco para o CAI. OBJETIVO: Associar IC, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), adiposidade corporal (AC), estado nutricional (EN), NE e etnia ao CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar o CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale foram utilizados para mensurar IC e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a AC segundo sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e classificar o EN. O NE foi avaliado pelo Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário que buscava avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram associação do CAI com IC, GCPE e NE no sexo feminino (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that the prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior (CAI) among young people has increased in recent years. It seems that body dissatisfaction (IC), the practice of excessive exercise, body composition, the socioeconomic status (NE), and ethnicity may be risk factors for [...] CAI. OBJECTIVE: To associate IC, degree of psychological impairment to exercise (GCPE), adiposity (AC), nutritional status (EN), NE and ethnicity with CAI in adolescents. METHODS: Participants 362 young people of both sexes aged between 10 and 19 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess the CAI. The Body Shape Exercise Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale were used to measure IC and GCPE, respectively. We evaluated skinfold thickness is to classify the AC second sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the index of mass (BMI) and classify the EN. The NE was evaluated by Brazil Economic Classification. Questionnaire was used that sought to assess ethnicity, age and sex. RESULTS: The results showed association of CAI with IC, GCPE and NE in females (p

Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Fabiane Frota da Rocha, Morgado; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.

130

Healthy Eating  

Science.gov (United States)

What do you know about healthy eating? Check out the sites below to learn what you should and should not be eating on a daily basis. Before we get started let's see what knowledge you have about healthy eating. What do you think are some of the most healthy foods for you? Do you like to eat these foods? Now look at the sites below and answer the following questions. Blast Off Dining Decisions Nutrients Your Body Neeeds What were some good food choices ...

Miss Sweet

2012-05-03

131

Environmental Factors Influence on Mobile Learning Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, there has been growing interest in m-learning consequently emerging m-learning technology is promising technological and educational business. Nevertheless, m-learning is a new business and the different actors are still trialing by ways of a diversity of business models to overcome in able to achieve a sustainable and profitable place in this market. Numbers of m-learning products providers do not succeed in supplying m-learning products. In this situation not only a suitable business model is vital but also environmental and external factors have impact on mobile learning business model. Overall objective of this study was to survey the business model framework of m-learning with effect of external and environmental factors. Approach: Methodical approach was based on a classification of m-learning actors and its environmental factors. Based on this, we analyzed case studies description and developed main environmental factors that constitute the m-learning environment. Factors were summarized in morphological boxes and then through out its three steps result came up. Results: The results indicated technology, market and regulation are three major environmental factors which were forcing m-learning business model and business model should react to changes of these three factors to keep sustainable business. The research further argued the external factors of m-learning environment in order to understanding and developing the m-learning business and the ways these factors influence the business model of m-learning as well. Conclusion/Recommendations: M-learning business is based on many factors such as technology, changes in society, educational drivers, demand for flexible learning and the new learning paradigm but only three major drivers(technology, market and regulation had considerable effect on m-learning business model and should be taken into account as a result if they change business model should be changed.

Alireza Nasiri

2009-01-01

132

CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

Toth Jozsef

2012-12-01

133

A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE principles into daily living and how these factors change over time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people's ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

White Florence

2011-08-01

134

A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants\\' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people\\'s ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

Casey, Dympna

2011-08-30

135

Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal be...

Bedriye Oncu; Direnc Sakarya

2013-01-01

136

Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

137

Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.

Sri Astuti Pratminingsih

2013-06-01

138

Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Female College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…

Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.

2011-01-01

139

Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15

Arkun, Alp

2010-02-01

140

Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

Jovanovi? Snežana T.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study is to identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. A follow-up study was performed on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated form 1984-1998. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. The conclusion is that biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatis carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatment splits in radiation therapy. (R.P.)

142

Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variabl...

Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M.; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A.; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H.

2010-01-01

143

Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

144

Exploring the relationship between negative urgency and dysregulated eating: etiologic associations and the role of negative affect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to engage in rash action in response to negative affect) has emerged as a critical personality trait contributing to individual differences in binge eating. However, studies investigating the extent to which genetic and/or environmental influences underlie the effects of negative urgency on binge eating are lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether negative urgency-binge eating associations are simply a result of the well-established role of negative affect in the development/maintenance of binge eating. The current study addresses these gaps by examining phenotypic and etiologic associations between negative urgency, negative affect, and dysregulated eating (i.e., binge eating, emotional eating) in a sample of 222 same-sex female twin pairs from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Negative urgency was significantly associated with both dysregulated eating symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of negative affect. Genetic factors accounted for the majority (62-77%) of this phenotypic association, although a significant proportion of this genetic covariation was due to genetic influences in common with negative affect. Nonshared environmental factors accounted for a relatively smaller (23-38%) proportion of the association, but these nonshared environmental effects were independent of negative affect. Findings suggest that the presence of emotion-based rash action, combined with high levels of negative affect, may significantly increase genetic risk for dysregulated eating. PMID:23356217

Racine, Sarah E; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Sisk, Cheryl L; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L

2013-05-01

145

Factors influencing model use in occupational therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english STUDY AIM: To determine which models are used by occupational therapists who attended a workshop on the Kawa Model, in their practice, the demographic factors related to the use of these models and the reasons why they use various models in their practice. METHOD: A descriptive, single case study me [...] thod was used with embedded units. The research instrument consisted of a survey questionnaire with closed and some semi-structured questions. RESULTS: The characteristics of therapists influenced their use of models. This was determined by their educational background, their level of experience and exposure in the clinical field and their work setting. Time constraints and the nature of the presenting clients also played a role. The clinicians' overall attitude towards new theory and their habituated ways were highlighted as constant factors influencing model use. The use of models provides structure and assists occupational therapists to produce proper, profession-specific, scientifically-based intervention. Models taught during undergraduate studies need to be relevant to address clients' needs in their specific context.

Antonette, Owen; Fasloen, Adams; Denise, Franszen.

2014-01-01

146

Predictors of Interpersonal Psychotherapy in patients with bulimic eating disorders / Factores predictores del tratamiento de la bulimia nerviosa con Terapia Interpersonal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar los factores de pronóstico del tratamiento de la bulimia nerviosa con terapia interpersonal. Diseño: 80 pacientes con el diagnostico de Bulimia Nerviosa (BN) o trastornos del comportamiento alimentario no especificados con características de BN (TCANE) fueron tratados con 16 ses [...] iones de terapia interpersonal. Los pacientes fueron evaluados utilizando una entrevista semi-estructural (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC). También completaron una batería de cuestionarios para evaluar los niveles de estima personal (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale -RSE), la psicopatología de los trastornos de la alimentación (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), la función interpersonal (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning-IIP-32) y los niveles de depresión (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Método: El pronóstico de interés fue definido por la variable de remisión y recuperación. Para el análisis del estudio se realizaron una serie de regresiones logísticas. Resultado: Baja estima personal, y una menor patología en la función interpersonal fueron los factores de peor pronóstico. Conclusión: Aunque la terapia interpersonal es un tratamiento efectivo para las personas que sufren de bulimia nerviosa, los pacientes con estas patologías con baja estima personal y menos problemas interpersonales deberían de ser tratados con otro tipo de terapia. Abstract in english Objective: To determine predictors of treatment outcomes in patients with Bulimic Eating Disorders treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). Design: Following initial assessment, 80 patients with diagnoses of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), entered treatmen [...] t in the form of 16 sessions of IPT. Patients were assessed using a validated semi-structure interview (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC) and completed measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale-RSE), eating psychopathology (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning- IIP-32), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Method: Remission and recovery after 16 sessions of IPT were the two outcomes of interest. Univariate analysis and a series of backwards stepping logistic regressions were performed to determine the variables associated with remission and recovery. Result: Low self-esteem and less interpersonal problems were the main predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: As patients with Bulimic Disorders with low levels of interpersonal problems and high levels of low self-esteem are likely to do less well with IPT, different type of treatment should be offered to them. A randomized controlled trial could explore this hypothesis in more detail.

Jon, Arcelus; Jonathan, Baggott; Debbie, Whight; Lesley, McGrain; Lesley, Meadows; Christopher, Langham.

2011-12-01

147

Genetic characterization of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in Enterococcus spp. from Japanese retail ready-to-eat raw fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little information is available on the diversity and distribution of resistance and virulence factors in enterococci isolated from retail fish. In this study, 200 samples of retail ready-to-eat raw fish (sashimi) collected from the Japanese prefecture of Hiroshima were analyzed for incidence of Enterococcus spp. We recovered 96 enterococcal isolates from 90 (45%, 90/200) samples. Fifty-six strains were identified at the species level: E. faecalis (n = 31), E. faecium (n = 7), E. casseliflavus (n = 7), E. gallinarum (n = 3), E. phoeniculicola (n = 4), E. raffinosus (n = 2), E. saccharolyticus (n = 1), and E. gilvus (n = 1). Twenty-five (26%, 25/96) strains carried antibiotic resistance genes. These included the tet(M), tet(L), tet(K), erm(B), msr(A/B), aph(3'), and blaZ genes, which were detected in 12.5%, 9.3%, 2%, 14.5%, 1%, 1%, and 2% of isolates, respectively. The virulence genes gelE and asa1 were detected in 31 and 24 E. faecalis strains, respectively. Both genes were detected in one E. faecium strain. In conclusion, this is the first study to underscore the importance of sashimi as not only a reservoir of Enterococcus spp. carrying resistance and virulence genes, but also a reservoir for unusual Enterococcus spp. PMID:24290627

Hammad, Ahmed M; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

2014-04-01

148

Eating local: influences of habitat on the diet of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).  

Science.gov (United States)

We employ molecular methods to profile the diet of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and describe spatial and temporal changes in diet over their maternity season. We identified 61 prey species of insects and 5 species of arachnid. The largest proportion of prey (?32%) were identified as species of the mass-emerging Ephemeroptera (mayfly) genus Caenis. Bats roosting in agricultural settings had lower dietary richness than those occupying a roost located on a forest fragment in a conservation area. We detected temporal fluctuations in diet over the maternity season. Dipteran (fly) species dominated the diet early in the season, replaced later by species of mayfly. Because our methodology provides species-level identification of prey, we were able to isolate environmental indicator species in the diet and draw conclusions about the location and type of their foraging habitat and the health of these aquatic systems. The species detected suggested that the bats use variable habitats; members of one agricultural roost foraged on insects originating in rivers or streams while those in another agricultural roost and the forest roost fed on insects from pond or lake environments. All source water for prey was of fair to good quality, though no species detected are intolerant of pollution thus the habitat cannot be classified as pristine. Our study outlines a model system to investigate the abiotic and biotic interactions between habitat factors through this simple food chain to the top predator. PMID:21366747

Clare, E L; Barber, B R; Sweeney, B W; Hebert, P D N; Fenton, M B

2011-04-01

149

Factors Influencing Household Food Security Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, impaired physical and mental development and reduced productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the Influencing factors on the household food insecurity status. This cross-sectional study conducted on 2500 households selected from Qaresoo region in the northwest of Iran. Household food security status measured by a validated short questionnaire including six questions and other required data (influencing factors obtained alongside the validated questionnaire. Chisquare and logistic regression used for data analysis using SPSS software. Forty Percent of households suffered from low food insecurity and twenty percent had experienced very low food insecurity. Severity of household food insecurity increased with increasing distance from the city (Exp (B = 1.05, 95% C.I = 1.03-1.07. It decreased with increasing centers that provides food (Exp (B = 0.97, 95% C.I = 0.97-0.98 Residential infrastructure (Exp (B = 0.99, 95% C.I = 0.98-0.99 Family size (Exp (B = 0.92, 95% C.I = 0.87-0.98 and the presence of both parents in comparison the presence of single parent at home (Exp (B = 0.46, 95% C.I = 0.32-0.66. Spearman correlation test also showed that mean per capita income had a significant inverse correlation with household food insecurity status. (Correlation coefficient = –0.3, P < 0.05. Socioeconomic factors were affecting the household food insecurity status. More studies seem to be essential in order to provide practical solutions to reduce the severity of food insecurity.

Sharafkhani Rahim

2011-01-01

150

Factors influencing successful radioiodine therapy of thyroid  

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Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13, operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1, the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS, and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05 influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.

Popadi? Silvija M.

2003-01-01

151

Eating Out  

Science.gov (United States)

... Women’s Health Men’s Health Healthy Aging Seasonal & Holidays Sports & Exercise Food Safety Resources in Other Languages What Is ... Seasonal & Holidays Winter Spring Summer Fall Culture & Traditions Sports & Exercise Eat Right for Sports and Performance Endurance Resistance ...

152

Healthy Eating  

Science.gov (United States)

... eating for two is necessary during pregnancy, and red meat is bad for health. All of these “truths” ... yogurt, and a few biscuits is enough. 5. Red Meat is bad for health Some studies have linked ...

153

Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... women from developing an eating disorder. Also, specialized treatment of anorexia nervosa may help reduce the risk of death. Treating bulimia nervosa As with anorexia nervosa, treatment for bulimia nervosa often involves a combination of ...

154

Influence of organizational factors on performance reliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the first volume of a two-volume report. Volume 2 will be published at a later date. This report presents the results of a research project conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the project was to develop a general methodology to be use in the assessment of the organizational factors which affect performance reliability (safety) in a nuclear power plant. The research described in this report includes the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (GNOMIC). This concept characterizes the organizational factors that impact safety performance in a nuclear power plant and identifies some methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on safety performance. This report is divided into two parts; Part 1 presents an overview of the development of the methodology, while Part 2 provides more details and a technical analysis of the methodological development. Specifically, the results of two demonstration studies, the feasibility of the methodology, and a specific applications for which the methodology was developed are presented

155

"Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

2002-01-01

156

Social modeling of eating: A review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571

Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J

2015-03-01

157

Role of genetic variants in ADIPOQ in human eating behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

The beneficial effects of adiponectin and its negative correlation with BMI are well described. Adiponectin serum levels are altered in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating. Here, we tested the hypothesis that (1) adiponectin serum levels correlate with human eating behavior factors and (2) that genetic variants of the ADIPOQ locus influence both serum levels and eating behavior. We analyzed 11 SNPs within ADIPOQ and in the 5' UTR and measured serum adiponectin levels in 1,036 individuals from the German Sorbs population. The German version of the three-factor eating questionnaire (FEV) was completed by 548 Sorbs. For replication purposes, we included an independent replication cohort from Germany (N = 350). In the Sorbs, we observed positive correlations of restraint with adiponectin serum levels (P = 0.001; r = 0.148) which, however, did not withstand adjustment for covariates (P = 0.083; r = 0.077). In addition, four SNPs were nominally associated with serum adiponectin levels (all P  9.3 × 10(-4)). In our replication cohort, we observed similar effect directions at rs1501229 for disinhibition and hunger. A meta-analysis resulted in nominal statistical significance P = 0.036 (Z score 2.086) and P = 0.017 (Z score 2.366), respectively. Given the observed relationship of the SNPs with adiponectin levels and eating behavior, our data support a potential role of adiponectin in human eating behavior. Whether the relationship with eating behavior is mediated by the effects of circulating adiponectin warrants further investigations. PMID:25542302

Rohde, Kerstin; Keller, Maria; Horstmann, Annette; Liu, Xuanshi; Eichelmann, Fabian; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne

2015-01-01

158

Eating Disorders and Family Structure: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The frequency of eating disorders has been increased over the course of last 50 years. Its history reveals that different forms of eating disorders have actually been existed for a long period of time but the most recognized eating disorders like Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa have only recently been included to the official classification systems. It is being argued that biological genetic load and hypothalamic neuromediator factors are the main causes for the etiology of eating disord...

Dilek Ertu? Toker; Çiçek Hocao?lu

2009-01-01

159

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

S ARMAN

2003-03-01

160

Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration  

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Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.As florestas tropicais secas representam cerca da metade das florestas tropicais do mundo e são ecossistemas que estão sofrendo uma grande deterioração pelas atividades humanas. Neste artigo realizamos uma revisão de literatura sobre a dinâmica da regeneração das florestas tropicais secas enfocando principalmente nos fatores abióticos que influenciam esta regeneração, tais como, o clima estacional, a fertilidade e umidade do solo e as perturbações naturais e antrópicas. O principal objetivo é compreender um aspecto muito importante da dinâmica sucessional das florestas tropicais secas.

Eliane Ceccon

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes may need to be considered if groundwater composition is found to change with time. (author, shortened). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

162

Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage ?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible ? lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of ? lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

Dennehy John J

2011-08-01

163

Molecular Genetic Studies of Eating Disorders: Current Status and Future Directions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We review association studies that have examined the genetic basis of eating disorders. Overall, findings suggest that serotonin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and estrogen genes may be important for the development of the disorders. These neuronal systems influence behavioral and personality characteristics (e.g., anxiety, food intake) that are disrupted in eating disorders. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes and inclusion of behavioral and personality covariates in a...

Klump, Kelly L.; Culbert, Kristen M.

2007-01-01

164

Push Vs Pull: Factors Influence Student Retention  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Student retention becomes one of the most significant issues that administrators of colleges and universities must deal with in today?s highly competitive market. Approach: In fact retaining a student is fundamental to the ability of an institution to carry out its mission. A high rate of attrition is not only a fiscal problem for schools, but a symbolic failure of an institution to achieve its purpose. Results: There are many ways to keep students retain at the same college until graduation, some easier than people may think but great changes will have to be made in order for schools to complete these transformations. This study is a descriptive study about the factors that influence student retention rate at a higher educational institution. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the previous studies of the similar topic and a random sample survey, this study identifies the possible push and pull factors that promote student leave from a specific college and transfer to other colleges to continue their college studies, it probes the implementable solutions to help the college to maintain and increase the student retention rate.

Matthew Leone

2009-01-01

165

Factors Influencing Efficacy of Bilayered Cell Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that fail to heal with standard care should be treated with advanced wound care products. Efficacy of advanced therapies is dependent on many factors. A secondary analysis of pivotal trial data for a bilayered cellular construct used in the treatment of DFU was undertaken to determine if glycemic control and other factors had an effect on time to healing. Approach: We analyzed the effect of age, gender, diabetes type, insulin usage, body mass index, smoking, initial and ending glycohemoglobin (HgbA1c), Charcot deformity, and wound area, duration, and location on likelihood of healing for wounds treated with bilayered cellular construct (BLCC). Results: In those treated with BLCC, initial wound area (cm(2)), age, and history of Charcot deformity were found to significantly affect healing. Neither initial HgbA1c nor change in HgbA1c was associated with healing. The bilayered product was found to be equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels (p-values 0.94 and 0.44, respectively). In the control group, initial HgbA1c, insulin usage, female gender, and wound location at the toes significantly influenced healing. Innovation: BLCC subgroup analysis to elucidate selection criteria allowing for targeted use of advanced products on those more likely to respond as well as direct further research into prognostic indicators for BLCC-treated patients. Conclusion: The bilayered cellular construct product remains equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels. Further specific research into the effect of glucose control and other factors on the effectiveness of different advanced DFU treatment products is recommended. PMID:24940555

Allam, Reynald C; Van Driessche, Freya; Zhu, Yiliang

2014-06-01

166

Compulsão alimentar e fatores associados em adolescentes de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil Binge eating and associated factors among teenagers in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O episódio de compulsão alimentar é caracterizado pela ingestão de grande quantidade de alimentos em tempo delimitado acompanhada de perda de controle sobre o que/quanto se come. O estudo objetivou estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos episódios de compulsão alimentar. Estudo transversal com 1.209 adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos. Para o diagnóstico dos episódios de compulsão alimentar utilizou-se o Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso - Revisado (QEWP-R. Foi realizada análise através da regressão de Poisson com abordagem hierárquica. A prevalência de episódios de compulsão alimentar foi 24,6% (IC95%: 22,3-27,2 e os fatores que permaneceram associados foram: sexo feminino (RP = 1,93; IC95%: 1,47-2,53, idade de 15 a 18 anos (RP = 1,54; IC95%: 1,01-2,37 e 19 anos (RP = 2,60; IC95%: 1,15-5,86, uso de bebidas alcoólicas mais de três vezes por mês (RP = 1,54; IC95%: 1,03-2,33 e flutuações de peso (RP = 1,76; IC95%: 1,33-2,31. Conclui-se que a prevalência de episódios de compulsão alimentar foi alta e associada ao sexo feminino, idade, uso de bebidas alcoólicas e flutuação de peso.Binge eating means ingesting a large amount of food during a certain period of time, followed by a sensation of lack of control over what and how much has been eaten. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of binge eating episodes and associated factors in teenagers. The cross-sectional study included 1,209 teenagers (14 to 19 years old. Diagnosis of binge eating was based on the revised Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. The analysis used Poisson regression with a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of binge eating episodes was 24.6% (95%CI: 22.3-27.2, and factors that remained associated were: female gender (HR = 1.93; 95%CI: 1.47-2.53; age 15 to 18 (HR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.01-2.37 and age 19 (HR = 2.60; 95%CI: 1.15-5.86; alcohol consumption more than 3 times a month (HR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.03-2.33; and current weight oscillation (HR = 1.76; 95%CI: 1.33-2.31. In conclusion, prevalence of binge eating episodes was high and associated with female gender, age, alcohol consumption, and weight oscillation.

Loreni Augusta Pivetta

2010-02-01

167

Psychometric properties of the eating attitudes test and children's eating attitudes test in Croatia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The factor structure of the children's version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were examined in Croatian girls of different ages. A self-report survey was given to 225 girls (Grades 5 to 8), 525 high school girls (Grades 9 to 12), and 646 female university students. Factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors for ChEAT, and three interpretable factors for EAT-26. Internal consistency of both instruments was satisfactory. 10.3% of school girls scored 20 or higher on ChEAT, when 7.6% of high school girls and 11.3% of university students had elevated EAT-26 scores. The ChEAT and EAT-26 were useful for screening large non-clinical groups and measuring disturbed eating behaviours. Those with elevated ChEAT and EAT-26 scores were more likely than those with lower scores to be engaged in extreme weight control methods (e.g. vomiting, binging). PMID:16682865

Ambrosi-Randi?, N; Pokrajac-Bulian, A

2005-12-01

168

The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

2007-01-01

169

Factores de éxito en campañas de alimentación saludable: un estudio de casos / Success factors in public healthy eating campaigns: a case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Rara vez se ha evaluado la efectividad de las campañas e intervenciones de información pública. Por ello, el estudio de actividades exitosas podría contribuir al desarrollo y puesta en práctica en el futuro de campañas e intervenciones a favor de una alimentación saludable Objetivos: E [...] l objetivo del presente estudio de campañas de información sobre alimentación saludable fue primeramente la identificación de los factores de éxito de las mismas, y seguidamente la descripción de sus inter-relaciones. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 11 representantes de industrias alimentarias cuyas campañas fueron identificadas como exitosas en una etapa previa del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron luego analizadas con respecto a los factores de éxito potenciales. Estos últimos fueron posteriormente utilizados para desarrollar un modelo de factores de éxito y sus interrelaciones. Resultados: El éxito de los casos estudiados fue atribuido primeramente a las características del ambiente macro, o a una colaboración entre los sectores público y privado. Segundo, se identificó al compromiso de las comunidades, elementos de empoderamiento del grupo objetivo y a la ejecución de medidas de marketing social. Tercero, el éxito puede atribuirse a la adopción por parte de la ciudadanía de las campañas y los cambios estructurales consecuentes. Conclusiones: El modelo y los factores de éxito identificados resaltan que el éxito puede originarse en tres fases cruciales, el diseño y montaje de la campaña, su ejecución y finalmente, su interacción con la ciudadanía. El modelo puede servir como guía para el desarrollo de campañas en el futuro. Abstract in english Introduction: Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. Objectives: The study of public campaigns and in [...] terventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. Results: It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. Conclusions: The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.

J., Aschemann-Witzel; F.J.A., Pérez-Cueto; M., Strand; W., Verbeke; T., Bech-Larsen.

1536-15-01

170

Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating behaviours. Obese adolescents were found to display a lack of dislike towards food. Future longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to further understand behavioural phenotypes of obesity to guide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24349385

Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

2013-01-01

171

Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

Cristina, Romeo T.

2007-12-01

172

A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela Victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

2007-01-01

173

FACTORS INFLUENCING PAYMENT OF IRRIGATION SERVICE FEES  

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Full Text Available This article attempts to identify factors affecting participation in payment of irrigation service fees. There are five variables comprising demographic and economic of land variables were tested to find the variables that influenced the participation significantly. The five variables tested consisted of age and formal education as demographic variables; land productivity, land size, and land tenure as the economic of land variables. The results showed that formal education (demographic variable had positive relationship and land size (economic of land variable had negative relationship with the participation. Positive relationship between formal education and participation in payment of irrigation service fees meant that the participation increased as farmers’ education increased. Meanwhile, negative relationship between land size and the participation in payment of irrigation service fees showed that the farmers’ participation wouldincrease as the land size owned by farmers decreased. In other words, participation in payment of irrigation service fees was higher among farmers with small lands rather than that among farmers with large lands.

Gelar Satya Budhi

2006-06-01

174

Factors influencing codon usage bias in genomes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O código genético é degenerado, isto é, o mesmo amino ácido pode ser codificado por vários codons. Apesar de codificarem o mesmo amino ácido, estes codons sinônimos não são utilizados da mesma forma em genomas diferentes, e mesmo em um único genoma o padrão de uso dos codons sinônimos pode variar mu [...] ito entre os genes, ou ainda ao longo de um único gene. Com a recente introdução de seqüências genômicas completas as razões destes desvios no uso de codons estão começando a ser entendidas. Neste artigo nós vamos apresentar alguns dos fatores propostos para as variações no uso de codons sinônimos e as forças seletivas que podem influenciar tais variações. Abstract in english The genetic code is degenerate, i.e. some amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. Although coding for the same amino acid, synonymous codons are not equally used in different genomes, and even in a single genome the synonymous codon usage can vary widely among genes, or even along the gene [...] sequences. With the recent advent of full genome sequences we are starting to unravel the reasons for these deviations. In this review we will cover some of the proposed factors that might cause different codon usage bias and the selective forces influencing it.

Hannah M. W., Salim; Andre R. O., Cavalcanti.

175

Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length  

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Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

Miyoshi,Ko

2011-10-01

176

Factors influencing creep model equation selection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of {epsilon}(t,T,{sigma}) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets.

Holdsworth, S.R. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: stuart.holdsworth@empa.ch; Askins, M. [RWE, Swindon (United Kingdom); Baker, A. [British Energy Generation Ltd., Barnwood (United Kingdom); Gariboldi, E. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Holmstroem, S. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Klenk, A.; Ringel, M. [MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Merckling, G. [ISB, Milan (Italy); Sandstrom, R. [KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Schwienheer, M. [IfW, Darmstadt (Germany); Spigarelli, S. [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

2008-01-15

177

Factors influencing creep model equation selection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of ?(t,T,?) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets

178

Communicating about eating behaviors. A qualitative study of Chilean women and their health-care providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors. PMID:25661846

Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara

2015-01-01

179

Gender-Related Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms and Disordered Eating in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…

Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

2012-01-01

180

Food Behavior Correlated with Lifestyle Pattern and Societal Influences in a Romanian Students Population. Part I: Eating General Habits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Input data from Students Food Behavior, Preference and Lifestyle Questionnaire conducted with 376 students from University “Dunarea de Jos” Galati (UDJG) were analyzed from socio-demographic criteria. The sample socio-demoraphic characteristics of the student population were investigated beside the general food & eating habits by gender. In the current study, most than three quart of students (76.06%) was of correct (normal) weight. Nearly 65.15% of the students reported having regular da...

Iuliana Vintila

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Healthy Eating  

Science.gov (United States)

... eat? • What is a balanced diet? • Why is protein important to my body? • What foods are good sources of protein? • How ... combination of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Why is protein important to my body? Protein provides the nutrients your body needs to ...

182

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat can ... Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video (MP4) Keywords: self-management , healthy eating , National Diabetes ...

183

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...

184

Predictors of eating disorders outcomes in Polish teenage patients  

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Full Text Available Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the outcome of eating disorders in Polish teenage patients. Material and methods. Analyses covered the data of 47 patients diagnosed with any of the eating disorders according to DSM IV consulted for the first time in the outpatients clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit between 2002/2004 in Krakow (DGN1, Poland and then followed up between 2009/2011 (DGN2. The influence of the number of variables collected at DGN1 on outcomes was analysed. Results. The outcomes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are influenced by some aspects of clinical picture, patients’ objective family situation, their self-image and the perception they have of their family relations. The co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and younger age of parents proved to be the most clinically important negative outcome predictors in the whole group of eating disorders. Discussion. The small size of group in the follow-up study is the most important limitating factor. Conclusion. Outcomes in eating disorders are affected by several psycho-bio-social factors common to all patients and specific for the diagnosis type they initially present.

Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech

2014-09-01

185

Eating pattern of vegetarian diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.

Patricia Couceiro

2008-09-01

186

Chapter 6. Radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value. Chapter consistsof next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of plants; (2) Radioactive contamination of plants; (3) Factors influencing radioactivity of biological chain soil - plant; (4) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of agricultural and food products

187

Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 ?g, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 ?g Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 ?g Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability

188

Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees  

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Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.

K. R. Sowmya

2011-01-01

189

INTERCULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION  

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Full Text Available Translation is a complex process, involving linguistic, cultural and personal factors. This article seeks to show how intercultural factors constitute one of the main sources of translation difficultties. The author suggests that a systematic discussion of these factors would be useful in establishing effective strategies for avoiding pitfalls in translation between English and Chinese.

Dai Xiaoqian

2005-01-01

190

Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

Masud, E. [ed.

1977-01-01

191

THE INFLUENCE OF FOOD CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ON THE EATING HABITS OF BURUNDIAN IMMIGRANTS IN JYVASKYLA, FINLAND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to gather information on the Burundian food culture and nutrition habits for health care professionals to be able to provide the Burundians with holistic care. The purpose of the study was to find out the eating habits of the Burundian immigrants living in Jyvaskyla. Qualitative research method was used to gather the data which included a face to face interview with three Burundians who had lived in Finland for more than 6 months. In December 2013, the intervie...

Niyinzigama, Josepha

2014-01-01

192

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

Gupta, N.; Fischer, A. R. H.; Lans, I. A.; Frewer, L. J.

2012-01-01

193

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

2012-01-01

194

Eating attitudes and family relationships  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A self-administered questionnaire, investigated how eating and drinking differ cross-culturally between Scotland and Spain, and in particular whether Scottish and Spanish family relationships, self-esteem, early patterns and psychosocial factors have an effect on eating attitudes. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to a general population sample consisting of 100 female adults [50 from Barcelona group and 50 from Edinburgh group]. The age ranged between 20-26 years old. The res...

Gunnard, Katarina

2007-01-01

195

Capacidad Discriminante y Clasificación Correcta de la Escala de Factores de riesgo Asociados con Trastornos de la alimentación (EFRATA-II) / Discriminatory power and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disorders (EPHRATA-II)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue establecer la capacidad discriminante y de clasificación correcta de la Escala de Factores de Riesgo Asociados con Trastornos Alimentarios (EFRATA-II), para niños y niñas. La muestra no aleatoria quedó formada por 934 estudiantes de escuelas públicas: 474 niñas y 460 niño [...] s con edad promedio de 10.6 años (DE = .80). El análisis discriminante, con el método D de Mahalanobis, arrojó una clasificación correcta de 100% de los casos en alto y bajo riesgo. La dimensión de sobre ingesta alimentaria por compensación psicológica fue la más relevante, seguida por la de dieta crónica y restringida. La EFRATA-II es un indicador adecuado para la estimación de factores de riesgo en la conducta alimentaria de preadolescentes, y representa una aportación valiosa en el desarrollo de programas preventivos para trastornos de la alimentación. Abstract in english The increased frequency of binge eating behavior, and its relationship to overweight and obesity, expressed a national and international real health problem. The aim of the study was to establish the discriminatory and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disord [...] ers (Ephrata-II), for boys and girls. The non random sample was formed by 934 public school students: 474 girls and 460 boys with a mean age of 10.6 years (SD=.80). Discriminant analysis with Mahalanobis D method, yielded a correct classification of 100% of cases at high and low risk. The food overeating dimension of psychological compensation was the most relevant, followed by chronic restricted diet. The Ephrata-II is a suitable indicator for estimation of risk factors in eating behavior of tweens, and represents a valuable contribution in the development of prevention programs for eating disorders.

Romana Silvia, Platas Acevedo; Gilda, Gómez-Peresmitré; Rodrigo, León Hernández; Gisela, Pineda García; Rebeca, Guzmán Saldaña.

2013-12-01

196

Communicating healthy eating to adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - This study explores perceptions of healthy/unhealthy eating, and perceptions of various socializing agents encouraging healthy eating, amongst Chinese adolescents. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was conducted of 152 seven, eighth and ninth grade Hong Kong students. A structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed in three public secondary schools. Findings - Results showed that respondents frequently ate out with friends and frequently consumed a range of relatively unhealthy food (candies, chips, and soft drinks). They perceived that a balanced diet and eating at a regular time were the most important attributes of healthy eating. In terms of situational influences on their consumption, respondents most likely ate unhealthy food at parties, when eating out or with friends. They most likely ate healthy food at home and when they were sick. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents and government publicity asked them to eat healthy food more often than teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. In terms of alternative advertising appeals discouraging unhealthy eating, respondents considered news and fear appeals the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered relatively less effective. Research limitations/implications - The respondents were chosen from three secondary schools (two co-ed schools and one school for boys). These three schools may not be representative of all schools in Hong Kong or elsewhere, thus limiting the generalizabilty of the findings. Practical implications - The study can serve as a guideline for social services marketing professionals targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings in relation to socializing agents, social services marketers can consider influencing the adolescents eating habits through the parents. As government publicity was perceived as a relatively weak socializing agent, there is a need to review health education materials targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings in relation to different advertising appeals discouraging unhealthy eating, news and fear appeals should be considered, as these were considered relatively more likable and effective than other types of appeals. Originality/value - This paper offers insights into designing communication strategies for adolescents. It is original in that it focuses on adolescents, and explores the perceptions of various socializing agents influencing healthy eating.

Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard

2009-01-01

197

Exogenous factors influencing voice prosthetic biofilm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lifetime of a voice prosthesis is dependent on the amount and composition of the biofilm on the prosthesis (and also on the type of prosthesis). This biofilm formation is a multifactorial process which is difficult to study in an in vivo situation due to the multitude of influential factors. In a retrospective multifactorial analysis no factors could be found to have a significant effect on the lifetime of these devices. Therefore in this thesis, the effects of single factors on biofil...

Free, Rolina Henderika

2004-01-01

198

Factors influencing emigration out of South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study was to construct a questionnaire to determine what factors affect emigration. The questionnaire consisted out of 51 items and was administered to 150 respondents who were South African citizens either living in South Africa or who have emigrated to another country. Factor analyses were applied to the 51 items and four factors were identified; these were social and political situation, work experience, victim of crime and job satisfaction. It was found during the ANOVA...

Chasenski, Azaria

2012-01-01

199

Financial influence factors on innovative activity ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the financial factors affecting innovation, and examined the structure of industries industrial complex of Ukraine on technological structure of production.? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????, ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????.

Marchenko Olga I.

2012-03-01

200

Adolescence and Eating Pathologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007). The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics) reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population) suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002), cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schi...

Valeria Caggiano

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Comportamentos de risco para transtornos do comportamento alimentar e fatores associados entre estudantes de nutrição do município do Rio de Janeiro Risk behavior for eating disorders and related factors among nutrition students in the city of Rio de Janeiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar práticas alimentares e fatores de risco associados a transtornos do comportamento alimentar entre estudantes de nutrição do município do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Estudo seccional junto a um segmento populacional apontado na literatura como de risco para o surgimento de transtornos alimentares. Utilizaram-se o Teste de Investigação Bulímica de Edimburgo (BITE, o Teste de Atitudes Alimentares (EAT-26 e uma variável que considera os dois instrumentos associados (Nunes et al., 2001. RESULTADOS: Analisaram-se 193 estudantes do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 20,9 anos ± 2 anos. Detectou-se resultado positivo em 14% (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 9,4%-20% no EAT-26. No BITE, para sintomas elevados e gravidade intensa, foram encontradas prevalências de 5,7% (IC 95%: 2,9%-10% e 3,2% (IC 95%: 1,2%-6,9%, respectivamente. Quando combinados EAT-26 positivo e BITE com gravidade intensa e sintomas elevados, constataram-se correlações positivas com prevalências de 64,7% (p OBJECTIVE: To characterize risky eating habits and factors related to eating disorders among nutrition students in the city of Rio de Janeiro METHODS: Sectional study with a segment of the population pointed out in literature as being at risk of developing eating disorders. The Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 questionnaire and a variable which considers the two related tools (Nunes et al, 2001 were used. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-three female students were studied, being 20.9 years old on the average ± 2 years. A positive result of 14% (IC 95%: 9.4%-20% in the EAT-26 was observed. In the BITE advanced symptoms and scores in the serious range were found in 5.7% (IC 95%: 2.9%-10% and 3.2% (IC 95%: 1.2%-6.9%, respectively. When positive EAT-26 results were combined with serious range BITE scores and advanced symptoms, positive correlations were found in 64.7% (p < 0.001 and 36.4% (p < 0.001, respectively. Of the women who showed positive EAT-26, 88.5% were within the normal range of the body mass index (BMI (p < 0.031. CONCLUSIONS: One must pay close attention to the tendencies towards eating disorders in the group, since these disorders will be a focus of their professional practice, which could compromise their work in the cases where nutritionists already present syndromes or tendencies towards disorders.

Maria Lucia Magalhães Bosi

2006-01-01

202

Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits  

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This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

Cole, Bryan

2012-01-01

203

Binge eating disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... The exact cause of binge eating is unknown. Things that may lead to this disorder include: Genes, such as having close relatives who also have an eating ...

204

Factors influencing the implementation of electronic data interchange (EDI  

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Full Text Available Electronic Data Interchange (EDI implementation is viewed as an important tool for transmission of business data. Yet, its implementation has not reached the predicted level whereby the implementation is often stalled at infancy stage. Many factors were pinpointed as inhibitors or barriers for success of EDI implementation. This study examines key EDI influencing factors and their relationship with implementation level, firm size and type of users. Mail surveys on 108 manufacturers were the main data collection method. Findings indicate that implementation level differs based on influencing factors, while these factors differ based on type of users and do not differ based on firm size. Relatively, internal factors were found to be more significant than external factors. This study also recommends future research to further examine influences of users’ type with different EDI aspects.

Gengeswari K.

2008-06-01

205

Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.  

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Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, ma...

Delemarre-van Waal, H. A.

1993-01-01

206

Food Behavior Correlated with Lifestyle Pattern and Societal Influences in a Romanian Students Population. Part I: Eating General Habits  

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Full Text Available Input data from Students Food Behavior, Preference and Lifestyle Questionnaire conducted with 376 students from University “Dunarea de Jos” Galati (UDJG were analyzed from socio-demographic criteria. The sample socio-demoraphic characteristics of the student population were investigated beside the general food & eating habits by gender. In the current study, most than three quart of students (76.06% was of correct (normal weight. Nearly 65.15% of the students reported having regular daily breakfast. The strongest correlation of having breakfast habit is show with the regular meal behaviour [r(3, 4 = 0.242] and regular meals were associated with reduced trends for BMI [r(4, 2 =?0.055].

Iuliana Vintila

2013-06-01

207

THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS  

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/to...

Lacatus Viorel-Dorin; Vaidean Viorela-Ligia; Cuceu Ionut-Constantin

2013-01-01

208

Mentalizing in self vs. parent representations and working models of parents as risk and protective factors from distress and eating disorders.  

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This study examined whether low developmental level of mentalization and symbolization, manifested as low ability to represent and reflect on mental states of the self and parents as well as malevolent working models of parents, may be risk factors in the genesis of eating disorders (EDs). We examined 71 female adolescent inpatients with ED and 45 controls without ED using the Object Representation Inventory and self-report measures assessing emotional distress and ED symptoms. The results indicated that the patients with ED presented with a significantly lower level of mentalization and symbolization and with more malevolent working models of their parents in comparison with the controls without ED. A more benevolent parental representation, specifically with the father, combined with better mentalization abilities, was found to indirectly predict lower ED symptoms, via the reduction of distress levels. These findings suggest that adequate mentalization and benevolent working models of parents may serve as a protective factor reducing the level of ED symptoms. PMID:23686159

Rothschild-Yakar, Lily; Waniel, Ariela; Stein, Daniel

2013-06-01

209

Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer  

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Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

Ioan Pastor

2011-05-01

210

Factors that could influence the ethical behaviour of tax professionals  

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In an attempt to enhance the core professional values of tax practitioners in South Africa, the South African Revenue Service has proposed the regulation of tax practitioners’ services. It is arguable whether or not this would be the only factor to influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. A literature review was conducted to identify factors that could influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. Numerous possibilities emerged. It is therefore recommended that if regul...

Nienaber, S. G.

2010-01-01

211

Influencing Factors of Science Olympiad Students’ Success  

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Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and student’s self efficacy.

M. Kür?ad Özlen

2013-01-01

212

Association of Concurrent Healthy Eating and Regular Physical Activity With Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in U.S. Youth.  

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Abstract Purpose . Examine whether concurrently consuming a healthy diet and regularly being physically active among U.S. youth is more favorably associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers than other physical activity and dietary patterns. Design . Cross-sectional. Setting . United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2003-2006. Subjects . Two thousand six hundred twenty-nine youth (6-17 years). Measures . Healthy Eating Index (HEI), accelerometer-determined physical activity, biomarkers, and anthropometry. Four categories were created: consuming a healthy diet (top 40% of HEI) and active (sufficient to meet guidelines); unhealthy diet and active; healthy diet and inactive; and unhealthy diet and inactive. Analysis . Multivariable regression. Results . Children consuming a healthy diet and who were active had significantly lower waist circumference (? = -5.5, p protein (CRP) (? = -.2, p total cholesterol levels (? = -7.8, p = .004) than those only engaging in sufficient activity; there were no significant differences in biomarker levels among children engaging in both healthy behaviors and those only consuming a healthy diet. No associations were significant for adolescents. Conclusion . Concurrent healthy eating and regular physical activity among children is favorably associated with CVD biomarkers when compared with unhealthy diet and inactivity. PMID:25372232

Loprinzi, Paul D; Lee, I-Min; Andersen, Ross E; Crespo, Carlos J; Smit, Ellen

2014-11-01

213

Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención / Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia rítmica, patinaje artístico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifestándose con frecuencia una baja autoe [...] stima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de pérdida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejercido a través de la manipulación de la comida y la utilización de métodos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducción de la densidad mineral ósea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tríada de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y pérdidas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparición se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendación del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas pérdidas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupación excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participación de médicos, psicólogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas. Abstract in english Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess [...] of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.

S., Márquez.

2008-06-01

214

Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention  

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Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia rítmica, patinaje artístico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifestándose con frecuencia una baja autoestima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de pérdida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejercido a través de la manipulación de la comida y la utilización de métodos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducción de la densidad mineral ósea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tríada de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y pérdidas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparición se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendación del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas pérdidas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupación excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participación de médicos, psicólogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas.Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.

S. Márquez

2008-06-01

215

Dietary Restraint Moderates Genetic Risk for Binge Eating  

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Dietary restraint is a prospective risk factor for the development of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Although many women engage in dietary restraint, relatively few develop binge eating. Dietary restraint may only increase susceptibility for binge eating in individuals who are at genetic risk. Specifically, dietary restraint may be a behavioral “exposure” factor that activates genetic predispositions for binge eating. We investigated this possibility in 1,678 young adolescent and adult...

Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Iacono, William G.; Mcgue, Matt; Klump, Kelly L.

2011-01-01

216

Adolescence and Eating Pathologies  

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Full Text Available Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007. The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002, cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schilder, 2002, nutrition and weight (Halmi, 2003.These factors can be divided into four main categories: ‘the cultural pressure to acquire a thin body; the change in the woman’s social role; the mythical character granted to eating disorders; the prejudice against obesity’ (Dalle Grave, 2007. So far, the literature on this subject, however wide, has provided no conclusive data with reference to related issues, such as psychiatric comorbidities(Blinder et al, 2007. In particular, this study focused on the aspectof control, a significant feature of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder too, (Couturier, 2004 and on body-image disperception, peculiar to eating disorders (Neumark-Sztainer, 2000. To investigate co-morbidity between eating disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a questionnaire including items of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Dalle Grave, Ghisi, Calugi, 2006 was administered to a sample of adolescent students. The results provide significant correlations between Calculation Compulsions and the BSQ Behaviours variable, between Current MiscellaneousCompulsions and Body Image, between Current Miscellaneous Compulsionsand Body Shape/Self Esteem. Therefore the study provides further evidence in support of co-morbidity.

Valeria Caggiano

2010-01-01

217

Cross-cultural validity of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Psychometric evaluation in a sample of the general French population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intuitive eating is an adaptive dietary behavior that emphasizes eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) measures such attitudes and behaviors. The aim of the present study was to adapt the IES-2 to the French context and to test its psychometric properties in 335 women and 297 men participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. We evaluated the construct validity of the IES-2 by testing hypotheses with regard to its factor structure, relationships with scores of the revised 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and differences between "a priori" relevant subgroups. First, the exploratory factor analysis revealed three main dimensions: Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Unconditional Permission to Eat. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis upheld the 3-factor solution influenced by a broader intuitive eating dimension. IES-2 total score was negatively related to cognitive restraint (r?=?-0.31, P?total scale (3.3 in women vs. 3.5 in men, P?Physical Reasons, and Unconditional Permission to Eat subscales. Current or former dieters had lower scores on the IES-2 total scale and on all subscales than did those who had never dieted (all P?total scores (internal consistency?=?0.85 and test-retest reliability?=?0.79 over a mean 8-week period) and for its subscales. Thus, the French IES-2 can be considered a useful instrument for assessing adult intuitive eating behaviors in empirical and epidemiological studies in the general population. PMID:25239401

Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Andreeva, Valentina A; Sautron, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

2015-01-01

218

Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses  

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The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

2012-01-01

219

Factors Influencing Mortality in Pediatric Trauma Patients  

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Objective: In our study, we aimed to research the factors we thought might be affect mortality in a pediatric age group (0-15 y) with multiple trauma.Materials and Methods: In our study of 1658 pediatric patients suffering from falling events, burns, cutting and perforating instrument injuries, gunshot injuries and vehicle accidents admitted to Dicle University. hospital ED between March 2003 and December 2006 were analyzed and included to the study consecutively. The patients were divided i...

Mahmut Ta?; Cahfer Gülo?lu; Murat Orak; Mehmet Üstünda?; Mustafa Aldemir

2012-01-01

220

Maternal clinical factors influencing HIV-1 transmission.  

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The complex puzzle of maternal factors involved in mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is being put together. The risk of perinatal infection increases with mother's disease progression, but it remains stable in women seroconverting to HIV-1 during pregnancy and in consecutive pregnancies. Thus, transmission correlates with the HIV-1 progression rather than the duration of infection in the mother. Nutritional alterations such as vitamin A deficiency may al...

Tovo, Pier Angelo

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS  

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In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets), the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our ass...

Toth Jozsef; Toth Kristof

2012-01-01

222

Factors Influencing the Night Market Traders’ Performance in Malaysia  

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This study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the night market traders’ sales performance. Thefactors examined were the financial resources, consumers’ tastes and preferences, product demands, business lifespan, and number of employees. This study tested seven hypotheses identified as the seven predictive factorsinfluencing the performance of the night market traders’ sales. The major factors influencing the salesperformance of the night market tr...

Fauzilah Salleh; Noryati Yaakub; Kamariah Yunus; Mazuri Abd. Ghani; Wan Kuntom Wan Sulong

2012-01-01

223

Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes  

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Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

Unsia HABIB

2014-01-01

224

Un estudio preliminar de los factores predictores de la conducta de atracón en tres culturas: México, Argentina y España / A preliminary study of the predictive factors of binge eating behavior in three cultures: Mexico, Spain and Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La conducta de atracón, el incremento en su frecuencia que incide en el riesgo asociado a trastorno alimentario, así como su relación con sobrepeso y obesidad constituyen un problema de salud vigente a nivel nacional e internacional. El objetivo de la investigación fue explorar, identificar y descri [...] bir los factores de riesgo que se interrelacionan y explican la Conducta de Atracón, poniendo especial interés en las similitudes y diferencias inherentes a muestras de tres diferentes países de habla hispana (México, España y Argentina). La muestra agrupó N = 258 mujeres: mexicanas (n = 85, Medad = 16.18, DE = 0.99); argentinas (n = 75, Medad = 17.00, DE = 1.24) y españolas (n = 98, Medad = 17.00, DE = 1.36). Se utilizaron instrumentos psicométricamente adecuados. Entre los resultados de mayor interés se encontró que el factor comer por compensación psicológica obtiene el peso ? más alto en cada grupo y el análisis de senderos confirma su importancia intercultural. El carácter emocional de dicho factor, su aportación a la prevención y su poder predictivo forman parte de la discusión. Abstract in english The increased frequency of binge eating behavior, and its relationship to overweight and obesity, expressed a national and international real health problem. The objective of this study was to explore, identify and describe the risk factors that interrelate and explain Binge Eating Behavior, paying [...] special attention to the similarities and differences inherent to samples from three different Spanish-speaking countries (Mexico, Spain and Argentina). The total sample consisted of N = 258 women: Mexican (n = 85, Mage = 16.18, SD = 0.99); Argentine (n = 75, Mage = 17.00, SD = 1.24) and Spanish (n = 98, Mage = 17.00, SD = 1.36). The instruments used showed a good psychometrical properties. The eating for psychological compensation factor gets the highest ? weight in the three groups and its intercultural relevance is confirmed by the Path Analysis. It is discussed the emotional nature of the eating for psychological compensation factor, its contribution to prevention, and its predictive power.

Gilda, Gómez-Peresmitré; Victoria, Acosta García; Roberta, Gorischnik; Corina, Cuevas Renaud; Gisela, Pineda García; Romana Silvia, Platas Acevedo; Rebeca, Guzmán Saldaña; Rodrigo, León Hernández.

2013-12-01

225

The social facilitation of eating. A review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The social facilitation of eating (i.e., people eating more in groups than when alone) has been studied for about three decades now. In this paper, we review the empirical research (diary studies, observational studies, and experimental studies) of social facilitation, attending to factors that increase or decrease socially facilitated eating. We also review the various explanations (e.g., "time extension") that have been offered for the effect and offer our own speculations as to the underlying mechanisms. Further, we discuss promising directions for future research on the social facilitation of eating. PMID:25265153

Herman, C Peter

2015-03-01

226

An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change  

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Full Text Available This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. Using simple regression analysis, the study has detected that all mentioned factors influence organizational change, positively. In addition, Freedman test indicates that partnership maintains the highest impact followed by believe in change, communication, organizational commitment and training.

Abbas Saleh Ardestani

2014-06-01

227

Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.  

Science.gov (United States)

In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

2014-01-01

228

Factores de riesgo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en jóvenes escolarizados en Cundinamarca (Colombia) / Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among School-Aged Young People in Cundinamarca (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El diagnóstico precoz de un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) es determinante para evitar complicaciones graves a lo largo de la vida. Pocos estudios en Colombia han examinado sus características clínicas y comorbilidad en la población escolar. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuenc [...] ia de TCA, sus factores de inicio y mantenimiento, así como sus subtipos clínicos y comorbilidad en una población escolarizada. Método: Estudio de base comunitaria y corte transversal con 937 estudiantes entre 12 y 20 años de edad, de Bogotá y la sabana centro de Cundinamarca, que respondieron la EAT-26, encuesta de factores de inicio y mantenimiento de TCA, y la Zung de ansiedad y depresión. Los casos probables fueron contactados para entrevista clínica psiquiátrica. Resultados: Se detectaron 141 casos probables de TCA, la mayoría en mujeres (p Abstract in english Introduction: The early diagnosis of Eating Disorders (ED) is decisive in order to prevent serious complications during lifetime. In Colombia, few studies have assessed the clinical characteristics and comorbidity of ED in students. Objective: To determine the frecuency of ED, its onset and maintena [...] nce factors, as well as its clinical subtypes and comorbidity in student population. Method: Cross sectional and community based study with 937 students, ages 10 to 12, from Bogotá and Sabana Centro-Cundinamarca, who answered the EAT- 26, a survey on onset and maintenance factors for ED, and the Zung depression and anxiety scales. Results: 141 probable cases of ED were detected, predominantly among women (p

Sandra, Piñeros Ortíz; Jenny, Molano Caro; Clara, López de Mesa.

2010-06-01

229

Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)

230

Factors influencing the reliability of oral contraceptives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors associated with unplanned pregnancies among oral contraceptive (OC) users were investigated in the 8058 women admitted to University Hospital (Copenhagen, Denmark) during 1986-91 for induced abortion. 70 (0.87%) of these women had been consistent OC users; women with a history of missing 1 or more days of pill use and users of gestagen-only pills were excluded. The largest subgroup (41.4%) of these women used triphasic OCs; 35.7% used a low-dose OC and the remainder took high-dose, two-phased, or unknown preparations. Concomitant use of one or more other drugs (spray saline, astemizol, mianserin, chlorcyclizin, paradryl, carbamazepin, lithium, chlorprotixen, and imipramine was reported by 5 women (7%) who experienced OC failure; 4 of these women were using a triphasic OC. At the time of conception, 16 women (30%) had symptoms of gastroenteritis (vomiting and/or diarrhea) and had self-medicated with an unknown preparation. No risk factor could be identified in the remaining 49 women (70%). 2/3 of women who became pregnant while taking OCs returned to this method after abortion. There was no association between the annual sales of various OCs during the study period and the incidence of OC failure. These findings confirm the contributions of concurrent gastroenteritis and drug interactions to OC failure but suggest these are rare occurrences. PMID:9033246

Hansen, T H; Lundvall, F

1997-01-01

231

Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Tunisia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly that use of internet banking in Tunisia is influenced moststrongly by convenience, risk, security and prior internet knowledge. Only information on online banking did notaffect intention to use internet banking service in Tunisia. The results also propose that demographic factorsimpact significantly internet banking behaviour, specifically, occupation and instruction. Finally, this papersuggests that an understanding the factors affecting intention to use internet banking is very important to thepractitioners who plan and promote new forms of banking in the current competitive market.

Wadie Nasri

2011-08-01

232

An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

Arash Hosseinzadeh

2013-05-01

233

Critical Factors Influencing Intra-operative Surgical Decision-making:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of intra-operative surgical decision support systems requires a thorough understanding of the factors influencing the decision-making of surgeons in the surgical workspace. These factors are a construct of the surgical workspace which generate situation awareness and hence provide real-time information to guide intra-operative decision-making The knowledge of these factors is especially required to provide real-time image guidance or procedural support to the surgeons’ via s...

Jalote-parmar, A.; Badke-schaub, P.

2008-01-01

234

An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employ...

Naser Azad; Mina Mohammadi

2013-01-01

235

Comportamentos de risco para transtornos do comportamento alimentar e fatores associados entre estudantes de nutrição do município do Rio de Janeiro / Risk behavior for eating disorders and related factors among nutrition students in the city of Rio de Janeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Caracterizar práticas alimentares e fatores de risco associados a transtornos do comportamento alimentar entre estudantes de nutrição do município do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Estudo seccional junto a um segmento populacional apontado na literatura como de risco para o surgimento de transto [...] rnos alimentares. Utilizaram-se o Teste de Investigação Bulímica de Edimburgo (BITE), o Teste de Atitudes Alimentares (EAT-26) e uma variável que considera os dois instrumentos associados (Nunes et al., 2001). RESULTADOS: Analisaram-se 193 estudantes do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 20,9 anos ± 2 anos. Detectou-se resultado positivo em 14% (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 9,4%-20%) no EAT-26. No BITE, para sintomas elevados e gravidade intensa, foram encontradas prevalências de 5,7% (IC 95%: 2,9%-10%) e 3,2% (IC 95%: 1,2%-6,9%), respectivamente. Quando combinados EAT-26 positivo e BITE com gravidade intensa e sintomas elevados, constataram-se correlações positivas com prevalências de 64,7% (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To characterize risky eating habits and factors related to eating disorders among nutrition students in the city of Rio de Janeiro METHODS: Sectional study with a segment of the population pointed out in literature as being at risk of developing eating disorders. The Bulimic Investigatory [...] Test Edinburgh (BITE) questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) questionnaire and a variable which considers the two related tools (Nunes et al, 2001) were used. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-three female students were studied, being 20.9 years old on the average ± 2 years. A positive result of 14% (IC 95%: 9.4%-20%) in the EAT-26 was observed. In the BITE advanced symptoms and scores in the serious range were found in 5.7% (IC 95%: 2.9%-10%) and 3.2% (IC 95%: 1.2%-6.9%), respectively. When positive EAT-26 results were combined with serious range BITE scores and advanced symptoms, positive correlations were found in 64.7% (p

Maria Lucia Magalhães, Bosi; Ronir Raggio, Luiz; Caroline Maia da Costa, Morgado; Mara Lucia dos Santos, Costa; Rosemary Jane de, Carvalho.

236

Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

237

Simulation analysis of factors influencing chiller EER  

Science.gov (United States)

This study constructed a mathematic model of a variable frequency centrifugal chiller using Simulink software. By running the simulation, it was discovered that when the other factors are constant, the EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) of the chiller increases with decreases in the temperature of the cooling water and increases in the temperature of the chilled water. The effect of changes in the cooling water temperature on the EER of the chiller is stronger than that of changes in the chilled water temperature. In addition, as the chiller load decreases, the EER increases until reaching a maximum, after which it decreases. Furthermore, the EER of chillers working under a constant flow rate is slightly higher than that of those working under varying flow rates.

Hao, Xuejun; Wang, Tong

2014-06-01

238

Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

2006-01-01

239

Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As florestas tropicais secas representam cerca da metade das florestas tropicais do mundo e são ecossistemas que estão sofrendo uma grande deterioração pelas atividades humanas. Neste artigo realizamos uma revisão de literatura sobre a dinâmica da regeneração das florestas tropicais secas enfocando [...] principalmente nos fatores abióticos que influenciam esta regeneração, tais como, o clima estacional, a fertilidade e umidade do solo e as perturbações naturais e antrópicas. O principal objetivo é compreender um aspecto muito importante da dinâmica sucessional das florestas tropicais secas. Abstract in english Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors i [...] nfluencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

Eliane, Ceccon; Pilar, Huante; Emanuel, Rincón.

2006-03-01

240

Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection. PMID:25483789

Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

Naser Azad

2013-07-01

242

Factors Influencing Corporate Online Identity: A New Paradigm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.

Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.

2009-12-01

243

Influence of Social Context on Eating, Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Latina Mothers’ and Their Preschool-Aged Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As more U.S. children grow up in Latino families, understanding how social class, culture and environment influence feeding practices is key to preventing obesity. We conducted six focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews among immigrant, low-income Latina mothers in the Northeast U.S. and classified 17 emergent themes from content analysis according to ecologic frameworks for behavior change. Respondents related environmental influences to child feeding, diet and activity, i.e., supermarket p...

Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katarina M.; Greaney, Mary L.; Peterson, Karen E.

2008-01-01

244

ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

Elena Gorbacheva

2014-11-01

245

Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal?based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. ...

Schuppli, C. A.; Fraser, D.

2007-01-01

246

Factors that influence students' choice of careers in Construction Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study was to explore the demographics, career influences in terms of experiences and relationships, and self-efficacy of students currently enrolled in accredited Construction Management (CM) programs in one Midwestern state. Numerous factors influence students who enter CM programs, however, insufficient information exists to explain the characteristics of these students. Obtaining a better understanding of students currently enrolled in construction management programs can ...

Koch, Daphene Cyr

2006-01-01

247

Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

Oana Dumitrascu

2015-01-01

248

Eating disorders today--not just a girl thing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20632480

Hepworth, Kimberly

2010-01-01

249

Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

250

Awareness of social influence on food intake. An analysis of two experimental studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is consistent evidence that the amount of food we consume can be influenced by the eating behaviour of other people. Some previous experimental studies reported that consumers are unaware of this influence on their behaviour. The present research tested whether people may be more aware of social influence on their eating than previously assumed. In two studies, participants (total n?=?160) were exposed to information about the amount of snack food other people had been eating shortly before being served the same snack food and eating as much as they liked. After this, participants responded to questions regarding whether they thought their food intake had been socially influenced, and reported the reasons why they believed they had or had not been influenced. Of the 160 participants, 34% reported that they had been influenced, 10% were unsure and 56% reported they had not been influenced. Crucially, participants' reports of social influence appeared to be accurate; the food intake of participants reporting social influence was significantly affected by the amount of food other people had been eating, whereas the food intake of participants denying social influence was unaffected. Individuals may be more aware of the effect that social influence has on their eating behaviour than previously assumed. Further work is needed to identify the factors which determine whether people are susceptible to social influence on eating behaviour. PMID:25447014

Robinson, Eric; Field, Matt

2015-02-01

251

Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria y asertividad / Lack of assertiveness in patients with eating disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. Aim: To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. Subjects and methods: An structured clinical interview [...] , the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female students without eating problems. Results: Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and its factors (p

Rosa, Behar A; Rodrigo, Manzo G; Dunny, Casanova Z.

2006-03-01

252

Influence of Social Context on Eating, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors of Latina Mothers and their Preschool-Age Children  

Science.gov (United States)

As more U.S. children grow up in Latino families, understanding how social class, culture, and environment influence feeding practices is key to preventing obesity. The authors conducted six focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews among immigrant, low-income Latina mothers in the Northeast United States and classified 17 emergent themes from…

Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Greaney, Mary L.; Peterson, Karen E.

2009-01-01

253

Factors influencing microtransaction monetization- model success in digital games  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study were to investigate microtransaction based monetization models in games, and to find factors that influence their success and suitability. The research goal was to interview players, in order to get answers regarding their motivations behind microtransaction purchasing in games. Academic background and methodology The literature review focused on virtual goods research. Overall, there were many factors identified that impact ...

Tuovinen, Kai

2013-01-01

254

Factors influencing response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyzed 150 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1990 to 1996 (i) to evaluate the frequency of drug resistance, (ii) to elucidate factors influencing the response to chemotherapy, and (iii) to attempt to improve the therapeutic approach. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains were not found. By univariate analysis, there were 8 factors associated with an increased sputum conversion time: male gender, prior treatment, complications, progressive chest radiographic findings, a high Zi...

Hiyama J; Marukawa M; Shiota Y; Ono T; Mashiba H

2000-01-01

255

Determinantes do comportamento alimentar: uma revisão com enfoque na família Determinants of eating behavior: a review focusing on the family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O comportamento alimentar ocupa atualmente um papel central na prevenção e no tratamento de doenças. A alimentação durante a infância, ao mesmo tempo em que é importante para o crescimento e desenvolvimento, pode também representar um dos principais fatores de prevenção de algumas doenças na fase adulta. Freqüentemente a família, os fatores sociais e os ambientais podem influenciar o padrão alimentar das crianças. O objetivo desta revisão foi abordar os diversos fatores ambientais envolvidos na aquisição de hábitos alimentares na infância. Os artigos selecionados foram pesquisados nas bases de dados Medline e SciELO considerando o período de 1978 a 2007. Foram utilizados os termos em ingles: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality, determinants of children's eating patterns e em português. São apresentados os resultados de algumas investigações mais relevantes nesta área. Embora alguns desses fatores sejam inatos e, por isso, necessitem de um controle mais rigoroso, ressalta-se o papel determinante da família na formação dos hábitos alimentares saudáveis, pois a modificação de um hábito alimentar durante a fase adulta tem, em geral, alta taxa de insucesso. Além disso, outros fatores, como a escola, a rede social, as condições socioeconômicas e culturais, são potencialmente modificáveis e influenciam no processo de construção dos hábitos alimentares da criança e, conseqüentemente, do indivíduo adulto.Eating behavior currently has a central role in the prevention and treatment of illnesses. Eating patterns during childhood, while important for growth and development, also represent one of the main factors that can prevent diseases in adulthood. Such eating patterns are frequently influenced by family, social and environmental factors. The objective of this review was to approach the many environmental factors involved in the acquisition of eating habits during childhood. The selected articles dating from 1978 to 2007 were found in the Medline and SciELO databases. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality and determinants of children's eating patterns. The results of some more relevant researches in this area are presented. Although some factors are innate and thus need a more rigorous control, the determinant role played by the family in forming healthy eating habits is emphasized since attempts to modify eating habits during adulthood usually fail. Additionally, other factors such as school, social network and cultural and socioeconomic conditions are potentially modifiable and influence the process of building the child's eating habits and so that of the adult.

Alessandra Rossi

2008-12-01

256

Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

1998-01-01

257

Factors Influencing Trainee Participation in Computer Software Applications Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants (n=130) who had completed training in WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3, and dBase III+ completed a questionnaire related to demographic characteristics and factors that influence training participation. Trainees are participating in computer training for personal reasons, seeking convenient time, location, and length. Child care or…

Alexander, Melody Webler

1993-01-01

258

Factors Influencing Teachers' Practices in an Assessment Driven Reform.  

Science.gov (United States)

This empirical study was conducted to explore both the influence of assessment on teachers' classroom practice during an assessment driven educational reform, and the principle underlying assessment driven instruction, i.e., "what you test is what you get." Factors targeted at the level of assessment were performance-based or objective…

Vitali, Gary J.

259

FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

260

Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

Agarwala, Tanuja

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

McHugh, Seamus

2011-03-01

262

The application of radiolysis and analysis of influencing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a branch of radiation technology, radiolysis technology has been developing in recent years. The update research and application of radiolysis is briefly reviewed. The radiolysis in reducing veterinary drug residues in food, processing plant sources products and environmental management are summaried. The influencing factors or the mechanism and radiolysis products are reviewed. (authors)

263

Factors Influencing Pediatric Nephrology Trainee Entry into the Workforce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and objectives: Emerging needs in pediatric nephrology (PN) have made the number of nephrologists entering the workforce of critical importance. This study aimed to discern factors that influence PN fellows to choose their career path and decide to enter the PN workforce.

Weinstein, Adam R.; Reidy, Kimberly; Norwood, Victoria F.; Mahan, John D.

2010-01-01

264

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Home > Resources > Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way ... be difficult. Learn about small steps for healthy eating to help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating ...

265

Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

Mona Yaghoubi

2014-07-01

266

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

DANA-CODRU?A DUD?-D?IANU

2012-05-01

267

A common heritable factor influences prosocial obligations across multiple domains  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it has been shown that prosocial behaviour is heritable, it has not yet been established whether narrower aspects of prosociality are heritable, nor whether a common mechanism influences prosociality across its multiple domains. Here, we examine civic duty, work-place commitment and concern for the welfare of others with a study of prosocial obligations in 958 adult twin-pairs. Multivariate modelling indicated the existence of genetic factors underlying general prosocial obligations in females, with familial effects (genetic and shared-environment effects were indistinguishable) influencing this general mechanism in males. At the domain-specific level, modest genetic effects were observed in females for civic and work obligations, with shared-environment effects influencing welfare obligations. In males, genetic influences were observed for welfare obligation, with unique environments affecting work and civic duty. PMID:21307044

Lewis, Gary J.; Bates, Timothy C.

2011-01-01

268

Influence of production factors on machine time coefficient  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Labor efficiency and cost of coal mining at coal faces depend on optimization of parameters of the face under given mining and geologic conditions considering specifications of coal cutter loaders. On the basis of copious statistical material collected in Soviet coal mines, the influence of various factors on the efficiency of the KM-87 integrated mining system is analyzed. Regression analysis is used. Influence of the following factors is discussed: length of a longwall face, coal seam thickness, the mean haulage speed of a cutter loader, number of miners operating the system. Equations for calculating the dependence of so-called machine time coefficient on selected factors are given. Under conditions of a 1.5 m thick coal seam and an 11 men miner unit the optimum length of a coal face amounts to 187.8 m. The maximum utilization of KM-87 working time and minimal downtime is possible in coal seams 1.5 m thick.

Beda, F.P.

1981-06-01

269

[Epidemiology of hypertension in adolescence and factors influencing blood pressure].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors summarize the determining and influencing factors of adolescent hypertension. An overview of the definition and prevalence of hypertension in adolescence is given and the predictive role of the adolescent hypertension on the incidence of adult cardiovascular diseases is pointed out. According to the previous literature data, adult hypertension is more frequent in those people who have had hypertension in their adolescence. There are no widely used, population-based nomograms of adolescent hypertensives available. According to the opinion of the authors, a population-based hypertension screening program would help in delineating the factors influencing adolescent blood pressure, and the most frequent risk factors for hypertension in Hungary. With the follow-up and appropriate treatment of the hypertensives the reduction of target-organ damages may be possible. PMID:11601176

Páll, D; Katona, E; Fülesdi, B; Jenei, Z; Paragh, G; Polgár, P; Kakuk, G

2001-09-01

270

Eating for Health  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Can the foods you eat actually affect your health as you get older? Gloria thinks so. Gloria: ... that eating well can help him maintain his health as he gets older. Richard: I know that ...

271

Eating Right during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... an RDN? Kitchen Clips It's All About Eating Right You realize the importance of making informed food ... Your Food and Nutrition Source It's About Eating Right In This Section Healthy Weight Your Health and ...

272

Healthy Eating After 50  

Science.gov (United States)

... Questions What kind of diet should someone over 50 eat to have normal blood pressure? Healthy food ... about plans for healthy eating . Do women over 50 need a special diet plan? It’s good for ...

273

Eating and Bowel Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home Living with Bowel Control Problems Resources Bowel Control Awareness Campaign Home Resources for Health Care Providers ... Home : Eating and Bowel Control Eating and Bowel Control Some bowel control problems improve simply by changing ...

274

Eating for Health  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and steamed vegetables. Narrator: He also knows that eating well can help him maintain his health as he gets older. Richard: I know that eating vegetables, mainly vegetables, and fruit— you’ll just ...

275

Eating Healthy Ethnic Food  

Science.gov (United States)

... Parents/Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to ... Aim for a Healthy Weight Pocket Guide to Eating Healthy on the Go features tips on ordering ...

276

DASH Eating Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is the DASH Eating Plan? Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) ... DASH studies. Daily Nutrient Goals Used in the DASH Studies (for a 2,000-Calorie Eating Plan) ...

277

Influencing Factors on Life-Cycle Cost of Mooring Facilities  

Science.gov (United States)

It is required that infrastructure should satisfy performance requirement through their service life based on an appropriate life cycle management strategy. Now adays, to determine the maintenance strategy and to consider the appropriate timing and method of intervention, the life-cycle cost (LCC) has been widely used as one of the decision-making indices. However, many factors influence on the estimation of LCC and they have not been adequately investigated. In this paper, the authors have made analytical investigation to quantify the influence of important factors on the results of LCC estimation. Four kinds of mooring facilities are focused; two of them are open-type wharves and the other two are sheet pile type quay walls having different design water depths. Prediction of deterioration progress and performance degradation is made by using the Markov models. The influences of structural sizes, transition probability in the Markov model, design service life, periodic inspection and methods of intervention on LCC were investigated. The influence of those factors has been discussed based on the calculated results of LCC by creating the maintenance scenarios for model mooring facilities.

Sato, Wataru; Yokota, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Katsufumi; Furuya, Koichi; Kato, Hirotoshi

278

Influence of socioeconomic factors on medically unnecessary ambulance calls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socioeconomic characteristics, dichotomous choice method questions pertaining to ambulance calls in hypothetical nonemergency situations, and questions on the city's emergency medical system. The probit model was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 2,029 out of 3,363 targeted recipients completed the questionnaire (response rate, 60.3%. Probit regression analyses showed that several demographic and socioeconomic factors influence the decision to call an ambulance. Male respondents were more apt than female respondents to state that they would call an ambulance in nonemergency situations (p Conclusion Results of the study suggest that several socioeconomic factors, i.e., age, gender, household income, and possession of a car, influence a person's decision to call an ambulance in nonemergency situations. Hesitation to use an ambulance and knowledge of the city's primary emergency medical center are likely to be important factors limiting ambulance overuse. It was estimated that unnecessary ambulance use is increased approximately 10% to 20% by socioeconomic factors.

Kubota Katsuaki

2007-07-01

279

Factores de riesgo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en jóvenes escolarizados en Cundinamarca (Colombia Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among School-Aged Young People in Cundinamarca (Colombia  

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Full Text Available Introducción: El diagnóstico precoz de un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA es determinante para evitar complicaciones graves a lo largo de la vida. Pocos estudios en Colombia han examinado sus características clínicas y comorbilidad en la población escolar. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de TCA, sus factores de inicio y mantenimiento, así como sus subtipos clínicos y comorbilidad en una población escolarizada. Método: Estudio de base comunitaria y corte transversal con 937 estudiantes entre 12 y 20 años de edad, de Bogotá y la sabana centro de Cundinamarca, que respondieron la EAT-26, encuesta de factores de inicio y mantenimiento de TCA, y la Zung de ansiedad y depresión. Los casos probables fueron contactados para entrevista clínica psiquiátrica. Resultados: Se detectaron 141 casos probables de TCA, la mayoría en mujeres (pIntroduction: The early diagnosis of Eating Disorders (ED is decisive in order to prevent serious complications during lifetime. In Colombia, few studies have assessed the clinical characteristics and comorbidity of ED in students. Objective: To determine the frecuency of ED, its onset and maintenance factors, as well as its clinical subtypes and comorbidity in student population. Method: Cross sectional and community based study with 937 students, ages 10 to 12, from Bogotá and Sabana Centro-Cundinamarca, who answered the EAT- 26, a survey on onset and maintenance factors for ED, and the Zung depression and anxiety scales. Results: 141 probable cases of ED were detected, predominantly among women (p<0.01. 38.3% of them accepted clinical psychiatric evaluation. ED was clinically diagnosed in 53.7% of the cases, without significant differences regarding socioeconomic level or age groups; subtype not otherwise specified in 93%. Comorbidity with depression and anxiety disorders was also found; similarly, suicidal behaviors were more frequent in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of ED than in those without psychiatric diagnosis or in those with other psychiatric disorders (p=0.019. Conclusions: ED occurs since early ages. Comorbidity with affective disorders and suicidality is high.

Sandra Piñeros Ortíz

2010-06-01

280

THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

2012-05-15

282

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

283

Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

Juana Robledo Martín

2008-01-01

284

Eating Disorders and Spirituality in College Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations were examined between eating disorder symptoms and spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of college students. Undergraduate nursing students at a university in a Mid-Atlantic coastal beach community were recruited for the study. A total of 115 students completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS), the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food (SCOFF) screening questionnaire, and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Approximately one quarter of students had positive screens for an eating disorder, and 40% admitted to binging/purging. SWBS scores reflected low life satisfaction and a lack of clarity and purpose among students. A significant association was found between EAT-26 scores and SWBS Existential Well-Being (EWB) subscale scores (p = 0.014). SCOFF scores were significantly associated with SWBS EWB scores (p = 0.001). Symptoms of eating disorders were pervasive. Future research that assesses the impact of spiritual factors on eating disorders may help health care providers better understand the unique contributions to the development of eating diorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. PMID:25490775

Phillips, Lauren; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Mechling, Brandy M; MacKain, Sally; Kim-Godwin, Yeounsoo; Leopard, Louisa

2014-12-10

285

Testing the barriers to healthy eating scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clarifying barriers to dietary intake may identify factors that place pregnant women at risk for complications. This methodological study assessed the psychometric properties of the Barriers to Healthy Eating Scale. Item generation was based on constructs in Pender's health promotion model. The instrument was tested in two separate samples of pregnant women. Content validity was assessed, and construct validity testing resulted in an expected negative relationship between scores on the Barriers to Healthy Eating Scale and the Nutrition subscale of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II. Factor analysis resulted in a 5-factor scale that explained 73% of the variance. Alpha coefficients for the total scale ranged from.73 to.77, and subscales ranged from.48 to.99. Test-retest reliability for the total scale was.79. The Barriers to Healthy Eating Scale appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to assess barriers that may impede healthy eating in pregnant women. PMID:15155027

Fowles, Eileen R; Feucht, Jeanette

2004-06-01

286

Influência do nível socioeconômico sobre comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares em adolescentes / Socioeconomic influence on eating disorders risk behaviors in adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares (TA) em adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: 183 adolescentes do sexo feminino de 15 a 18 anos de duas escolas (pública e particular) foram avaliadas quanto à renda e escolaridade dos pais, estado nutrici [...] onal, comportamentos de risco para TA (Teste de Atitudes Alimentares - EAT-26), atitudes socioculturais quanto à aparência (Escala das Atitudes Socioculturais Voltadas para Aparência - SATAQ-3), percepção corporal (escala de silhuetas) e uso de dietas. RESULTADOS: A média do escore do EAT-26, assim como a porcentagem de adolescentes consideradas de risco foram semelhantes entre as escolas (p >0,05). No escore do SATAQ-3, verificou-se na escola particular um valor maior que da pública (p0,05), e as que apresentaram sobrepeso/obesidade tiveram escores maiores no EAT-26. Metade das adolescentes das escolas já fez dieta, sendo que a frequência do uso de dietas esteve associada com o maior escore do EAT-26. CONCLUSÕES: Comportamentos de risco foram encontrados em grande parte da população estudada, mas esses não estiveram associados com o nível socioeconômico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate eating disorders (ED) risk behaviors at adolescents from different socioeconomic status. METHOD: 183 girls 15-18 years old from two schools (public and private) were evaluated about parent's education and income, nutritional status, ED risk behavior (Eating Attitudes Test - [...] EAT-26), sociocultural attitudes toward appearance (SATAQ-3), corporal perception (silhouettes scale) and dieting. RESULTS: Mean score of EAT-26, as well as percentage of risky girls were similar at both schools (p >0.05). At SATAQ-3 score, it was noticed a higher value at private school compared to public one (p0.05), and girls who were overweight/obese had a higher score at EAT-26. Half of the girls from both schools have already diet, and dieting frequency was associated with a higher score at EAT-26. CONCLUSIONS: Risky behaviors were found at most of the studied population, however these were not associated with socioeconomic status.

Karin Louise Lenz, Dunker; Cássia Peres Bonar, Fernandes; Daniel, Carreira Filho.

287

The influence of linac spot size on scatter factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of small photon fields in modern radiotherapy requires the determination of total scatter factors Scp or field factors ? with high precision. Therefore, chamber-dependent correction factors for dose measurements in small fields are necessary. In this study Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the field factor ? and chamber response-related correction factors for four different types of detectors in a clinical 6 MV photon beam for a square field size of 1 cm * 1 cm. As a beam source a Monte Carlo-based model of a Siemens KD linear accelerator was applied. The calculations aimed at the investigation of the influence of electron beam spot size on correction factors for small field dosimetry. The results confirm that accurate Monte Carlo calculations of the field factor ? can only be carried out when the exact electron spot size is known. On the other hand no dependence of the electron beam spot size on the correction factors for the field size of 1 cm * 1 cm was observed. (authors)

288

An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.

Mojtaba Esmaeeli

2013-05-01

289

FACTORS INFLUENCING ON BUYER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS LAPTOP IN DINDIGUL DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Buyer behavior is the study of individuals, group, or select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these process have on the consumer and society. Buyer behavior is widely understood as a problem solving and decision making sequence, the outcome of which is determined by the buyer goal directed processing of information. The aim of this paper is to show that to identify reasons for buying laptop, factors influencing for buying laptop, and decision making for product attributes factors in this factors motivated based on Buyer behaviour in Dindigul district general people. The sample included 150 of general people based on laptop buyers. The collected data were coded, calculated and analyzed with the help of statistical tools like t-test, ANOVA, Regression analysis. The result shows that there is no significant difference between products attributes with gender and Occupation, and Buyer behaviour factors contributed in reasons for buying laptop, Influencing factors, and product attributes.

S. Pandisiva

2014-10-01

290

Analysis of Factors to Influence Single Yarn Strength CV Value  

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Full Text Available The single yarn strength CV value is one important index to measure the quality of yarn. Taking pure cotton and polyester cotton blended yarn as research objects, in this article, we systematically analyze the effects of some factors such as raw material blended ratio, yarn unevenness and twist unevenness on single yarn strength CV value, and use the mathematic analysis method to obtain the relationships between various influencing factors with single yarn strength value, and the result possesses directional meanings to enhance the quality of yarn in actual production.

Dan Shen

2009-02-01

291

Treatment related factors influencing outcome in vulvar cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to identify the impact of treatment related factors on overall survival in patients with vulvar cancer. A follow-up-study is presented on 60 women with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulvar. Follow-up time ranged form 6 months to 17 years (mean 6,5 years). Irradiated volume included in most patients vulva and regional lymph nodes. The influence of treatment related factors (type of resection, treatment time and dose) on the overall survival and disease free survival was tested. The applied dose was 48.1 ± 13.2 Gy, treatment time ranged 40.4 ± 19.4 days. (R.P.)

292

Influencing Factors of Malaria Drug Purchase at Stall  

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Full Text Available About 80% of Indonesia populations lived in malaria endemic areas. AMI reported to date is still high, on the other side of the MDG targets is to reduce AMI (38 ° C, chills, cold sweating, headache, and muscle pain or splenomegaly at 4 health centers in January to April 2011. Interview was assigned to 220 respondents; 53.2% of respondents aged over 40 years, predominantly female (52.7%. In general, respondents have a job (66.4% with low educational level (81.8%, and 67.7% get a pain less than 4 days. Results shows that occupation factor is significantly related to drug purchasing behavior (p = 0.003. Model of risk factors that influencing malaria drug purchases in the stall is the kind of work that is influenced by the low education level (p-value = 0.003 with odds ratio is 15.5%.

Terang Uli Sembiring

2013-06-01

293

Factors influencing sexual function in women with genital prolapse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the impact of the different types of genital prolapse and associated factors, on sexual quality of life in women presenting a genital prolapse. Design and methods. Forty-four women were included in this prospective observational study. We collected clinical data. Genital prolapse was quantified according to the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification scale (POP-Q. Sexual function was evaluated using a validated questionnaire (PISQ-12. Statistical analysis between POP-Q stages, clinical characteristics and PISQ-12 scores was undertaken. Results. A history of abdominal surgery significantly decreases the sexual quality of life (P=0.03. PISQ-12 scores were poorly affected by the type and the severity of genital prolapse. Conclusions. The only factor influencing sexual quality of life was a history of previous abdominal surgery. The type and severity of genital prolapse did not influence sexual function. These results must be confirmed further studies with a higher sample size.

Marc Gamerre

2011-07-01

294

A Study of Factors Influencing Students' Authorization of Thesis Digitization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study explores graduate students' attitudes toward authorizing digitization rights to their theses. The investigation primarily focused on factors that might influence students' consent. Current domestic copyright management practices of thesis digitization were briefly described. Study methods included questionnaire survey and indepth interviews. Two sets of questionnaires were administrated: one for librarians and the other for graduate students. In addition to payment of royalties, the results identified a number of factors that influence students' willingness to authorize digitization. The results led to suggestions regarding revision of related laws and regulations, cooperation of library professionals, and promotion and better management of thesis digitization, with the intention of improving the effectiveness of thesis digitization.

Huey-Jiuan Chang

2009-06-01

295

Factors Influencing the Adoption of E-government Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-government initiatives are in their infancy in many developing countries. The success of these initiatives is dependent on government support as well as citizens’ adoption of e-government services. This research identified the attitudes and perceptions of the citizens of Kuwait, a developing country, towards the adoption of e-government services. Based on previous research exploring the determinants of the adoption of e-government services using an amended version of the UTAUT model, the study reported here investigates the factors that influence the take-up of such services. These factors are related to usefulness, ease of use, reforming bureaucracy, cultural and social influences, technology issues and lack of awareness. Conclusions and implication for decision makers are also considered in this paper.

Suha AlAwadhi

2009-08-01

296

Reducing eating disorder risk factors: A controlled investigation of a blended task-shifting/train-the-trainer approach to dissemination and implementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in psychological intervention research have led to an increase in evidence-based interventions (EBIs), yet there remains a lag in dissemination and implementation of EBIs. Task-shifting and the train-the-trainer (TTT) model offer two potential strategies for enhancing reach of EBIs. The Body Project, an EBI found to prevent onset of eating disorders, served as the vehicle for this dissemination/implementation study. The primary aim of this study was to determine if training of peer-leaders for the Body Project could be task-shifted to undergraduate students using a hybrid task-shifting/TTT model. Our secondary aim was to determine if subgroups of participants evidenced different trajectories of change through 14-month follow-up. Regarding the first aim, we found almost no evidence to suggest that a presence of a doctoral-level trainer yielded superior participant outcomes compared to training by undergraduates alone. Regarding Aim 2, almost all classes for all variables evidenced improvement or a benign response. Additionally, for three key risk factors (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and ED symptoms) virtually all trajectories showed improvement. This study provides initial support for the use of a blended task-shifting/TTT approach to dissemination and implementation within prevention generally, and further support for broad dissemination of the Body Project specifically. PMID:25305538

Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Hill, Kaitlin; Kelly, Mackenzie C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ottoson, Paige; Keith, Demetra; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Becker, Carolyn Black

2014-12-01

297

Factors Influencing Anti Epileptic Drug Non-Compliance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-compliances to anti epileptic drug therapy is one of the commonest causes of relapse of seizure. The various factors influencing non-compliance in a state government hospital where patients below poverty line are issued free drugs once in 2 weeks are unknown. In this study, 200 adult epilepsy patients consisting 100 complaint and non- complaint in each group were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The relevant demographic and clinical characteristics such as awareness of altitud...

Dhanaraj M; Jayavelu A

2004-01-01

298

Factors influencing on-schedule delivery of IMR subsea services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Masters Thesis covers the Subsea Services industry in Norway. Its objective is to identify and evaluate the factors that influence compliance with agreed services delivery schedules. The focus is in on services collectively known as “IMR”, a non-standard industry acronym for Inspection, Maintenance and Repair. Each refers to groups of remote or non-intrusive services, of increasing complexity, that are undertaken on subsea production systems, or around them, without taking over contr...

Uyiomendo, Efosa Emmanuel

2008-01-01

299

A common heritable factor influences prosocial obligations across multiple domains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although it has been shown that prosocial behaviour is heritable, it has not yet been established whether narrower aspects of prosociality are heritable, nor whether a common mechanism influences prosociality across its multiple domains. Here, we examine civic duty, work-place commitment and concern for the welfare of others with a study of prosocial obligations in 958 adult twin-pairs. Multivariate modelling indicated the existence of genetic factors underlying general prosocial obligations ...

Lewis, Gary J.; Bates, Timothy C.

2011-01-01

300

Guiding Architectural Decisions with the Influencing Factors Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Influencing Factors (IF) method guides the architect through stakeholders’ concerns to architectural decisions in line with current business goals. The result is a set of requirements on software quality attributes and business goals and highlighted trade-offs among software quality attributes and among business goals. The IF method is suitable for sustainable software systems since it allows new concerns, resulting from changes in business goals, stakeholder concerns, technical environ...

Stoll, Pia; Wall, Anders; Norstro?m, Christer

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Factors influencing financial structures in mining empowerment transactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) in the mining sector is dependent on regulatory imperatives and stakeholder interactions. Despite the regulatory drivers however, mining empowerment transactions, like any other financial transactions, must be based on sound economic and financial fundamentals so as to ensure their sustainability. The purpose of this research was to investigate the factors influencing financial structures in mining empowerment transactions in South Africa. BE...

Molapo, David

2010-01-01

302

Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted piles originated from eight different locations the decay gradient of the pile length was determined. Although large differences in soil constitution (between cities) affect the process of wood decay,...

Klaassen, R. K. W. M.; Overeem, B. S.

2012-01-01

303

Factors Influencing Malaysian Consumers’ Intention Towards E-shopping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experienc...

Muhammad Khalilur Rahman; Md Abdul Jalil; Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Robel, S. D.

2014-01-01

304

Factors Influencing Biosecurity Adoption on Laying Hen Farmers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was undertaken to identify factors that influences biosecurity adoption on laying hen farmers in Sidrap district, South Sulawesi. This district was choosen because beside it was famous as the center of laying hen farms, it was also as one of districts in South Sulawesi which suffered from Avian influenza outbreak. Total sample was 60 respondents. The sample was choosen through stratified random sampling from two subdistricts which was the most populous of layer smallholders,...

Lestari, V. S.; Natsir, A.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Kasim, K.; Ali, H. M.; Saadah; Mawardi

2014-01-01

305

Olfactory Function : The Influence of Demographic, Cognitive, and Genetic Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Olfactory function is affected by demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors. In the present thesis, three empirical studies investigated individual differences in olfactory ability. Study I explored demographic and cognitive correlates in common olfactory tasks; odor detection, odor discrimination, and odor identification. The results indicated that old age influenced performance negatively in all tasks, and that semantic memory proficiency and executive functioning were related to odor dis...

Hedner, Margareta

2013-01-01

306

Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humi...

Rui Gao; Dong Xiang; Luyuan Zhang; Longwei Yin; Chengxiang Wang

2010-01-01

307

Priceless policies : factors influencing the acceptability of transport pricing policies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transport pricing policies are often assumed to be effective strategies to affect people’s car use, but, due to a lack of public support, these policies are often not implemented. Therefore, we examined which factors influence the acceptability of these pricing policies. First, the acceptability of transport pricing policies was shown to be strongly related to the revenue allocation: acceptability increased when revenues were allocated to car users. Second, the acceptability was also shown ...

Schuitema, Geertje

2010-01-01

308

Factors influencing radiation dose in X-ray diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The various factors influencing the radiation dose in X-ray diagnostics should be assessed more reliably in future. This requires prospective studies involving greater case numbers and different technical equipment (e.g. 100 mm camera technique, conventional fluoroscopy, digital subtraction angiography, etc.). Special emphasis should be placed on those examinations which will result in a dose accumulation (the hands, in particular) in the examining radiologist in the light of long years of clinical activity and less so in the patient. (orig.)

309

Factors influencing tackle injuries in rugby union football  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby mat...

Garraway, W. M.; Lee, A. J.; Macleod, D. A.; Telfer, J. W.; Deary, I. J.; Murray, G. D.

1999-01-01

310

Influencing factors for depression among Chinese suicide survivors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred and nine suicide survivors and 128 informants of community controls were investigated in this study to explore how Chinese suicide survivors were affected by the suicide deaths. Variables measured in the survey included demographic status, mental health status, personality, etc. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed in data analyses to explore possible influencing factors for depression among Chinese suicide survivors. ‘Lived with suicide victim’ was found to be t...

Li, Ning; Zhang, Jie

2010-01-01

311

Factors influencing preparation of polyaniline doped with hydrochloric acid  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors influencing the reaction of chemical polymerization during aniline doping with hydrochloric acid (HCl) have been studied in this work. The optimal parameters for the preparation of polyaniline were determined as follows: aniline concentration - 4 mass %, molar ratios of oxidant (NH4)2S2O8:aniline - 1.2:1 and 1.3:1, the concentration of dopant - 1 mol/L. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied to characterize the structure of polyaniline.

Chuanyu, Sun; Yu, Wang

2014-12-01

312

Innovative development of organizations: integral parts and influencing factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the article. The goals that were following in our study: specify the components of the process of innovation development and factors that influencing on them; to systematize scientific approaches to the interpretation the essence of concept innovation; compare the different generations of innovation process models and defining their characteristics.The results of the analysis. Determined that in our time were formed different opinions about the components of innovative development ...

Piatnytska, G. T.

2013-01-01

313

Factors influencing International Entry Strategies : A Born Global approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study considers small Norwegian high-technology firms, with characteristics similar to those of Born Global firms. These types of firms have received an increasing amount of attention in research the last decade, but the specific field of how different factors affect their international entry strategies is scattered. With a basis of a multiple-case study, this thesis contributes with an assessment of how founder-, market- and product characteristics influence the international entry stra...

Tjosevik, Ragnhild; Refsland, Birgitte

2012-01-01

314

Identification of Factors Influencing Third Birth Transition in Manipur  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The third birth transition has a negative impact on the national goal of fertility replacement level (2.1) which is to be achieved by 2010. To identify the factors influencing the demographic phenomenon, a cross sectional as well as community based study consisting of 1397 eligible women was conducted in the four valley districts of Manipur under cluster sampling scheme. Analysing the empirical information through SPSS, 42% of the study subjects transit their 3rd birth and its major determina...

Sharat Singh N; Shantikumar Singh W; Sanajaoba Singh N

2011-01-01

315

Factors Influencing Perceptions Toward Social Networking Websites in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on an online national survey of 503 respondents, this study empirically investigates factors influencing perceptions toward social networking websites (SNWs) in China. More specifically, user demographics and media characteristics were examined. While income was found to be a significant predictor of users’ attitude toward SNWs, gender, age, educational level and marital status were insignificant, suggesting that demographic divides may be diminishing when it comes to online soc...

Gong, Wen

2012-01-01

316

Explaining MCDM acceptance: a conceptual model of influencing factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The number of newly developed Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods grew considerably in the last decades. Although their theoretical foundations are solid, there is still a lack of acceptance and application in the practical field. The objective of this research is the development of a conceptual model of factors that influence MCDM acceptance that serves as a starting point for further research. For this purpose, a broad diversified literature survey was conducted in the discipline ...

Maida, Martina; Maier, Konradin; Obwegeser, Nikolaus; Stix, Volker

2011-01-01

317

THE BANKING SECTOR - INFLUENCE FACTORS OF BANKING PERFORMANCE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return ...

Ciocan, Mirela

2014-01-01

318

Influences of some exogenous factors on the gastrointestinal ecosystem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An intestinal ecosystem has three major actors, i.e., the macroorganism, the microflora and the environment. Influences of some exogenous factors on functions of the intestinal microbes and their interactions within the ecosystem in vivo, have been studied by utilizing the so-called microflora-associated characteristic (MAC) / germ-free animal characteristic (GAC) concept. The parameters were bile acid, urobilinogen, cholesterol faecal tryptic activity (FTA) mucin, beta-a...

Gustafsson, Aina

1998-01-01

319

Influence of external factors on surface tension of water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of various external factors such as magnetization, electric discharge, electromagnetic irradiation in cantimetric range, air and osone saturation, riching by the metal ions on the surface tension coefficient of water has been experimentally investigated. It has been established that these actions lead to decreasing surface tension coefficient of drinking water. The value of this decreasing considerably has depended on nature and degree of action

320

Influencing factors on multimodal interaction at selection tasks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When developing multimodal interactive systems it is not clear which importance should be given to which modality. In order to study influencing factors on multimodal interaction, we conducted a Wizard of Oz study on a basic recurrent task: 53 subjects performed diverse selections of objects on a screen. The way and modality of interaction was not specified nor predefined by the system, and the users were free in how and what to select. Natural input modalities like speech, gestures, touch, a...

Schu?ssel, Felix; Honold, Frank; Weber, Michael

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Factors influencing repair of dental restorations with resin composite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presentation of patients with dental restorations that exhibit minor defects is one of the commonest clinical situations in the practice of general dentistry. The repair of such restorations, rather than replacement, is increasingly considered to be a viable alternative to replacement of the defective restoration. This paper considers factors influencing the repair of direct restorations, including indications and details of relevant techniques, based on the best available knowledge and u...

Blum, Igor R.; Lynch, Christopher D.; Wilson, Nairn Hf

2014-01-01

322

A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p stress scores (p sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety. PMID:23551380

Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

2014-01-01

323

Low self–esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho–social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Author have analyzed the psycho–social peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these disease and the psycho–sexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest fo...

Iorgulescu, G.

2010-01-01

324

Changes in body composition, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and eating behavior after an intensive lifestyle intervention with high volume of physical activity in severely obese subjects:A prospective clinical controlled trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined the effects of a 10–14-weeks inpatient lifestyle modification program, including minimum 90?min of physical activity (PA) five days/week, on body composition, CVD risk factors, and eating behavior in 139 obese subjects (BMI ?kg/m2). Completion rate was 71% in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) group and 85% among waiting list controls. Compared to controls body weight ( (95% CI:?, )?kg, ), fat mass ( (95% CI:?, )?kg, ), fat free mass ( (95% CI:?, )?kg, ) ...

Danielsen, Kjersti Caroline; Svendsen, Mette; Mæhlum, Sverre; Sundgot-borgen, Jorunn

2013-01-01

325

An Analysis on Total Factor Productivity and Influencing Factors of Soybean in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate the characteristics of total factor productivity and its influencing factors in china’s soybean.Cobb-Douglas production function model is used in this study. The data is based on the period from 1990 to2007, and C-D production function is applied twicely. The results of this study indicate that total factorproductivity grows at 0.42% annually, the changes fluctuate apparently. Through analysis, the pattern ofcultivation, imports and exports policy and ...

Mingming Liu; Dongmei Li

2010-01-01

326

Factors Influencing Malaysian Consumers’ Intention Towards E-shopping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experience on e-shopping. Descriptive statistics was employed to identify the respondents’ demographic information. The data were examined using the associated principal components and exploratory factor analysis as well as computation on correlations to identify the factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers on e-shopping, to determine the underlying dimensionality, convergent validity and discriminant validity. Importantly, this study employs the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM technique to perform a confirmatory factor analysis and test the hypothesized positive correlation between the exogenous and the endogenous constructs. Based on the statistical analyses, the resultant findings revealed that cognitive, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had a positive impact on the e-shopping under the Malaysian context. The main contribution of this study is that it recommends a way to assess the integrity of the online vendors in order to frame further strategies that can conducively attract the Malaysian consumers to interact in the e-shopping activities. This study has proposed a hypothesized model that needs further investigation for future researches.

Muhammad Khalilur Rahman

2014-01-01

327

Factors that influence on the confrontation the spinal cord injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Definitions of spinal cord injury agree in the consequences of that injury is the loss in varying degrees of autonomic function; this will cause a change in the lifestyle of patients and their families.In the spinal injury, the priority is the recovery or maintenance of vital organ functions, the physical stabilization for people. Later, the priority here is the rehabilitation and adaptation. This should be integrated at all levels, physical, psychological and social. Confrontation is, by Callista Roy, a important variable for understanding the effect of stress on health and disease, health maintenance or recovery. The way, that the patients have to confront the disease, are the confrontation strategies. They are defined as thoughts and actions that persons put in place to deal with adverse changes. They are grouped into 3 categories: problems, emotions and avoidance.There are others factors that influence in the use of strategies, between them the personality. According to Eysenck this is determined by the functional interaction of four factors: cognitive (intelligence, conative (character, affective (temperament and somatic (construction. With this study we want to know the factors that influence in the confrontation of the spinal cord injury and to analyze the possible relation between them, and to be able to elaborate particular tools, on the most determinant factors, to obtain an effective confrontation about this type of disease.

Montserrat Melchor Arteaga

2011-05-01

328

Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on adoption decision from view point of management decision making. The variable that evaluate in this study include: Cost effectiveness, Need for cloud computing, Security effectiveness, and reliability on cloud computing as independent variable and Adoption decision as dependent variable. The scope of this research is IT companies in Malaysia, and target population is member of organization that want to make decision to adopt the cloud computing. The Correlation and Multi Regression analysis show that all factor s have a positive and significant effect on organization adoption decision to cloud computing. 

Ailar Rahimli

2013-01-01

329

Aconselhamento em saúde: fatores terapêuticos em grupo de apoio psicológico para transtornos alimentares / Counseling in health: therapeutic factors in a psychological support group for eating disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar fatores terapêuticos em um grupo de apoio para pacientes com transtornos alimentares (anorexia e bulimia). O grupo de apoio psicológico é parte da estratégia de assistência oferecida por um serviço especializado em saúde. Duas sessões, com um total de 10 pa [...] rticipantes, foram audiogravadas e transcritas na íntegra. A análise de conteúdo temática evidenciou que, ao reconhecerem na experiência alheia aspectos semelhantes aos seus próprios problemas, os participantes puderam se identificar uns com os outros e construir um espaço homogeneizado pela normalização das dificuldades. Além disso, os participantes mencionaram que o grupo promove esperança, conforto e bem-estar a partir do compartilhamento de experiências vitais. Desse modo, universalidade e instilação de esperança foram os principais fatores terapêuticos de apoio ativados nas sessões grupais, contribuindo para potencializar processos de mudança em uma perspectiva ampliada de saúde. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify therapeutic factors in a support group for patients with eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia). Psychological support groups compose part of the strategy of assistance offered by a specialized health service. Two group sessions with 10 participants were audio recorded [...] and transcribed in full. Thematic content analysis showed that, the participants recognized similar aspects of their own problems in the experience of others, and could identify with each other and construct a space homogenized by standardization of the difficulties. In addition, the participants mentioned that the group promotes hope, comfort and well-being through the sharing of life experiences. Thus, universality and instillation of hope were the main therapeutic factors activated in the group sessions, helping to improve the process of change in a broad perspective of health.

Manoel Antônio dos, Santos; Fabio, Scorsolini-Comin; Elaine Cristina da Silva, Gazignato.

2014-09-01

330

Desordens alimentares no desporto: situação atual e perspectivas futuras no estudo dos fatores psicológicos / Eating disorders in sport: current status and future directions in the study of the psychological factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho procura atingir dois objetivos. Em primeiro lugar, apresenta-se a situação atual da investigação sobre desordens alimentares no desporto. Neste caso, salientam-se as linhas de investigação dedicadas ao estudo da prevalência destes problemas no desporto e analisam-se as diferenças entre [...] atletas e modalidades desportivas. Dadas as dificuldades destas linhas de investigação na compreensão dos comportamentos alimentares de risco nos atletas, são avançadas outras possibilidades de desenvolvimento da investigação. Assim, e enquanto segundo objetivo deste artigo, salientamos a necessidade de os estudos se dirigirem para a compreensão dos fatores psicológicos associados aos comportamentos alimentares de risco e implicados no desenvolvimento das desordens alimentares. Esta abordagem tem como vantagem adicional ajudar a prevenir estes problemas através da promoção das competências mentais dos atletas no sentido de resistirem melhor aos possíveis efeitos nocivos da prática desportiva, onde se inserem os problemas com a alimentação. Abstract in english This paper focuses on two main goals. In first place, we present the current status on the research about eating disorders in sport contexts. In this case, we point out studies dedicated to the analysis of the incidence of eating disorders in sport and studies that observe the differences between at [...] hletes and different sports in the tendency for these problems. Second, we proposed new research directions on this subject, namely the need of analysing the psychological factors that are related with the development of eating disorders on athletes. This research approach has the advantage of helping the prevention of eating disorders on athletes through the promotion of psychological skills that protect athletes from the negative effects of sport practicing, where are included maladaptive eating behaviors.

Luiz, Silva; Rui, Gomes.

2012-12-01

331

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

Hoda Nosouzi

2013-06-01

332

Factors influencing response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed 150 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1990 to 1996 (i to evaluate the frequency of drug resistance, (ii to elucidate factors influencing the response to chemotherapy, and (iii to attempt to improve the therapeutic approach. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains were not found. By univariate analysis, there were 8 factors associated with an increased sputum conversion time: male gender, prior treatment, complications, progressive chest radiographic findings, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, lymphocytopenia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and hypoproteinemia. Complications, prior treatment, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, and a high ESR were independent predictive factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA defined 3 subgroups that responded to treatment. In order to reduce the time to sputum conversion, poor responders according to the RPA should be treated with a 4-drug regimen containing pyrazinamide.

Hiyama J

2000-08-01

333

Advances in principal factors influencing carbon dioxide adsorption on zeolites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the advances in the principal structural and experimental factors that might influence the carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites. The CO2 adsorption is principally govern by the inclusion of exchangeable cations (countercations) within the cavities of zeolites, which induce basicity and an electric field, two key parameters for CO2 adsorption. More specifically, these two parameters vary with diverse factors including the nature, distribution and number of exchangeable cations. The structure of framework also determines CO2 adsorption on zeolites by influencing the basicity and electric field in their cavities. In fact, the basicity and electric field usually vary inversely with the Si/Al ratio. Furthermore, the CO2 adsorption might be limited by the size of pores within zeolites and by the carbonates formation during the CO2 chemisorption. The polarity of molecules adsorbed on zeolites represents a very important factor that influences their interaction with the electric field. The adsorbates that have the most great quadrupole moment such as the CO2, might interact strongly with the electric field of zeolites and this favors their adsorption. The pressure, temperature and presence of water seem to be the most important experimental conditions that influence the adsorption of CO2. The CO2 adsorption increases with the gas phase pressorption increases with the gas phase pressure and decreases with the rise of temperature. The presence of water significantly decreases adsorption capacity of cationic zeolites by decreasing strength and heterogeneity of the electric field and by favoring the formation of bicarbonates. The optimization of the zeolites structural characteristics and the experimental conditions might enhance substantially their CO2 adsorption capacity and thereby might give rise to the excellent adsorbents that may be used to capturing the industrial emissions of CO2. (topical review)

334

Factors Influencing Smokeless Tobacco Use in Rural Ohio Appalachia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Methods Fifteen focus groups and twenty-three individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n=63) and adolescent (n=53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. Results ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. Conclusions In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to 1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and 2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

Nemeth, Julianna M.; Liu, Sherry T.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

2015-01-01

335

Do Ramadan fasting restrictions alter eating behaviours in obese women?  

Science.gov (United States)

Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women. PMID:22576675

Savas, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Tanr?verdi, Derya; Kepekçi, Yalç?n

2014-02-01

336

Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. PMID:22850369

Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

2012-10-01

337

The Analysis of Net Factors Influence on Remote Process Monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contribution deals with the process monitoring based on www technologies. It also researches the influence of clients? number and the network transfer rate on the process monitoring quality. The process monitoring is realized by the distributed application. The server part of application (written in Delphi acquires actually measured data and sends them through the socket communication channel to the client. The client part of application is realized as applet (written in Java, which receives data from the server and executes their processing. There are some factors influencing the quality of the client?server communication on the server and client side, such as the number of running tasks, exploitation of system recourses, number of connected clients and network rate. Their influences are presented in graphical form. The first course represents a monitored signal, the second the accuracy of server?s time sending, the third the accuracy of client?s receiving and the fourth the duration of the packet transfer between the client and server. The computer working as a server is marked as S, the client is marked as K. The influence of client quality showed that the usable sample period is about 0.1s. By the study of quality of server S1 the applicable sample period 0.17s was specified. For shorter sample periods, the client isn?t capable to process received data and so occurs data buffering, which causes the time shift concerning to signal on server side. In this area monitoring is not desirable. The influence of client number showed that in the same time can correctly operate 19 to 33 clients at sample periods 0.085s to 0.33s. The influence of transfer rate showed applicability of monitoring so for local as for remote distances of clients.

Baluch Du?an

2001-09-01

338

Magnitude and influencing factors of parasomnia in schoolchildren  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To estimate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors. Methods Five hundred children aged 5-16 years from a boys’ school and a girls’ school in Khulna City, Bangladesh, were randomly selected for the study conducted from July to December 2011. The survey was done in two steps: self-administered questionnaire and clinical interviews of affected students and their parents. Apart from demographic features, questionnaires included details of perinatal and personal factors as well as familial and socioeconomic factors. The diagnoses of variants of parasomnias was based on the criteria for category-based classification by the American Academy of Sleep Mmedicine. Results Seven hundred thirteen filled questionnaires revealed parasomnia in 187 (26.2% children. Most parasomnias were accompanied by other sleep disorders, in which 23 (12.3% having primary dyssomnias including 18 (9.3% obstructive sleep apnea, and 10 (5.3% parasomnias with hypersomnias. Nightmares (7.4% were highest among the parasomnias followed by nocturnal enuresis (4.1% and sleep terrors (3.4%. More girls experienced parasomnias than boys (107/360 vs. 80/353, respectively; P=0.039. Perinatal factors such as problems during pregnancy (17.1% or eventful delivery (25.7%, and socioeconomic factors such as familial disharmony (11.8% and low socioeconomic level (31.6% had positive associations with parasomnia. Conclusion One-quarter of school children experience parasomnia. We found perinatal factors particularly problem during pregnancy, and socioeconomic factors particularly familial disharmony have significant influences on this condition. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:339-45.].

Choudhury Habibur Rasul

2013-11-01

339

Influência da percepção do peso e do índice de massa corporal nos comportamentos alimentares anormais / Influence of body mass index and body weight perception on eating disorders symptoms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação entre a percepção do peso corporal, o índice de massa corporal e os comportamentos alimentares anormais. MÉTODOS: Delineamento transversal, de base populacional, com mulheres de 12 a 29 anos, da zona urbana de Porto Alegre, RS (n=513). Para medir a prevalência de compo [...] rtamentos alimentares anormais utilizou-se o Teste de Atitudes Alimentares 26 (EAT-26) e o Teste de Investigação Bulímica de Edimburgo (BITE), considerados separadamente e em conjunto, e a percepção do peso corporal por meio de 2 perguntas estruturadas: qual era o peso que a mulher julgava ideal e a auto-avaliação sobre seu peso. O índice de massa corporal (IMC) foi calculado por medida de peso e altura aferidos. RESULTADOS: Considerando os instrumentos conjuntamente, 30,2% das mulheres tinham comportamento alimentar de risco, e 11,3% apresentaram comportamento alimentar anormal. Além disso, 82% das mulheres apresentaram IMC normal, sendo que 2% eram magras, e 16% apresentaram IMC de sobrepeso/obesidade. Das mulheres estudadas, 46% tinham o ideal de pesar menos, e 37,8% consideravam-se gordas. Entre as mulheres com IMC normal, 25,2% das que se achavam normais apresentavam comportamento alimentar de risco, e 5,7 % comportamento alimentar anormal. Das mulheres que se consideravam gordas, 47,2% apresentaram comportamento alimentar de risco, e 19,2% tinham comportamento alimentar anormal. Mulheres que se sentiam gordas apresentaram um risco quatro vezes maior de apresentar comportamentos alimentares anormais (razão de odds 4,50; IC 95% 2,88-7,01; p Abstract in english OBJECTVE: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body weight perception and eating disorder symptoms. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged between 12 and 29 years old in Porto Alegre, Brazil (n=513). The prevalence of eating disorde [...] r symptoms was assessed by using two instruments: the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 (EAT-26) and the Bulimic Investigator Test (BITE). The results of the screening tests were evaluated separately and as a score combination of both instruments. Body weight perception was assessed using two questions: a) what was regarded as the ideal weight, and b) self-perception of body weight. The body mass index was calculated by dividing the square of the height (cm) by the weight (kg). RESULTS: Regarding the results of the combined scores, 30.2% of the interviewed women were classified as having risk of eating disorder and 11.3% had abnormal eating behavior. The sample's mean BMI was 21.9 (SD=3.8); 82.4% were classified as normal, 1.6% as thin and 16.1% as overweight/obese. Of the total of the study women, 46% had an ideal weight lower than their actual weight and 37.8% considered themselves fat. Among women with normal BMI, 25.2% that were classified as normal presented risk of abnormal eating behavior and 5.7% had eating disorder symptoms. Among women who considered themselves fat, 47.2% presented risk behaviors and 19.2% had eating disorder symptoms. The risk for eating disorder symptoms among women who saw themselves as fat was four times higher than among those who perceived their weight as normal (odds ratio 4.50; 95% CI 2.88-7.01; p

Maria Angélica, Nunes; Maria Teresa A, Olinto; Fernando C, Barros; Suzi, Camey.

2001-03-01

340

Factors Influencing Anti Epileptic Drug Non-Compliance  

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Full Text Available Non-compliances to anti epileptic drug therapy is one of the commonest causes of relapse of seizure. The various factors influencing non-compliance in a state government hospital where patients below poverty line are issued free drugs once in 2 weeks are unknown. In this study, 200 adult epilepsy patients consisting 100 complaint and non- complaint in each group were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The relevant demographic and clinical characteristics such as awareness of altitude towards purchasing the drugs were collected. The data was analyzed using student "t" test and chi square test. The factors influencing non-compliance were, adifficulty in collecting the drugs once in 2 weeks from the hospital (45% vs. 21%:p value < 0.001, b Lack of family supported (42%vs.29%:p value < 0.05, c Mental adverse effects of the drugs (54%vs.33%: value <0.002 and d Poor motivation. The attitude of the patients was negative towards purchasing drugs even at times of emergency (84% vs. 44%:p value <0.001. Measures to rectify the above factors are suggested.

Dhanaraj M

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary research results. With respect to the subject matter, research goals as well as previous findings and primary research results, corresponding hypotheses were set and mainly confirmed. The results showed that demographic factors, such as the age and working status, are related to most impulse buying indicators and to the impulsivity collective indicator. However, household income produced opposite results. Household income proved to have no major influence on the majority of impulse buying indicators but to be related noticeably to the collective impulsivity indicator, indicating that this result should be regarded with caution. Research results also pointed to the fact that the majority of individual indicators (innovativeness, tendency to the fashionable and shopping enjoyment are positively and negatively related to the impulse buying behavior and that individual difference factors have a greater influence on impulse buying than do demographic characteristics. The paper also summarizes research limitations as well as the work contribution and future research guidelines.

Mirela Mihi?

2010-06-01

342

Radon migration process and its influence factors. Review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon (222Rn) generated within the grains of rocks, soils, building materials and other materials by the radioactive decay of radium (226Ra) can migrate to the atmosphere. This paper reviews the emanation coefficient, diffusion coefficient, and exhalation rate, and the factors that control the rate at which radon can enter atmosphere. The emanation coefficient which is the fraction of radon generated within the grains of materials and escaped to the pore space, varied from 2.1 to 32% for rocks, from 0.14 to 80% for soil, and from 0.10 to 58% in case of building materials. In addition, measurement methods used to evaluate emanation coefficient and its influence factors are also reviewed. The diffusion of radon is a process determined by radon concentration gradient across the radon sources and the surrounding air. The effective diffusion coefficient of some materials is summarized. Moreover, the radon exhalation rate process and the main influencing factors on the variation of exhalation rate data are reviewed. The exhalation rate varied in the range of 0.11 to 80 mBq m-2 s-1, 2.0 x 10-3 to 5.0 x 104 mBq m-2 s-1 and 4.0 x 10-3 to 5.0 x 101 mBq m-2s-1 for rocks, soils and building materials, respectively. (author)

343

Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development.

Krista Delviks-Frankenberry

2011-09-01

344

Factors influencing dissipation of avermectins in sheep faeces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors influencing fate of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin) in faeces of treated sheep were investigated under different experimental conditions. In the laboratory, concentrations of both avermectins were declined in homogenised faeces of treated animals until day 14 of exposure, regardless of experimental conditions. After that day, no significant decrease in concentrations was observed till the end of the experiment. Established DT(50) did not exceed 9 days. In the karst pasture, an average DT(50) of 27 days was established for abamectin and 23 days for doramectin in natural faeces of treated sheep. In the compost mixture, doramectin concentration was decreased by 38.9+/-2.6% during 21 days of the thermophilic phase of composting. Therefore, DT(50) was not established. A possible influence of moisture content of sheep faeces on concentrations of avermectins was observed. PMID:19735940

Virant Celestina, Tina; Kolar, Lucija; Gobec, Ivan; Kuzner, Jernej; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Pogacnik, Milan; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh

2010-01-01

345

Training community health workers: factors that influence mammography use.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess factors that influence mammography use among volunteer community health workers (CHWs). Data trends indicate lower mammography rates among minority and low-income women. Although CHW interventions have been shown to promote mammography use among this population, training strategies and the use of a comprehensive needs assessment are lacking. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected via a mailed survey. The dependent variable was mammography use within the past 2 years. The independent variables were categorized according to the factors in the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Predisposing factors included susceptibility, barriers, benefits, health motivation, self-efficacy, education, and age. Enabling factors included income, health insurance, and regular source of care. Reinforcing factors included physician recommendation to get a mammogram, social norms, and family history of breast cancer. Self-reported data from a mailed survey were obtained from a convenience sample of urban CHWS (N = 109) ages 40-73 with a mean age of 55 (SD = 9.43). The sample included 90% African American and 8% White women. Logistic regression results showed barriers to be predictive of mammography use among CHWs controlling for age, self-efficacy, health motivation, and social norms. The findings suggest CHW training focus on how to identify and address barriers to increase the likelihood of mammography use among CHWs. Future research is needed to identify cultural differences in barriers for minority CHWs. PMID:20411410

Kratzke, Cynthia; Garzon, Laurel; Lombard, John; Karlowicz, Karen

2010-12-01

346

Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

2014-01-01

347

Factors Influencing Stakeholders Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Aedes Mosquito.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

2014-06-01

348

Emotional eating moderates the relationship of night eating with binge eating and body mass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184

Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra

2014-03-01

349

Analysis of Influencing Factors in Metacognition in English Writing  

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Full Text Available Metacognition in writing is the cognitive monitoring system in the process of writing. The essence of the system is self-management and self-control of self-consciousness. It can be embodied in the process of the writer acquiring information and analyzing the information to monitor the cognitive process correctly and immediately and choosing the suitable strategy to monitor the writing, to persist in or change the method or manner. So this paper is try to make a discussion on matecognition in writing and its influencing factors, analyze the information and sum up the general features of metacognition in writing in purpose of furnishing English writing.

Yingnan Liu

2014-04-01

350

Systematic Evaluation of Factors Influencing ChIP-Seq Fidelity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We performed a systematic evaluation of how variations in sequencing depth and other parameters influence interpretation of Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments. Using Drosophila S2 cells, we generated ChIP-seq datasets for a site-specific transcription factor (Suppressor of Hairy-wing) and a histone modification (H3K36me3). We detected a chromatin state bias, open chromatin regions yielded higher coverage, which led to false positives if not corr...

Negre, Nicolas; Li, Qunhua; Mieczkowska, Joanna O.; Slattery, Matthew; Kim, Tae-kyung; Zieba, Jennifer; Ruan, Yijun; Bickel, Peter J.; Wold, Barbara J.; Lieb, Jason D.; Chen, Yiwen; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yong; He, Housheng H.; Myers, Richard M.

2012-01-01

351

Identification of Factors Influencing Third Birth Transition in Manipur  

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Full Text Available The third birth transition has a negative impact on the national goal of fertility replacement level (2.1 which is to be achieved by 2010. To identify the factors influencing the demographic phenomenon, a cross sectional as well as community based study consisting of 1397 eligible women was conducted in the four valley districts of Manipur under cluster sampling scheme. Analysing the empirical information through SPSS, 42% of the study subjects transit their 3rd birth and its major determinants could be detected to be sex preference, age at marriage, and educational level each at 0.01 probability level of significance.

Sharat Singh N

2011-04-01

352

Interleukin-10 influences susceptibility to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis independently of the H-2 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) due to their histocompatibility (H-2) genetic background; however, susceptibility to EAT is also influenced by other genetic factors. Given the curative effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10) on thyroiditis, in the present study, we investigated whether IL-10 functions as a non-H-2 genetic factor that influences the development of EAT in mice with an EAT-resistant genetic background. In this study, we observed that the development of EAT could be induced in both C57BL/6 IL-10?deficient (IL-10-/-) and BALB/c IL-10-/- female mice following immunization with mTg, which indicated that IL-10 may be a non-H-2 factor that affects susceptibility to EAT. However, the role of the H-2 factor remained dominant, as the incidence of EAT was low and its severity was mild. We further investigated the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of EAT in IL-10-/- female mice. We found that Th1 cells, Th17 cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, and their associated cytokines were all involved in the development of EAT. The absence of IL-10 promoted the polarization of pathogenic cells and the production of associated cytokines, and suppressed the proliferation of protective T cell clones. Together, these factors may contribute to the development of EAT in IL-10-/- mice. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that IL-10 plays a critical role in the susceptibility to EAT, and a better understanding of the role of IL-10 in autoimmune thyroiditis may facilitate the development of novel strategies for the treatment of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:25482126

Yu, Zhenqian; Liu, Tong; Liu, Shanshan; Zou, Hongjin; Sun, Xuren; Shi, Xiaoguang; Li, Yushu; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

2015-02-01

353

Factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intestine is a well-known site of physiological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in positron emission tomography (PET). To identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine, the intensity of FDG uptake was evaluated in a total of 1,068 healthy adults. Non-attenuation-corrected whole-body PET images were obtained for all subjects and visually evaluated. Subjects were then classified into two groups according to the intensity of intestinal FDG uptake. Sex, age, presence or absence of constipation, and serum glucose, hemoglobin A{sub 1}c, and free fatty acid levels were compared between the two groups. High intestinal FDG uptake was observed at an overall rate of 11.0%. Sex (female), age, and bowel condition (constipation) were found to affect intestinal FDG uptake. The factors we identified lead to further questions the relationship between intestinal motility and glucose uptake that warrant further study. (author)

Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takagi, Shigeharu [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Shohtsu, Akira

1998-11-01

354

Factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intestine is a well-known site of physiological 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in positron emission tomography (PET). To identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine, the intensity of FDG uptake was evaluated in a total of 1,068 healthy adults. Non-attenuation-corrected whole-body PET images were obtained for all subjects and visually evaluated. Subjects were then classified into two groups according to the intensity of intestinal FDG uptake. Sex, age, presence or absence of constipation, and serum glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and free fatty acid levels were compared between the two groups. High intestinal FDG uptake was observed at an overall rate of 11.0%. Sex (female), age, and bowel condition (constipation) were found to affect intestinal FDG uptake. The factors we identified lead to further questions the relationship between intestinal motility and glucose uptake that warrant further study. (author)

355

A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty  

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Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

Mahmood Modiri

2013-10-01

356

The Influence of Cartoon Character Advertising on Fruit and Vegetable Preferences of 9- to 11-Year-Old Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of the present study is to determine the influence of cartoon characters in preferences of fruit and vegetables among children. Methods: A 10-item survey was used in this cross-sectional study to determine the factors that influence a child's likelihood of eating fruits and vegetables. Seven factors influencing consumption of…

Bezbaruah, Nandita; Brunt, Ardith

2012-01-01

357

Low self-esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho-social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Authors have analyzed the psychosocial peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these diseases and the psychosexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender-role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psychosexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749

Iorgulescu, Gabriela

2010-01-01

358

Guide to Eating for Sports  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Dehydration Caffeine Game-Day Eats Eat Extra for Excellence There's a lot more to eating for sports ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Nutrition & Fitness Center Figuring Out Fat and Calories Vitamins and Minerals ...

359

Guide to Eating for Sports  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > A Guide to Eating for Sports ... perform your best while also losing weight. Eat a Variety of Foods You may have heard about " ...

360

Studies on influence of biological factors on concentration of radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological factors influencing the concentration of radionuclides were studied from the points of uptake through digestive tract, food as pathways, and metabolic activities. The uptake of radionuclides by marine fishes through digestive tract was determined by whole body counter. 137Cs, 65Zn, 131I, 54Mn, 60Co, 85Sr, and 144Ce were used as tracers and was given with solid feed. The feed given was excreated 24 to 48 hours later in small of middle sized fishes, and 20 to 48 hours later in large sized fishes. The uptake rate of 137Cs and 65Zn was high absorption of 20 to 80 per cent, that of 131I, 60Co and 54Mn was not remarkable, and that of 85Sr and 144Ce was low absorption. The biological concentration of 137Cs through pathways of food. In fishes taking up radionuclides through contaminated food, concentration factor increased in accordance with contamination level. In addition, radionuclides with small uptake but delayed excretion and those with high concentration rate could be the factors to decide the concentration factors of marine organisms. In order to study the relationship between metabolic activities and concentration, the uptake of one-year old fishes and adult fishes, and fishes fed and those non-fed were compared. One-year fishes took up large amount of 85Sr during short period, however, concentration by metabolism in adult fishes was slow. Comparing feeding group and non-feeding group, the former showed 85Sr concentration factor of 1.5 to 2 times that of the later, and the later showed 137Cs concentration factor of 2 to 4 times that of the former. However, both uptake and excretion were rapid suggesting that taking food activated the metabolism of substances. (Kanao, N.)

 
 
 
 
361

Influencias socioculturales y conductas alimentarias no saludables en hombres y mujeres de España y México / Sociocultural influences and disordered eating behaviors in men and woman of Spain and Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este estudio transcultural se evaluó el rol de las influencias socioculturales sobre conductas alimentarias no saludables en dos países hispano-parlantes (España y México). El Test de Actitudes Alimentarias (EAT, por sus siglas en inglés), el Test de Bulimia (BULIT) y el Cuestionario de Influenci [...] a del Modelo Estético Corporal (CIMEC) fueron administrados a 862 estudiantes (España, 254 mujeres y 184 varones; México, 243 mujeres y 181 varones). El análisis de los datos reveló no diferencias significativas en los efectos principales de la variable "País"; en los efectos principales de la variable "Género" se encontraron diferencias significativas en las sub-escalas malestar con la imagen corporal (p = . 001), influencia de los mensajes verbales (p = . 035) e influencia de los modelos sociales (p = . 008); y en los efectos principales de la variable "Sintomatología" en todas las sub-escalas (malestar con la imagen corporal, influencia de la publicidad, influencia de los mensajes verbales, influencia de los modelos sociales e influencia de las situaciones sociales). En las interacciones sólo se encontró diferencias en "País x Género" (influencia de la publicidad [p = .029]). Estos datos apoyan las diferencias reportadas entre mujeres y varones; así como subrayan que el efecto de las influencias socioculturales cambian a lo largo del tiempo.los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1) identificar y describir algunos de los elementos culturales pertinentes al tratamiento de los TCA en la población latina y, 2) esbozar un modelo de intervención para los TCA que sea culturalmente sensible a la población latina de los Estados Unidos. El desarrollo de intervenciones culturalmente sensibles es un componente importante para reducir la disparidad en los servicios de salud brindados a la población latina residente en los Estados Unidos. Abstract in english This current cross-cultural study was designed to examine the role of sociocultural influences on disordered eating behaviors in two Spanish-speaking countries (Spain and Mexico). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimia Test (BULIT) and the Questionnaire on Influence on Body Shape Model (CIMEC, [...] in Spanish) were administered to 862 students (Spain, 254 females and 184 males; Mexico, 243 females and 181 males). The data analysis revealed that there were no significant main effects of "Country"; there was significant main effect of "Gender" in the distress due to body image (p = .001), influence of verbal messages (p = .035) and influence of social models subscales (p = .008); and in main effects of "Symptomatology" in all the subscales (distress due to body image, influence of advertising, influence of verbal messages, influence of social models and influence of social situations). In the interactions only was found differences in "Country x Gender" (influence of advertising [p = .029]). These findings support the differences reported between males and females; as well as to underline that the effect of the sociocultural influences appears to change across time as culture change.

Juan M., Mancilla-Díaz; Maria, Lameiras-Fernández; Rosalía, Vázquez-Arévalo; Georgina, Alvarez- Rayón; Karina, Franco-Paredes; Xochitl, López-Aguilar; Maria T., Ocampo Téllez-Girón.

2010-06-01

362

Factors Influencing Commitment of Volunteers' in Neighborhood Watch Organization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Social ties become less cohesive as society becomes urbanized. The need for social institutions to redress this state of affairs is crucial. There are two objectives of this research: (i to examine the commitment level of volunteer residents participation in neighborhood watch organization and (ii to identify attitudinal and motivational factors that influence their level of commitment. Approach: The study was carried out on a neighborhood watch organization called Rukun Tetangga (RT Taman Sri Jelok, a suburban neighborhood in Kajang, located in the central part of Peninsular Malaysia. Data is collected via questionnaire administered through a census survey of 200 volunteer residents from the neighborhood watch organization. Data is analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation techniques. Results: The research reveals high commitment level shown by volunteer residents in carrying out community activities, especially in undertaking mutual cooperation activities such as gotong royong. The attitudinal and motivational factors were found to contribute greatly towards the volunteers? commitment in RT activities. Political interest does not influence volunteers? commitment. Conclusion/Recommendation: The members? commitment in RT activities increases when they perceive that the instrumental values of RT are positive, find the activities in RT attractive, adopt a positive attitude towards RT activities and poses internal altruistic motivation. Research indicates there is a need to create neighborhood watch activities that are beneficial and attractive to ensure commitment from volunteers. Future studies can examine other organizational aspects of neighborhood watch such as administration, management, infrastructure and linkages with other related organization.

V. B. Thomas

2011-01-01

363

Factors Influencing Teachers’ Level of Participation in Online Communities  

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Full Text Available The use of an online learning community is one possible approach to teachers’ professional development that can enhance the opportunity for collaboration. Discussions in online learning communities not only allow community members to share resources, ideas and expertise, but also contribute to the fulfilment of teachers’ needs in terms of continuous learning and professional development. This paper reports the findings of a study that aimed to explore the factors that influence the way teachers behave in online communities. The research participants were 16 teachers from five secondary schools in Malaysia who were teaching English, science and mathematics. These teachers were involved in online learning communities via blogs in which they exchanged stories and experiences related to their teaching and learning activities. Data were generated through one-to-one interviews. Based on thematic analysis, the overall findings indicate that teachers’ levels of participation in their online learning communities were largely influenced by cultural issues. Other factors that impacted upon their engagement were time, enforcement by school administrators and their need for an online community.

Fariza Khalid

2014-12-01

364

FACTORS INFLUENCING BIOSECURITY ADOPTION ON LAYING HEN FARMERS  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to identify factors that influences biosecurity adoption on laying hen farmers in Sidrap district, South Sulawesi. This district was choosen because beside it was famous as the center of laying hen farms, it was also as one of districts in South Sulawesi which suffered from Avian influenza outbreak. Total samples were 60 respondents. The samples were choosen through stratified random sampling from two subdistricts which had the most populous of layer smallholders, namely Baranti and Maritengngae. Data were obtained through observations and interviews using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a score based on biosecurity status. Biosecurity status was obtained based on the adoption of biosecurity measures which consisted of 9 stages: farm inputs, traffic onto farms, distance from sources of pathogens to shed, exposure of farm, biosecurity at farm boundary, biosecurity between farm boundary and shed, biosecurity at the shed door, traffic into the shed and susceptibility of the flock. Multiple regression model was employed to analyze the data. The study revealed that the adoption biosecurity were associated with gender, age, education, farming experience, farm-income, family size and social capital. These variables contributed 20% variation in biosecurity adoption of laying hen farms. However, only farm income, family size and social capital were the major factors influencing to the adoption of biosecurity (P<0.05.

V.S. Lestari

2012-12-01

365

Self-Concept, Eating Attitudes, and Dietary Patterns in Young Adolescent Girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined self-concept, eating attitudes, and dieting behavior in female junior high school students (n=159). Findings revealed two factors as predisposing factors for development of eating problems: poor self-concept and active involvement or interest in dieting. Findings were similar to findings from patients who already had existing eating

Nassar, Carine Mokbel; And Others

1992-01-01

366

Analysis of factors influencing local control of medulloblastoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the influence of various prognostic factors on local control of medulloblastoma. Sixty-five patients who had been treated between 1980 and 1990 at our six hospitals were retrospectively studied. Factors included in the Cox's multivariate analysis were sex, age (log(y.o.+1)), performance status, pretreatment T-stage (judged from the findings of CT and/or MRI; T1: 3 patients, T2: 17, T3 (with hydrocephalus): 44, T4: 1), extent of surgical resection (total: 30 patients, less than total: 35), total dose (21-87 Gy, median: 55) and overall treatment time (19-163 days, median: 54) of local irradiation, and use of adjuvant chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Recurrence occurred in one T2 patient and in 17 T3 patients. The multivariate analysis showed that local tumor control decreased with advance in T-stage (p=0.04) and with prolonged overall treatment times (p=0.003), and that it increased with higher total doses (p=0.01). When analysis was limited to T3 patients, usefulness of the chemotherapy was also suggested (p=0.03). However, the influence of the extent of resection on local tumor control was not statistically significant because resectability depended on T-stage. This analysis showed that local control of medulloblastoma was influenced by pretreatment T-stage, total dose and overall irradiation treatment time, and probably by the adjuvant chemotherapy used. Some of the observed losses by prolongations in radiotherapy may reflect proliferation of tumor cells dury reflect proliferation of tumor cells during radiotherapy. (author)

367

Factors influencing the production of nitrous-oxide during denitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last five years there has been a renewed interest in soil denitrification; this interest has been stimulated by the suggestion that soil evolved nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer. Although it has generally been found that dinitrogen (N2) is the major product of denitrification in soils, under some conditions large quantities of N2O are also produced. The microbiological factors which promote the production of N2O rather than N2 are not well understood. The environmental parameters controlling N2O evolution can operate at the biological level by influencing the production of N2O versus N2 or at a soil structural level by controlling the diffusion of N2O through the soil matrix. The factors which influence the biological production of N2O were investigated using 13N labeled NO3- and NO2- generated by proton bombardment of water using the 16O(p,?)13N reaction. Use of the radioactive isotope allowed very sensitive direct quantitation of N2, N2O and NO and permitted experimentation with extremely small additions of electron acceptor (about 68 fg NO3--N). 13NO3- was added to two soils and three denitrifying bacterial cultures so that N2O from denitrificat so that N2O from denitrification was 13N-labeled. In bacterial cultures and in the heterogeneous bacterial flora of soils, the [13N]-N2O intermediate exchanged readily and quantitatively with an added pool of nonlabeled N2O. This indicates that N2O is obligatory intermediate of denitrification, and exists as a free intermediate capable of diffusion away from the sites of active reduction. This provides some understanding of why environmental factors can influence N2O production relative to N2 since any factor which produces a change in the relative rate of N2O reduction compared to the rate of N2O production can result in N2O free to diffuse away from the active site

368

An Analysis on Total Factor Productivity and Influencing Factors of Soybean in China  

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Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics of total factor productivity and its influencing factors in china’s soybean.Cobb-Douglas production function model is used in this study. The data is based on the period from 1990 to2007, and C-D production function is applied twicely. The results of this study indicate that total factorproductivity grows at 0.42% annually, the changes fluctuate apparently. Through analysis, the pattern ofcultivation, imports and exports policy and technical achievement may contribute to the fluctuation of totalfactor productivity in China’s soybean. Finally, the study proposes some approaches and policy implications soas to increase the production of soybean.

Mingming Liu

2010-05-01

369

Eating disorders and emotional neglect: a case report  

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Eating disorders are psychiatric disorders presenting various problems in eating behavior and have biological, psychological, social factors as important causes. Personality features and traumatic experiences have significant role in its development. Psychiatric comorbidity and trauma history are frequently seen among eating disorder patients and are important matters affecting prognosis and treatment course. Trauma history is more frequently encountered among bulimic patients than in non-bul...

Fulya Maner; Aylin A??rman

2010-01-01

370

Influencing Factors for Dietary Behaviors of Patientswith Diabetic Nephropathy  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the factors influencing the dietary behavior of patients with diabetic nephropathy. One hundred twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from the outpatients of Okayama University Hospital in Okayama, Japan. We performed a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire including 206 items among 18 categories as follows:background factors, coping behavior (coping scale, degree of uncertainty in illness (uncertainty scale, and dietary behavior. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis, t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. We found that those patients with microalbuminuria alone tended to recognize more mild about their kidney status than those with macroalbuminuria and chronic renal failure. We also found that common factors influencing the dietary behavior of diabetic patients with and without nephropathy are as follows:1. coping with the problem (beta0.342, p0.01;2. anxiety about prognosis (beta0.344, p0.01;3. sex (beta0.234, p0.05;4. uncertainty regarding treatment (beta0.377, p0.01;5. negative coping (beta0.354, p0.01;and 6. employment status (beta0.367, p0.01. Coping and uncertainty in illness had a significant relation to positive support and lack of support. To maintain appropriate dietary behavior in diabetic patients, medical staff need to determine what the social supports are important for the patient, and also to ensure good communication among healthcare personnel as well as positive support for patients and families.

Kawata,Chieko

2010-02-01

371

Pneumonitis after radiotherapy of lung cancer - incidence and influencing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: The most important side effect in radiotherapy of lung cancer is pneumonitis. The incidence of pneumotitis was evaluated in a retrospective study in the patient collective of the University of Heidelberg. Therapy related and therapy independent factors have been evaluated. Results: Regarding the treatment prior to irradiation patients with primary irradiation were affected in 26.5% (17% slight, 9.5% severe), with postoperative irradiation in 14% (9.3% slight, 4.7% severe), with radiochemotherapy of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 15.4% (12% slight, 3.4% severe) by this side effect. These differences were not significant (p=0.32). The median onset of pneumonitis was 31 days after end of irradiation (severe 23 days, slight 44 days, p=0.026). By a univariate analysis the total dose at the prescription point was the most important factor (30 to 50.5 Gy 11%, 52 to 59 Gy 15%, 60 to 74 Gy 26%, p=0.007). High single doses (2.5 Gy) were only applied within a study of radiochemotherapy with a randomised sequential and alternating schedule. So that the increased rate of pneumonitis (42%) is not clearly separable from other influencing variables. A correlation between the applied techniques and the irradiated volume (measured by planimetric methods) was not demonstrable. Regarding the independent factors a high age, female sex and a low FeV1 were unfavourable. However, age and sex corrected FeV1 was not predictive. (orig./AJ)

372

Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population. PMID:25214754

Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

2014-09-01

373

Adolescent aesthetic athletes: a group at risk for eating pathology?  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research shows that leanness- and weight-dependent sports increase the risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour. This study investigated whether adolescent aesthetic athletes (n=68, M=14.6 years), particularly ballet dancers and figure skaters, exhibit more eating pathology compared to the general population. Furthermore, it was investigated whether sport-related factors have explanatory value for the dieting behaviour of aesthetic athletes. To asses eating pathology, reliable and valid self-report questionnaires were used including the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, the Children's Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results show that female aesthetic athletes show more drive for thinness, features of bulimia, dieting behaviour and concerns about weight and shape compared to female adolescents from the general population. Concerning the explanation of dieting behaviour in aesthetic athletes, both sport-related factors (competition state anxiety) and general risk factors (eating concern) seem to be relevant. These results suggest that female aesthetic athletes show more disturbed eating behaviour and thoughts than female adolescents from the general population and therefore may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders. PMID:22365793

Van Durme, Kim; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline

2012-04-01

374

Food habits in families with young children : A study about diet quality and parental influence on children´s eating habits  

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People have trouble establishing good eating habits in spite of a constant flow of information about the negative effects of unhealthy food. Young children depend on the present adults, which implies that food habits of parents become the food habits of their children. The adults have control over the food available and what meals are served. This quantitative study has carried out a dietary survey in families with young children. It is based on the National Food Administration (NFA) dietary ...

Qvarnstro?m, Eva

2007-01-01

375

Influência da percepção do peso e do índice de massa corporal nos comportamentos alimentares anormais Influence of body mass index and body weight perception on eating disorders symptoms  

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OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação entre a percepção do peso corporal, o índice de massa corporal e os comportamentos alimentares anormais. MÉTODOS: Delineamento transversal, de base populacional, com mulheres de 12 a 29 anos, da zona urbana de Porto Alegre, RS (n=513). Para medir a prevalência de comportamentos alimentares anormais utilizou-se o Teste de Atitudes Alimentares 26 (EAT-26) e o Teste de Investigação Bulímica de Edimburgo (BITE), considerados separadamente e em conjunto, e ...

Maria Angélica Nunes; Olinto, Maria Teresa A.; Barros, Fernando C.; Suzi Camey

2001-01-01

376

Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire  

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Abstract Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEB...

Cao Ying-Ting; Svensson Viktoria; Marcus Claude; Zhang Jing; Zhang Jian-Duan; Sobko Tanja

2012-01-01

377

Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

2014-08-01

378

Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Disordered eating behaviour (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern due to their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognise that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgements of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations including athletes from aquatic sports ranges from 18-45 % in female athletes and 0-28 % in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behaviour at all periods of development pathway, with coaches and members of the athletes' health care team being able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important.

Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland

2014-01-01

379

Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ?4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (Psocial networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033

Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman

2015-01-01

380

The relation between Eigenfactor, audience factor, and influence weight  

CERN Document Server

We present a theoretical and empirical analysis of a number of bibliometric indicators of journal performance. We focus on three indicators in particular, namely the Eigenfactor indicator, the audience factor, and the influence weight indicator. Our main finding is that the last two indicators can be regarded as a kind of special cases of the first indicator. We also find that the three indicators can be nicely characterized in terms of two properties. We refer to these properties as the property of insensitivity to field differences and the property of insensitivity to insignificant journals. The empirical results that we present illustrate our theoretical findings. We also show empirically that the differences between various indicators of journal performance are quite substantial.

Waltman, Ludo

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEFICIT OF SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEMS  

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Full Text Available This paper analyses a number of factors that affect the deficit of social security funds. For the statistical analysis, we used a data panel covering ten countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The variables analysed were: migration, unemployment and dependency ratio of the elderly. All states analysed are characterised by a similar pattern in terms of social security systems’ configuration. The pension system, as basic component of the social security system, is of the PAYG type, being vulnerable to demographic changes.Also, all these countries have experienced the transition from socialist to the capitalist system, facing socio-economic and demographic problems such as unemployment, migration or population aging. The results show that all thesefactors influence the volume of the deficit of social security funds.

Sorin BELEA

2012-11-01

382

Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au)

383

Factors influencing hydrogen uptakes in MOF/COF materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are now being considered as hydrogen (H{sub 2}) storage materials. Previous studies have suggested that there are 2 main factors influencing the adsorption properties of MOFs and COFs: (1) the adsorption energy between the hydrogen and the framework, and (2) the free volume of the material. An adsorption energy rate that is too high will cause difficulties in desorption and reduce the amount of H{sub 2} released. The results of this study suggested that large free volumes can increase the absolute adsorption weight at high pressures. However, increases in free volume will only increase the gravimetric adsorption weight, while also decreasing the volumetric adsorption weight. 2 refs.

Wang, L.; Fu, J.; Sun, Y.X.; Miao, Y.L.; Sun, H. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry

2010-07-01

384

Examining perspectives on telecare: factors influencing adoption, implementation, and usage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David Barrett,1 Jonathan Thorpe,2 Nick Goodwin3 1Faculty of Health and Social Care, 2Knowledge Exchange, University of Hull, Hull, 3International Foundation for Integrated Care, Oxford, UK Abstract: Telecare, or the use of remote care technologies to support safe and independent living, offers great potential to mitigate the challenges faced in a time of changing demographics. By supporting people to live for longer in their own home, telecare can enhance quality of life, reduce reliance on institutional care settings, and reduce costs. Despite these potential opportunities, the adoption of telecare has not been as fast or widespread as it might have been. This article discusses some of the factors acting as drivers or barriers, which have influenced adoption and impacted on implementation. The implications of the availability of such a wide range of telecare applications is explored; this diversity of choice allows for services to be tailored to the specific needs of users, but also causes a tangled web of terminology that can lead to confusion and lack of clarity. In terms of the evidence base, although evaluations of telecare services often demonstrate a high level of cost benefit and user satisfaction, primary research findings are not as positive. This paper focuses particularly on the Whole System Demonstrator, a large-scale, randomized controlled trial that raised questions about the value and cost-effectiveness of telecare. The paper also discusses the ethical, governance, and resource issues associated with telecare implementation and the organizational complexities inherent in such exciting but challenging changes to services. The policy perspective is also summarized, highlighting how much of the adoption of telecare to date has been influenced by top-down initiatives. Telecare will continue to evolve as our understanding and the technology continue to develop. This paper provides information and advice for commissioners, providers, and practitioners regarding the factors that will shape the future of telecare. Keywords: telecare, barriers and facilitators, perspectives, assisted living, independent living

Barrett D

2014-12-01

385

In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Freeman Jackson1, Frances Smith1, Frank J Overdyk21Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USAPurpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival.Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival.Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216. Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77 were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01 or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05.Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events.Keywords: code blue, survival, opioids, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, patient safety

Karamarie Fecho

2009-12-01

386

Demographic and Attitudinal Factors Influencing Doctoral Student Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions, as they must identify factors influencing students’ satisfaction in order to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of doctoral student satisfaction from demographics and attitudes concerning the campus environment. Participants were 132 (33 male, 99 female doctoral students from two private nonprofit universities in the New York metropolitan area of the United States who completed either a web-based or paper/pencil survey in which demographics and opinions regarding student satisfaction were sought. Regression analysis on participant attitudes found that university services, advisor, and students were all significant predictor variables. Other demographic predictor variables included years in graduate school, race, and ethnicity. Of particular importance, as doctoral students progress in their program by year, dissatisfaction increases. This could be due to the increasing pressures of successfully completing the dissertation, the progress of which can be heavily influenced by advisor-student relationship. Overall findings may assist education administrators and institutional planners in making campus environments welcoming to students thereby increasing both student satisfaction and retention.

Sabina Nwenyi

2013-12-01

387

Dual-head coincidence imaging resolution and influence factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dual-head coincidence imaging resolution and its influence factors were investigated. Using G.E. Hawkeye dual-head coincidence detection equipment Toshiba elliptic cylinder resolution phantom was imaged. Attenuation correction was performed with X-ray transmission scan. Eighteen emission scans were performed at different radioactivity in the field of view. The images were reconstructed with 4 reconstruction algorithms. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the line resource spread function in transaxial slices was calculated. The FWHM decreased with decreasing radioactivity in the field of view in the range of higher activity. It didn't decreased in the range of lower activity (101.00-12.79 MBq). At the same radioactivity the FWHM decreased with increasing cutoff frequency of filter; for the line resources distributed in horizontal direction, the horizontal FWHMx decreased with increasing distance from the center of field, while the vertical FWHMy didn't varied with the distance. The radioactivity in field of view, reconstruction algorithm and the position in the field of view can influence the dual-head coincidence imaging system resolution. (authors)

388

Radio wave propagation through vegetation: Factors influencing signal attenuation  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes an extensive wideband channel sounding measurement campaign to investigate signal propagation through vegetation. The measurements have been conducted at three frequencies (1.3, 2 and 11.6 GHz) at sites with different measurement geometries and tree species. The data have been used to evaluate current narrowband empirical vegetation attenuation models and study the prevailing propagation mechanisms. Evaluation of the modified exponential decay (MED), maximum attenuation (MA) and nonzero gradient (NZG) models show that on a site by site basis, the NZG model gives the best prediction of excess attenuation due to vegetation. The MA model has been found to be the worst of the three models. The studies have shown that the measurement site used to obtain the NZG model parameter values given in () [2001] is influenced by metal lampposts and passing traffic, and thus was based on corrupted data. The results show that the leaf state, measurement geometry and vegetation density are more important factors influencing signal attenuation than tree species or leaf shape. Generally, the 11.6 GHz signal was attenuated much more than the 1.3 and 2 GHz signals by vegetation in-leaf, but the differences in attenuation were not significant in the out-of-leaf state. A successful excess attenuation model due to vegetation must consider the measurement geometry and vegetation descriptive parameters as well as any contributions from ground reflection and/or diffraction over the top or round edges of the trees.

Savage, Nick; Ndzi, David; Seville, Andrew; Vilar, Enric; Austin, John

2003-10-01

389

The Meaning of Adolescents’ Eating Experiences During Bone Marrow Transplant Recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bone marrow transplant (BMT) is a common treatment option for adolescents with various diseases; however, the aggressive therapy often causes significant side effects that can lead to poor eating. There is little documentation of eating experiences and necessary support needed after the initial BMT hospitalization. This phenomenological study, guided by Martin Heidegger’s philosophical influences, revealed the meaning of adolescents’ eating experiences, eating strategies, and the impact o...

Rodgers, Cheryl; Young, Anne; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Binder, Brenda; Symes, Lene

2010-01-01

390

Chocolate eating in healthy men during experimentally induced sadness and joy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study compared influences of qualitatively different emotions on eating. Motivation to eat, affective responses to chocolate and chewing of chocolate were investigated in healthy normal weight males during experimentally induced emotions. Subjects abstained from eating 2 h (n = 24) or 8 h (n = 24) before testing. They received pieces of chocolate after viewing film clips presented to induce anger, fear, sadness and joy. Motivation to eat and most affective responses to eating chocolate were higher after 8 h than after 2 h of deprivation. Sadness and joy affected motivation to eat in opposite directions: joy increased and sadness decreased appetite (p < 0.001). In joy, a higher tendency to eat more chocolate was reported (p < 0.001), and chocolate tasted more pleasant (p < 0.001) and was experienced as more "stimulating" than in sadness (p < 0.01). No effects of deprivation could be found for chewing time and number of chews. Results indicate that the quality of emotions can affect motivation to eat and affective responses to eating chocolate. Our findings on decreased eating responses to sadness in healthy males and the contradictory increased eating responses to sadness reported by others supports two types of emotion-induced changes of eating: emotion-congruent modulation of eating and eating to regulate emotions. PMID:12354683

Macht, M; Roth, S; Ellgring, H

2002-10-01

391

Study of the Influence of Safety Factors by Performing Factor Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Averages of 6,000 people die every day as a result of work-related accidents or diseases, totally more than 2.2 million work-related deaths per year. About 350,000 deaths out of this mortality are from workplace accidents and more than 1.7 million are from work related diseases. An effective safety analysis requires attention to human factors as well as system components which makes risky or safe situations in technical components. Paying attention to human factors, organizations with high reliability can recognize hazards before occurrence. One of the most important methods for achievement to this purpose is using leading criteria such as safety climate or safety culture. This is an study report on the study of the influence of safety factors by performing factor analysis at an electrical industry The questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 employees, involving employees from all levels of the organisation. The data collected was subjected to principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation using SPSS software. The results reveal that four distinct factors namely management commitment, worker knowledge, environmental safeness and validation together explains 56.6% of the total variance. Internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha across items in each of the four factors and that of the total were found to be above 0.7 and thus acceptable.. The questionnaire contained 30 questions to measure the perceptions of the employees about the management practices. Descriptive statistics and correlations of the studied variables were first analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify the reliability of the management practices. Regression analysis was conducted to test the goodness of fit of the various models.

Abhijith Jacob

2014-03-01

392

An investigation of factors influencing indoor radon concentrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variations in indoor radon concentrations and some influencing factors have been studied during a two-year period (1986-1987) in 16 almost identical single-family houses.The annual average radon concentration in the houses varied from about 50 to about 400 Bq/m3. Variations in soil characteristics and radon concentration in soil gas could not be directly related to the variations of the average indoor radon concentrations. Most of the houses showed a ''normal'' seasonal variation of the radon concentration with a maximum in the winter and minimum in the summer. A deviating seasonal variation was found in three of the houses. Hourly data obtained in one unoccupied house during a period of 2-1/2 months showed no or only weak correlations between the indoor radon concentration and meteorological factors. However, for most of the houses, the seasonal variation of the indoor radon concentration was well correlated with the average indoor-outdoor temperature difference on a 2-month basis. It was demonstrated that the radon concentration can be strongly reduced in the Risoe houses if a district-heating duct, which is connected to all the houses, is ventilated, so that a slightly lowered pressure is maintained in the duct. 5 taps., 24 ill. (author)

393

Exploring Factors That Influence Knowledge Sharing Behavior via Computer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was conducted at the International Business School (IBS University Technology Malaysia (UTM to examine the factors that influence knowledge sharing behaviour via computer. While, among these factors is perceived usefulness, students are willing to share knowledge when they feel that it is useful for them to do so. Moreover, perceived usefulness proposed as system characteristic and the only independent variable in this research. A conceptual model was developed to test the reliability and correlation of the measure. The research adopted a cross-sectional survey approach to a sample of sixty-eight (68 Master of Business Administration (MBA students from three courses participated in the survey. The researcher used the MYIBS electronic learning (e-learning open source software platform based on Claroline (http://www.ibs.utm.my/myibs to gauge students’ response on intention to share knowledge through the forum. The results indicated that perceived usefulness is positively correlates to the students’ intention to share knowledge in computer.

Majid Zamiri

2012-05-01

394

An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

2013-01-01

395

Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908 is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predictor variables (xi and dependent or criterion variable, egg production (y. Y = B0 + B1*X1 + B2*X2 + …Bn*XnThe results of the research come from the observed fluctuations in egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company during the period of 24 months. Many factors that effect egg production are poorly understood from managers of Konsoni Poultry Company. This study examines the statistical results and identifies the relationships between depended and independent variables. The study shows that there is a strong relationships between depend variably (y and independent variables (xi. and low correlations among independent variables The adjusted R2 of the multiple linear regression model is 0.48 which tells us that 48% of variation in egg production are explained by evaluated variables.Konsoni Poultry Company covers 20% of the market share for eggs in Kosovo. In general, multiple regression is used to answer the general question what is the best predictor of Konsoni egg production.

Muje Gjonbalaj

2009-05-01

396

Factors Influencing Infant and Child Mortality in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study, based on 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, attempts to identify important factors influencing infant and child mortality. Application of Cox`s proportional hazard model suggest that socio-economic status of the parents are associated with child survival. The factors that have received the most attention are maternal education, sanitation and access to safe drinking water. For instance, risk of infant mortality is 13% lower among the women having primary education and 25% lower among the women having secondary or higher education than those having no education. It was observed that 35 and 29% lower among the households having safe drinking water and good sanitary facilities, respectively than those who do not have such facilities. Similarly, risk of child mortality decreases with increased female education and wider access to safe drinking water and good sanitary facilities. So attention should be given to female education and expansion of public health system in order to reduce the risk of infant and child mortality.

Ahmad Kabir

2001-01-01

397

Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.

Stephen N. Wegulo

2012-11-01

398

Radon and radon daughters in mine atmospheres and influencing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of the total activity of radon daughters in the air of mines has become a routine procedure in order to control the radiation exposure in miners due to the inhalation of these radionuclides. Normally the measured concentration is given in terms of total potential ?-energy of the short lived radon daughters. In addition, the degree of equilibrium between the daughter products in air and the fraction of daughter products not attached to aerosol particles (the unattached fraction) must be known. The concentrations of radon and daughter products may vary considerably during the day. Seasonal variations are also frequently found. It is therefore important to have knowledge of the magnitude of these variations and of the factors having the strongest influence upon the concentrations. In this paper the main results of a study on the radiological characteristics of non-uranium mines are summarized. The correlations between the unattached fraction of the potential ?-energy and the unattached fraction of the individual daughters, and between the equilibrium factor F, and the individual daughter ratios are discussed

399

Influence of abiotic factors on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to bypass the adverse secondary effects attributed to the traditional therapeutic approaches used to treat skin disorders (such as atopic dermatitis), alternative antimicrobials have recently been suggested. One such antimicrobial is chitosan, owing to the already proved biological properties associated with its use. However, the influence of abiotic factors on such activities warrants evaluation. This research effort assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan upon skin microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in vitro when subject to a combination of different abiotic factors such as pH, ionic strength, organic acids and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids, ionic strength and pH significantly affected chitosan's capability of reducing the viable numbers of S. aureus. This antimicrobial action was potentiated in the presence of palmitic acid and a lower ionic strength (0.2% NaCl), while a higher ionic strength (0.4% NaCl) favored chitosan's action upon the reduction of viable numbers of S. epidermidis and E. coli. Although further studies are needed, these preliminary results advocate that chitosan can in the future be potentially considered as an antimicrobial of choice when handling symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis. PMID:24330167

Tavaria, Freni K; Costa, Eduardo M; Gens, Eduardo J; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Pintado, Manuela E

2013-12-01

400

Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class) on BMI in young adulthood [...] with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0). After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g), 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P

M.Z., Goldani; L.S.B., Haeffner; M., Agranonik; M.A., Barbieri; H., Bettiol; A.A.M., Silva.

1231-12-01

 
 
 
 
401

Genetic and epigenetic factors influencing chronic kidney disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a serious public health problem because of its associated morbidity, premature mortality, and attendant healthcare costs. The rising number of persons with CKD is linked with the aging population structure and an increased prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. There is an inherited risk associated with developing CKD, as evidenced by familial clustering and differing prevalence rates across ethnic groups. Previous studies to determine the inherited risk factors for CKD rarely identified genetic variants that were robustly replicated. However, improvements in genotyping technologies and analytic methods are now helping to identify promising genetic loci aided by international collaboration and multiconsortia efforts. More recently, epigenetic modifications have been proposed to play a role in both the inherited susceptibility to CKD and, importantly, to explain how the environment dynamically interacts with the genome to alter an individual's disease risk. Genome-wide, epigenome-wide, and whole transcriptome studies have been performed, and optimal approaches for integrative analysis are being developed. This review summarizes recent research and the current status of genetic and epigenetic risk factors influencing CKD using population-based information. PMID:25080522

Smyth, L J; Duffy, S; Maxwell, A P; McKnight, A J

2014-10-01

402

Family members’ roles in healthy-eating socialization based on a healthy-eating intervention  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - Healthy-eating socialization is often described as a bi-directional process, but there are only few studies on children and parent’s roles in the process. This paper investigates children and parents’ accounts of awareness and involvement in healthy eating and how they relate it to their roles in healthy-eating socialization. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 families three months after a healthy-eating intervention involving dietary advice and SMS feedback. The interviews were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. Findings - Children and parents identified several causes of awareness and involvement in healthy eating: New or re-activated health knowledge, visualization of amounts, self-regulation and planning. Children adopted two strategies in terms of family socialization: A direct strategy placing demands on parents or a cooperative strategy helping the parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often honouring the children’s demands and help. Research limitations/implications - Findings provide a concrete empirical account of the socialization process and confirm that parents still have the superior hand, when it comes to healthy eating, but with children as active players. We suggest future studies to explore the development of influence and awareness of healthy eating among children and the extent to which children wish to engage in healthy-eating socialization. Originality/value - The study supplements previous research by including children’s immediate family as a unit of analysis. By taking an intra-familiar systemic approach to studying family socialization, future studies can take into account the family support (or lack hereof), when designing interventions and evaluating the outcomes.

Pedersen, Susanne; GrØnhØj, Alice

2012-01-01

403

BIOETHICS SYMPOSIUM II: current factors influencing perceptions of animals and their welfare.  

Science.gov (United States)

To address escalating concerns about livestock animal care and welfare it is necessary to better understand the factors that may predispose people to develop such concerns. It has been hypothesized that experiences with, beliefs about, and emotional connections to animals may influence level of perceived obligation toward and therefore concern for animals. However, the extent to which people's classifications of animals and their status as pet owners may impact their views on food animal care and welfare practices remains unclear. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was therefore conducted in June 2012 to understand differences in consumer sentiment towards various animal species, classification of certain species (as pet, livestock or neither), and variations in food animal welfare concerns between dog and/or cat owners and those who do not own such species. Sixty-six percent of households in the survey owned at least 1 animal. Forty-eight percent owned dogs, 41% owned cats, 3% owned horses, and 10% owned other animals. As expected, dogs and cats were classified by most respondents (90%) as pets. Most respondents similarly categorized rabbits (58%) and horses (55%) as pets, although consensus was not found for horses with 27% classifying them as livestock animals and 18% as neither pets nor livestock. Over 80% of respondents classified beef cows, dairy cows, pigs, chickens, and turkeys as livestock. The majority of survey respondents were opposed to eating cats and dogs followed closely by horses due to ethical and/or spiritual reasons. Dog and/or cat owners more often reported having a source for animal welfare information (68%) than those who did not own these species (49%). Additionally, dog and/or cat owners were more concerned about food animal welfare for both domestically raised food animals and those raised outside the United States (dog and/or cat owners mean level of concern was 3.88 for domestic animal welfare and 5.16 for those raised outside the United States compared with non-dog or -cat owners with means of 4.46 and 5.46, respectively). Although a causal relationship cannot be established, pet ownership and increased concern for food animal welfare appear to be correlated. These data suggest that increased interest in protecting food animals may stem from interactions with and emotional connections to pets, especially when combined with other factors such as having a source for animal welfare information, education level, age, and gender. PMID:24671600

McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Olynk Widmar, N J

2014-05-01

404

Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ esti