The present dissertation addresses psychological influences on eating behavior. Understanding why people eat what they eat in everyday life, that is, motives for eating behavior, is crucial for the development of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent eating disorders. Furthermore, enhancing knowledge about both, individual and situational factors facilitating (pull factors) or impeding (push factors) healthy eating is essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity and i...
Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.
Objective: To investigate the influences of resources and food-related goals on the variety of food choice among older people. Design: A questionnaire-based survey in eight European countries: Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Italy and Spain. Subjects: Participants (n 3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversity of each of the national populations based on education, income and urbanization of living environment. Results: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that income, health status, access to a car and living arrangement affected the level of dietary variety. The perceived level of different food-related resources impacted the consumption of a varied diet over and above actual resource levels. Food-related goals contributed to variety of food intake that was not accounted for by the amount of material resources possessed or the social and other resources perceived to be possessed. Conclusions: Older people's variety of food intake depended on material resources (e.g. monthly income, access to a car, living arrangement, physical and mental health). However, in addition to these variables, the way older peopleperceived other resources, such as their level of appetite, their food knowledge, their perception of the distance to the shops, access to high-quality products, having better kitchen facilities, access to good service providers and support from friends and neighbours, all contributed to how varied a diet they ate.
Mónica del Pilar, Díaz-Beltrán.
Full Text Available La razón por la que los niños tienen determinadas características en el consumo de alimentos es un tema que preocupa tanto a padres, como a profesionales e investigadores cercanos a esta área de estudio. Aquí se buscó comprender los factores que hoy día son reconocidos como influyentes en el consumo [...] de alimentos por parte de la población infantil. Para ello se revisó literatura científica publicada desde enero de 2002 hasta abril de 2013; la revisión se adelantó en las bases de datos: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost y Redalyc. Se obtuvieron 57 documentos acordes a los criterios de inclusión definidos. Dicho ejercicio llevó a clasificar la información encontrada en condiciones individuales, características del entorno y estrategias frecuentes que pueden influir en el consumo. La revisión realizada permite concluir que hoy en día, más que hablar solo de consumo, la mirada se traslada al comportamiento alimentario. Esto incluye las características de los alimentos consumidos, lugares, experiencias, compañías, entre otros aspectos, que forman parte de un patrón de conducta alrededor de los alimentos. De esta manera, se evidencian campos de intervención e investigación en aspectos tales como conducta alimentaria por género, rasgos genéticos y estado nutricional; también se exploran creencias y experiencias alrededor de los alimentos, grupos sociales influyentes, características organolépticas de las preparaciones y estrategias de promoción que involucran mucho más que trasmitir conocimiento acerca de lo saludable, entre otros. Abstract in english Why children have certain characteristics in food consumption is a matter of concern to both parents, as professionals and researchers in their exercise near this age group. This paper aim is to understand factors and mechanisms influencing in the decision of food intake by children. Scientific lite [...] rature published was revised, from January 2002 to April 2013, in the databases: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost and Redalyc. 57 papers were obtained with the inclusion criteria used. This exercise led to classify the information found in individual conditions, characteristics of the setting and common strategies that may influence food consumption. Today, more than just talk about consumption, the works attends the feeding behavior, which includes the characteristics of the food consumed, places, experiences, companies, among others, as part of a pattern of behavior around food. This led to identify areas of intervention and research such as eating behavior by gender, genetic characteristics and nutritional status. And, the beliefs and experiences around food, influential social groups, organoleptic characteristics of recipes and promotion strategies, involve much more than transmit knowledge about how to be healthy, among others.
Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher...
Deshpande, Sameer; Basil, Michael D; Basil, Debra Z
Poor eating habits are an important public health issue that has large health and economic implications. Many food preferences are established early, but because people make more and more independent eating decisions as they move through adolescence, the transition to independent living during the university days is an important event. To study the phenomenon of food selection, the heath belief model was applied to predict the likelihood of healthy eating among university students. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the validity of the health belief model (HBM) among 194 students, followed by gender-based analyses. The data strongly supported the HBM. Social change campaign implications are discussed. PMID:19408181
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…
Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.
Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…
Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305
Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne
We review recent research on the effect of social context on food intake and food choice and assess the implications for nutritional interventions. We focus on studies of modelling of eating behaviour and the impact of perceived eating norms on the amounts and types of food that individuals eat. We suggest that social context influences eating via multiple mechanisms, including identity signalling and self-presentation concerns. However, building on existing theoretical models, we propose that social factors may be particularly influential on nutrition because following the behaviour of others is adaptive and social norms inform individuals about behaviours that are likely to be optimal ('if everyone else is doing it, I probably should be'). Guided by understanding of the potential underlying mechanisms, we discuss how social norms might be used to promote healthier nutrition. PMID:24103526
Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms. PMID:25451578
Holland, Lauren A.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.
The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eating behaviors in men and women (N=1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-...
Hilbert, A.; Pike, KM; Goldschmidt, AB; Wilfley, DE; Fairburn, CG; Dohm, FA; Walsh, BT; Striegel Weissman, R
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...
Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Viken, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Rose, Richard J
Despite many studies on the prevalence of breakfast eating, we know little about factors that determine breakfast eating patterns. Our aim was to find out to which extent breakfast eating frequency is influenced by genetic and environmental factors using twin and twin-family models in a population sample of 16-year-old twins (n = 5250) and their parents (n = 4663). In common effects sex-limitation models, additive genetic effects explained 41% (95% CI: 21-63%) of the variance in breakfast eating in girls and 66% (95% CI: 47-79%) in boys, and common environmental effects 45% (95% CI: 23-62%) in girls and 14% (95% CI: 5-29%) in boys. Of twin-family models, phenotypic assortment models fitted the data best. Heritability estimates increased somewhat (72%, 95% CI: 46-98% in girls and 63%, 95% CI: 38-89%) in boys. Common family environment remained substantial in both sexes. Cultural transmission was nonsignificant. The relative influence of genetic and family factors on adolescent breakfast eating frequency differs by sex and is generation-specific. PMID:15319573
Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674
FASSINO, Secondo; DELSEDIME, Nadia; ABBATE DAGA, Giovanni
Eating disorders (EDs) are representative of the relationship between psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders and have complex interactions in the body, mind, and brain. The psychosomatic issues of EDs emerge in the alterations of the body and its functioning, in personality traits, in the difficulty of recognizing and coping with emotions, and in the management of anger and impulsiveness. The Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research used by the authors of this chapte...
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…
Lachat, C.; Khanh, L. N.; Huynh, T. T.; Verstraeten, R.; Nago, E.; D. Roberfroid; Kolsteren, P.
Eating out of home (OH) is nutritionally important in some developing countries. This study identifies the factors associated with eating OH in Vietnamese adolescents. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional cluster survey of 502 adolescents in rural and urban areas in Vietnam. Factors associated with eating OH were recorded with a Likert scale and analysed using factor analysis. Data on eating OH was collected using a frequency questionnaire and a 1-day 24h recall. A first pattern "Conveni...
Francis, Lori A.; Birch, Leann L.
This study examined whether mothers' preoccupation with their own weight and eating was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior. Participants included 173 non-Hispanic, White mother–daughter dyads, measured longitudinally when daughters were ages 5, 7, 9, and 11. Mothers who were preoccupied with their own weight and eating reported higher levels of restricting daughters' intake and encouraging daughters to lose weight over time. Mothers' encouragement of daughters' weight loss was ...
Bulik, Cynthia M; Holle, Ann Von; Gendall, Kelly; Lie, Kari Kveim; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population-based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother's age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower proportions of male live births were observed in the anorexia and bulimia groups, while binge eating disorder and EDNOS-P were associated with a higher proportion of male births. These data suggest that maternal eating disorders may influence offspring sex and that the direction of effect may vary by eating disorder subtype. If confirmed, this finding could provide evidence in formulating hypotheses regarding the consequences of eating disorders and determinants of sex ratio at birth. PMID:18720046
Simone Lemieux; Marie-Ève Piché; Marie-Christine Dubé; Jean Bergeron; Marie-Ève Riou; Éric Doucet; Amp Ronique Provencher, V.; John Weisnagel, S.
Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity...
This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...
Cohen, D A; Babey, S H
This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473
Lyke, Jennifer; Matsen, Julie
This study investigated whether any of seven factors of family dysfunction predicted five risk factors for developing eating disorders in young adult women. Participants completed demographic questions, the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (Slade & Dewey, 1986) online. Five stepwise multiple regressions evaluated whether FAD scores predicted any of the eating disorder risk factors. Unhealthy affective responsiveness predicted general dissatisfaction and social and personal anxiety, and unhealthy general functioning predicted adolescent problems. No FAD factors predicted perfectionism or weight control. These results confirm the importance of families' affective responsiveness and general functioning to the risk of developing eating disorders. However, the lack of relationship among problem-solving, communication, roles, affective involvement, or behavior control with any of the risk factors for eating disorders warrants further investigation. PMID:24183144
Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes / Influencia de los Factores Psicológicos, Antropométricos y Sociodemográficos Sobre los Síntomas de los Trastornos Alimentarios en Jóvenes Deportistas / Influência de Fatores Psicológicos, Antropométricos e Sociodemográficos Sobre os Sintomas de Transtornos Alimentares em Jovens Atletas
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião de Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência de fatores psicológicos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares (TAs) em jovens atletas. Participaram 580 adolescentes de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), o [...] Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale para avaliar o comportamento de risco para TAs, a insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC) e o grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos. Os achados da regressão múltipla evidenciaram que somente a IC e o percentual de gordura modularam significativamente ( p Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue analizar la influencia de factores psicológicos, antropométricos y sociodemográficos en los comportamientos de riesgo para TA en atletas jóvenes. Participantes fueron 580 adolescentes de ambos sexos. Se utilizó el Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire y Commitment [...] Exercise Scale para evaluar los comportamientos de riesgo para los TA, la insatisfacción con el imagen corporal (IC) y el grado de compromiso psicológico para ejercer (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, talla y pliegues cutáneos se midieron. Los resultados de regresión múltiple mostraron que sólo el IC y el porcentaje de grasa modula de manera significativa ( p Abstract in english The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED) in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Body Shape Ques [...] tionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD) and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE), respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p
Thatcher, William; Rhea, Deborah
This study examined whether behavioral differences (exercise, dieting, changing eating habits, taking pills, or vomiting/taking laxatives to lose weight) exist when identifying the major influencing factors (media, family, friends, teacher/coach, and doctor/nurse) among Black and White men's and women's self-perceptions of body weight. Respondents…
Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary
This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference?=?967?kJ, p?.05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference?=?1067?kJ, p?=?.019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. PMID:25903236
Karina Franco Paredes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD, sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM and symptoms of eating disorders (ED. The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN, 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.
Sanna Aila Gustafsson
Full Text Available Sanna Aila Gustafsson1, Birgitta Edlund2, Lars Kjellin3, Claes Norring41Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Örebro; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala; 3Psychiatric Research Centre, University of Örebro; 4Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-Child version (EDI-C to find early predictors that might constitute risk and protective factors in the development of disordered eating.Method: Participants were divided into three groups based on eating attitudes at T2: disordered eating (n = 49, intermediate eating concern (n = 260, and healthy eating attitudes (n = 120. EDI-C from T1 (four to five years earlier was then analyzed to find predictors of group classification at T2.Results: Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction emerged as risk factors at T1, while drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and interoceptive awareness emerged as protective factors after controlling for initial eating concerns and body mass index.Discussion: Eating disorders should not be seen as a result of a premorbid personality type. Rather we should take a more social-psychological perspective to explain how individual and sociocultural factors work together in the development of these conditions. Keywords: eating disorders, EDI-C, risk factors, protective factors
Fairburn, CG; Doll, HA; Welch, SL; Hay, PJ; Davies, BA; O'Connor, ME
BACKGROUND: Many risk factors have been implicated for eating disorders, although little is known about those for binge eating disorder. METHODS: A community-based, case-control design was used to compare 52 women with binge eating disorder, 104 without an eating disorder, 102 with other psychiatric disorders, and 102 with bulimia nervosa. RESULTS: The main risk factors identified from the comparison of subjects with binge eating disorder with healthy control subjects were certain adverse chi...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire -R18 (TFEQ-R18, a measure of eating behaviour, and to evaluate cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of adolescent and young adult females of different weights. Methods Subjects were 2 997 females, aged 17 to 20 years, who participated in a phase III human papillomavirus vaccination trial in Finland in 2004 – 2009. Self-administered questionnaires and weight and height measurements were used. The factor structure of the TFEQ-R18 was verified by factor analysis. Connections between measured eating behaviour and Body Mass Index (BMI were tested using analysis of variance. Results The original factor structure of the TFEQ-R18 was replicated: six of the eighteen items measured cognitive restraint, nine measured uncontrolled eating, and three measured emotional eating. On average, higher BMI was associated with higher levels of cognitive restraint (p Conclusion Structural validity of the TFEQ-R18 was good in this sample of young Finnish females with a varying range of body weights. Use of the instrument as a measure of eating behaviour was thus corroborated. Connections of restrained and emotional eating with BMI were in accordance with previous findings from young females.
OBJECTIVE: EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes. METHOD: Students were screened using the EAT-26, EDI-III and a study-specific questionnaire. A sub-sample of parents\\' views was included. RESULTS: Three thousand and thirty-one students (mean age 14.74) and 56 parents enrolled. The majority (71.4%) of adolescents felt adversely affected by media portrayal of body weight and shape, with more than a quarter (25.6%) believing it to be \\'far too thin\\'. A significant correlation between media impact and high EAT scores (chi2 = 450.78, df = 2, p < 0.05) and EDI-III scores (chi2 = 387.51, df = 4, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Parents also view media portrayal as too thin (94.7%), less than half are adversely affected by it (49.2%) but the majority (71.9%) believe their children to be. CONCLUSION: Media portrayal of body weight and shape is correlated with eating psychopathology and may affect adolescents more than adults. School psycho-educational programmes and media policies are urgently needed to minimise any detrimental effect.
Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Larson, Christine L.; Klump, Kelly L
Although serotonin (5-HT) genes are thought to be involved in the etiology of bulimia nervosa and binge eating, findings from molecular genetic studies are inconclusive. This may be due to limitations of past research, such as a failure to consider the influence of quantitative traits and gene-environment interactions. The current study investigated these issues by examining whether quantitative traits (i.e., impulsivity) and environmental exposure factors (i.e., dietary restraint) moderate 5...
Behshid Garrusi; Mohammad Reza Baneshi
Backgrounds: Many socio cultural variables could be affect eating disorders in Asian countries. In Iran, there are few researches regarding eating disorders and their contributing factors. The aim of this study is to explore frequency of eating disorders and their risk factors in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: About 1204 participants were selected aged between fourteen to 55 years. Frequency of eating disorders and effects of variables such as demographic characteristics, Body ...
Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit
Studies linking executive function (EF) and overweight suggest that a broad range of executive functions might influence weight via obesity-related behaviors, such as particular eating styles. Currently, however, longitudinal studies investigating this assumption in children are rare. We hypothesized that lower hot and cool EF predicts a stronger increase in eating styles related to greater weight gain (food approach) and a weaker increase in eating styles related to less weight gain (food avoidance) over a 1-year period. Hot (delay of gratification, affective decision-making) and cool (attention shifting, inhibition, working memory updating) EF was assessed experimentally in a sample of 1657 elementary-school children (German school classes 1-3) at two time points, approximately one year apart. The children's food-approach and food-avoidance behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires at both time points. As expected, lower levels of hot and cool EF predicted a stronger increase in several food-approach eating styles across a 1-year period, mainly in girls. Unexpectedly, poorer performance on the affective decision-making task also predicted an increase in certain food-avoidance styles, namely, slowness in eating and satiety responsiveness, in girls. Results implicate that lower EF is not only seen in eating-disordered or obese individuals but also acts as a risk factor for an increase in particular eating styles that play a role in the development of weight problems in children. PMID:25528693
Full Text Available SummaryBackground: Treatment for inpatients presenting an eating disorder usually implies a therapeutic contract. However,treatment dropout is frequent, costky and leads to poor prognosis.Aim: To identify predictive factors of dropout in inpatients admitted for an eating disorder.Methods: In all, 916 consecutive female inpatients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and atypical bulimia nervosa were assessed at admission between 1988 and 2004 accordingly to ICD-10 classification. Clinical, sociodemographic, and psychological data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. Descriptive, univariate analyses and two logisticmodels were performed: onefor patients with anorexia or bulimia and the other for patientswith atypical bulimia.Results: Dropout rates were 49.6 % for anorexia, 55.6 % for bulimia and 69.3 % for atypical bulimia. For the anorexia/ bulimiamodel, predictive factors were the following:educational status, age at admission, subtype of eating disorder,minimumBMI and “ideal BMI” (calculated on the basis of the question “According to you, what should be your weight after treatment?”, requested upon admission, and without any medical advice. The atypical bulimia model is the first published on female inpatients to date.Psychological scores were not significant factors in both models.Conclusion: the inpatients’ characteristics seem close to those described in the literature. The results of the multivariate analysis were discussed, especially the fact that the psychometric scales had no predictive value.An innovative variable, the ideal BMI signifies that the more a thin patient declares herself ready to gain weight upon admission, the more likely she is to keep to the contract. This study highlights the importance of pre-hospitalisation preparation,particularly in terms of the patients recognising their illness.Prat Organ Soins 2008;39(1:23-32
Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael
In a random sample (N?=?951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. PMID:25308432
Marguerite B. Lucea; Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Campbell, Doris W.
We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N=790) in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands from 2009–2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality...
Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-cottone, Catherine
Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.
Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D
Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model, this significant indirect effect was not moderated by eating disorder group. The results support a prospective model of risk that applies to bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. Common prevention approaches may be possible for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. PMID:25233874
Andrade Ana M; Kresge Daniel L; Teixeira Pedro J; Baptista Fátima; Melanson Kathleen J
Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2) who consumed an ad libitum mixed-mac...
Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria
Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n?=?703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p?eating, and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive picture of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices. Future research should explore these factors to better understand their origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices. PMID:25681292
Sarunya Lertputtarak; Surat Supitchayangkool
The main purposes of this study were to study demographic factors, academic system, and social networks andother communication tools which can influence alumni donations. Using quantitative research involvingquestionnaires, the participants of this study were former and current students of master and doctoral degreeprograms in business from one of the government universities in Thailand. The results showed that academicsystem, social networks and other communication tools have an influence on...
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci
Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff; Shaw, Heather
Test (a) whether a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program that reduces thin-ideal internalization mitigates the effects of risk factors for eating disorder onset and (b) whether the risk factors moderate the effects of this intervention on risk for eating disorder onset, to place the effects of this intervention within the context of established risk factors. Female adolescents (N=481) with body image concerns were randomized to the dissonance-based program, healthy weight contro...
Chatelain, M; Halpin, C G; Rowe, C
Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148
Chatelain, M.; Halpin, C.G.; Rowe, C.
Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148
Striegel-moore, Rh; Dohm, Fa; Pike, Km; Wilfley, DE; Fairburn, Cg
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether sexual and physical abuse, bullying by peers, and ethnicity-based discrimination are associated with an increased risk for developing binge eating disorder in black women and in white women and whether any increase in risk is specific for the development of binge eating disorder. METHOD: A community sample of 162 women with binge eating disorder and 251 healthy and 107 psychiatric comparison subjects was interviewed for exposure to the risk factors under...
Eating disorders (ED) constitute a significant source of psychiatric morbidity and are an important public health concern in Western societies. Knowledge about risk factors for ED is crucial for early detection and implementation of preventive interventions. The aim of the present thesis was to examine the prevalence, incidence, correlates, and the risk factors for ED among 1,157 young adult women in the general population. The studies in the thesis used a prospective design with the potentia...
Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower p...
Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston
Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…
Yong Jun Park
Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.
Thornton, Laura M.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Family, twin, and adoption studies of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder (BED), and the proposed purging disorder presentation (PD) have consistently demonstrated that genetic factors contribute to the variance in liability to eating disorders. In addition, endophenotypes and component phenotypes of eating disorders have been evaluated and provide further insight regarding genetic factors influencing eating disorders and eating disorder diagnostic criteria. Man...
Full Text Available Backgrounds: Many socio cultural variables could be affect eating disorders in Asian countries. In Iran, there are few researches regarding eating disorders and their contributing factors. The aim of this study is to explore frequency of eating disorders and their risk factors in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: About 1204 participants were selected aged between fourteen to 55 years. Frequency of eating disorders and effects of variables such as demographic characteristics, Body Mass Index (BMI, use of media, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, social comparison and social pressure for thinness in individuals with and without eating disorders, were assessed. Findings: The prevalence of eating disorders was 11.5% that included 0.8% anorexia nervosa, 6.2% full threshold bulimia nervosa, 1.4% sub threshold anorexia nervosa and 30% sub threshold binge eating disorder. Symptoms of bulimic syndrome were greater in males. Conclusion: In Iran, eating disorders and related problems are new issue that could be mentioned seriously The identification of these disorders and their related contributing factors are necessity of management and preventive programs planning.
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M
People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). PMID:25794685
Bakalar, Jennifer L; Shank, Lisa M; Vannucci, Anna; Radin, Rachel M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e., DSM-5) currently recognizes three primary eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. The origins of eating disorders are complex and remain poorly understood. However, emerging research highlights a dimensional approach to understanding the multifactorial etiology of eating disorders as a means to inform assessment, prevention, and treatment efforts. Guided by research published since 2011, this review summarizes recent findings elucidating risk factors for the development of eating disorders across the lifespan in three primary domains: (1) genetic/biological, (2) psychological, and (3) socio-environmental. Prospective empirical research in clinical samples with full-syndrome eating disorders is emphasized with added support from cross-sectional studies, where relevant. The developmental stages of puberty and the transition from adolescence to young adulthood are discussed as crucial periods for the identification and prevention of eating disorders. The importance of continuing to elucidate the mechanisms underlying gene by environmental interactions in eating disorder risk is also discussed. Finally, controversial topics in the field of eating disorder research and the clinical implications of this research are summarized. PMID:25894358
Canals, J.; Sancho, C.; Arija, M. V.
Abstract Objective To investigate the relationship between parents’ cognitive and behavioural dimensions and the risk of eating disorders (ED) in non-clinical adolescents. Methods From an initial sample of 1,336 boys and girls with a mean age of 11.37, a total of 258 subjects were selected either as being at risk of ED or as controls. These subjects and their par...
Mojisola D, Kupolati; Gerda J, Gericke; Una E, MacIntyre.
Full Text Available Qualitative investigation can provide invaluable information towards understanding the influence of school nutrition education (NE). The study explored teachers' perceptions of the immediate impact of NE on learners' eating behaviours. Twenty-four primary school teachers in the Bronkhorstspruit dist [...] rict, Gauteng, South Africa, who taught nutrition topics to grades four to seven learners, participated in three focus group discussions. Transcript data obtained was analysed using the thematic approach of the framework method. Findings indicated that school support for NE was limited, which undermined the capacity of school NE to influence healthy eating behaviours of learners. The need to strengthen teachers' capacity to model positive eating behaviours was identified. Learners were perceived as being not completely ignorant of healthy eating, with limited capacity to effect changes within the resource-constrained environment. Negative influences like unhealthy choices of food from food vendors and peer influences were identified as needing to be discouraged. Positive influences like the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) and the school vegetable garden were to be encouraged. Understanding the prevailing school situation and environment and teachers' perceptions and roles in school NE is important in addressing issues that weaken the influence of NE on learners' eating behaviours.
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Bowker, Julie C.; Hermans, Roel C.J.
Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the “Big Two” contributors to the obesity epidemic, unhealthy eating and physical inactivity . In this article, we synthesize the empirical literature on the influence of peers and friends on youth’s eating and physical activity. L...
Eating disorders are a complex phenomenon, which has a negative effect on many areas of individual's life. It's a very complex issue, which hides in the background much more profound reasons, than the person’s wishes of becoming thinner and more beautiful. Although a lot has been said on this topic, I think that society still lacks the awareness and knowledge for a successful fight against this problem in order to diminish it. In theoretical part I defined eating disorders and their type...
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Deerajen Ramasawmy; Subratty, Anwar H.; Mahomoodally, Fawzi M.; Krige, Stephanie M.
There is currently a dearth of information pertaining to socio-demographic factors and eating practices in a multicultural country like Mauritius. This study was therefore undertaken to probe the different eating practices among an adult sample population in Mauritius in an endeavor to establish significant relationships, if any, with common socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. A self-designed questionnaire, (randomly distributed to n = 387 adults), pertaining to socio-demographic va...
Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen
Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…
Full Text Available Abstract We have reviewed the literature related to the current advances in comprehension of Eating Disorders (ED in childhood and preadolescence. The state of art regarding the psychodynamic models concerning the onset of ED are explained. DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria are discussed, pointing out their little value in the characterization of early eating difficulties. Historic and new diagnostic classifications are displayed in detail. We provided a clearer description of subclinical patterns. Finally we focus on the key role of the paediatrician in detecting and managing parental concerns regarding feeding.
Eating disorders are conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits and behaviors which may involve excessive or insufficient intake along with the individual’s mental and physical health. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa as well as binge eating are the major type of eating disorders. Parental influence has been shown to be a fundamental component in the development process of eating behaviors of children and adolescents, this effect is shaped by a variety of diverse factors including ...
Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.
Personality disorders appear to be present in a significant minority of individuals with eating disorders. For example, in contrast to reported rates in the general population of eight percent, obsessive compulsive personality is present in approximately 22 percent of individuals with anorexia, restricting type. Likewise, in contrast to rates in the general population of six percent, borderline personality is present in approximately 25 percent of individuals with anorexia nervosa, binge-eati...
Klesges, R. C.; Coates, T. J.; BROWN, G; Sturgeon-Tillisch, J; Moldenhauer-Klesges, L M; Holzer, B; Woolfrey, J; Vollmer, J.
We investigated the relationship between selected parent behaviors, child mealtime behavior, and infant relative weight. Subjects were 7 male and 7 female children varying in age from 12 to 30 months (mean = 23.9 months). Each subject and parents were observed during the dinnertime meal on two occasions using the BATMAN (Bob and Tom's Method of Assessing Nutrition). The children spent 58% of the mealtime eating. They spent very little time making active decisions about what and how much they ...
Smith, Kylie J; Blizzard, Leigh; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J
Eating frequency may be important in the development of overweight and obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors; however, the evidence is inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between the number of eating occasions and cardiometabolic risk factors in a national population-based sample of young adults. A cohort of 1273 men and 1502 women, aged 26-36 years, completed a meal pattern chart to record when they had eaten during the previous day (in hourly intervals). The total number of eating occasions was calculated. Diet quality was assessed, waist circumference was measured and a fasting blood sample was taken. Dietary intake was compared with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The associations between the number of eating occasions and cardiometabolic risk factors were calculated using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, education and physical activity. Most men ate three to five times per d and most women ate four to six times. The proportion of participants meeting dietary recommendations increased with the number of eating occasions. For men, an additional eating occasion was associated with reductions in mean values for waist circumference (-0·75 cm), fasting glucose (-0·02 mmol/l), fasting insulin (-0·34 mU/l; 2·04 pmol/l), TAG (-0·03 mmol/l), total cholesterol (-0·08 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol (-0·06 mmol/l). Adjustment for waist circumference attenuated the results. Significant trends were not observed for women. In conclusion, a higher number of eating occasions were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk factors in men. Many associations were mediated by waist circumference. PMID:22177728
Forrester-Knauss Christine; Zemp Stutz Elisabeth
Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eatin...
Andrade Ana M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.
Emma P. Vince
Full Text Available Objective: To consolidate knowledge from research on associates of disordered eating to guide future research efforts, asking “which factors are associated with the presence of disturbed eating/ anorexia/ bulimia?” Method: We reviewed 232 studies, comprising 87,878 participants, through 74 individual meta-analyses under 12 associative factor category headings.Results: Race had no association (r = .02, whilst anxiety (r = .47 and depression (r = .39 were modestly associated with disordered eating. Women with eating disorders were more likely than controls to have experienced abuse (r = .19, personality disorders (r = .26, an increased tendency to self-harm (r = .37, various personality traits such as perfectionism (r = .30 and hostility (r = .40, and engage in more exercise (r = .13. A higher incidence of stressful life events were reported by women with bulimia (r = .23 but not by women with other eating disorders.Conclusions: Although disturbed eating, anorexia and bulimia show similar associations with various factors, they also show some disorder-specific relationships, highlighting overlapping and unique aspects of the disorders. Suggestions to benefit further research are proposed based on these differences.
Ramos, M; Stein, L M
OBJECTIVES: Review the literature, exploring factors that contribute to the development of children's eating behavior such as the role of learning and social context. METHODS: The review of the literature was done using Medline, Psyclit, and Lilacs as resources for assessing international and national research articles on child nutrition, with an emphasis on children's eating behavior. These articles were revised and grouped together according to the topic. RESULTS: Family is responsible for the development of children's eating behavior through social learning. Parents are children's first nutritional educators. Children's eating experiences are influenced by cultural and psychosocial factors. Social context plays a relevant role in this process, especially through the strategies used by parents to encourage children to have a balanced diet and to eat specific foods. These strategies may contain adequate and inadequate stimuli as to the development of children's food preference and food intake self-control. CONCLUSION: The learning process is a determining factor for children's eating behavior, and is associated with three factors: food flavor conditioning, food postingestional consequences, and social context. Parents are deeply concerned with the amount of food their children eat and not with the development of more adequate habits and attitudes related to dietary quality. PMID:14676901
van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin; Obremski-Brandon, Karen; Coovert, Michael
Recent theoretical approaches to the etiology of eating disorders and body image disturbances have begun to focus on multifactorial models. In the current study, the Tripartite Influence model was examined in a large sample of college females (ages 18-22). This model proposes that three primary core sources of influence--parents, peers and media--contribute to the development of body image and eating disturbances. Additionally, the model suggests that at least two factors mediate the relationship between influences and disturbance-appearance comparison and internalization of media information. In this study, appearance comparison was examined as a mediational link between peer, family and media influence variables and the outcome disturbance measures of eating dysfunction and body image dissatisfaction. Covariance structure modeling (CSM) was used to test the proposed pathways. The results indicated that appearance comparison mediated the effects of family and media influences on body dissatisfaction, which in turn influenced restrictive and bulimic behaviors. In addition, peer influences had a direct influence on restriction. Perfectionism was hypothesized to relate to body dissatisfaction, but was in fact found to influence appearance comparison. The findings were limited by the necessity of several modifications to the originally proposed models, yet offer replication and extension of previous work with appearance comparison and support for further testing of the Tripartite Influence model. PMID:12445590
Mitchison D; Hay PJ
Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method: A keyword sear...
Xochitl, López-Aguilar; Juan Manuel, Mancilla-Díaz; Rosalia, Vázquez-Arévalo; Karina, Franco-Paredes; Georgina Leticia, Alvarez-Rayón; Ma. Trinidad, Ocampo Téllez-Girón.
Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar la consistencia interna, el análisis de factores y la validez de criterio de tipo concurrente y discriminante del Cuestionario de Tres Factores de la Alimentación (TFEQ). Participaron 604 mujeres (x? = 20.28, DE = 5.70), quienes completaron una batería [...] de cuestionarios: TFEQ, Cuestionario de Actitudes ante la Alimentación (EAT-40) y Cuestionario de Bulimia (BULIT). Los resultados señalan un coeficiente de consistencia interna adecuada (? =.87) y una estructura factorial de dos factores (restricción alimentaria y desinhibición), los cuales explican el 30 % de la varianza total. Los análisis de la validez concurrente y discriminante, muestran datos satisfactorios. Por tanto, el TFEQ es un instrumento adecuado para evaluar la patología alimentaria. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the internal consistency, the factor analysis and the concurrent and discriminate validity of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). 604 women (x? = 20.28, SD = 5.70), completed TFEQ, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and Bulimia Test (BULIT). Re [...] sults showed an appropriate internal consistency coefficient (? = .87) and a structure of two factors (dietary restraint and disinhibition), which explain 30% of the total variance. The analysis of concurrent and discriminant validity showing satisfactory data. Therefore, the TFEQ is an appropriate instrument for assessing eating pathology.
Ana Olivia, Ruíz Martínez; Rosalía, Vázquez Arévalo; Juan Manuel, Mancilla Díaz; Carme, Viladrich i Segués; María Elizabeth, Halley Castillo.
Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva multifactorial el presente trabajo es una revisión sobre los factores familiares asociados a los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA), considerando las aportaciones teóricas y empíricas propuestas en artículos nacionales e internacionales. Los resultados de la búsqueda s [...] obre TCA y familia, indican que los principales tópicos investigados son: funcionamiento familiar, relaciones hija-padres, experiencias estresantes, psicopatología familiar, actitudes y conductas hacia el peso, alimentación e imagen corporal en las familias afectadas. Se concluye reconociendo la heterogeneidad de las familias con TCA y la compleja combinación de factores familiares asociados a la psicopatología alimentaria. Se sugiere mayor investigación sobre: funcionamiento familiar de las personas con TCANE, el papel del padre, factores de protección, afrontamiento al estrés, imagen corporal y alimentación familiar. Abstract in english From a multifactorial perspective this study present a review about the family factors associated to eating disorders, considering theoretical and empirical contributions in national and international journals articles . The find of the research about the Eating Disorders and Family, indicate that t [...] he principal topics investigated are: family functioning, daughters and fathers relationships, stressful experiences, family psychopathology, attitudes and behaviors about weigh, eating and body image in the affected families. We conclude recognizing the heterogeneity of the families with Eating Disorders and the complex combination of family factors associated to eating psychopathology. More research is suggested about: family functioning in EDNOS patients, the father's role, protective factors, coping stress, body image and family food.
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed; Nurul Hidayah Nazri; See?Ling Loy
Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right mea...
Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn
While perfectionism is widely considered to influence risk for eating disorders, results of longitudinal studies are mixed. The goal of the current study was to investigate a more complex model of how baseline perfectionism (both high personal standards and self-critical evaluative concerns) might influence change in risk status for eating disorders in young adolescent girls, through its influence on ineffectiveness. The study was conducted with 926 girls (mean age of 13 years), and involved three waves of data (baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modelling, incorporating the average rate at which risk changed over time, the intercept (initial status) of ineffectiveness, and baseline perfectionism, was used to explore longitudinal mediation. Personal standards was not supported as contributing to risk but results indicated that the higher mean scores on ineffectiveness over the three waves mediated the relationship between higher baseline self-critical evaluative concerns and both measures of eating disorder risk. The relationship between concern over mistakes and change in risk was small and negative. These results suggest the usefulness of interventions related to self-criticism and ineffectiveness for decreasing risk for developing an eating disorder in young adolescent girls. PMID:25698165
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Bowker, Julie C; Hermans, Roel C J
Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the "Big Two" contributors to the obesity epidemic, unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. In this article, we synthesize the empirical literature on the influence of peers and friends on youth's eating and physical activity. Limitations and issues in the theoretical and empirical literatures are also discussed, along with future research directions. In conclusion, we argue that the involvement of children's and adolescents' peer networks in prevention and intervention efforts may be critical for promoting and maintaining positive behavioral health trajectories. However, further theoretical and empirical work is needed to better understand the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of peers on youth's eating and physical activity. PMID:22480733
The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating, and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada. Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight, and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight at 4.5 years than were children who were never overeaters. Conclusion Given the association between eating behaviours and bodyweight among 4.5-year-old children, particularly among those from less educated, lower income families and younger mothers, health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity and underweight with focussed messages and strategies for the management of emerging problematic eating behaviours.
Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M
We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15?years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R (2)???41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. PMID:26032800
Zhou, Bei; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Seki, Sayaka; Tatano, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chisaki; Takeda, Eiji
In general, vegetables are abundantly consumed in a calorie-restricted diet to achieve sufficient satiety through fresh food or various cooking methods. In this study, we examined the effects of different cooking methods on appetite and specific perceptions of the food after consumption; eating approaches were also analyzed by meal duration. A total of 153 individuals aged 20-59 years were assigned to 2 groups: raw vegetable or boiled vegetable meals, including packed meals that were served as test meals with the same energy and vegetable amount. Subjective levels of sensory properties and meal duration were assessed over time using visual analog scales, including questionnaires. Results showed that meal duration was significantly longer for raw vegetable meals than boiled vegetable meals, and there were significantly stronger correlations between meal duration and fullness. A higher degree of fullness was provided by a raw vegetable meal than a boiled vegetable meal, especially in men. However, an excess of raw vegetables led to overall insufficient satisfaction. Taken together, these findings suggest that cooking methods should be altered for different situations with an adequate amount of vegetables, and the meal duration should be recommended to be given as much attention as cooking methods. PMID:24705757
Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee
Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…
Full Text Available There is currently a dearth of information pertaining to socio-demographic factors and eating practices in a multicultural country like Mauritius. This study was therefore undertaken to probe the different eating practices among an adult sample population in Mauritius in an endeavor to establish significant relationships, if any, with common socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. A self-designed questionnaire, (randomly distributed to n = 387 adults, pertaining to socio-demographic variables, vegetarianism, breakfast patterns, eating out of home meals (OHMs, food frequency questions and dieting practices were asked. Males (21 - 40 yrs had a significantly (p < 0.05 higher consumption of OHM at lunch. Higher mean frequencies of consuming OHMs were found amid specific groups (e.g. amongst professionals as compared to each of manual workers, unemployed, retired and self-employed which also depicted significantly lower percentages of adhesion to the WHO recommended daily intake of vegetables. Oily foods were frequently consumed by males (41 - 60 yrs whereas none of the socio-demographic factors assessed revealed a significant relationship (p > 0.05 to adherence to the recommendations for the consumption of fish. The socio-demographic factors most influential towards eating practices were gender, age and socio-economic status represented by education and occupation. In conclusion, relationships recorded in the present study were comparable to Western eating practices and the availability of certain foods has compelled Mauritians to develop its own and unique eating patterns which can be of relevance in providing accurate health targets for future nutrition interventions in Mauritius.
Davies, W Hobart; Ackerman, Lynn K; Davies, Cheryl M; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B
Conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the About Your Child's Eating (AYCE) inventory with 763 parents. Parent subjects were drawn from a community study of families with physically healthy and chronically ill children between 8 and 16 years of age. Three correlated factors were identified: Child Resistance to Eating, Positive Mealtime Environment, and Parent Aversion to Mealtime. The internal consistency of the factors remained satisfactory across all examined demographic subgroups. Evidence for convergent validity was found by comparing the AYCE factors to higher order factors of the Family Environment Scale. Empirically derived clinical range cut-off scores are presented. Results support the AYCE as a psychometrically sound measure of the parent-child feeding relationship for school-aged children. PMID:17950934
Ganasegeran Kurubaran; Al-Dubai Sami AR; Qureshi Ahmad M; Al-abed Al-abed AA; AM Rizal; Aljunid Syed M
Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating ha...
KARAGAS, MARGARET R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Oken, Emily; Choi, Anna Lai; Korrick, Susan Abigail; Sunderland, Elsie
Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targete...
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed
Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.
Carmen Daniela DOMNARIU
Full Text Available The development of eating behaviours is a dynamic process that begins in infancy and continues throughout life, being strongly influenced by the family models. Our study aimed to evaluate the food behaviour in children aged 11, 13 and 15 years old in relation to the family models. We did a cross-sectional study in 206 school children from Sibiu county (rural and urban areas using the Romanian version of HBSC questionnaire. We analysed the frequency of breakfast and dinner with the family, the lunch circumstances, the frequency of snacks during playtime or computer work, the family influence on the consumption of certain unhealthy foods, the frequency of fast-food restaurants attendance and the compliance of family dining rules. High proportions of children were found not to have breakfast with family, to eat snacks during playtime and to receive soft drinks, sweets and chips without restriction. Also a high proportion of children in urban areas use to have the lunch at school (as a snack due to the school program. By opposite, the situation seemed much better in relation to dinner, most of the children having daily dinners with their parents. Also a low percent of children use to visit the fast food restaurants. Moderate compliance was found in relation to family dining rules. This results are quite concerning, showing limited involvement of the parents and moderate influence of family modelling in relation to the children eating behaviour.
Danner, Unna N; Evers, Catharine; Sternheim, Lot; van Meer, Floor; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Geerets, Tiny A M; Breteler, Leonie M T; de Ridder, Denise T D
Research suggests that individuals with binge eating pathology (e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED)) have decision making impairments and particularly act impulsively in response to negative affect. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of negative affect on choice behavior in women with BN and BED. Ninety women (59 with BN or BED and 31 healthy controls) watched a sad or control film fragment and were subsequently asked to complete a choice behavior task (as measured by a variation of the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT)). Results showed that negative affect influenced choice behavior differently in healthy controls and in women with BN and BED after punishment (but not after reward). In the context of increased negative affect, punishment was associated with more disadvantageous choice behavior in both BN and BED women but not in healthy controls, while the effect was the exact opposite in both groups after a decrease in negative affect. Levels of sadness were not found to influence choice behavior after reward in either groups. These findings suggest that emotional states may have a direct impact on choice behavior of individuals with binge eating pathology and are not only related to pathological behavior itself. PMID:23167986
Scaglioni, Silvia; Arrizza, Chiara; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Tedeschi, Sabrina
Parents have a high degree of control over the environments and experiences of their children. Food preferences are shaped by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This article is a review of current data on effective determinants of children's eating habits. The development of children's food preferences involves a complex interplay of genetic, familial, and environmental factors. There is evidence of a strong genetic influence on appetite traits in children, but environment plays an important role in modeling children's eating behaviors. Parents use a variety of strategies to influence children's eating habits, some of which are counterproductive. Overcontrol, restriction, pressure to eat, and a promise of rewards have negative effects on children's food acceptance. Parents' food preferences and eating behaviors provide an opportunity to model good eating habits. Satiety is closely related to diet composition, and foods with low energy density contribute to prevent overeating. Parents should be informed about the consequences of an unhealthy diet and lifestyle and motivated to change their nutritional habits. Parents should be the target of prevention programs because children model themselves on their parents' eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating-related attitudes, and dissatisfaction regarding body image. Pediatricians can have an important role in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life. PMID:22089441
Rohde, Kerstin; Keller, Maria; Horstmann, Annette; Liu, Xuanshi; Eichelmann, Fabian; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne
The beneficial effects of adiponectin and its negative correlation with BMI are well described. Adiponectin serum levels are altered in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating. Here, we tested the hypothesis that (1) adiponectin serum levels correlate with human eating behavior factors and (2) that genetic variants of the ADIPOQ locus influence both serum levels and eating behavior. We analyzed 11 SNPs within ADIPOQ and in the 5? UTR and measured serum adi...
Grimm, Eleanor R; Steinle, Nanette I.
Understanding why we eat and the motivational factors driving food choices is important to addressing the epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Eating behavior is a complex interplay of physiologic, psychological, social, and genetic factors that influence meal timing, quantity of food intake, and food preference. Here we review the current and emerging knowledge of the genetic influences of eating behavior and how these relate to obesity with particular emphasis on the g...
Chatelain, M.; Halpin, C.G.; Rowe, C.
Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumpt...
Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young
Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders. PMID:25652251
Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad
Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...
Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita, Carlos; Sánchez, Marta; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Valverde-Cerros, Oscar; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán
Purpose . To identify the influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Design . Qualitative, descriptive research was used in this study. Setting . Adolescents and parents were recruited from socioeconomically diverse populations in rural and urban areas of San José, Costa Rica. Subjects . Subjects were 92 adolescents (14 to 17 years old) and 48 parents. Methods . Focus group data were transcribed and entered into the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti version 5.0. Analyses were grounded on the social cognitive theory. Results . Five themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) Costa Rican adolescents associate the consumption of moderate quantities of healthy foods with femininity and male homosexuality. (2) The consumption of hearty portions of nonhealthy foods was associated with masculinity and male heterosexuality. (3) There is an emerging view that it is acceptable for heterosexual male adolescents to take care of their bodies through healthy eating. (4) Body care among female adolescents is an element of femininity and body image. (5) Parents reinforce their daughters' persistent concern with weight control because they perceive it as feminine behavior. Conclusion . Health promoters should be aware of the existing and changing food stereotypes around gender as an avenue for the promotion of healthy eating. PMID:24720390
Raevuori, Anu; Niemelä, Solja; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sourander, Andre
Evidence of the relation of complications occurring in the pregnancy, delivery and neonatal periods to the risk of contracting a subsequent eating disorder has been obtained during recent years. Factors associated with parturition and neonatal period seem to predict both anorexia and bulimia, whereas disorders during pregnancy are more clearly associated with the descendant's anorexia. This difference may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disorders. PMID:19341025
This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly rk force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.
Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of excess
Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S.
Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk fact...
Kegler, Michelle C; Swan, Deanne W; Alcantara, Iris; Feldman, Lynne; Glanz, Karen
Despite the recognition that environments play a role in shaping physical activity and healthy eating behaviors, relatively little research has focused on rural homes and neighborhoods as important settings for obesity prevention. This study, conducted through community-based participatory research, used a social ecological model to examine how home and neighborhood food and physical activity environments were associated with weight status among rural-dwelling adults. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of White and African American adults (n?=?513) aged 40-70 years living in rural southwest Georgia. Data were analyzed using measured variable path analysis, a form of structural equation modeling. The results support a social ecological approach to obesity prevention. Physical activity had a direct effect on BMI; self-efficacy, family support for physical activity, and household inventory of physical activity equipment also had direct effects on physical activity. Neighborhood walkability had an indirect effect on physical activity through self-efficacy and family social support. Although neither fruit and vegetable intake nor fat intake had direct effects on BMI, self-efficacy and household food inventories had direct effects on dietary behavior. Perceived access to healthy foods in the neighborhood had an indirect effect on healthy eating and a direct effect on weight; neighborhood cohesion had an indirect effect on healthy eating through self-efficacy. Overall, individual factors and home environments tended to exhibit direct effects on behavior, and neighborhood variables more often exhibited an indirect effect. PMID:23408285
Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Monica E; Winegard, Ben; Winegard, Bo
The relative impact of genetic and social influences on disordered eating behaviors (DEB) including binging, purging, excessive dieting and negative self-evaluations about weight remain an issue of debate. The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and social influences on DEB. A 7-year prospective analysis of 580 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins was conducted. Estimates of heritability of DEB were obtained using the DF Analysis Model. Regression equations revealed the relative predictive value of sibling's DEB, neurotic personality, maternal warmth and television and video game exposure on DEB. Heritability estimates for DEB were 0.40 for females and 0.48 for males. Among MZ and DZ twin pairs, female sex, neurotic personality and a genetic variable component, but not maternal warmth or school related problems, predicted DEB. Contrary to the expectations of media effects theory, greater media use was associated with lower DEB among DZ twins and had no influence on MZ twins. These results indicate that DEB is highly heritable and that personality variables may play an important role in the formation of DEB. This suggests that it is important to control for genetic variables when analyzing risk factors for DEB. PMID:22278805
Thiemann, Pia; Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Platen, Petra; Auyeung, Bonnie; Herpertz, Stephan
This study examines putative non-sport-specific and sport-specific risk factors for eating disorders (ED) among groups of professional female athletes versus non-athletes. In detail, societal pressure to be thin, its internalisation, body dissatisfaction, sports pressure and early specialisation were investigated. The cross-sectional study included 46 aesthetic and 62 ball game sports athletes, and 108 age-matched non-athletes. Study methods comprised a clinical interview to detect ED and questionnaires. More athletes from aesthetic (17%) than from ball game sports (3%) and non-athletes (2%) suffered from ED. Aesthetic sports athletes did not differ from non-athletes in non-sport-specific factors but obtained higher levels than ball game sports athletes in sport-specific variables (p?disordered eating, with sports pressure and body dissatisfaction as significant predictors. The results confirm ED risk for German aesthetic athletes and indicate the importance of sports pressure and body dissatisfaction in explaining athletes' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25828261
Bauer Katherine W
Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term role that parental encouragement and attitudes about fitness and exercise play in adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits remains unclear. This paper aims to longitudinally examine how parental encouragement to be physically active and parental concern about staying fit are associated with adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits five years later. Methods Project EAT-II adolescent and young adult participants (1130 male, 1386 female completed surveys while in middle school or high school (1998–1999, and again 5 years later. Participants were asked whether their mother and father encourage them to be physically active and care about staying fit and exercising. Adolescent moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA and TV/video watching (hours/week were assessed. Linear regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline behavior were used to examine the association of Time 1 parental factors with behavioral outcomes among adolescents and young adults five years later (Time 2. Results After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline MVPA, adolescent-reported maternal and paternal encouragement to be active, and paternal care for fitness, were positively associated with weekly hours of MVPA after five years in young adult males (p for trend ? .01. The positive relationship between maternal encouragement and MVPA approached significance among high-school aged females (p for trend = .06, and paternal encouragement was positively related to MVPA among high-school aged males (p for trend = .02. While maternal encouragement to be active was associated with decreased TV/video time among younger females (p for trend = .02, other parental factors were not associated with lower TV/video time among the other groups. Conclusion Parental encouragement to be active was associated with increased physical activity among males and younger females 5 years later. Younger adolescents appear to be especially influenced by their same-sex parent. These findings suggest that encouragement may be more influential than parental concern for fitness on adolescents' physical activity habits. Further research is needed to determine how parents can help adolescents decrease sedentary behavior time.
Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward
The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…
Full Text Available La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria está aumentando en los países industrializados y hay evidencia de que son las mujeres jóvenes las que tienen un mayor riesgo para desarrollar este tipo de patologías. Esa es la razón por la que los programas de prevención e intervención son tan importantes. Para desarrollar tales programas es necesario identificar los factores de riesgo relevantes que contribuyen a la aparición de este trastorno. En la presente investigación se analizan variables sociales relacionadas con el riesgo a desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (comparaciones sociales, actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia y la ansiedad social en una muestra no clínica de 375 mujeres. Los resultados muestran que la comparación social está directa e indirectamente (a través de la ansiedad social relacionada de forma positiva con el riesgo para desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, mientras que las actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia lo hace de forma indirecta (a través de la ansiedad social y positiva con los problemas de la conducta alimentaria. Finalmente, se discute la importancia de incluir estas variables sociales en los programas de prevención e intervención.
We examined the hypotheses that proposing higher levels of emotional intelligence (ability test and self-report) and lower neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness associate with lower levels of disordered eating. In a correlational study, 126 Israeli college students completed two measures of emotional intelligence, a brief five-factor personality test, demographic data questionnaires, and questionnaires assessing food preoccupation, namely, the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Scale and the Appearance Schema Inventory. Results suggested that ability emotional intelligence is associated with disordered eating beyond gender and personality. Self-reported emotional intelligence did not associate with any of the outcomes after controlling for personality. Implications and applications are briefly discussed. PMID:23682062
Reyna María, Cruz Bojórquez; María Luisa, Ávila Escalante; Héctor Julián, Velázquez López; Damaris Francis, Estrella Castillo.
Full Text Available Los medios de comunicación, el ambiente social y los factores personales desempeñan un papel importante como factores de riesgo de los TCA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación entre las influencias socioculturales del modelo estético corporal con las cogniciones que son caracter [...] ísticas de los TCA, en estudiantes de licenciatura en nutrición. Se contó con 112 participantes (88 mujeres y 24 hombres) estudiantes de la licenciatura en nutrición. 15.9% de las mujeres y el 20.8% de los hombres presentaron insatisfacción corporal. Los hombres presentaron significativamente mayor malestar patológico, influencia de la publicidad y perfeccionismo que las mujeres. Tanto en hombres y mujeres se muestra una correlación significativa entre la interiorización de un cuerpo delgado y la insatisfacción corporal. Casi la mitad de los participantes (48%) presenta una interiorización del modelo estético de delgadez. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre la interiorización de un modelo estético delgado y la insatisfacción corporal, lo cual indica que dicha insatisfacción está mediada por aquellos estándares provenientes de los medios de comunicación. Abstract in english The media, the social environment and personal factors play an important role as risk factors for eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociocultural influences body shape model with cognitions that are characteristic of eating disorders in undergraduate n [...] utrition. Participated 112 students (88 women and 24 men) undergraduate students in nutrition. 15.9% of women and 20.8% of the men had body dissatisfaction. Men showed significantly greater pathological distress advertising influence and perfectionism than women. Both men and women shows a significant correlation between the internalization of a thin body and body dissatisfaction. Almost half of the participants (48%) had an internalization body thin model. Significant correlations were found between the internalization of a thin aesthetic model and body dissatisfaction, which indicates that this dissatisfaction is mediated by those standards from the media.
Petrovich, Gorica D.
Appetite and eating are not only controlled by energy needs, but also by extrinsic factors that are not directly related to energy balance. Environmental signals that acquire motivational properties through associative learning—learned cues—can override homeostatic signals and stimulate eating in sated states, or inhibit eating in states of hunger. Such influences are important, as environmental factors are believed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to overeating and the rise ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dropout (DO is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs, but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. Methods All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009 were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed. Results The dropout rates ranged from 20.2% to 51% (inpatient and from 29% to 73% (outpatient. Predictors of dropout were inconsistent due to methodological flaws and limited sample sizes. There is no evidence that baseline ED clinical severity, psychiatric comorbidity or treatment issues affect dropout. The most consistent predictor is the binge-purging subtype of anorexia nervosa. Good evidence exists that two psychological traits (high maturity fear and impulsivity and two personality dimensions (low self-directedness, low cooperativeness are related to dropout. Conclusion Implications for clinical practice and areas for further research are discussed. Particularly, these results highlight the need for a shared definition of dropout in the treatment of eating disorders for both inpatient and outpatient settings. Moreover, the assessment of personality dimensions (impulse control, self-efficacy, maturity fear and others as liability factors for dropout seems an important issue for creating specific strategies to reduce the dropout phenomenon in eating disorders.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating habits and psychosocial factors. Results Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 22.7 (±2.4 years and (the age ranged from 18 to 30?years. More than half had regular meals and breakfast (57.6% &, 56.1% respectively. Majority (73.5% consumed fruits less than three times per week, 51.5% had fried food twice or more a week and 59.8% drank water less than 2 liters daily. Eating habits score was significantly low among younger students (18–22?years, smokers, alcohol drinkers and those who did not exercise. (ppp Conclusion Most of the students in this study had healthy eating habits. Social and psychological factors were important determinants of eating habits among medical students.
Yong Jun Park; Chang Min Moon; Hwang Jae Yoo
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and prese...
Woodward, Halley E; Rizk, Marianne T; Wang, Shirley S; Treat, Teresa A
We investigated eating- and weight-related correlates of self-evaluation influences (SEIs) and examined the extent to which such SEIs can be both over- and undervalued and the extent to which measurement strategy affects SEIs. A female undergraduate sample (n = 549) completed 3 measures of SEI importance and questionnaires assessing disordered eating (DE), body mass index (BMI), and depression. SEI measures included Likert scale, rank ordering, and pairwise forced choice; a subset (n = 62) also completed the Shape- and Weight-Based Self-Esteem Scale (SAWBS). Only rank ordering, forced choice, and SAWBS constrain choices among SEIs, such that prioritizing one SEI necessarily deprioritizes another, which reflects real-world restrictions on individuals' allotment of time and energy (e.g., spending hours exercising daily necessarily reduces time available for other activities). By any measure, women with DE overvalue body shape and weight. The constraining measures reveal systematic undervaluation of intelligence and achievement among women with DE and an enhanced effect of DE on the overvaluation of weight and on the undervaluation of being a good person among those with higher BMI. Depressed women's self-evaluations overemphasize appearance and underemphasize interpersonal relationships. Self-evaluations of women with DE are marked by both over- and undervaluation of relevant SEIs; the overvaluation of shape and weight in DE may be associated with costs. Future use of constraining measures, such as forced choice or rank ordering, may enhance our understanding of both over- and underemphasized SEIs among women with DE. PMID:24854805
Sanna Aila Gustafsson; Birgitta Edlund; Lars Kjellin; et al,
Sanna Aila Gustafsson1, Birgitta Edlund2, Lars Kjellin3, Claes Norring41Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Örebro; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala; 3Psychiatric Research Centre, University of Örebro; 4Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disor...
Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray Ö
Culture-based contributors play a role in eating disorders (EDs). Here, we present one such factor that may play a role in triggering ED's in adolescents: Fasting during the holy period of Ramadan. Ramadan is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, and smoking, which starts from dawn lasting until sunset. For the past 2 years, we have noticed an increase in patients with disordered eating patterns that have applied to Hacettepe University, Division of Adolescent Medicine during or shortly after Ramadan. We document six of these patients, three of which were diagnosed with an ED and three that did not meet full criteria. We argue that the possible effects of a drastic change in ones diet such as that which occurs during Ramadan, play an important role in triggering ED's in adolescents with a predisposition or may exacerbate an eating pathology. PMID:24474707
Student Claudia MOIS?
Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive) and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.
Student Claudia MOIS?
Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.
Relevancia de Factores de Riesgo, Psicopatología Alimentaria, Insatisfacción Corporal y Funcionamiento Psicológico en Pacientes con TCA / Relevant Risk Factors, Current Eating Psychopathology, Body Shape Concern and Psychological Functioning in Eating Disorders
Anna, Carretero García; Luís, Sánchez Planell; Jordi, Rusiñol Estragués; Rosa M.ª, Raich Escursell; David, Sánchez Carracedo.
Full Text Available Objetivo: El primer objetivo del estudio es evaluar restrospectivamente, la relevancia de factores de riesgo en pacientes con Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA) en función de la categoría diagnóstica. El segundo objetivo, es evaluar la psicopatología alimentaria, la insatisfacción corporal y [...] el funcionamiento psicológico en cada grupo diagnóstico. Método: Se evalúa en el momento previo al tratamiento de TCA, un total de 73 pacientes con diferentes criterios diagnósticos: Bulimia Nerviosa Purgativa (BN-P; n=29), la provisional forma diagnóstica del Trastorno por Atracón (TA; n=6), el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Purgativo (TCANE-P; n=17) y el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Restrictivo (TCANE-R; n=21). Resultados: Se hallan como factores de riesgo de consistencia el antecedente de obesidad y el inicio del TCA en la adolescencia. El inicio de la menarquia en la edad temprana no resulta ser un factor de riesgo. El Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) refleja la sintomatología alimentaria de cada cuadro diagnóstico. El grupo BN-P, se caracteriza por presentar mayor severidad en la sintomatología alimentaria. La mayoría de grupos presenta larga duración de la enfermedad, dificultades en la imagen corporal, el funcionamiento psicosocial y características de personalidad. El sentimiento de ineficacia no fue una característica clínica en casos de TA. Conclusiones: El que los antecedentes de obesidad se hayan mostrado como un factor de riesgo de consistencia en los TCA es un argumento más a favor de la necesidad de su prevención. Las dificultades en el funcionamiento psicosocial encontradas en casos clínicos con TA, avalarían la necesidad de líneas de intervención de tipo más interpersonal en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective: The first aim of this study is a retrospective assessment of relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (ED). The second aim is to study eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning assessment in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evalua [...] tion before intervention of 73 patients with Bulimia Nervosa Purging type (BN-P; n=29), Binge Eating Disorder (BED; n=6), Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Purging type (EDNOS-P; n=17) and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Restrictive type (EDNOS-R; n=21). Findings: Consistent risk factors in the precedent of obesity and the beginning of the ED in adolescence. The young age at which menarche occurred was not a risk factor. The eating symptomatology of each diagnostic category reflected the nutritional state. The BN-P group presented a more severe eating symptomatology. The majority of the groups had long duration illness and had difficulties with body shape, social performance, and personality problems. The feeling of ineffectiveness was not a clinical characteristic in Binge eating cases. Conclusion: The precedent of obesity showed up as a consolidated risk factor in eating disorders, supporting the necessity of prevention. Difficulties found in social performance in binge eating support the necessity of interpersonal intervention.
Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C ve humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size distributions. (authors)
Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.
Courty, Annaig; Godart, Nathalie; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie
Socio-affective difficulties, in particular difficulties in representing, communicating and feeling emotions, may play a critical role in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore the links between alexithymia and two types of difficulties in AN: eating symptoms and social avoidance. Sixty adolescent girls with AN were recruited following hospitalisation in a specialised department. They completed self-administered questionnaires of alexithymia (TAS-20), of central symptoms of the eating disorders (EDI), and of anxious and depressive affects (SCL-90). Anxiety and social avoidance were assessed in the course of a standardised interview (LSAS). These measures were performed at inclusion, and at 6-, 12- and 18-months' follow-up. The relationship between TAS-20 and EDI or LSAS total scale scores across the four time points was assessed using mixed-effects models, including anxiety, depression, BMI, anorexia subtype, and age as co-factors. Partial least square regression was used to refine this multivariate analysis at subscale level, at inclusion and 18 months. Robust associations between TAS-20 and EDI scores were found, independently from anxious and depressive scores, nutritional state and AN subtype. These effects appeared more particularly linked to the implication of the dimensions difficulties identifying and describing feelings, interpersonal mistrust, feelings of inadequacy and interoceptive awareness deficit. There was also a durable association between alexithymia and social anxiety and avoidance, after adjusting for the confounding effects of depression, and anxiety, and the state of starvation. Difficulties in describing feelings appeared particularly involved here. Thus alexithymia does appear as a factor in the persistence of disorders in AN, and difficulties identifying and describing feelings could compound the social difficulties and major the relational isolation of these patients. PMID:25443977
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The 'Fragebogen zum Essverhalten' (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour ('cognitive restraint', 'disinhibition' and 'hunger') as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40-79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p?problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. PMID:25889877
Chesler, Betty E.
Empirical investigations implicate emotional eating (EE) in dysfunctional eating behavior such as uncontrolled overeating and insufficient weight loss following bariatric surgery. They demonstrate that EE may be a conscious or reflexive behavior motivated by multiple negative emotions and/or feelings of distress about loss-of-control eating. EE, however, has not been targeted in pre- or postoperative interventions or examined as an explanatory construct for failed treatment of dysfunctional e...
Reynolds, Carl L.
A recent study conducted at the University of Illinois on what influences college students to consider the agricultural education curriculum showed that the curriculum choice process is somewhat different for agricultural education majors than for students in the non-agricultural education group. Important influences include vocational agriculture…
Suzane Mota Marques, Costa; Paula Martins, Horta; Luana Caroline, dos Santos.
Full Text Available Publicidad de los alimentos y la exposición a la televisión: Influencia sobre la conducta alimentaria y el estado nutricional de los niños y adolescentes. El estudio objetivó evaluar la influencia de la publicidad de alimentos y la exposición a la televisión en la conducta alimentaria y estado nutri [...] cional de niños y adolescentes. El estudio es transversal con 116 estudiantes de una escuela privada en Brasil. Información sociodemográfica y de la condición de salud fueron evaluadas. Antropometria, el consumo de alimentos, practica de actividad física, hábitos de ver la televisión y el comportamiento en relación con la publicidad de alimentos también fueron investigados. Entre los resultados, una relación de 1:2 fue identificada entre el número de televisores por hogar y los residentes. El exceso de peso estaba presente en 25,8% de los sujetos y 66,4% de ellos veían la televisión mientras comían las refecciones. Los niños fueron expuestos a la televisión por un promedio de 3,0 horas al día (95% IC: 2,9-3,6). Se observó una asociación directa entre la atracción de los alimentos anunciados y la compra del producto (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were eva [...] luated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p
Ma Teresa, Rivera-Gallardo; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Jorge Armando, Barriguete-Meléndez.
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgic [...] o de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños. Abstract in english Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cor [...] tical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.
Ma Teresa Rivera-Gallardo
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgico de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños.Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.
Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole
Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…
Trastornos alimentarios maternos y su influencia en la conducta alimentaria de sus hijas(os) / Maternal eating disorders and their influence on eating behavior of the children: a review of the literature
Rosa, Behar A; Marcelo, Arancibia M.
Full Text Available Antecedentes: Existe concluyente evidencia de la influencia de madres con trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) en sus hijas (os). Objetivo: Analizar descriptivamente los diversos aspectos de madres con historia de TCA y sus implicancias en la nutrición, crecimiento y desarrollo de sus hijas ( [...] os). Método: Se efectuó una revisión de la literatura disponible en PubMed y textos de consulta especializados. Resultados: Las madres con TCA previo o actual muestran patrones alimentarios restrictivos, un vínculo afectivo deficitario con sus propias madres, exhiben más comorbilidades psiquiátricas, principalmente depresión y ansiedad; además sentimientos de culpa y vergüenza, cese precoz de la lactancia, elevado control del consumo de alimentos de sus hijas (os) y/o presión para comer, horarios irregulares de comidas, dieta desequilibrada y monótona, preferencia por la delgadez y actitud crítica sobre la silueta corporal de sus hijas (os). La lactancia representa un período crítico para la irrupción o recaída de un TCA por la adaptación que implican los cambios característicos de su figura corporal durante el embarazo. Conclusiones: Existe una particular relación entre la presencia de un TCA materno y su ocurrencia en hijas (os), considerándose un factor de riesgo para su desarrollo. Abstract in english Background: There is conclusive evidence about the influence of mothers with eating disorders (ED) on their children. Objective: To describe different aspects about mothers with ED and its implications in the feeding, growing and development in their children. Method: A review of specialized textboo [...] ks and the available literature in PubMed was made. Results: Mothers with previous or present ED show restrictive eating patterns, a deficient affective bond with their own mothers, exhibit more psychiatric comorbidities, mainly depression and anxiety; in addition, feelings of guilt and shame, early cessation of breastfeeding, high control of food consumption of their children, and/or pressure them to eat, irregular mealtimes, unbalanced and monotonous meals, proneness to slimness, a critical attitude about the body shape of their daughters. Breastfeeding implies a critical period for the irruption or relapse of an ED due to the adjustment to the characteristic body shape changes during pregnancy. Conclusions: There is a particular relationship between a maternal ED and its occurrence in their children, and it can be considered a risk factor for its development.
Anna-Maija Pietilä; Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen; Päivi Kankkunen; Merja Nikkonen
Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political a...
... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...
Zizi GOSCHIN; Zaman, Gheorghe
Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...
Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan
This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%-170% vs. IC-Con 29%-52%) and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex -2.1%-1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%-10%). IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%-10% vs. -0.6%-1.4%). Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification. PMID:25993298
Villella, Edward F.
Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…
Grubb, H J; Sellers, M I; Waligroski, K
To test hypotheses that women suffering from some form of eating disorder would experience lower self-esteem and higher depression and that women with lower self-esteem and greater depression would rate their attractiveness lower and see themselves as heavier than less depressed individuals, 42 college undergraduate women were individually administered the Eating Disorders Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, and a Body Image/Attractiveness Perception Scale. A Pearson correlation indicated a substantial relation between scores on depression and scores on eating disorders, but nonsignificant values between self-esteem scores and scores on either eating disorders or on depression. Depression scores correlated significantly with rated body size, but not attractiveness, while self-esteem scores were significantly correlated with rated attractiveness, not body size. These results contradict literature on the relation between self-esteem and depression. Directions for additional research are discussed. PMID:8332667
Burrows, A.; Cooper, M.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate concerns about weight, shape and eating, dietary restraint, self-esteem and symptoms of depression in overweight girls. To investigate the relationship between concerns and self-esteem and depressive symptoms in this group. METHOD: Eighteen overweight girls and 18 average-weight girls completed the child version of the Eating Disorders Examination, the Harter Self-Perception Profile and the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire. RESULTS: Overweight girls had more c...
Lachat, C.; Khanh, L. N. B.; Khan, N. C.; Dung, N. Q.; Anh, N. D. V.; Roberfroid, D.; Kolsteren, P.
BACKGROUND: Out-of-home (OH) eating in developed countries is associated with suboptimal dietary intakes, but evidence is scarce on the situation in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional contribution of OH eating and related socioeconomic determinants in Vietnamese adolescents. DESIGN: A 24-h recall was used to collect food intake data in a cross-sectional study of 1172 adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Multilevel analysis com...
Patricia Couceiro; Eric Slywitch; Franciele Lenz
This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA) and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil) allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated ...
Full Text Available Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components’ number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population, patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessiveness–compulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. Keywords: psychiatric comorbidity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, SAFA test
Lawlor Peadar G
Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.
Ward, Rose Marie; Hay, M Cameron
The objective was to explore what predicts first-year college women's disordered eating tendencies when they arrive on campus. The 215 first-year college women completed the surveys within the first 2weeks of classes. A structural model examined how much the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale, the Brief COPE, the Brief College Student Hassle Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire predicted eating disordered tendencies (as measured by the Eating Attitudes Test). The Body Shape Questionnaire, the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale (inversely), and the Denial subscale of the Brief COPE significantly predicted eating disorder tendencies in first-year college women. In addition, the Planning and Self-Blame subscales of the Brief COPE and the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale predicted the Body Shape Questionnaire. In general, higher levels on the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale and higher levels on the Brief College Student Hassle Scale related to higher levels on the Brief COPE. Coping seems to remove the direct path from stress and depression to disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. PMID:25528718
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifestyle-related behaviors having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, playing outside and watching TV have been indicated to have an association with childhood overweight, but research among young children (below 6?years old is limited. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between these four behaviors and overweight among young children. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data on 5-year-old children (n?=?7505 collected for the study ‘Be active, eat right’. Age and sex-specific cut-off points for body mass index of the International Obesity Task Force were used to assess overweight/obesity. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results For children whom had breakfast 2 hours/day, the odds ratio (OR for having overweight (obesity included was, respectively, 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.13-1.95, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51. There was a positive association between the number of risk behaviors present and the risk for having overweight. For children with 3 or all of the risk behaviors having breakfast 2 glasses/day, playing outside 2 hs/day, the OR for overweight was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11-2.71 (all models adjusted for children’s sex and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion Given the positive association between the number of behavioral risk factors and overweight, further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral counseling of parents of toddlers in preventing childhood overweight. In the meantime we recommend physicians to target all four behaviors for counseling during well-child visits.
Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Beverly J. Tepper
The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status an...
Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk
How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.
Palmberg, Allison A; Stern, Marilyn; Kelly, Nichole R; Bulik, Cynthia; Belgrave, Faye Z; Trapp, Stephen K; Hofmeier, Sara M; Mazzeo, Suzanne E
Evidence suggests that adolescents' experience of binge eating (BE) might differ in important ways from that of adults. Moreover, although BE appears more common in African American women than other disordered eating behaviors, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on this behavior in adolescents. The current investigation used qualitative methodology to examine the perceptions of White and African American adolescent girls and their mothers regarding experiences of binge and loss of control eating. Five focus groups were completed with 19 adolescent girls (aged 13-17, 58 % African American, 41 % White) who endorsed loss of control eating behaviors. Their mothers (N = 19) also completed separate, concurrent focus groups addressing food and eating behaviors. Responses to focus group questions were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Adolescents' awareness of their eating behaviors varied greatly. Girls reported some awareness of how emotions influence their eating behaviors, and described using food to achieve autonomy. Mothers evidenced awareness of their daughters' problematic eating behaviors, the effects of emotions on eating for both their daughters and themselves, and sociocultural factors influencing diet. Data from these focus groups can inform the development of innovative interventions for adolescent girls engaging in loss of control eating. PMID:25400491
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta
The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...
Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop applicat...
Hábitos y Trastornos Alimenticios asociados a factores Socio-demográficos, Físicos y Conductuales en Universitarios de Cartagena, Colombia / Eating habits and disorders associated to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors in university students, Cartagena Colombia
Shirly, Sáenz Duran; Farith, González Martínez; Shyrley, Díaz Cárdenas.
Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la prevalencia de hábitos y desórdenes alimenticios en universitarios y relacionarlos con factores socio-demográficos, físicos y conductuales. Diseño. Estudio de corte transversal. Emplazamiento. Municipio de Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participantes. Un total de 1.040 estudia [...] ntes de los programas diurnos y nocturnos de la Universidad de Cartagena. Mediciones principales. Se utilizó una encuesta estructurada para evaluar hábitos alimenticios y aspectos socio-demográficos, EAT-26 y SCOFF para trastornos alimenticios y escala de Holmes and Rahe para la susceptibilidad de enfermar. Se estimó la ocurrencia a través de prevalencias, las relaciones entre variables a través de razones de disparidad y el análisis multivariable mediante regresión logística nominal. Resultados. El motivo más frecuente para no alimentarse bien fue la falta de costumbre y tiempo. La susceptibilidad de enfermar fue del 23,1% y el riesgo de anorexia y bulimia del 14,2%. En el análisis multivariable el mejor modelo con el SCOFF mostró significación estadística con edad (OR: 1,86), susceptibilidad de enfermar (OR: 1,77), dieta (OR: 2,81), problemas de colon (OR: 1,8) y no realizar actividad física (OR: 3,04). Conclusiones. Los hábitos y trastornos de alimentación en estudiantes universitarios están influidos por factores relacionados con el quehacer universitario, siendo necesario considerar este comportamiento alimentario como un problema relevante que interactúa con el buen desarrollo de las actividades académicas. Abstract in english Objective. To describe the prevalence of eating habits and disorders in university students and their relationship with socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors. Design. Cross-sectional study Setting. Municipality of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participants. 1040 students in day and ev [...] ening programmes at the University of Cartagena. Main measurements. A structured questionnaire was used to assess eating habits and socio-demographic factors; EAT-26 and SCOFF for eating disorders and the Holmes and Rahe scale for the susceptibility to disease. Occurrence was estimated by prevalence, assuming confidence 95% intervals. Relationships between variables were evaluated using odds ratios and multivariate analysis using nominal logistic regression. Results. The most common reason for not eating well was the lack of habit and time. Susceptibility to disease was 23.1% and the risk of anorexia and bulimia 14.2%. The best model for logistic regression with SCOFF showed statistical significance with age (OR: 1.86), susceptibility to disease (OR: 1.77), diet (OR: 2.81), colon problems (OR: 1.8), and lack of physical activity (OR: 3.04). Conclusions. Eating habits and disorders in university students are influenced by factors related to university life. This behavior should be considered as a serious problem that one that interferes with the smooth running of academic activities.
DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.
Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.
... or by using other unsafe practices such as fasting or laxative abuse. The binge eating is chronic and can lead to serious health complications, particularly severe obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. More on binge eating disorder. Treatment Eating ...
Bauer Katherine W; Nelson Melissa C; Boutelle Kerri N; Neumark-Sztainer Dianne
Abstract Background The long-term role that parental encouragement and attitudes about fitness and exercise play in adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits remains unclear. This paper aims to longitudinally examine how parental encouragement to be physically active and parental concern about staying fit are associated with adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits five years later. Methods Project EAT-II adolescent and young adult participants (1130 mal...
Ku, L; Sonenstein, F L; Pleck, J H
Analyses of a nationally representative survey of 1,880 15- to 19-year-old men were conducted to examine factors associated with (a) the age when first sexual intercourse occurred and (b) whether a condom or other contraceptive method was used at first intercourse. Discrete time-event history models assessed factors influencing their age until first intercourse. Black males began sexual activity significantly earlier than white or Hispanic males. Males who had been held back in school also be...
Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi
The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-...
Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.
Levine, Michael P.; And Others
Investigated young girls' eating behavior, body satisfaction, weight management, and the cues taken from family, peers, and magazines. Found that a majority received a message from fashion magazines and peers or family that being slender is important and attainable through dieting, indicating that some young girls live under intense weight and…
Kim, Sangwon F.
Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet develop...
The unified expression of the separation power and the overall separation factor, the cut and the concentration of the feed were derived. The influence of the three factors to the separation was described also. The results showed that the separation power increase along with the overall separation factor increase, the separation power can acquire the maximum value when the cut is about 0.5, the separation power is lower in the high feed concentration and the low feed concentration, and the maximum when the feed concentration is about 0.5. (authors)
Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.
Atria, Catherine Graczyk
Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.
M. L. Portela de Santana
Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones.Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.
M. L., Portela de Santana; H., da Costa Ribeiro Junior; M., Mora Giral; R. M.ª, Raich.
Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes [...] acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and ris [...] k factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.
Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.
Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; García-Cruz, Patricia; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Magallares, Alejandro; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada
The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP), as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight perception, perception of physical fitness, self-esteem, and food intake, as well as with weight control-related variables. A total of 281 participants (aged 18.38 ± 6.31) were studied. The factor analysis yielded three factors: cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE). The internal consistency of the TFEQ-SP was determined by means of Cronbach's ? coefficient, with values ranging between 0.75 and 0.87. Higher scores on CR were found in women (p physical fitness (p physical fitness (p < 0.05). The validation study of the TFEQ-SP meets the requirements for measuring the three different facets of eating behavior: CR, UE, and EE. PMID:25486370
There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Walsh, B. Timothy
A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the...
Full Text Available The permeability of coal reservoir is the most important influencing factor for choosing favorable area and production of coalbed methane, this article takes a detailed analysis of coal rank, thickness of coal seam, coal structure, construct curvature, effective stress, Klingberg effect and matrix shrinkage effect on reservoir permeability with comprehensive information consulting, literature review methods. The results show that coal reservoir is dual pore structure; the degree of development of fracture directly influences the size of the coal seam permeability. The growth of natural fracture density and lithotype band or negatively correlate to the layer thickness.
Reina, Samantha A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Mooreville, Mira; Courville, Amber B.; Brady, Sheila M.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Tanofsky-kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.
Parental feeding practices and sociocultural pressures theoretically influence eating behavior. Yet, whether these factors relate to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is unknown. We assessed if sociocultural pressures were associated with EAH among 90 adolescents (Mage = 15.27, SD = 1.39; 48% female). Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Adolescents completed the Perceived Sociocultural Pressures Scale, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Multidim...
FASSINO, Secondo; ABBATE DAGA, Giovanni; Tomba, Elena
BACKGROUND: Dropout (DO) is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs), but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. METHODS: All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009) were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed. RESULTS: The dropout rates ranged fr...
Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in...
Tomba Elena; Pierò Andrea; Fassino Secondo; Abbate-Daga Giovanni
Abstract Background Dropout (DO) is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs), but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. Methods All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009) were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed. Results The dropout rates ranged from...
Meysam Kazemi Asfe
Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.
The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...
The major factors that influence economics of application of radiation polymerisation technique for industrial production of polymers and polymer composites are discussed. The effects of factors such as product characteristics, physical and chemical state of polymerisation, radiation polymerisation kinetics, radiation source and field characteristics, including source utilisation efficiency, dose rate radiation safety requirements etc. on the engineering cost and economy of radiation processes are briefly outlined. The need for accurate understanding and exploitation of radiation polymerisation kinetics and precise control of dosimetric and other process parameters for a successful radiation process utilisation is highlighted with specific examples. (author)
Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.
?ilda Pe?ari?; Miroslav Tu?man
Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on th...
FASSINO, Secondo; ABBATE DAGA, Giovanni
OBJECTIVE: The question of how many psychopathologic factors are involved in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) has no definite answer. The combination of psychopathology and personality research may shed a light upon the determinants of eating pathology. METHODS: The study consists in the administration of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2) to 95 outpatient anorectic women (50 restrictive and 45 binge-purging) and to 92 bulim...
Objectives of the Study: The aim of the research is to define and assess the importance of the factors that influence online shoppers' choices of merchants. The previous literature mainly focuses on loyalty of users to websites and online purchase decision-making process within one website. No literature studies the situation under which the customer has already decided the item to purchase and needs to compare different merchants selling the same item. Since this situation is very common...
Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A
Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (Pmeat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (Pmeat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582
Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, there has been growing interest in m-learning consequently emerging m-learning technology is promising technological and educational business. Nevertheless, m-learning is a new business and the different actors are still trialing by ways of a diversity of business models to overcome in able to achieve a sustainable and profitable place in this market. Numbers of m-learning products providers do not succeed in supplying m-learning products. In this situation not only a suitable business model is vital but also environmental and external factors have impact on mobile learning business model. Overall objective of this study was to survey the business model framework of m-learning with effect of external and environmental factors. Approach: Methodical approach was based on a classification of m-learning actors and its environmental factors. Based on this, we analyzed case studies description and developed main environmental factors that constitute the m-learning environment. Factors were summarized in morphological boxes and then through out its three steps result came up. Results: The results indicated technology, market and regulation are three major environmental factors which were forcing m-learning business model and business model should react to changes of these three factors to keep sustainable business. The research further argued the external factors of m-learning environment in order to understanding and developing the m-learning business and the ways these factors influence the business model of m-learning as well. Conclusion/Recommendations: M-learning business is based on many factors such as technology, changes in society, educational drivers, demand for flexible learning and the new learning paradigm but only three major drivers(technology, market and regulation had considerable effect on m-learning business model and should be taken into account as a result if they change business model should be changed.
Full Text Available The health consideration of microwave radiation has been the subject of scientific investigations particularly in the last decades. But there is a few information about the health effect of micro waved food consuming for a long time. The aim of this trial is to evaluate blood iron and also plasma transferrin as a protein transporter of iron in rat after eating microwaved food for a period of 1 year. For this study 64 young Sprague Dawley rats in 4 groups, each 16 (8 males and 8 females, 2 treated and 2 controls, were used under the standard conditions with free access to tap water and standard food. The 2 treated groups were consuming standard rat food pellets heated by 2450 MHz microwave radiation in 30 min for group (A and 5 min for group (B. One of the control group (C were consuming same pellets heated by electric oven at 200°C for 30 min and another control group (H were eating the food pellets without any heating by microwave or electric oven. Animals were observed daily and the body weight and food and water consumption were assessed weekly too. In the end of the study the blood samples were taken from the heart of animals after 12 h fasting under ether anesthesia and the serum iron and transferrin analysis was performed on the blood samples. According to the statistical analysis, the level of iron was significantly decreased in all treated groups in comparison with control group of (C and significant decreasing of iron, in female groups of B and male groups of A, in comparison with control (H. But transferrin level was significantly increased in female groups of A and B and male group of A in comparison with control (C and only male group of A in comparison with control (H.
Striegel-moore, Rh; Fairburn, CG; Wilfley, DE; Pike, Km; Dohm, Fa; Kraemer, Hc
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify in white women risk factors specific to binge-eating disorder (BED) and for psychiatric disorders in general, and to compare black and white women on risk factors for BED. METHOD: A case-control design was used. Participants were recruited from the community and included 162 women who met DSM-IV criteria for BED and two comparison groups of women with no history of clinically significant eating disorder symptoms. The comparison women were matched to B...
Influência da periodização do treinamento sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares em nadadoras / Influence of training periodization on risk behaviors to eating disorders in female swimmers
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar a influência da periodização do treinamento sobre os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares (TA) em atletas do sexo feminino. Participaram 28 nadadoras com idade entre 12 e 16 anos. Utilizaram-se as subescalas do Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para avaliar co [...] mportamentos de risco para os TA. As nadadoras foram avaliadas ao longo de um macrociclo de treinamento, contendo as etapas: preparatório geral, preparatório específico, competitivo e polimento. Os achados demonstraram aumento da frequência dos comportamentos restritivos (p Abstract in english The objective was to analyze the influence of the periodization of training on risk behaviors to eating disorders (ED) in female athletes. Participated 28 swimmers aged between 12 and 16 years. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess risk behaviors to ED. The swimmers w [...] ere evaluated over a macro-cycle, comprising the following steps: overal preparation, specific preparation, competitive and tapering. The findings showed that frequency of restrictive (p
Petrovich, Gorica D
Appetite and eating are not only controlled by energy needs, but also by extrinsic factors that are not directly related to energy balance. Environmental signals that acquire motivational properties through associative learning-learned cues-can override homeostatic signals and stimulate eating in sated states, or inhibit eating in states of hunger. Such influences are important, as environmental factors are believed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to overeating and the rise in obesity in the developed world. Similarly, environmental and social factors contribute to the onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders through interactions with the individual genetic background. Nevertheless, how learning enables environmental signals to control feeding, and the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. We developed two rodent models to study how learned cues are integrated with homeostatic signals within functional forebrain networks, and how these networks are modulated by experience. In one model, a cue previously paired with food when an animal was hungry induces eating in sated rats. In the other model, food-deprived rats inhibit feeding when presented with a cue that signals danger, a tone previously paired with footshocks. Here evidence will be reviewed that the forebrain network formed by the amygdala, lateral hypothalamus and medial prefrontal cortex mediates cue-driven feeding, while a parallel amygdalar circuitry mediates suppression of eating by the fear cue. Findings from the animal models may be relevant for understanding aspects of human appetite and eating, and maladaptive mechanisms that could lead to overeating and anorexia. PMID:21549730
The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms
Sri Astuti Pratminingsih
Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.
Jovanovi? Snežana T.
Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.
... what causes eating disorders, although there are many theories about it. Many people who develop an eating ... therapists, and working with dietitians and other professionals. Learning to be comfortable at your healthy weight is ...
... eat enough because you think you are fat Bulimia nervosa, which involves periods of overeating followed by ... Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and ...
... to Congress Surveillance Diabetes Prevention and Control Eat Right Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Â Learning how to eat right is an important part of controlling your diabetes. ...
Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variabl...
Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck FIATES
Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou identificar, em mulheres universitárias, aquelas que apresentavam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbios alimentares. Aplicou-se o questionário Eating Attitudes Test em 221 mulheres (114 estudantes de nutrição e 107 estudantes de outras áreas não relacionadas à saúde. Os resultados indicaram que 22,17% das estudantes apresentaram fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbio alimentar, sendo que no grupo de alunas da nutrição o percentual foi maior (25,43% do que no grupo de estudantes de outros cursos (18,69%. Embora a diferença não tenha sido significativa, as futuras nutricionistas podem estar inseridas em um ambiente mais favorável ao desenvolvimento de distúrbios alimentares.This work studied a group of 221 college women, to identify those who presented risk factors compatible with the development of eating disorders. The Eating Attitudes Test was applied to 221 women (114 nutrition students and 107 students from other areas, unrelated to the health field. Results indicated that 22.17% of the group presented risk factors in the development of an eating disorder. Nutrition students presented a higher percentage (25.43% than the other students (18.69%, but this difference was not significant. However, women who study nutrition may be exposed to an environment more propitious to the development of eating disorders.
Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy
Toxic prey advertise their unprofitability to predators via conspicuous aposematic coloration . It is widely accepted that avoidance learning by naive predators is fundamental in generating selection for aposematism [2, 3] and mimicry [4, 5] (where species share the same aposematic coloration), and consequently this cognitive process underpins current evolutionary theory [5, 6]. However, this is an oversimplistic view of predator cognition and decision making. We show that predators that have learned to avoid chemically defended prey continue to attack defended individuals at levels determined by their current toxin burden. European starlings learned to discriminate between sequentially presented defended and undefended mealworms with different color signals. Once birds had learned to avoid the defended prey at a stable asymptotic level, we experimentally increased their toxin burdens, which reduced the number of defended prey that they ingested in the subsequent trial. This was due to the birds making strategic decisions to ingest defended prey on the basis of their visual signals. Birds are clearly able to learn about the nutritional benefits and defensive costs of eating defended prey, and they regulate their intake according to their current physiological state. This raises new perspectives on the evolution of aposematism, mimicry, and defense chemistry. PMID:17716896
Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh
Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.
Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance
Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)
Pedersen, Susanne; GrØnhØj, Alice
It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study hasa number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on children's healthy eating should be reinforced.
Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John
It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced. PMID:25088047
Uthicke, S; Logan, M; Liddy, M; Francis, D; Hardy, N; Lamare, M
Coral reefs face a crisis due to local and global anthropogenic stressors. A large proportion of the ~50% coral loss on the Great Barrier Reef has been attributed to outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns-seastar (COTS). A widely assumed cause of primary COTS outbreaks is increased larval survivorship due to higher food availability, linked with anthropogenic runoff . Our experiment using a range of algal food concentrations at three temperatures representing present day average and predicted future increases, demonstrated a strong influence of food concentration on development is modulated by temperature. A 2°C increase in temperature led to a 4.2-4.9 times (at Day 10) or 1.2-1.8 times (Day 17) increase in late development larvae. A model indicated that food was the main driver, but that temperature was an important modulator of development. For instance, at 5000?cells ml(-1) food, a 2°C increase may shorten developmental time by 30% and may increase the probability of survival by 240%. The main contribution of temperature is to 'push' well-fed larvae faster to settlement. We conclude that warmer sea temperature is an important co-factor promoting COTS outbreaks. PMID:25672480
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van Strien, Tatjana; Levitan, Robert D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Homberg, Judith R
Emotional eating has a female preponderance and an understanding of possible genetic and environmental underpinnings is still in the early stages. The current study focuses on the possible role of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) 'plasticity' gene in emotional eating and the possible moderator effects of sex and season of birth therein. We tested this in two samples (n?=?93 and n?=?586) of male and female Caucasian adults by genotyping DRD4 and assessing self-reported emotional eating. Participants were defined as high risk carriers if they had at least one long (7-repeat) allele, which confers hypo-function to DRD4. We also ran analyses that grouped 2- and 7-repeat carriers together. In the first sample there only was a moderator effect of sex. In the second sample there also was a 3 way interaction between season of birth, sex and genotype. In line with the idea that the Drd4 gene functions as a plasticity gene that affects the sensitivity to environmental influences, the moderator effect of sex was only found for the participants born in fall. Only in females the hypo-functional variants of DRD4 were associated with significantly higher degrees of emotional eating. Furthermore, the sex?×?genotype effects were somewhat stronger when the 2-repeat allele was grouped together with the 7-repeat allele. Our data suggest that DRD4 hypo-functional genetic variants are associated with emotional eating, only in females. PMID:25736807
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP, as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight perception, perception of physical fitness, self-esteem, and food intake, as well as with weight control-related variables. A total of 281 participants (aged 18.38 ± 6.31 were studied. The factor analysis yielded three factors: cognitive restraint (CR, uncontrolled eating (UE, and emotional eating (EE. The internal consistency of the TFEQ-SP was determined by means of Cronbach’s ? coefficient, with values ranging between 0.75 and 0.87. Higher scores on CR were found in women (p < 0.5, overweight/obese participants (p < 0.001, participants with lower self-esteem (p < 0.05, participants who overestimated their weight (p < 0.001, participants who weighed themselves frequently (p < 0.001 and those who were about to go on a diet (p < 0.001. Higher EE scores were found in participants with lower self-esteem scores (p < 0.05, among participants with a poorer perception of their physical fitness (p < 0.01 and when participants were about to diet (p < 0.05. Higher scores on UE were observed in case of poorer perception of physical fitness (p < 0.05. The validation study of the TFEQ-SP meets the requirements for measuring the three different facets of eating behavior: CR, UE, and EE.
Antonette, Owen; Fasloen, Adams; Denise, Franszen.
Full Text Available STUDY AIM: To determine which models are used by occupational therapists who attended a workshop on the Kawa Model, in their practice, the demographic factors related to the use of these models and the reasons why they use various models in their practice. METHOD: A descriptive, single case study me [...] thod was used with embedded units. The research instrument consisted of a survey questionnaire with closed and some semi-structured questions. RESULTS: The characteristics of therapists influenced their use of models. This was determined by their educational background, their level of experience and exposure in the clinical field and their work setting. Time constraints and the nature of the presenting clients also played a role. The clinicians' overall attitude towards new theory and their habituated ways were highlighted as constant factors influencing model use. The use of models provides structure and assists occupational therapists to produce proper, profession-specific, scientifically-based intervention. Models taught during undergraduate studies need to be relevant to address clients' needs in their specific context.
Full Text Available La tasa de prevalencia de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria está aumentando en los países industrializados y hay evidencia de que son las mujeres jóvenes las que tienen un mayor riesgo para desarrollar este tipo de patologías. Esa es la razón por la que los programas de prevención e interven [...] ción son tan importantes. Para desarrollar tales programas es necesario identificar los factores de riesgo relevantes que contribuyen a la aparición de este trastorno. En la presente investigación se analizan variables sociales relacionadas con el riesgo a desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (comparaciones sociales, actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia y la ansiedad social) en una muestra no clínica de 375 mujeres. Los resultados muestran que la comparación social está directa e indirectamente (a través de la ansiedad social) relacionada de forma positiva con el riesgo para desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, mientras que las actitudes socioculturales sobre la apariencia lo hace de forma indirecta (a través de la ansiedad social) y positiva con los problemas de la conducta alimentaria. Finalmente, se discute la importancia de incluir estas variables sociales en los programas de prevención e intervención. Abstract in english Eating disorders prevalence's rates are increasing in Western countries and there is evidence to suggest that young women are at the highest risk of developing this kind of disorders. That is the reason why prevention and intervention programs are so important. To develop these types of programs it [...] is necessary to identify relevant risk factors contributing to this disorder. In the current research social risk variables to develop eating disorders (social comparisons, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance and social anxiety) have been measured in a 375 women non clinical sample. Results have shown that social comparisons are direct and indirect (trough social anxiety) positively related with the risk to develop eating disorders and that sociocultural attitudes toward appearance are just indirect (trough social anxiety) and positively related to eating disorders. Finally, the importance of including these social variables in prevention and intervention programs is discussed.
Popadi? Silvija M.
Full Text Available Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13, operated during the year 2001 was evaluated. Due to differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid total thyreoidectomy was done in 7 with follicular and in 49 patients with papillary cancer. Forty-one patients received ablative 131 I dose (3.7GBq and fifteen patients received therapeutic dose (5.55GBq of radioiodine therapy. As possible predictive factors the TNM classification (T1, 6; T2, 17; T3, 4; T4, 28 and 24 with N0 and 32 with N1, the number of foci on whole body scan (WBS, and the serum level of thyroglobulin were statistically evaluated. One year after radioiodine therapy control WBS was done and successful outcome of the therapy was considered to be the WBS without visible accumulation of radioiodine and with low serum level of thyroglobulin. Results: Outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy was considered as successful in 55.4% patients and 44.6% of patients needed additional radioiodine therapies. Only the number of foci and the level of thyroglobulin showed statistically significant (p(0.05 influence on the outcome of applied radioiodine therapy. Conclusion: Significant influence of the thyroglobulin level and number of foci on the WBS in patients with total thyroidectomy could be explained by the fact that there were the signs of minimum thyroid residual tissue, and that there were no microscopic spread of disease.
Adejumo, Adebayo O
This cross-sectional survey investigated the role of dispositional (self-efficacy and self esteem), and situational factors (distractibility and perceived food variety) as determinants of food eating behaviour (FEB). Hospital employees (N500) in Nigeria's premier teaching Hospital participated. Results showed that self-efficacy and self-esteem jointly predicted cognitive restraint dimension of FEB (F(2499) = 26.00; R2 = 0.10; p assertiveness to reduce distractibility and eating disorders was highlighted towards maintaining health and efficiency at work is recommended. PMID:22073876
Full Text Available Teaching and learning a foreign language is a social process which requires theinteraction of two important parts of the process, the teacher and the students, in a socialenvironment. As this process takes place in a social context, it is inevitable toexperience some problems while teaching the students having different needs, interestsand levels. These problems may be caused by the students, teachers as well as thephysical environment in which teaching and learning take place. It is clear that languageteaching skill is not enough to handle these problems; teachers also need classroommanagement skills so that they are able to manage their classrooms. It is believed thatsuccessful classroom management is highly related to effective instruction. Asclassroom management is a general term that is affected by many factors, theeffectiveness of classroom environment depends on how teachers cope with thesefactors and provide their students with a positive and friendly classroom atmosphere. Itis clear that a detailed analysis of the factors that affect successful classroommanagement and adequate teacher training on how to cope with them will makeunmanageable classrooms manageable which will immediately result in effectiveteaching and learning process. In this article, factors that influence successful classroommanagement will be analyzed and possible solutions to these problems will bepresented.
Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Mónica E; Garza, Adolfo; Galindo, Mariza
The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure. PMID:23344652
Ja?uregui-lobera, Ignacio; Garci?a-cruz, Patricia; Carbonero-carren?o, Roci?o; Magallares, Alejandro; Ruiz-prieto, Inmaculada
The aims of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-SP), as well as determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TFEQ-SP with different parameters related to body mass index, weight perception, perception of physical fitness, self-esteem, and food intake, as well as with weight control-related variables. A total of 281 participants (aged 18.38 ± 6.31) were studied. The factor analysis yie...
A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time
Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants\\' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people\\'s ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174
A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE principles into daily living and how these factors change over time
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people's ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Fabiane Frota da Rocha, Morgado; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência do comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Parece que a insatisfação corporal (IC), a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômico (NE), além da etnia, podem ser fatores [...] de risco para o CAI. OBJETIVO: Associar IC, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), adiposidade corporal (AC), estado nutricional (EN), NE e etnia ao CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar o CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale foram utilizados para mensurar IC e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a AC segundo sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e classificar o EN. O NE foi avaliado pelo Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário que buscava avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram associação do CAI com IC, GCPE e NE no sexo feminino (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that the prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior (CAI) among young people has increased in recent years. It seems that body dissatisfaction (IC), the practice of excessive exercise, body composition, the socioeconomic status (NE), and ethnicity may be risk factors for [...] CAI. OBJECTIVE: To associate IC, degree of psychological impairment to exercise (GCPE), adiposity (AC), nutritional status (EN), NE and ethnicity with CAI in adolescents. METHODS: Participants 362 young people of both sexes aged between 10 and 19 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess the CAI. The Body Shape Exercise Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale were used to measure IC and GCPE, respectively. We evaluated skinfold thickness is to classify the AC second sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the index of mass (BMI) and classify the EN. The NE was evaluated by Brazil Economic Classification. Questionnaire was used that sought to assess ethnicity, age and sex. RESULTS: The results showed association of CAI with IC, GCPE and NE in females (p
Clarke, D.E.; Marsh, H. (University of Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
To maximize the efficiency of manufasture of smokeless fuel briquettes from blends of high-rank coals and pitches, it is necessary to optimize feedstock selection to maintain strength during carbonization and subsequent handling. From an understanding of carbonization behaviour of feedstock components and of microcarbonization phenomena at interfaces, the contribution of interfacial interactions to strength properties of briquettes is assessed. The crushing strength, microstrength and optical texture of briquettes from a range of feedstocks were determined before and after carbonization at 970 K. These techniques promoted understanding of the carbonization behaviour of blends of feedstocks and strength-structure relations in resultant briquettes. Factors of feedstock selection that influenced the strength of carbonized briquettes were identified. 19 refs., 7 tabs.
Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures. PMID:18560693
Dennehy John J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible ? lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of ? lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.
Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack
Full Text Available Introducción: Rara vez se ha evaluado la efectividad de las campañas e intervenciones de información pública. Por ello, el estudio de actividades exitosas podría contribuir al desarrollo y puesta en práctica en el futuro de campañas e intervenciones a favor de una alimentación saludable Objetivos: El objetivo del presente estudio de campañas de información sobre alimentación saludable fue primeramente la identificación de los factores de éxito de las mismas, y seguidamente la descripción de sus inter-relaciones. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 11 representantes de industrias alimentarias cuyas campañas fueron identificadas como exitosas en una etapa previa del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron luego analizadas con respecto a los factores de éxito potenciales. Estos últimos fueron posteriormente utilizados para desarrollar un modelo de factores de éxito y sus interrelaciones. Resultados: El éxito de los casos estudiados fue atribuido primeramente a las características del ambiente macro, o a una colaboración entre los sectores público y privado. Segundo, se identificó al compromiso de las comunidades, elementos de empoderamiento del grupo objetivo y a la ejecución de medidas de marketing social. Tercero, el éxito puede atribuirse a la adopción por parte de la ciudadanía de las campañas y los cambios estructurales consecuentes. Conclusiones: El modelo y los factores de éxito identificados resaltan que el éxito puede originarse en tres fases cruciales, el diseño y montaje de la campaña, su ejecución y finalmente, su interacción con la ciudadanía. El modelo puede servir como guía para el desarrollo de campañas en el futuro.Introduction: Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. Objectives: The study of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. Results: It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. Conclusions: The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.
Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh
Full Text Available Backgrounds: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, scientific studies should perform for specifying psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image disturbance and perfectionism variables in predicting disordered eating behaviors among female students.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting of 464 female students in Allame Tabatabaie University were selected based on a Morgan formula and multi-stage cluster random sampling. Then, participants responded to the questionnaires of body image disturbance of Reas and et al. (2002, perfectionism scale of Besharat (2004 and eating attitudes test of Garner and Garfinkel (1979. The data were analyzed by correlation techniques and stepwise regression.Results: The results showed that these were internal correlation among body image disturbance and perfectionism and disordered eating behavior. Also, the results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that body image disturbance and perfectionism significantly predicted, respectively, almost 16% and 14% of variances of disordered eating behaviors among female students.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, body image disturbance and perfectionism can predict disordered eating behaviors. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent the development of eating-related diseases and to promote students’ health. Key Words: Body Image Disturbance, Perfectionism, Disordered Eating Behavior, Female Students.
Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…
Cristina, Romeo T.
Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.
Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.
The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…
Leslie, Jodi H.; Braun, Kathryn L.; Novotny, Rachel; Mokuau, Noreen
Worksite health promotion programs can reduce prevalence of chronic disease among employees, but little research has been done to discern whether they meet the needs and incorporate the preferences of workers of different occupational types. The objective of this study is to examine differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity and preferences for programs among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers in Hawai‘i. A total of 57 employees from a major health care corpor...
Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)
Kuzmin Oleg Ye.
Full Text Available The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? – ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.
Jones, A.; Torn, M. S.; Riley, W. J.; Collins, W.
Large scale deployment of new biofuel crops has the potential to influence climate through biogeophysical and biogeochemical mechanisms operating at the land surface. In turn, climatic variability influences the productivity of biofuel crops and thus their potential contribution as a source of energy. In order to characterize this two-way interaction between biofuels and climate, we are conducting a series of modeling experiments within the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM). Key questions that this study attempts to address include 1) In what ways (e.g. at what spatial and temporal scales, under what land cover and management scenarios) does a transition to biofuel crops represent a climate stabilizing versus a climate destabilizing endeavor? 2) Which vegetation properties and management choices are most influential in determining key climatic outcomes associated with biofuels? 3) Are biofuel crop yields robust to changing climatic conditions? Our approach is to develop new biofuel plant functional types (PFTs) for the land surface component of CESM - the Community Land Model (CLM) - and to examine climatic implications of future biofuel deployment scenarios within the coupled land-atmosphere framework of CESM. We are focusing initially on c4 grass crops - i.e. switchgrass, miscnathus, sugarcane, and maize. CLM represents plant functional types with more than 50 parameters that describe aerodynamic, physiological, optical, and biogeochemical properties etc. We are also making structural modification to the model in order to represent unique features of biofuel crops and their management, such as changes to the phenology and carbon allocation schema for c4 grasses. Detailed observational data from new biofuel crops such as switchgrass and miscanthus is limited and offers a weak constraint on the full set of PFT parameters. To address this problem, we are conducting systematic sensitivity analysis on the default c4 grass parameters in CLM in order to identify a smaller set of parameters that exerts the most control on climatically relevant terms such as energy and carbon fluxes. By revealing those parameters that are most and least influential in terms of climate forcing, systematic sensitivity analysis helps to prioritize the search for observational data, constrains the process of tuning parameters to limited data, and leads the way to characterizing the uncertainty in biofuel crops’ influence on climate. Furthermore, due to similarities across managed ecosystems, these results offer general insight into those plant physiological properties and management factors that must be well-characterized in order to model changes in energy and carbon fluxes resulting from human land use.
El papel del perfeccionismo en la insatisfacción corporal, la influencia sociocultural del modelo de delgadez y los síntomas de trastorno del comportamiento alimentario / Perfectionism in body dissatisfaction, sociocultural influence of the thinness model and symptoms of eating disorders
KARINA, FRANCO PAREDES; JUAN MANUEL, MANCILLA DÍAZ; ROSALÍA, VÁZQUEZ ARÉVALO; GEORGINA, ÁLVAREZ RAYÓN; XÓCHITL, LÓPEZ AGUILAR.
Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue analizar si los componentes de la conducta perfeccionista explican la insatisfacción corporal (IC), la influencia socio-cultural del modelo de delgadez (ISMD) y los síntomas de Trastorno del Comportamiento Alimentario (TCA). Participaron 30 mujeres con Bulimia Nervio [...] sa (BN), 35 con Trastorno Alimentario no Especificado (TANE) y 63 sin TCA. El análisis de regresión mostró que la Preocupación por los Errores (PE) y la Indecisión de Acción explicaron la IC y la ISMD en BN; mientras que PE solo explicó la ISMD en TANE. Se concluye que solo dos componentes del perfeccionismo explican significativamente la interiorización del ideal de delgadez y la IC, las cuales son consideradas factores de riesgo importantes para los TCA. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD), sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM) and symptoms of eating disorders (ED). The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Spec [...] ified (EDNOS) and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM) and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.
Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D.; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L.
Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors under...
Matteo Di Segni; Enrico Patrono; Loris Patella; Stefano Puglisi-Allegra; Rossella Ventura
Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-me...
Marcos Gimenes Fernandes
Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.
Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J
The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status and change in weight status in children from preschool (baseline) to preadolescence as a function of eating attitudes and PROP phenotype. Other measures included self-reported food intakes and physical activity by activity monitor. Seventy-three lean (BMI percentile=57.7±3.2%) children with mean age=10.3±0.5yrs, participated in the follow up. There were no group differences in energy intake, current BMI-percentile or change in BMI percentile from baseline by PROP phenotype in either boys or girls. However, there was a trend for non-taster girls to show a downward shift in BMI-percentile at follow up. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that baseline BMI percentile and physical activity energy expenditure were the strongest predictors of current weight (28.5% variance),followed by child restraint, the taster×gender interaction, and the maternal BMI×maternal emotional eating interaction, accounting for 7.1%, 6.0% and 4.8% of variance in the model, respectively. These findings suggest that PROP status and eating attitudes are modest predictors of weight status in preadolescent children. PMID:23680431
Jon, Arcelus; Jonathan, Baggott; Debbie, Whight; Lesley, McGrain; Lesley, Meadows; Christopher, Langham.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores de pronóstico del tratamiento de la bulimia nerviosa con terapia interpersonal. Diseño: 80 pacientes con el diagnostico de Bulimia Nerviosa (BN) o trastornos del comportamiento alimentario no especificados con características de BN (TCANE) fueron tratados con 16 ses [...] iones de terapia interpersonal. Los pacientes fueron evaluados utilizando una entrevista semi-estructural (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC). También completaron una batería de cuestionarios para evaluar los niveles de estima personal (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale -RSE), la psicopatología de los trastornos de la alimentación (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), la función interpersonal (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning-IIP-32) y los niveles de depresión (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Método: El pronóstico de interés fue definido por la variable de remisión y recuperación. Para el análisis del estudio se realizaron una serie de regresiones logísticas. Resultado: Baja estima personal, y una menor patología en la función interpersonal fueron los factores de peor pronóstico. Conclusión: Aunque la terapia interpersonal es un tratamiento efectivo para las personas que sufren de bulimia nerviosa, los pacientes con estas patologías con baja estima personal y menos problemas interpersonales deberían de ser tratados con otro tipo de terapia. Abstract in english Objective: To determine predictors of treatment outcomes in patients with Bulimic Eating Disorders treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). Design: Following initial assessment, 80 patients with diagnoses of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), entered treatmen [...] t in the form of 16 sessions of IPT. Patients were assessed using a validated semi-structure interview (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC) and completed measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale-RSE), eating psychopathology (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning- IIP-32), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Method: Remission and recovery after 16 sessions of IPT were the two outcomes of interest. Univariate analysis and a series of backwards stepping logistic regressions were performed to determine the variables associated with remission and recovery. Result: Low self-esteem and less interpersonal problems were the main predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: As patients with Bulimic Disorders with low levels of interpersonal problems and high levels of low self-esteem are likely to do less well with IPT, different type of treatment should be offered to them. A randomized controlled trial could explore this hypothesis in more detail.
Quangyen Tran; Yezhuang Tian
The influence of certain factors on organizational structure has been in researchers’ focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Many of these factors are from the environment where traditional view commonly divided into internal and external factors. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate the influencing factors and impact on organizational structure of a sample of firms located in Hanoi, Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were a...
Franzoni, Emilo; Monti, Morena; Pellicciari, Alessandro; Muratore, Carlo; Verrotti, Alberto; Garone, Caterina; Cecconi, Ilaria; Iero, Luisa; Gualandi, Stefano; Savarino, Francesca; Gualandi, Paola
In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED) we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI) and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an inf...
Hsu, Yu-chia; Tseng, Meng-chun; Wu, Yong-pei; Lin, Meng-ying; Wei, Fu-jin; Hwu, Kae-kang; Hsing, Yue-ie; Lin, Yann-rong
The eating and cooking qualities of rice grains are the major determinants of consumer preference and, consequently, the economic value of a specific rice variety. These two qualities are largely determined by the physicochemical properties of the starch, i.e. the starch composition, of the rice grain. In our study, we determined the genetic factors responsible for the physicochemical properties of starch in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of japonica cv. Tainung 78 × indica cv. Taichung S...
Wajeeh, Emad M.; Micceri, Ted
This study examined differences in ratings between students in a metropolitan university system and traditional university freshmen on a set of factors that influence college choice. Data in regard to factors influencing college choice was collected from a sample of 1,795 University of South Florida (USF) freshmen and 1,108 USF students at various…
Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.
Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J
A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571
The influence factors of dynamic adsorption of noble gases in activated carbon is discussed in this paper. The influence of flow rate in a certain range and of CO2 concentration in normal environment may be ignored. Dynamic absorption coefficient increases with the increase in system pressure and decreases with the increase in temperature and relative humidity. Water content in activated carbon is practically used as an influence factor instead of relative humidity in the condition of unbalanced adsorption. (authors)
The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 ?g, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 ?g Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 ?g Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability
Milos, Gabriella F; Baur, Volker; Muehlebach, Sabina; Spindler, Anja
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (ED) are classified into Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Prospectively, the diagnostic instability within ED is high, but it is not clear which factors may account for this instability. So far, there is no evidence of whether psychiatric comorbidity may play a role in ED diagnostic crossover. We sought to determine possible influences of comorbidities of axis I and II on diagnostic crossover within ED. METHODS:...
Rohde, Kerstin; Keller, Maria; Horstmann, Annette; Liu, Xuanshi; Eichelmann, Fabian; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne
The beneficial effects of adiponectin and its negative correlation with BMI are well described. Adiponectin serum levels are altered in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating. Here, we tested the hypothesis that (1) adiponectin serum levels correlate with human eating behavior factors and (2) that genetic variants of the ADIPOQ locus influence both serum levels and eating behavior. We analyzed 11 SNPs within ADIPOQ and in the 5' UTR and measured serum adiponectin levels in 1,036 individuals from the German Sorbs population. The German version of the three-factor eating questionnaire (FEV) was completed by 548 Sorbs. For replication purposes, we included an independent replication cohort from Germany (N = 350). In the Sorbs, we observed positive correlations of restraint with adiponectin serum levels (P = 0.001; r = 0.148) which, however, did not withstand adjustment for covariates (P = 0.083; r = 0.077). In addition, four SNPs were nominally associated with serum adiponectin levels (all P 9.3 × 10(-4)). In our replication cohort, we observed similar effect directions at rs1501229 for disinhibition and hunger. A meta-analysis resulted in nominal statistical significance P = 0.036 (Z score 2.086) and P = 0.017 (Z score 2.366), respectively. Given the observed relationship of the SNPs with adiponectin levels and eating behavior, our data support a potential role of adiponectin in human eating behavior. Whether the relationship with eating behavior is mediated by the effects of circulating adiponectin warrants further investigations. PMID:25542302
VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN PÚBERES MEXICANOS / VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS
Teresita de Jesús, Saucedo-Molina; Claudia, Unikel-Santoncini.
Full Text Available Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para púberes mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que evalúe factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y método: El cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra no probabilística, de púberes estudiantes de la [...] ciudad de México (504 hombres y 511 mujeres), con edades de 11 a 15 años de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realizó un análisis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y un análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación oblimin por el método de máxima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada) y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada). Conclusión: El instrumento resultó válido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal. Abstract in english Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female student [...] s in México City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha) and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %), and females 0,83 (57,6%) of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.
Masud, E. [ed.
This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)
The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly...
Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, I.A., van der; Frewer, L.J.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...
J., Aschemann-Witzel; F.J.A., Pérez-Cueto; M., Strand; W., Verbeke; T., Bech-Larsen.
Full Text Available Introducción: Rara vez se ha evaluado la efectividad de las campañas e intervenciones de información pública. Por ello, el estudio de actividades exitosas podría contribuir al desarrollo y puesta en práctica en el futuro de campañas e intervenciones a favor de una alimentación saludable Objetivos: E [...] l objetivo del presente estudio de campañas de información sobre alimentación saludable fue primeramente la identificación de los factores de éxito de las mismas, y seguidamente la descripción de sus inter-relaciones. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 11 representantes de industrias alimentarias cuyas campañas fueron identificadas como exitosas en una etapa previa del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron luego analizadas con respecto a los factores de éxito potenciales. Estos últimos fueron posteriormente utilizados para desarrollar un modelo de factores de éxito y sus interrelaciones. Resultados: El éxito de los casos estudiados fue atribuido primeramente a las características del ambiente macro, o a una colaboración entre los sectores público y privado. Segundo, se identificó al compromiso de las comunidades, elementos de empoderamiento del grupo objetivo y a la ejecución de medidas de marketing social. Tercero, el éxito puede atribuirse a la adopción por parte de la ciudadanía de las campañas y los cambios estructurales consecuentes. Conclusiones: El modelo y los factores de éxito identificados resaltan que el éxito puede originarse en tres fases cruciales, el diseño y montaje de la campaña, su ejecución y finalmente, su interacción con la ciudadanía. El modelo puede servir como guía para el desarrollo de campañas en el futuro. Abstract in english Introduction: Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. Objectives: The study of public campaigns and in [...] terventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. Results: It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. Conclusions: The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci; Comer, Lisa
Understanding the triggers of eating in everyday life is crucial for the creation of interventions to promote healthy eating and to prevent overeating. Here, the proximal predictors of eating are explored in a natural setting. Research from laboratory settings suggests that restrained eaters overeat after experiencing anxiety, distraction, and the presence of positive or negative moods, but not hunger; whereas the only factor that triggers eating in unrestrained eaters is hunger. In this stud...
Cristina, Romeo T
The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics), sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, ...
... as for Sunday brunch. Continue Stock Up on Healthy Foods Kids, especially younger ones, will eat mostly ... meal. Make it easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand ...
Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio
The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger)?×?2 (portion size: small vs. big)?×?2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25934089
Consumers and growers in China sometime complain that Kiwifruits treated with an ethylene action inhibitor 1-MCP are difficult to ripen and show poor eating quality. This study addresses the quality parameters affecting consumer preferences and reevaluates the necessity of 1-MCP application for stor...
Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon
Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's…
Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.
The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…
Juliana de Abreu Gonçalves
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crianças e adolescentes quanto às suas características e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combinação dos termos 'crianças', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'transtorno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas português e inglês. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisaram o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares não especificados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os não especificados, mostraram-se comuns na infância e na adolescência. Sua presença foi atribuída principalmente ao ambiente familiar e à exposição aos meios de comunicação. As comorbidades psicológicas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagnóstico do transtorno. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a mídia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influência da mídia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto à magreza. Já no âmbito familiar, o momento das refeições mostrou-se fundamental na determinação do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (déficit no crescimento e ganho de peso, à saúde bucal (queilose, erosão dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das glândulas salivares e aos prejuízos sociais.OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en niños y adolescentes respecto a sus características y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinación de los términos "niños", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alimentar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Se consideraron los artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccionados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposición a los medios de comunicación. Las comorbilidades psicológicas muchas veces acompañan el diagnóstico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el ámbito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostró fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (déficit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso, a la salud oral (queilosis, erosión dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las glándulas salivares y a los perjuicios sociales.OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia', both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to the media. Eating disorders were frequently followed by psychological comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Among the risk factors for eat
Full Text Available Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate-gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, animal models, genome-wide association studies, high-throughput sequencing
Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.
This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…
This paper reports on the influence that temperature during irradiation and dose-rate have on the radiation-induced free-radical yield and time stability in non de-proteinized bone. Bone from chicken legs was irradiated in the 253-293 K temperature range and with two different sources (60Co, 0.6 Gy/s and 12 MeV electrons, 6 x 106 Gy/s). Temperature influences type and number of radicals, while radical concentration seems to slightly decrease with dose rate. (author)
Onori, S; Pantaloni, M; Baccaro, S; Fuochi, P G
This paper reports on the influence that temperature during irradiation and dose-rate have on the radiation-induced free-radical yield and time stability in non de-proteinized bone. Bone from chicken legs was irradiated in the 253-293 K temperature range and with two different sources (60Co, 0.6 Gy/s and 12 MeV electrons, 6 x 10(6) Gy/s). Temperature influences type and number of radicals, while radical concentration seems to slightly decrease with dose rate. PMID:9022202
Perfeccionismo y factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros / Perfectionism and risk factors for the development of eating disorders in Spanish adolescents of both genders
Lidia, Pamies; Yolanda, Quiles.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las dimensiones del perfeccionismo que estaban relacionadas con conductas alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros, así como analizar si existían diferencias significativas en estas dimensiones entre los adolescentes con mayor y menor [...] riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria. Método: se administró la adaptación española de The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) y el EAT- 40 a una muestra representativa de 2142 adolescentes de la provincia de Alicante(1130 chicas y 1012 chicos), con una media de edad de 13.96 años (DT = 1.34). Resultados: el perfeccionismo auto-orientado y el prescrito socialmente estaban relacionados de forma positiva con la puntuación total en el EAT-40 y los diferentes factores que lo componen, en ambos géneros. Los adolescentes con mayor riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno alimentario presentaban un mayor perfeccionismo auto-orientado y prescrito socialmente que los adolescentes con menor riesgo de desarrollar el problema. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de identificar estas tendencias perfeccionistas en los adolescentes antes de que se conviertan en conductas patológicas, como un medio para prevenir el desarrollo de un trastorno alimentario. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the dimensions of perfectionism that are linked to risk eating behaviors in a representative sample of Spanish adolescents of both genders, and analyze the differences in these dimensions between adolescents with high and low eating disorder risk. Method: 2142 ado [...] lescents from Alicante (1130 girls and 1012 boys), mean age 13.96 years (SD = 1.34), completed the Spanish version of the The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) and the EAT-40.Results: Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism were positively associated with EAT-40 total score, and with the different factors that comprise it, in both genders. Adolescents with high risk of developing an eating disorder showed higher Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism than adolescents with low risk of developing the disorder. Conclusion: These results suggest that it is necessary to identify these perfectionist tendencies in adolescents before they become pathological behaviors, in order to prevent the development of an eating disorder.
... desserts. Tips for Eating at the Mall or Fast-Food Place With a little planning, it's easy to ... Vitamins and Minerals Food Labels Are There Healthy Fast-Food Options? Fiber Contact Us Print Additional resources Send ...
Full Text Available Electronic Data Interchange (EDI implementation is viewed as an important tool for transmission of business data. Yet, its implementation has not reached the predicted level whereby the implementation is often stalled at infancy stage. Many factors were pinpointed as inhibitors or barriers for success of EDI implementation. This study examines key EDI influencing factors and their relationship with implementation level, firm size and type of users. Mail surveys on 108 manufacturers were the main data collection method. Findings indicate that implementation level differs based on influencing factors, while these factors differ based on type of users and do not differ based on firm size. Relatively, internal factors were found to be more significant than external factors. This study also recommends future research to further examine influences of users’ type with different EDI aspects.
Erol, Atila; Baylan, Gonul; Yazici, Fadime
During Ramadan month, Muslims should refrain from drinking, eating and smoking from dawn to sunset. Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of young people, especially girls who are known as the most vulnerable group for eating disorders. Our sample consisted of 79 healthy volunteers from a high school (63 females; mean age = 16.29; 16 males; mean age = 16.31) who fasted during the Ramadan month. No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT (Eating Attitude Test) and BITE (Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh) which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of young girls and boys. PMID:18444254
Popadi? Silvija M.; Voji?i? Jelena V.; Peter Andrea; Maleševi? Milica ?.; Mihailovi? Jasna; Kermeci Katarina
Background: Well-known fact is that the good surgical treatment, leaving only small residuals of thyroid tissue, is the outmost valid predictive factor of successful ablative radioiodine treatment. Assuming that all patients had state of the art surgical treatment, with this study we tried to evaluate other possible predictive factors of successful radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy. Methods: Total of 56 patients (15 males and 41 females mean age 43.37±13), operated during the yea...
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with having preventive screening tests in a population-based sample of Ontario women. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey linked to data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to ascertain whether women aged 20 or older had Pap smears, mammography, bone densitometry, or cholesterol testing. Factors associated with having testing were subjected to logistic regression analysis. SETTING: Ontario....
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences is pleased to announce the May 2012 Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI) Special Issue, Understanding and Influencing Multilevel Factors Across the Cancer Care Continuum.
The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated
Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C
Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:19227390
Melbye, Elisabeth Lind
With the increasing prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in mind, the main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of preadolescent children’s eating behavior in the context of parent-child food-related interactions. A more long-term objective is to obtain knowledge that might have the potential to inform future family-oriented nutrition interventions. This thesis consists of three empirical studies and an overview presenting the theoretical found...
Input data from Students Food Behavior, Preference and Lifestyle Questionnaire conducted with 376 students from University “Dunarea de Jos” Galati (UDJG) were analyzed from socio-demographic criteria. The sample socio-demoraphic characteristics of the student population were investigated beside the general food & eating habits by gender. In the current study, most than three quart of students (76.06%) was of correct (normal) weight. Nearly 65.15% of the students reported having regular da...
Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira
This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads. PMID:21476837
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…
Caihong Chen; Wencong Ma; Guilong Zhu
From the view of university character, this study discussed the influencing factors of University-Industry collaboration. Using negative binomial regression and quantile regression model, the study empirically analyzed the U-I collaboration of 431 Universities in China. The results showed that: There are differences of influencing factors between high-quality and medium-quality universities and under the control of area and university type, the research qua...
Al-agaga, Ameen M.; Khalil Md Nor
The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfacti...
Yulihasri Eri; Md. Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud
On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing student’s buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence student’s buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public institution of higher l...
In an attempt to enhance the core professional values of tax practitioners in South Africa, the South African Revenue Service has proposed the regulation of tax practitioners’ services. It is arguable whether or not this would be the only factor to influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. A literature review was conducted to identify factors that could influence the ethical behaviour of tax practitioners. Numerous possibilities emerged. It is therefore recommended that if regul...
Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...
M. Kür?ad Özlen
Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and student’s self efficacy.
Iwelunmor, Juliet; Sofolahan-Oladeinde, Yewande; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O
In South Africa, more than 2 million people living with HIV are men aged 15 years and older, and heterosexual intercourse remains the predominant mode of HIV transmission. Knowledge of the sociocultural factors that influence men's decisions about whether, when, or how to disclose seropositive status remains incompletely understood. Using the PEN-3 cultural model as a guide, this study explored the sociocultural factors influencing HIV disclosure among men in South Africa. Four focus group discussions with 27 participants were used to determine the perceptions, enabling and nurturing factors that influence how men chose to reveal or conceal knowledge of their seropositive status. The results revealed that notions of male identity in the South African context, family, and community factors contribute to disclosure and nondisclosure of seropositive status among men living with HIV/AIDS. Future interventions should work to address these factors, as they are necessary with supporting disclosure among men living with HIV. PMID:24871161
Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech
Full Text Available Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the outcome of eating disorders in Polish teenage patients. Material and methods. Analyses covered the data of 47 patients diagnosed with any of the eating disorders according to DSM IV consulted for the first time in the outpatients clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit between 2002/2004 in Krakow (DGN1, Poland and then followed up between 2009/2011 (DGN2. The influence of the number of variables collected at DGN1 on outcomes was analysed. Results. The outcomes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are influenced by some aspects of clinical picture, patients’ objective family situation, their self-image and the perception they have of their family relations. The co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and younger age of parents proved to be the most clinically important negative outcome predictors in the whole group of eating disorders. Discussion. The small size of group in the follow-up study is the most important limitating factor. Conclusion. Outcomes in eating disorders are affected by several psycho-bio-social factors common to all patients and specific for the diagnosis type they initially present.
Juliana de Abreu, Gonçalves; Emilia Addison M., Moreira; Erasmo Benício S. de M., Trindade; Giovanna Medeiros R., Fiates.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crianças e adolescentes quanto às suas características e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combinação dos termos 'crianças', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'trans [...] torno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas português e inglês. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisaram o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares não especificados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os não especificados, mostraram-se comuns na infância e na adolescência. Sua presença foi atribuída principalmente ao ambiente familiar e à exposição aos meios de comunicação. As comorbidades psicológicas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagnóstico do transtorno. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a mídia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influência da mídia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto à magreza. Já no âmbito familiar, o momento das refeições mostrou-se fundamental na determinação do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (déficit no crescimento e ganho de peso), à saúde bucal (queilose, erosão dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das glândulas salivares) e aos prejuízos sociais. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en niños y adolescentes respecto a sus características y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinación de los términos "niños", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alim [...] entar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Se consideraron los artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccionados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposición a los medios de comunicación. Las comorbilidades psicológicas muchas veces acompañan el diagnóstico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el ámbito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostró fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (déficit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso), a la salud oral (queilosis, erosión dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las glándulas salivares) y a los perjuicios sociales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia' [...] , both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to the media. Eating disorders were frequently followed by psych
Aziato, Lydia; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe Nat A
Researchers in this study explored the reactions of women with breast cancer and identified factors influencing treatment decisions. A qualitative exploratory approach was employed. Participants were recruited from a tertiary hospital and a breast cancer support group. Purposive sampling recruited 12 women. It was found that women identified breast lesions accidentally or intentionally and that diagnosis was delayed. Emotional reactions to diagnosis included shock and sadness. Factors that influenced treatment were the influence of other people, alternative sources of treatment, faith and support, knowledge, "tuning the mind," and effects on intimacy. Health professionals should develop effective communication and counseling skills for clients. PMID:24750095
Factores de riesgo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en jóvenes escolarizados en Cundinamarca (Colombia) / Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among School-Aged Young People in Cundinamarca (Colombia)
Sandra, Piñeros Ortíz; Jenny, Molano Caro; Clara, López de Mesa.
Full Text Available Introducción: El diagnóstico precoz de un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) es determinante para evitar complicaciones graves a lo largo de la vida. Pocos estudios en Colombia han examinado sus características clínicas y comorbilidad en la población escolar. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuenc [...] ia de TCA, sus factores de inicio y mantenimiento, así como sus subtipos clínicos y comorbilidad en una población escolarizada. Método: Estudio de base comunitaria y corte transversal con 937 estudiantes entre 12 y 20 años de edad, de Bogotá y la sabana centro de Cundinamarca, que respondieron la EAT-26, encuesta de factores de inicio y mantenimiento de TCA, y la Zung de ansiedad y depresión. Los casos probables fueron contactados para entrevista clínica psiquiátrica. Resultados: Se detectaron 141 casos probables de TCA, la mayoría en mujeres (p Abstract in english Introduction: The early diagnosis of Eating Disorders (ED) is decisive in order to prevent serious complications during lifetime. In Colombia, few studies have assessed the clinical characteristics and comorbidity of ED in students. Objective: To determine the frecuency of ED, its onset and maintena [...] nce factors, as well as its clinical subtypes and comorbidity in student population. Method: Cross sectional and community based study with 937 students, ages 10 to 12, from Bogotá and Sabana Centro-Cundinamarca, who answered the EAT- 26, a survey on onset and maintenance factors for ED, and the Zung depression and anxiety scales. Results: 141 probable cases of ED were detected, predominantly among women (p
Lança, Carla Costa; Carolino, Elisabete
Amblyopia develops in an early period and is a decrease of visual acuity (unilateral or bilateral) caused by a deprivation of vision or abnormal binocular interaction. Prognosis of Amblyopia is better when occlusive treatment is implemented in an early stage. Visual acuity of amblyopic eye does not improve without effective occlusive therapy. The aim of this study is to identify potential risk factors of noncompliance with treatment when it is implemented by parents in amblyopic children.
Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark
The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...
Full Text Available Decision-making is one of the most important functions of managers in any kind of organization. Among different manager's decisions strategic decision-making is a complex process that must be understood completely before it can be practiced effectively. Those responsible for strategic decision-making face a task of extreme complexity and ambiguity. For these reasons, over the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to the construction of models to aid managers and executives in making better decisions concerning the complex and highly uncertain business environment. In spite of much work that has been conducted in the area of strategic decision-making especially during the 1990's, we still know little about strategic decision-making process and factors affecting it.This paper builds on previous theoretical and empirical studies to determine the extent to which contextual factors impact the strategic decision-making processes. Results showed that researches on contextual factors effecting strategic decision-making process are either limited or have produced contradictory results, especially studies relating decision’s familiarity, magnitude of impact, organizational size, firm’s performance, dynamism, hostility, heterogeneity, industry, cognitive diversity, cognitive conflict, and manager’s need for achievement to strategic decision-making processes. Thus, the study of strategic decision-making process remains very important and much more empirical research is required before any definitive conclusion can be reached.
Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin
Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…
Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.
Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…
Rikani, Azadeh A; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; Waheed, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J
The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusive. Despite the fact that a huge body of research has carefully examined the possible risk factors associated with the eating disorders, they have failed not only to uncover the exact etiology of eating disorders, but also to understand the interaction between different causes of eating disorders. This failure may be due complexities of eating disorders, limitations of the studies or combination of two factors. In this review, some risk factors including biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural are discussed. PMID:25206042
Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.
Full Text Available ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...
Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Flavia Marcele, Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência de comportamentos de risco para condutas de alimentação inapropriada (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Tem sido proposto que a insatisfação corporal, a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômi [...] co e a origem étnica podem ser fatores de risco para CAI. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de insatisfação corporal, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), adiposidade corporal, estado nutricional, nível econômico e etnia com CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 562 jovens, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 15 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para avaliar CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) e a Commitment Exercise Scale (CES) foram utilizadas para mensurar insatisfação corporal e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a adiposidade corporal segundo o sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e determinar o estado nutricional. Nível econômico foi avaliado de acordo com o Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário para avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. Conduziu-se regressão logística binária para determinar associações entre as variáveis da pesquisa. RESULTADOS: Houve associação de CAI com insatisfação corporal, GCPE e nível econômico no sexo feminino (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the a [...] ssociation of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES) were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI) and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly that use of internet banking in Tunisia is influenced moststrongly by convenience, risk, security and prior internet knowledge. Only information on online banking did notaffect intention to use internet banking service in Tunisia. The results also propose that demographic factorsimpact significantly internet banking behaviour, specifically, occupation and instruction. Finally, this papersuggests that an understanding the factors affecting intention to use internet banking is very important to thepractitioners who plan and promote new forms of banking in the current competitive market.
Capacidad Discriminante y Clasificación Correcta de la Escala de Factores de riesgo Asociados con Trastornos de la alimentación (EFRATA-II) / Discriminatory power and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disorders (EPHRATA-II)
Romana Silvia, Platas Acevedo; Gilda, Gómez-Peresmitré; Rodrigo, León Hernández; Gisela, Pineda García; Rebeca, Guzmán Saldaña.
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue establecer la capacidad discriminante y de clasificación correcta de la Escala de Factores de Riesgo Asociados con Trastornos Alimentarios (EFRATA-II), para niños y niñas. La muestra no aleatoria quedó formada por 934 estudiantes de escuelas públicas: 474 niñas y 460 niño [...] s con edad promedio de 10.6 años (DE = .80). El análisis discriminante, con el método D de Mahalanobis, arrojó una clasificación correcta de 100% de los casos en alto y bajo riesgo. La dimensión de sobre ingesta alimentaria por compensación psicológica fue la más relevante, seguida por la de dieta crónica y restringida. La EFRATA-II es un indicador adecuado para la estimación de factores de riesgo en la conducta alimentaria de preadolescentes, y representa una aportación valiosa en el desarrollo de programas preventivos para trastornos de la alimentación. Abstract in english The increased frequency of binge eating behavior, and its relationship to overweight and obesity, expressed a national and international real health problem. The aim of the study was to establish the discriminatory and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disord [...] ers (Ephrata-II), for boys and girls. The non random sample was formed by 934 public school students: 474 girls and 460 boys with a mean age of 10.6 years (SD=.80). Discriminant analysis with Mahalanobis D method, yielded a correct classification of 100% of cases at high and low risk. The food overeating dimension of psychological compensation was the most relevant, followed by chronic restricted diet. The Ephrata-II is a suitable indicator for estimation of risk factors in eating behavior of tweens, and represents a valuable contribution in the development of prevention programs for eating disorders.
Naser Azad; Mina Mohammadi
Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employ...
DANA-CODRU?A DUD?-D?IANU; DANIELA HARANGU?
Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main d...
Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.
Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care. PMID:25068881
The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors)
... is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, society, and families. We all have a role. There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps ...
Rikani, Azadeh A.; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M.; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; Waheed, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J.
The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusi...
Helena Ann Ferris
Full Text Available There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. However, it is imperative that we overcome these barriers and arm our future doctors with the knowledge and skills to serve the needs of the 21st Century patient. As we will discuss, the imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. We will also explore how medical emigration has a negative impact on the delivery of services in Ireland and in maintaining a sustainable workforce. In addition, financial constraints will always play a role in the logistics of Medical education and it is important that we try to get the best value for money by adding more cost effective virtual learning modules to the traditional classroom based approach. Further research is needed into career satisfaction within Medicine. If we can begin to understand what motivates doctors to stay within the Irish Medical system, then we can design a curriculum with retention of graduates in mind. We believe that if we foster a culture of education, guidance and support in our universities and hospitals, we will ensure that a strong, competent and resilient breed of doctors emerge to serves future generation.
Xing, Zhiqing; Katz, Jonathan; Jiranek, William
Currently, the outcome and indications of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) are still controversial. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive case series of UKA done by a single surgeon between 2004 and 2007 including 178 knees (140 patients). There were 31 lateral UKA and 147 medial UKA. With a minimum follow-up of 24 months (average 54 months) in 159 knees (other 19 knees were lost to follow-up at 3 to 18 months after surgery), 6 knees (3.8%, all medial UKA) were converted to total knee arthroplasty in 17 to 66 months (average 33 months). We found that the outcome of UKA was not influenced by the patient's age, body mass index, or early degeneration in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). Compared with other reports, there was a greater proportion of lateral UKA in our series (17.4%). Although lateral UKA showed a trend toward less complications and implant failure compared with medial UKA, WOMAC scores (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) were similar between the two types of partial knee arthroplasty. Our results indicate that young age, obesity, and early degeneration in the PFJ may not be contraindications to UKA, and lateral UKA functions as well as, if not better than medial UKA. However, a long-term follow-up is required to confirm these findings. PMID:23150345
Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research
Hao, Xuejun; Wang, Tong
This study constructed a mathematic model of a variable frequency centrifugal chiller using Simulink software. By running the simulation, it was discovered that when the other factors are constant, the EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) of the chiller increases with decreases in the temperature of the cooling water and increases in the temperature of the chilled water. The effect of changes in the cooling water temperature on the EER of the chiller is stronger than that of changes in the chilled water temperature. In addition, as the chiller load decreases, the EER increases until reaching a maximum, after which it decreases. Furthermore, the EER of chillers working under a constant flow rate is slightly higher than that of those working under varying flow rates.
Cobb, Brian A.; Petrash, J. Mark
Purpose Lens lipids undergo a number of changes with age, including an overall increase in phospholipid acyl chain saturation and a decrease in length. In addition, the amount of membrane bound ?-crystallin increases dramatically with age and with the onset of cataract. The aim of this study was to determine if a link exists between age and cataract associated changes in lens lipids and the changes in ?-crystallin membrane association. Methods Protein-free lipid vesicles composed of a wide variety of synthetic and lens-derived lipid vesicles were formed by sonication. These vesicles were used with fluorescent native and recombinant ?-crystallin conjugates in vesicle binding assays. Vesicles were collected by centrifugation and bound ?-crystallin was quantified with fluorescence intensity measurements. Results ?-Crystallin complexes showed remarkably similar binding profiles for all lipid vesicles tested, regardless of lipid origin, phospholipid head group, acyl chain length or saturation, and inclusion of cholesterol. In addition, recombinant ?-crystallin complexes bind to these vesicles in a manner that is essentially indistinguishable from that of native human and bovine ?-crystallins. Unlike ?-crystallin binding to lens membranes containing intrinsic proteins, binding of ?-crystallin to protein-free vesicles was very high capacity and unsaturable. Conclusions We conclude from these data that the binding of ?-crystallin to lens membranes is not lipid-specific. Furthermore, protein post-translational changes, such as phosphorylation, do not appear to alter ?-crystallin binding to these vesicles. Given the linearity of the binding curves, we propose that the only limiting factor for normal ?-crystallin membrane binding is available surface area on the bilayer. Finally, the present data suggests that increased in vivo membrane association of ?-crystallin is not a result of lipid changes, but more likely a result of non-lipid factors such as the accumulation of high molecular weight forms of ?-crystallin. PMID:11951084
Full Text Available Studying the causes of hospitalization prolongation terms in COPD exacerbation may help optimize treatment, reduce expenditures on the patient and avoid episodes relapses. The aim of the work was to determine the factors affecting the length of hospitalization due to COPD exacerbation. A retrospective analysis of medical records of inpatients hospitalized with COPD exacerbation to therapeutic department of CI "Dnipropetrovsk municipal clinical hospital N 6" of “Dnipropetrovsk regional council" during three years was done. It was found that age, height, number of comorbidities, presence of any symptoms or changes in laboratory analyses do not affect the duration of hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbations. Regardless of the frequency of hospital admissions, length of hospitalization moderately positively and reliably correlates with the disease stage (R = 0,516, p <0,001. Decrease of respiratory function indices, especially FEV1, significantly increases the length of stay in the hospital both in case of one (R = -0,457, p <0.001 or multiple hospitalization during three years (R = -0,512, p <0.001. Reduced body weight and low body mass index during hospitalization are prognostically unfavorable factors, because these parameters, though weakly, but reliably negatively correlate with the number of days spent in the hospital (R = -0,195, p = 0,028 and R = -0,246, respectively, p = 0,005. In the population of patients hospitalized due to COPD exacerbation, moderately positive reliable correlation (R = 0,392, p <0,001 between the length of hospital stay and number of hospitalizations during three years was established. The dependence of hospitalization duration in COPD exacerbations on patient’s gender requires further investigation.
Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.
Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.
Full Text Available Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.
The fatigue seen in many cancer cases is considered to be decrease quality of life. We clarified factors related to such fatigue and used out result to relieve fatigue. We conducted a questionnaire using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) on 204 cancer outpatients at the A hospital. We studied 16 factors influencing fatigue and analyzed the relationships among these factors and CFS scores. The mean of total fatigue scores was 23.0 points (standard deviation: 10.0). The fatigue is strong by higher than 19 points of the CFS scores. That frequency was 64.7%. The logistic regression analysis was conducted the influence factors of fatigue. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for items showing a significant difference Performance States (PS), loneliness, hormonal therapy, and radiation therapy. The conclusion of this study was to reduce fatigue in outpatient cancer treatment, it was suggested to that importance to assess a related factor of fatigue. (author)
Jeffrey C. Wayman
Full Text Available This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.
Influência do estado nutricional no risco para transtornos alimentares em estudantes de nutrição Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status
Janiara David Silva
Full Text Available Avaliar a relação entre a alteração do comportamento alimentar, associado à insatisfação com a imagem corporal, e o estado nutricional de universitárias de Nutrição. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 175 universitárias do Curso de Nutrição (ENUT/UFOP. Foram aplicados os questionários Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 e o Body Shape Questionare (BSQ e realizadas medidas antropométricas. 21,7% das estudantes apresentaram alto risco para transtornos alimentares e 13,7% apresentaram insatisfação com a imagem corporal. A maioria das estudantes com BSQ e EAT-26 positivos estava eutrófica. As estudantes com excesso de peso, aumento do percentual de gordura corporal (% GC e do perímetro da cintura (PC apresentaram risco 5 a 9 vezes maiores de alteração do comportamento alimentar. Houve associação positiva entre os parâmetros antropométricos com a pontuação dos questionários EAT-26 e BSQ. Futuras nutricionistas com excesso de peso apresentaram maior risco de estarem insatisfeitas com a sua imagem corporal e de desenvolverem transtornos alimentares. A utilização de outros parâmetros antropométricos, além do IMC, pode ser útil na triagem de indivíduos suscetíveis ao surgimento de preocupações excessivas com o peso corporal e a alimentação.The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF and waist circumference (WC had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.
Influência do estado nutricional no risco para transtornos alimentares em estudantes de nutrição / Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status
Janiara David, Silva; Amanda Bertolini de Jesus, Silva; Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff de, Oliveira; Aline Silva de Aguiar, Nemer.
Full Text Available Avaliar a relação entre a alteração do comportamento alimentar, associado à insatisfação com a imagem corporal, e o estado nutricional de universitárias de Nutrição. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 175 universitárias do Curso de Nutrição (ENUT/UFOP). Foram aplicados os questionários Eating Att [...] itudes Test-26 (EAT-26) e o Body Shape Questionare (BSQ) e realizadas medidas antropométricas. 21,7% das estudantes apresentaram alto risco para transtornos alimentares e 13,7% apresentaram insatisfação com a imagem corporal. A maioria das estudantes com BSQ e EAT-26 positivos estava eutrófica. As estudantes com excesso de peso, aumento do percentual de gordura corporal (% GC) e do perímetro da cintura (PC) apresentaram risco 5 a 9 vezes maiores de alteração do comportamento alimentar. Houve associação positiva entre os parâmetros antropométricos com a pontuação dos questionários EAT-26 e BSQ. Futuras nutricionistas com excesso de peso apresentaram maior risco de estarem insatisfeitas com a sua imagem corporal e de desenvolverem transtornos alimentares. A utilização de outros parâmetros antropométricos, além do IMC, pode ser útil na triagem de indivíduos suscetíveis ao surgimento de preocupações excessivas com o peso corporal e a alimentação. Abstract in english The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP) [...] . The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.
A self-administered questionnaire, investigated how eating and drinking differ cross-culturally between Scotland and Spain, and in particular whether Scottish and Spanish family relationships, self-esteem, early patterns and psychosocial factors have an effect on eating attitudes. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to a general population sample consisting of 100 female adults [50 from Barcelona group and 50 from Edinburgh group]. The age ranged between 20-26 years old. The res...
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard
Purpose - This study explores perceptions of healthy/unhealthy eating, and perceptions of various socializing agents encouraging healthy eating, amongst Chinese adolescents. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was conducted of 152 seven, eighth and ninth grade Hong Kong students. A structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed in three public secondary schools. Findings - Results showed that respondents frequently ate out with friends and frequently consumed a range of relatively unhealthy food (candies, chips, and soft drinks). They perceived that a balanced diet and eating at a regular time were the most important attributes of healthy eating. In terms of situational influences on their consumption, respondents most likely ate unhealthy food at parties, when eating out or with friends. They most likely ate healthy food at home and when they were sick. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents and government publicity asked them to eat healthy food more often than teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. In terms of alternative advertising appeals discouraging unhealthy eating, respondents considered news and fear appeals the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered relatively less effective. Research limitations/implications - The respondents were chosen from three secondary schools (two co-ed schools and one school for boys). These three schools may not be representative of all schools in Hong Kong or elsewhere, thus limiting the generalizabilty of the findings. Practical implications - The study can serve as a guideline for social services marketing professionals targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings in relation to socializing agents, social services marketers can consider influencing the adolescents eating habits through the parents. As government publicity was perceived as a relatively weak socializing agent, there is a need to review health education materials targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings in relation to different advertising appeals discouraging unhealthy eating, news and fear appeals should be considered, as these were considered relatively more likable and effective than other types of appeals. Originality/value - This paper offers insights into designing communication strategies for adolescents. It is original in that it focuses on adolescents, and explores the perceptions of various socializing agents influencing healthy eating.
Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)
Reid, Anthony J.; Carroll, June C.
To document their plans for practising obstetrics and factors influencing these decisions, a questionnaire was sent to all 79 residents graduating from the University of Toronto's Department of Family and Community Medicine. Fifty-one percent of the 53 residents who responded (67%) planned to practise obstetrics on graduation; 21% planned antenatal care only; 11% planned no obstetrics; and 17% were undecided. The family practice program appeared to influence the residents positively.
Schuppli, C. A.; Fraser, D.
Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal?based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. ...
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.
Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, SØren
AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes. Data were collected through questionnaires completed by the students and by their class teacher and information from the school physician. Multilevel analysis was used to indicate the relative significance of individual and school class characteristics. RESULTS: We find no consistent pattern between the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all other adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, and use of hashish and other euphoriants. Circumstances in the school class more profoundly influenced risk behaviour among adolescents (smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of hashish or other euphoriants) than their dietary habits (eating breakfast, frequent intake of fruit and vegetables, and frequent intake of soft drinks). CONCLUSIONS: The school class had the relatively strongest influence on adolescents' risk behaviour (smoking, alcohol intake, and use of hashish or other euphoriants), whereas family circumstances comprised the strongest influence on dietary habits. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-null
Ameen M Al-Agaga
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging were found to have a significant impact on customer e-loyalty in Internet banking.
Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.
Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on organizational structure has been in researchers’ focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Many of these factors are from the environment where traditional view commonly divided into internal and external factors. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate the influencing factors and impact on organizational structure of a sample of firms located in Hanoi, Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were administered with respect to these factors. The variables studied were identified from among the factors considered in contingency theory and by incorporating elements of the strategic choice approach. After grouping the variables into two factors (related to external and internal respectively, the results revealed three groups of firms according to how they regarded the impact of these factors on organizational structures. In those groups that consider the variables of internal factors to be modifiers of structure the organizational structures are of the “complex classical” type, whereas simple forms predominate in the group that believes these variables do not modify their structure.
Duggan, Scott J; McCreary, Donald R
This Internet research project examined the relationship between consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and/or various indices of pornography and body satisfaction in gay and heterosexual men. Participants (N = 101) were asked to complete body satisfaction questionnaires that addressed maladaptive eating attitudes, the drive for muscularity, and social physique anxiety. Participants also completed scales measuring self-esteem, depression, and socially desirable responding. Finally, respondents were asked about their consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and pornography. Results indicated that viewing and purchasing of muscle and fitness magazines correlated positively with levels of body dissatisfaction for both gay and heterosexual men. Pornography exposure was positively correlated with social physique anxiety for gay men. The limitations of this study and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:15451703
Full Text Available Input data from Students Food Behavior, Preference and Lifestyle Questionnaire conducted with 376 students from University “Dunarea de Jos” Galati (UDJG were analyzed from socio-demographic criteria. The sample socio-demoraphic characteristics of the student population were investigated beside the general food & eating habits by gender. In the current study, most than three quart of students (76.06% was of correct (normal weight. Nearly 65.15% of the students reported having regular daily breakfast. The strongest correlation of having breakfast habit is show with the regular meal behaviour [r(3, 4 = 0.242] and regular meals were associated with reduced trends for BMI [r(4, 2 =?0.055].
Mojtaba Esmaeeli; Hamid Bagheri; Sina Nobahari; Naser Azad; Mohammad Rikhtegar
These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distr...
Electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs is based on the additive dose or the calibration curve methods. In both cases the practical assumption is made that the behaviour of the chicken bone does not depend on factors such as temperature during irradiation, storage conditions and dose rate. So the aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent the above mentioned factors could influence the post-irradiation dose assessment using the ESR technique. (author)
SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA; Suryanarayana, M. V.
This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking w...
Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study were to investigate microtransaction based monetization models in games, and to find factors that influence their success and suitability. The research goal was to interview players, in order to get answers regarding their motivations behind microtransaction purchasing in games. Academic background and methodology The literature review focused on virtual goods research. Overall, there were many factors identified that impact ...
Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi
Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our s...
Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia rítmica, patinaje artístico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifestándose con frecuencia una baja autoestima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de pérdida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejercido a través de la manipulación de la comida y la utilización de métodos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducción de la densidad mineral ósea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tríada de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y pérdidas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparición se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendación del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas pérdidas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupación excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participación de médicos, psicólogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas.Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.
Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención / Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention
Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia rítmica, patinaje artístico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifestándose con frecuencia una baja autoe [...] stima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de pérdida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejercido a través de la manipulación de la comida y la utilización de métodos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducción de la densidad mineral ósea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tríada de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y pérdidas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparición se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendación del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas pérdidas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupación excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participación de médicos, psicólogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas. Abstract in english Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess [...] of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.
de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Romon, Monique; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Heude, Barbara; Basdevant, Arnaud; Charles, Marie-Aline
The purpose of this study was to examine, in a general population, the resemblance in eating behaviour between adolescents and their parents. This study was based on the first examination of a community-based epidemiological study in Northern France. Subjects were offspring aged 14-22 years (135 boys and 125 girls) and their parents (174 fathers and 205 mothers). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18) identified three aspects of eating behaviour: cognitive re...
Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.
To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.
Cardinale, E; Perrier Gros-Claude, J D; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Salvat, G
Our objective was to investigate the Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended poultry dishes and to assess the association of some restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with the contamination of these meals. One hundred and forty-eight street-restaurants were studied from January 2003 to April 2004 in Dakar. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat poultry dishes were taken. Salmonella spp. was isolated in 20.1% of the 148 street-restaurants studied and in 10.1% samples of poultry dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella hadar, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella brancaster. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in only 3 restaurants and 3 poultry dishes. Not peeling and not cleaning vegetables and other ingredients during meal preparation (OR=3.58), dirty clothing for restaurant employees (OR=4.65), reheating previously cooked foods (OR=5.2), and no kitchen and utensils disinfection (OR=3.47) were associated with an increasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Adequate cooking procedures decreased the risk of Salmonella contamination (OR=0.15). PMID:16083818
Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…
Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli
This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…
Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…
Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma
Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…
A survey of one Australian university's faculty found that research activity is highly variable and influenced by a number of factors including personal characteristics; differences in research style, methods, and strategies within and between disciplines; and funding. Individual autonomy in topic selection was important. (Author/MSE)
Fisher, Molly H.
This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…
Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.
Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…
Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin
Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…
Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.
Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…
Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen
The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…
Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.
General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…
Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.
Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans
When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…
Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A
A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101
CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)
Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA
This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.
Helen Hermana Miranda, Hermsdorff; Maria Aparecida de Queiroga Milagres, Vieira; Josefina Bressan Resende, Monteiro.
Full Text Available A leptina é uma proteína secretada pelos adipócitos com papel regulador em vários sistemas do organismo, como sistema imune, respiratório e reprodutivo, bem como no balanço energético via ação hipotalâmica. Sua ação primária ocorre no núcleo hipotalâmico arqueado, no qual inicia uma cascata de event [...] os para inibição da ingestão energética e aumento do gasto energético. As concentrações de leptina são influenciadas pela adiposidade, fatores hormonais e nutricionais. A restrição e os episódios de compulsão alimentar, presentes na anorexia nervosa e bulimia, respectivamente, são considerados, na literatura científica, fatores determinantes na leptinemia. Seus níveis também alterados no tratamento desses distúrbios alimentares sugerem uma relação entre as alterações neuroendócrinas e conseqüentes modificações nos sinais de fome e saciedade, com a patogenia ou manutenção dos quadros clínicos. Trabalhos têm encontrado impacto dessas alterações na saúde dos pacientes, em curto e longo prazos. Esta revisão tem como objetivo esclarecer quais são as funções da leptina nos tecidos nervoso e periférico, quais os mecanismos que interferem na sua concentração nos distúrbios alimentares e como isso reflete na saúde do paciente anoréxico ou bulímico. Abstract in english Leptin, a protein secreted by adipocytes, has a regulatory function in several organism systems such as the immune, respiratory, and reproductive systems and in the energy balance via hypothalamic action. Its primary action occurs in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, where it begins a cascade of eve [...] nts that inhibits energy intake and enhances energy consumption. The concentration of leptin is influenced by adiposity and hormonal and nutritional factors. The scientific literature considers food restriction and binge episodes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia, respectively, as determining factors of leptin circulation. Leptin levels are also altered during the treatment of these food disturbances, which indicates a relation between neuroendocrine alterations and eventual modifications in hunger and satiety signals and pathogenesis or clinical state of patients. Studies have reported on the short and long-term impact of these alterations on health. Therefore, this review aims to explain the function of leptin in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the mechanisms that interfere with its concentrations in food disturbances, and how this reflects on the health of anorectic and bulimic patients.
Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Full Text Available A leptina é uma proteína secretada pelos adipócitos com papel regulador em vários sistemas do organismo, como sistema imune, respiratório e reprodutivo, bem como no balanço energético via ação hipotalâmica. Sua ação primária ocorre no núcleo hipotalâmico arqueado, no qual inicia uma cascata de eventos para inibição da ingestão energética e aumento do gasto energético. As concentrações de leptina são influenciadas pela adiposidade, fatores hormonais e nutricionais. A restrição e os episódios de compulsão alimentar, presentes na anorexia nervosa e bulimia, respectivamente, são considerados, na literatura científica, fatores determinantes na leptinemia. Seus níveis também alterados no tratamento desses distúrbios alimentares sugerem uma relação entre as alterações neuroendócrinas e conseqüentes modificações nos sinais de fome e saciedade, com a patogenia ou manutenção dos quadros clínicos. Trabalhos têm encontrado impacto dessas alterações na saúde dos pacientes, em curto e longo prazos. Esta revisão tem como objetivo esclarecer quais são as funções da leptina nos tecidos nervoso e periférico, quais os mecanismos que interferem na sua concentração nos distúrbios alimentares e como isso reflete na saúde do paciente anoréxico ou bulímico.Leptin, a protein secreted by adipocytes, has a regulatory function in several organism systems such as the immune, respiratory, and reproductive systems and in the energy balance via hypothalamic action. Its primary action occurs in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, where it begins a cascade of events that inhibits energy intake and enhances energy consumption. The concentration of leptin is influenced by adiposity and hormonal and nutritional factors. The scientific literature considers food restriction and binge episodes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia, respectively, as determining factors of leptin circulation. Leptin levels are also altered during the treatment of these food disturbances, which indicates a relation between neuroendocrine alterations and eventual modifications in hunger and satiety signals and pathogenesis or clinical state of patients. Studies have reported on the short and long-term impact of these alterations on health. Therefore, this review aims to explain the function of leptin in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the mechanisms that interfere with its concentrations in food disturbances, and how this reflects on the health of anorectic and bulimic patients.
... disease fact sheet Heart health and stroke Heart-healthy eating Heart-healthy eating is an important way to lower your ... fruits, vegetables, and foods with whole grains and healthy protein. You also should eat less food with ...
... full list of resources ??. Alternate Language URL Binge Eating Disorder Page Content How common is binge eating disorder???? ... to helpful sources of care. ? What causes binge eating disorder? No one knows for sure what causes binge ...
Vainik, Uku; Neseliler, Selin; Konstabel, Kenn; Fellows, Lesley K; Dagher, Alain
Research on eating behaviour has identified several potentially relevant eating-related traits captured by different questionnaires. Often, these questionnaires predict Body Mass Index (BMI), but the relationship between them has not been explicitly studied. We studied the unity and diversity of questionnaires capturing five common eating-related traits: Power of Food, Eating Impulsivity, emotional eating, Disinhibition, and binge eating in women from Estonia (n?=?740) and Canada (n?=?456). Using bifactor analysis, we showed that a) these questionnaires are largely explained by a single factor, and b) relative to this shared factor, only some questionnaires offered additional variance in predicting BMI. Hence, these questionnaires seemed to characterise a common factor, which we label Uncontrolled Eating. Item Response Theory techniques were then applied to demonstrate that c) within this common factor, the questionnaires could be placed on a continuum of Uncontrolled Eating. That is, Eating Impulsivity focused on the milder degree, Power of Food Scale, emotional eating scales, and Disinhibition on intermediate degrees, and the Binge Eating Scale on the most severe degrees of Uncontrolled Eating. In sum, evidence from two samples showed that questionnaires capturing five common BMI-related traits largely reflected the same underlying latent trait - Uncontrolled Eating. In Estonia, some questionnaires focused on different severities of this common construct, supporting a continuum model of Uncontrolled Eating. These findings provide a starting point for developing better questionnaires of the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity, and provide a unifying perspective from which to view the existing literature. R scripts and data used for the analysis are provided. PMID:25769975
Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Andreeva, Valentina A; Sautron, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine
Intuitive eating is an adaptive dietary behavior that emphasizes eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) measures such attitudes and behaviors. The aim of the present study was to adapt the IES-2 to the French context and to test its psychometric properties in 335 women and 297 men participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. We evaluated the construct validity of the IES-2 by testing hypotheses with regard to its factor structure, relationships with scores of the revised 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and differences between "a priori" relevant subgroups. First, the exploratory factor analysis revealed three main dimensions: Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Unconditional Permission to Eat. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis upheld the 3-factor solution influenced by a broader intuitive eating dimension. IES-2 total score was negatively related to cognitive restraint (r?=?-0.31, P?Physical Reasons, and Unconditional Permission to Eat subscales. Current or former dieters had lower scores on the IES-2 total scale and on all subscales than did those who had never dieted (all P?0.01). Finally, results showed satisfactory reliability for the IES-2 total scores (internal consistency?=?0.85 and test-retest reliability?=?0.79 over a mean 8-week period) and for its subscales. Thus, the French IES-2 can be considered a useful instrument for assessing adult intuitive eating behaviors in empirical and epidemiological studies in the general population. PMID:25239401
Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.
Mavis, B E; Stöffelmayr, B E
There is little documentation about how the union of self-help and professional treatment services influences client treatment satisfaction. This study examines the relationship of treatment characteristics indicative of program size, staffing patterns, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) influence, and staff recovery status to client satisfaction. Thirty-six public substance abuse treatment programs participated in this study. At outpatient programs, satisfaction was related to program size, and the number of paraprofessional and medical staff; satisfaction was unrelated to AA influence on treatment. For residential clients, AA influence on treatment and AA beliefs held by staff were consistently related to satisfaction; factors related to program size and staffing patterns were independent of satisfaction. The results question the appropriateness of self-help interventions in all settings, and emphasize contextual differences in outpatient and residential programs. PMID:7703712
Un estudio preliminar de los factores predictores de la conducta de atracón en tres culturas: México, Argentina y España / A preliminary study of the predictive factors of binge eating behavior in three cultures: Mexico, Spain and Argentina
Gilda, Gómez-Peresmitré; Victoria, Acosta García; Roberta, Gorischnik; Corina, Cuevas Renaud; Gisela, Pineda García; Romana Silvia, Platas Acevedo; Rebeca, Guzmán Saldaña; Rodrigo, León Hernández.
Full Text Available La conducta de atracón, el incremento en su frecuencia que incide en el riesgo asociado a trastorno alimentario, así como su relación con sobrepeso y obesidad constituyen un problema de salud vigente a nivel nacional e internacional. El objetivo de la investigación fue explorar, identificar y descri [...] bir los factores de riesgo que se interrelacionan y explican la Conducta de Atracón, poniendo especial interés en las similitudes y diferencias inherentes a muestras de tres diferentes países de habla hispana (México, España y Argentina). La muestra agrupó N = 258 mujeres: mexicanas (n = 85, Medad = 16.18, DE = 0.99); argentinas (n = 75, Medad = 17.00, DE = 1.24) y españolas (n = 98, Medad = 17.00, DE = 1.36). Se utilizaron instrumentos psicométricamente adecuados. Entre los resultados de mayor interés se encontró que el factor comer por compensación psicológica obtiene el peso ? más alto en cada grupo y el análisis de senderos confirma su importancia intercultural. El carácter emocional de dicho factor, su aportación a la prevención y su poder predictivo forman parte de la discusión. Abstract in english The increased frequency of binge eating behavior, and its relationship to overweight and obesity, expressed a national and international real health problem. The objective of this study was to explore, identify and describe the risk factors that interrelate and explain Binge Eating Behavior, paying [...] special attention to the similarities and differences inherent to samples from three different Spanish-speaking countries (Mexico, Spain and Argentina). The total sample consisted of N = 258 women: Mexican (n = 85, Mage = 16.18, SD = 0.99); Argentine (n = 75, Mage = 17.00, SD = 1.24) and Spanish (n = 98, Mage = 17.00, SD = 1.36). The instruments used showed a good psychometrical properties. The eating for psychological compensation factor gets the highest ? weight in the three groups and its intercultural relevance is confirmed by the Path Analysis. It is discussed the emotional nature of the eating for psychological compensation factor, its contribution to prevention, and its predictive power.
Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Iacono, William G.; Mcgue, Matt; Klump, Kelly L
Dietary restraint is a prospective risk factor for the development of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Although many women engage in dietary restraint, relatively few develop binge eating. Dietary restraint may only increase susceptibility for binge eating in individuals who are at genetic risk. Specifically, dietary restraint may be a behavioral “exposure” factor that activates genetic predispositions for binge eating. We investigated this possibility in 1,678 young adolescent and adult...
Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang
Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.
Autoestima, insatisfação corporal e internalização do ideal de magreza influenciam os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares? / Can self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, and internalization of the thinness ideal influence risk behaviors for eating disorders?
Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras, Meireles; Clara Mockdece, Neves; Sebastião Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a influência da autoestima, da insatisfação corporal e da internalização do ideal de magreza nos comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares de adolescentes do sexo feminino. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 471 jovens. Utilizou-se a Esc [...] ala de Autoestima de Rosemberg, o Body Shape Questionnaire e o Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 para avaliar autoestima, insatisfação corporal e internalização do ideal de magreza, respectivamente. As subescalas do Eating Attitudes Test foram utilizadas para avaliar os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares. RESULTADOS: Os resultados indicaram influência dos escores do Body Shape Questionnaire (p0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a insatisfação corporal e a internalização do ideal de magreza influenciam os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares em adolescentes do sexo feminino, fato que não foi evidenciado para a autoestima. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, and internalization of the thin ideal on disordered eating female adolescents. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy one adolescents participated in this research. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the [...] Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 were used to assess self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, and internalization of the thin ideal, respectively. The Eating Attitudes Test subscales were used to evaluate eating disorder risk behavior. RESULTS: The results indicated influence of the Body Shape Questionnaire (p0.05). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that body dissatisfaction and internalization of the thin ideal influence eating disorder risk behavior in female adolescents; the same behavior was not observed for self-esteem.
Full Text Available Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007. The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002, cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schilder, 2002, nutrition and weight (Halmi, 2003.These factors can be divided into four main categories: ‘the cultural pressure to acquire a thin body; the change in the woman’s social role; the mythical character granted to eating disorders; the prejudice against obesity’ (Dalle Grave, 2007. So far, the literature on this subject, however wide, has provided no conclusive data with reference to related issues, such as psychiatric comorbidities(Blinder et al, 2007. In particular, this study focused on the aspectof control, a significant feature of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder too, (Couturier, 2004 and on body-image disperception, peculiar to eating disorders (Neumark-Sztainer, 2000. To investigate co-morbidity between eating disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a questionnaire including items of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Dalle Grave, Ghisi, Calugi, 2006 was administered to a sample of adolescent students. The results provide significant correlations between Calculation Compulsions and the BSQ Behaviours variable, between Current MiscellaneousCompulsions and Body Image, between Current Miscellaneous Compulsionsand Body Shape/Self Esteem. Therefore the study provides further evidence in support of co-morbidity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socioeconomic characteristics, dichotomous choice method questions pertaining to ambulance calls in hypothetical nonemergency situations, and questions on the city's emergency medical system. The probit model was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 2,029 out of 3,363 targeted recipients completed the questionnaire (response rate, 60.3%. Probit regression analyses showed that several demographic and socioeconomic factors influence the decision to call an ambulance. Male respondents were more apt than female respondents to state that they would call an ambulance in nonemergency situations (p Conclusion Results of the study suggest that several socioeconomic factors, i.e., age, gender, household income, and possession of a car, influence a person's decision to call an ambulance in nonemergency situations. Hesitation to use an ambulance and knowledge of the city's primary emergency medical center are likely to be important factors limiting ambulance overuse. It was estimated that unnecessary ambulance use is increased approximately 10% to 20% by socioeconomic factors.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.
Juana Robledo Martín
Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.
Full Text Available The risk of malnutrition increases with ageing, resulting in poorer health and higher risk of disease. Eating difficulties are important risk factors for malnutrition. Moreover, independence in relation to food and meals is highly rated by the elderly and has been associated with health and well-being. The purpose of this literature overview was to provide insights into nutritional status, food choice and preferences as well as the meal situations of home-living elderly (65+ people with motoric eating difficulties focusing on Scandinavia. The overall aim is to support independence and to prevent malnutrition. Nutritional status in the elderly was found to be negatively influenced by motoric eating difficulties including problems with manipulating food on the plate and transporting food to the mouth. Motoric eating difficulties may result in practical simplifications such as use of pre-prepared meals, less advanced cooking, and omission of certain meal constituents in order to avoid e.g. mismanagement and spillage. Eating difficulties are often accompanied by feelings of guilt and shame. Choosing smaller portions, reducing the number of eating episodes and not cooking independently have been associated with a higher risk of malnutrition. The nutritional effects of eating difficulties may be exacerbated by diminished chemosensory functions. Furthermore, both past and present food preferences should be considered in order to meet nutritional needs and meal satisfaction. Development of refined and socially accepted eating aids, in combination with tasty and nutritious products, is important in order to promote healthy and independent living among home-living elderly with motoric eating difficulties.
Victor, Viana; Pedro Lopes dos, Santos; Maria Júlia, Guimarães.
Full Text Available Neste trabalho de revisão bibliográfica, os autores descrevem alguns determinantes do comportamento e hábitos alimentares ao longo do desenvolvimento, da infância à adolescência. Embora primariamente influenciados por factores constitucionais, são as experiências com diversos alimentos e sabores, in [...] centivadas por aspectos de ordem afectiva e sociais, os principais factores do comportamento e hábitos alimentares. Entre as influências mais importantes das escolhas de crianças e jovens contam-se os níveis de satisfação com o corpo, o tempo despendido face à TV e a publicidade sobre alimentos. Sobre-ingestão e excesso de peso e obesidade são algumas as consequências negativas. Compreender o comportamento alimentar e os seus determinantes é um passo importante para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de prevenção. Abstract in english In this literature review, some factors of eating practices and eating behavior along development of children and adolescents are described. Although there are some genetic influences, the learning experiences with different tastes and foods in affective and social context are the main determinants [...] of eating habits and preferences. Satisfactions with body aspect, the time spent in TV and publicity about food are some of the important influences in children and adolescents eating preferences, exercise practices. Overeating and overweight are some of the negative consequences. Obesity and eating disorders are the results of eating style and food selection. To understand eating behavior and overweight development is an important step to develop preventive and educative strategies.
Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katarina M.; Mary L. Greaney; Peterson, Karen E
As more U.S. children grow up in Latino families, understanding how social class, culture and environment influence feeding practices is key to preventing obesity. We conducted six focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews among immigrant, low-income Latina mothers in the Northeast U.S. and classified 17 emergent themes from content analysis according to ecologic frameworks for behavior change. Respondents related environmental influences to child feeding, diet and activity, i.e., supermarket p...
Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D
This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. PMID:25645347
Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.
Broussaud, A.; Guyot, O. [Svedala Cisa, Orleans Cedex 2 (France)
Optimizing control systems supplement conventional Distributed Control Systems and Programmable Logic Controllers. They continuously implement set points, which aim at maximizing the profitability of plant operation. They are becoming an integral part of modern mineral processing plants. This trend is justified by economic considerations, optimizing control being among the most cost-effective methods of improving metallurgical plant performance. The paper successively analyzes three sets of factors, which influence the profitability of optimizing control systems, and provides guidelines for analyzing the potential value of an optimizing control system at a given operation: external factors, such as economic factors and factors related to plant feed; features of the optimizing control system; and subsequent maintenance of the optimizing control system. It is shown that pay back times for optimization control projects are typically measured in days. The OCS software used by the authors for their applications is described briefly. (author)
Dilek Ertu? Toker
Full Text Available The frequency of eating disorders has been increased over the course of last 50 years. Its history reveals that different forms of eating disorders have actually been existed for a long period of time but the most recognized eating disorders like Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa have only recently been included to the official classification systems. It is being argued that biological genetic load and hypothalamic neuromediator factors are the main causes for the etiology of eating disorders, which may cause appearance of several physical symptoms, have a poor prognosis, have a high risk of recurrence, and have a high rate of fatality among psychiatric disorders. Among psychological factors, the emphasis is on family structure and the patient-family relations, and it’s being claimed that the form of the relation that the patient has with his/her parents is effective on eating disorders. It’s expressed that the families of patients with eating disorders are less emphatic, less supportive and have higher expectations. Furthermore, findings reveal that more cases of familial problems and fights, depression, anxiety, alcoholism and any kind of eating disorder are being encountered within the families of patients with eating disorders. In this study the literature on the relationship between eating disorder and family structure has been reviewed.
Walker, P. A.; And Others
The factors influencing student choice of an admission to three institutions are examined. A survey of entering full-time first degree students set out to compare: factors influencing decisions to enter higher education, sources of information which influenced decisions, pattern of applications, and factors influencing final choice. (Author/MLW)
Deliyski, Dimitar D; Shaw, Heather S; Evans, Maegan K; Vesselinov, Roumen
Multiple factors influence voice quality measurements (VQM) obtained during an acoustic voice assessment including: gender, intrasubject variability, microphone, environmental noise (type and level), data acquisition (DA) system, and analysis software. This study used regression trees to investigate the order and relative importance of these factors on VQM including interaction effects of the factors and how the outcome differs when the acoustic environment is controlled for noise. Twenty normophonic participants provided 20 voice samples each, which were recorded synchronously on five DA systems combined with six different microphones. The samples were mixed with five noise types at eight signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. The resulting 80,000 audio samples were analyzed for fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter and shimmer using three software analysis systems: MDVP, PRAAT, and TF32 (CSpeech). Fifteen regression trees and their Variable Importance Measures were utilized to analyze the data. The analyses confirmed that all of the factors listed above were influential. The results suggest that gender, intrasubject variability, and microphone were significant influences on F(0). Software systems and gender were highly influential on measurements of jitter and shimmer. Environmental noise was shown to be the prominent factor that affects VQM when SNR levels are below 30 dB. PMID:16825780
Full Text Available Buyer behavior is the study of individuals, group, or select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these process have on the consumer and society. Buyer behavior is widely understood as a problem solving and decision making sequence, the outcome of which is determined by the buyer goal directed processing of information. The aim of this paper is to show that to identify reasons for buying laptop, factors influencing for buying laptop, and decision making for product attributes factors in this factors motivated based on Buyer behaviour in Dindigul district general people. The sample included 150 of general people based on laptop buyers. The collected data were coded, calculated and analyzed with the help of statistical tools like t-test, ANOVA, Regression analysis. The result shows that there is no significant difference between products attributes with gender and Occupation, and Buyer behaviour factors contributed in reasons for buying laptop, Influencing factors, and product attributes.
Full Text Available The sustained economic growth in Romania during the period 2000-2008 was not accompanied by a regional convergence of the living standards. Specific factors, such as the persistence of regional specialization of employment and the dominance of subsistence households in rural areas still shape the regional disparities in economic performance. The economic crisis determined a decrease in the average household income, while the impact was unequally distributed by regions. The paper aims at measuring the cross-regional variation of the household income at NUTS2 level. In order to identify the specific factors which have mostly influenced the income changes, panel estimation is used.
Full Text Available The single yarn strength CV value is one important index to measure the quality of yarn. Taking pure cotton and polyester cotton blended yarn as research objects, in this article, we systematically analyze the effects of some factors such as raw material blended ratio, yarn unevenness and twist unevenness on single yarn strength CV value, and use the mathematic analysis method to obtain the relationships between various influencing factors with single yarn strength value, and the result possesses directional meanings to enhance the quality of yarn in actual production.
The purpose of the research was to examine the behaviour of Russian con-sumers and find out what different factors influence the final purchase decision. The study investigated these factors from the view point of leisure related tourism and our target group was those Russians who travel to the area of Lappeenranta and use local hospitality services for at least one night. The main goal was to help improve the knowledge about Russian customers through theory, as well as to understand the expe...
Full Text Available Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above.
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie
This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration. PMID:25980512
Full Text Available To suggest its available financial resources, consumer of rural and farm tourism, according to its preferences, must maximize the utility of purchases within own available budget. Consumer of rural and farm tourism products and services, in economic terms, is characterized through the option to chose a competitive market, outside his professional activity (public, private or commercial. The study evaluates consumer behavior influences that are exerted on consumer by family groups, friends and society in general. Consumer of agro-tourist farm goods and services behavior is influenced by a number of factors that make them come more often or less often or only seasonal to the farm: endogenous and exogenous factors.
Terang Uli Sembiring
Full Text Available About 80% of Indonesia populations lived in malaria endemic areas. AMI reported to date is still high, on the other side of the MDG targets is to reduce AMI (38 ° C, chills, cold sweating, headache, and muscle pain or splenomegaly at 4 health centers in January to April 2011. Interview was assigned to 220 respondents; 53.2% of respondents aged over 40 years, predominantly female (52.7%. In general, respondents have a job (66.4% with low educational level (81.8%, and 67.7% get a pain less than 4 days. Results shows that occupation factor is significantly related to drug purchasing behavior (p = 0.003. Model of risk factors that influencing malaria drug purchases in the stall is the kind of work that is influenced by the low education level (p-value = 0.003 with odds ratio is 15.5%.
Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)
We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)
Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.
Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…
Stoll, Pia; Wall, Anders; Norstro?m, Christer
The Influencing Factors (IF) method guides the architect through stakeholders’ concerns to architectural decisions in line with current business goals. The result is a set of requirements on software quality attributes and business goals and highlighted trade-offs among software quality attributes and among business goals. The IF method is suitable for sustainable software systems since it allows new concerns, resulting from changes in business goals, stakeholder concerns, technical environ...
Communication is a complex process of transmitting messages, according to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel to a receiver who ultimately is going to decode it. At an ordinary level, communication as a message exchange between individuals is understood as a verbal or written transmission of information. The success of any communication is dependent on several factors that exert their influence both upon the emitter and the receiver. Business commu...
Tjosevik, Ragnhild; Refsland, Birgitte
This study considers small Norwegian high-technology firms, with characteristics similar to those of Born Global firms. These types of firms have received an increasing amount of attention in research the last decade, but the specific field of how different factors affect their international entry strategies is scattered. With a basis of a multiple-case study, this thesis contributes with an assessment of how founder-, market- and product characteristics influence the international entry stra...
Brissaud, Florent; Charpentier, Dominique; Fouladirad, Mitra; Barros, Anne; Bérenguer, Christophe
The relevance of reliability evaluation strongly depends on the quality of input data as failure rates. Reliability data handbooks give generic values which do not often fit system specificities. This paper deals with influencing factors in order to take into account some aspects as design, environment and use in reliability evaluations. Once a definition and a classification are proposed, a brief review of existing models is presented. This paper also introduces a new failure rate evaluation...
Mahmood Modiri; Abdollah Naami; Ebrahim Abedini
Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommen...
Jee, Young Ju; Lee, Yun Bok
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among elderly patients and identify the factors influencing depression in a geriatric hospital in Korea. [Subjects] A self-report questionnaire was administered to the patients in community geriatric hospitals. Participants were 195 elderly patients. [Methods] The instruments utilized in this study were the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea (GDSSF-K), an activity of daily living scale,...
The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return ...
Short, Jodi; Toffel, Michael Wayne; Hugill, Andrea Read
Supply chain auditors provide companies with strategic information about the practices of suppliers, yet little is known of what influences auditors’ ability to identify and report dangerous, illegal, and unethical behavior at factories. Drawing on insights from the literatures on street-level bureaucracy and on regulatory and audit design, we theorize and investigate the factors that shape the practices of private supply chain auditors. We find evidence that their reporting practices are s...
Lee Chai Har; Uchenna Cyril. Eze
The Internet revolution has created more opportunities for businesses and individuals to explore new ways of life, and online business is a key aspect of these new forms of living. Online transaction systems enable users to buy and make payments for products and services using the Internet platform. While there is increasing research about online business, little research has focused on specific repurchase perspectives in the Malaysian context. This study examines the factors that influence c...
Oindo, B.O.; De By, R.A.; A.K Skidmore
Sustainable resource management requires understanding the factors that increase or decrease species richness. Regional species richness patterns may be predicted by analysing patterns of variation in the environment. A number of studies have shown that bird species richness at a regional scale is influenced by climatic variables. We examined environmental correlates of bird species richness at a quarter degree square scale (55 × 55 km). Mean annual potential evapotranspiration accounts for 4...
Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adju...
Kerstens, N. F. H.
The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in production. In principle the welding process is rather simple, the materials to be joined are clamped between two electrodes and pressed together. Because there is an interface present with a higher res...
Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Huang, Ding-ming
The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these an...
Pascoe, G. A.; Ward, Mike; Mackenzie, D. J.
This study investigates a number of economic factors to determine whether individually or collectively they affect the share price response to a rights issue announcement on the JSE. It adds to the existing body of literature on new equity issue announcements and it will assist issuing firms and investors in obtaining a better understanding of what influences the valuation of shares when undertaking new equity issuances.
Rui Gao; Dong Xiang; Luyuan Zhang; Longwei Yin; Chengxiang Wang
Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humi...
Lestari, V. S.; Natsir, A.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Kasim, K.; Ali, H. M.; Saadah; Mawardi
The present study was undertaken to identify factors that influences biosecurity adoption on laying hen farmers in Sidrap district, South Sulawesi. This district was choosen because beside it was famous as the center of laying hen farms, it was also as one of districts in South Sulawesi which suffered from Avian influenza outbreak. Total sample was 60 respondents. The sample was choosen through stratified random sampling from two subdistricts which was the most populous of layer smallholders,...
Garraway, W. M.; Lee, A. J.; Macleod, D. A.; Telfer, J. W.; Deary, I. J.; Murray, G. D.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby mat...
Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.
This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes we...
Guishu Zhong; Xia Xiong
This study aims to analyze the factors that influence current practice of clinical medicine education through questionnaire among the undergraduates of 2003rd year (of graduation) in Luzhou Medical College who have just finished practice education. The sample comprises of 206 students. Then we get the first-hand data based on the personal experience of interns by analyzing the questionnaire, make clear the inherent reasons, thus take measures to achieve an etiological treatment and provide ev...
Transport pricing policies are often assumed to be effective strategies to affect people’s car use, but, due to a lack of public support, these policies are often not implemented. Therefore, we examined which factors influence the acceptability of these pricing policies. First, the acceptability of transport pricing policies was shown to be strongly related to the revenue allocation: acceptability increased when revenues were allocated to car users. Second, the acceptability was also shown ...
Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi; Abdollah Naami; Naser Azad
During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts wh...
Korityak, Anton; Fichtel, Tomasz
This paper focuses on identifying factors influencing the financing decisions of growth-oriented start-ups. A sample of 8 business incubator start-ups has been studied within a qualitative research so as to reach that goal. Their fundraising choices are analyzed using supporting financial and psychological theories. Also, the thesis examines the start-ups’ interaction with a business incubator and investors.It is found that growth oriented start-ups use internal funds in the first instance,...
Li, Ning; Zhang, Jie
One hundred and nine suicide survivors and 128 informants of community controls were investigated in this study to explore how Chinese suicide survivors were affected by the suicide deaths. Variables measured in the survey included demographic status, mental health status, personality, etc. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed in data analyses to explore possible influencing factors for depression among Chinese suicide survivors. ‘Lived with suicide victim’ was found to be t...
Sianesi M; Di Mario F; Gm, Cavestro; Gg, Japichino; Piccolo D; Dell'Abate P; Del Rio P; Ziegler S.; Franzini C; Soliani P
CONTEXT: The natural history of pancreatic pseudocysts has become well known in recent years, but the choice of a proper treatment still remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at establishing whether predictive factors influencing therapeutic outcomes exist. SETTING: Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts following an episode of acute pancreatitis treated from January 1980 to December 2001 at the Department of General Surgery and Organ Transplantation of the University of Parma, Ital...
Korhan Kahraman; Göksu Göç; Salih Ta?k?n; P?nar Haznedar; Selen Karagözlü; Burak Kale; Zeynep Kurtipek; Batuhan Özmen
Objective: To analyze the factors influencing behavior of women in choosing contraceptive methods.Material and Methods: A total of 4022 women who were admitted to our clinic in a year, were the subjects in this current study for contraception choices. Relationship between the current contraceptive choice and the age, marital status, educational level, gravidity and induced abortions were evaluated. Results: Current users of any contraceptive methods were found to make up thirty-three percent ...
Ugur Uyeturk; Adnan Gucuk; Eray Kemahli; Emine Dagistan; Mevlut Yildiz; Burak Yilmaz; Ahmet Metin
Purpose. The duration of urine leakage following the removal of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) shows significant variations depending on the techniques used. We aimed to assess the factors likely to influence the duration of urine leakage. Material and Methods. In total, 103 patients who underwent PCNL were reviewed retrospectively. DUL was evaluated regarding patient characteristics, thickness of the access line, presence of hydronephrosis, and residual stones...
Muhammad Khalilur Rahman; Md Abdul Jalil; Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Robel, S. D.
E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experienc...
Wilkins, Melinda A
The study's aim was to examine factors that may influence health information managers in the adoption of electronic health records. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) served as theoretical foundation for this quantitative study. Hospital health information managers in Arkansas were queried as to the constructs of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior intention. The study population comprised 94 health information managers with a return rate of 74.5 percent. One manager ...
Lewis, Gary J.; Bates, Timothy C.
Although it has been shown that prosocial behaviour is heritable, it has not yet been established whether narrower aspects of prosociality are heritable, nor whether a common mechanism influences prosociality across its multiple domains. Here, we examine civic duty, work-place commitment and concern for the welfare of others with a study of prosocial obligations in 958 adult twin-pairs. Multivariate modelling indicated the existence of genetic factors underlying general prosocial obligations ...
Di Rong; Xu Ming
With the rapid development of economy, service industry plays a significant role in world. Innovation in service enterprises has become an important competitive concern in many service industries. In order to reasonably analysis the radical service innovation in this area, this paper explores the influencing factors of radical service innovation by using literature analysis method. And an evaluation index system is established in this paper at same time, which is based on the investigation of...
Ahmad Nazrin Aris Anuar
Full Text Available The tourist friendly destination is a concept, which satisfies the tourists through utilization and the relationship between elements of activity, space and product without any interruption and difficulties starting from the resident to the preferred of tourism destination. It has been seen as a customer-oriented concept where the tourists regarded as the customers at the tourist friendly destination. However, studies that of such initiatives are quite limited and sector based, thus leaving a gap of knowledge and misunderstanding what makes constitutes a tourist friendly destination. Therefore, this study is a concept paper with the aim of identifying the factors underlying and influencing the formation of tourist friendly destination at a macro level perspective. Through this study, it is found that five factors influencing the formation of tourist friendly destination. The implication of this study provides better insight into the factors, which influenced the formation of tourist friendly destination and its significance as a picture of those responsible for tourism destination development, as part to follow the demand and need of tourist as a customer, the basic practice in the tourist friendly destination concept.
Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach - Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to 15) in Hong Kong. Findings - The participants perceived a balanced diet and regular meal times as the most important attributes of healthy eating. Participants were most likely to eat unhealthy food at parties, during festivals, and when socializing. They reported that mothers and teachers often advise them to eat healthy foods. They felt that banning the sale of soft drinks in schools and at sports centers and/or increasing the price of soft drinks might discourage their consumption, but felt that banning soft drink advertisements and/or making free drinking water more available would be ineffective. Research limitations/implications - The interviewees were mostly from low to middle income families. They may not be representative of all adolescents in Hong Kong or elsewhere, thus limiting the generalisabilty of the findings. Originality/value - The study serves as a guideline for social services marketing professionals targeting adolescents. Social services marketers might consider influencing adolescents' eating habits through the parents and school teachers. Restricting selling of soft drinks at schools and sports centers and increasing the price of soft drinks should be considered, as these were considered relatively more effective than other measures. Seven testable hypotheses are proposed to guide further research.
Leles, C R; Ferreira, N P; Vieira, A H; Campos, A C V; Silva, E T
The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing edentulous patients' preferences for treatment using conventional or implant dentures (ID). A consecutive sample of 112 patients was selected in a university facility. All patients responded to a questionnaire concerning preferences about treatment and factors influencing preferences for conventional complete dentures (CD), implant-retained overdentures (IRO) and fixed implant-supported prostheses (FISP). Subsequently, a set of 21 questions was presented, and patients were requested to rate the importance of various potential reasons influencing their choice of treatment. Preference for CD was more prevalent for maxilla (52·7%) and mandible (41·1%). Fixed implant-supported prostheses and IRO were preferred for the mandible (FISP=37·5%; IRO=21·4%) rather than maxilla (FISP=27·7%; IRO=19·6%). The most preferred treatment option among the subjects when evaluating both arches was the implant-supported fixed or removable prosthesis (FISP/IRO). A preference for combined upper and lower CD was also commonly reported (39·3%). Factor analysis identified six components that accounted for 72·2% of the total variance: (i) psychosocial benefits, (ii) functional performance, (iii) technical and financial concerns, (iv) post-insertion complaints, (v) removability and (vi) longevity. Technical and financial concerns (cost, complexity, surgery risks and duration of treatment) were more relevant for those who preferred ID (P<0·001). With the exception of post-insertion complaints, all mean scores of component factor loadings were positive for ID. Conventional complete dentures are associated with lower expected outcomes by patients, and cost-related issues are the major factors associated with the preferences for implant treatment of edentulous patients. PMID:21039748
Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary
Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…
Talleyrand, Regine M.
Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…
Montserrat Melchor Arteaga
Full Text Available Definitions of spinal cord injury agree in the consequences of that injury is the loss in varying degrees of autonomic function; this will cause a change in the lifestyle of patients and their families.In the spinal injury, the priority is the recovery or maintenance of vital organ functions, the physical stabilization for people. Later, the priority here is the rehabilitation and adaptation. This should be integrated at all levels, physical, psychological and social. Confrontation is, by Callista Roy, a important variable for understanding the effect of stress on health and disease, health maintenance or recovery. The way, that the patients have to confront the disease, are the confrontation strategies. They are defined as thoughts and actions that persons put in place to deal with adverse changes. They are grouped into 3 categories: problems, emotions and avoidance.There are others factors that influence in the use of strategies, between them the personality. According to Eysenck this is determined by the functional interaction of four factors: cognitive (intelligence, conative (character, affective (temperament and somatic (construction. With this study we want to know the factors that influence in the confrontation of the spinal cord injury and to analyze the possible relation between them, and to be able to elaborate particular tools, on the most determinant factors, to obtain an effective confrontation about this type of disease.
Muhammad Khalilur Rahman
Full Text Available E-shopping is increasingly becoming most popular in Malaysia by supplanting the traditional store shopping behavior of the large number of customers. The main purpose of this study is to test the critical factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers towards e-shopping. A total of 255 valid cases were selected for data analysis through self-administered questionnaires by using the random sampling method. The data were collected from those Malaysian consumers who had a minimum experience on e-shopping. Descriptive statistics was employed to identify the respondents’ demographic information. The data were examined using the associated principal components and exploratory factor analysis as well as computation on correlations to identify the factors that are influencing the Malaysian consumers on e-shopping, to determine the underlying dimensionality, convergent validity and discriminant validity. Importantly, this study employs the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM technique to perform a confirmatory factor analysis and test the hypothesized positive correlation between the exogenous and the endogenous constructs. Based on the statistical analyses, the resultant findings revealed that cognitive, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had a positive impact on the e-shopping under the Malaysian context. The main contribution of this study is that it recommends a way to assess the integrity of the online vendors in order to frame further strategies that can conducively attract the Malaysian consumers to interact in the e-shopping activities. This study has proposed a hypothesized model that needs further investigation for future researches.
Full Text Available Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on adoption decision from view point of management decision making. The variable that evaluate in this study include: Cost effectiveness, Need for cloud computing, Security effectiveness, and reliability on cloud computing as independent variable and Adoption decision as dependent variable. The scope of this research is IT companies in Malaysia, and target population is member of organization that want to make decision to adopt the cloud computing. The Correlation and Multi Regression analysis show that all factor s have a positive and significant effect on organization adoption decision to cloud computing.
We report the advances in the principal structural and experimental factors that might influence the carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites. The CO2 adsorption is principally govern by the inclusion of exchangeable cations (countercations) within the cavities of zeolites, which induce basicity and an electric field, two key parameters for CO2 adsorption. More specifically, these two parameters vary with diverse factors including the nature, distribution and number of exchangeable cations. The structure of framework also determines CO2 adsorption on zeolites by influencing the basicity and electric field in their cavities. In fact, the basicity and electric field usually vary inversely with the Si/Al ratio. Furthermore, the CO2 adsorption might be limited by the size of pores within zeolites and by the carbonates formation during the CO2 chemisorption. The polarity of molecules adsorbed on zeolites represents a very important factor that influences their interaction with the electric field. The adsorbates that have the most great quadrupole moment such as the CO2, might interact strongly with the electric field of zeolites and this favors their adsorption. The pressure, temperature and presence of water seem to be the most important experimental conditions that influence the adsorption of CO2. The CO2 adsorption increases with the gas phase pressorption increases with the gas phase pressure and decreases with the rise of temperature. The presence of water significantly decreases adsorption capacity of cationic zeolites by decreasing strength and heterogeneity of the electric field and by favoring the formation of bicarbonates. The optimization of the zeolites structural characteristics and the experimental conditions might enhance substantially their CO2 adsorption capacity and thereby might give rise to the excellent adsorbents that may be used to capturing the industrial emissions of CO2. (topical review)
The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning environments and how they influence learning and behaviour. Keywords: learning environments; integrated experiential programs; environmental education.
Mohd Mursyiddin Abdul Manaf
Full Text Available The study aims to provide understanding on the way people understand rumours at their workplace from the other person’s perspective. Specifically, this study examines the factors that influence the conception of rumours. Using purposive sampling and the researchers as the instrument, this study found that the conception of rumours in workplace are caused by several factors and these factors are categorised into rumour context and functions reliant and rumour content reliant. Rumour context and functions reliant comprise of ambiguity, making sense of unclear issues, threat management and self-image enhancement. Rumour content reliant includes instrumentally relevant and communicated information statements, not so sure, it is a matter of assumption and as a mode of transmission and structure. This study also found that frustration is a foundation to rumour’s gateway. The findings in this study highlight the widespread, yet remarkably under-researched practice in organisational behaviour in relation to informal communications.
Makara-Studzi?ska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina
Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression. PMID:24575656
Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.
Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.
Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified, are psychiatric disorders with physical complications. Several factors may contribute to the onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, including a familial predisposition to these disorders as well as individual personality characteristics. Dissatisfaction with body shape and an overwhelming desire to be thin are considered as risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugolike body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrheic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, and acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions to drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:23245978
Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20632480
Full Text Available O comportamento alimentar ocupa atualmente um papel central na prevenção e no tratamento de doenças. A alimentação durante a infância, ao mesmo tempo em que é importante para o crescimento e desenvolvimento, pode também representar um dos principais fatores de prevenção de algumas doenças na fase adulta. Freqüentemente a família, os fatores sociais e os ambientais podem influenciar o padrão alimentar das crianças. O objetivo desta revisão foi abordar os diversos fatores ambientais envolvidos na aquisição de hábitos alimentares na infância. Os artigos selecionados foram pesquisados nas bases de dados Medline e SciELO considerando o período de 1978 a 2007. Foram utilizados os termos em ingles: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality, determinants of children's eating patterns e em português. São apresentados os resultados de algumas investigações mais relevantes nesta área. Embora alguns desses fatores sejam inatos e, por isso, necessitem de um controle mais rigoroso, ressalta-se o papel determinante da família na formação dos hábitos alimentares saudáveis, pois a modificação de um hábito alimentar durante a fase adulta tem, em geral, alta taxa de insucesso. Além disso, outros fatores, como a escola, a rede social, as condições socioeconômicas e culturais, são potencialmente modificáveis e influenciam no processo de construção dos hábitos alimentares da criança e, conseqüentemente, do indivíduo adulto.Eating behavior currently has a central role in the prevention and treatment of illnesses. Eating patterns during childhood, while important for growth and development, also represent one of the main factors that can prevent diseases in adulthood. Such eating patterns are frequently influenced by family, social and environmental factors. The objective of this review was to approach the many environmental factors involved in the acquisition of eating habits during childhood. The selected articles dating from 1978 to 2007 were found in the Medline and SciELO databases. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality and determinants of children's eating patterns. The results of some more relevant researches in this area are presented. Although some factors are innate and thus need a more rigorous control, the determinant role played by the family in forming healthy eating habits is emphasized since attempts to modify eating habits during adulthood usually fail. Additionally, other factors such as school, social network and cultural and socioeconomic conditions are potentially modifiable and influence the process of building the child's eating habits and so that of the adult.
Alessandra, Rossi; Emília Addison Machado, Moreira; Michelle Soares, Rauen.
Full Text Available O comportamento alimentar ocupa atualmente um papel central na prevenção e no tratamento de doenças. A alimentação durante a infância, ao mesmo tempo em que é importante para o crescimento e desenvolvimento, pode também representar um dos principais fatores de prevenção de algumas doenças na fase ad [...] ulta. Freqüentemente a família, os fatores sociais e os ambientais podem influenciar o padrão alimentar das crianças. O objetivo desta revisão foi abordar os diversos fatores ambientais envolvidos na aquisição de hábitos alimentares na infância. Os artigos selecionados foram pesquisados nas bases de dados Medline e SciELO considerando o período de 1978 a 2007. Foram utilizados os termos em ingles: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality, determinants of children's eating patterns e em português. São apresentados os resultados de algumas investigações mais relevantes nesta área. Embora alguns desses fatores sejam inatos e, por isso, necessitem de um controle mais rigoroso, ressalta-se o papel determinante da família na formação dos hábitos alimentares saudáveis, pois a modificação de um hábito alimentar durante a fase adulta tem, em geral, alta taxa de insucesso. Além disso, outros fatores, como a escola, a rede social, as condições socioeconômicas e culturais, são potencialmente modificáveis e influenciam no processo de construção dos hábitos alimentares da criança e, conseqüentemente, do indivíduo adulto. Abstract in english Eating behavior currently has a central role in the prevention and treatment of illnesses. Eating patterns during childhood, while important for growth and development, also represent one of the main factors that can prevent diseases in adulthood. Such eating patterns are frequently influenced by fa [...] mily, social and environmental factors. The objective of this review was to approach the many environmental factors involved in the acquisition of eating habits during childhood. The selected articles dating from 1978 to 2007 were found in the Medline and SciELO databases. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: children's eating patterns, children's dietary quality and determinants of children's eating patterns. The results of some more relevant researches in this area are presented. Although some factors are innate and thus need a more rigorous control, the determinant role played by the family in forming healthy eating habits is emphasized since attempts to modify eating habits during adulthood usually fail. Additionally, other factors such as school, social network and cultural and socioeconomic conditions are potentially modifiable and influence the process of building the child's eating habits and so that of the adult.
Rosa, Behar A; Rodrigo, Manzo G; Dunny, Casanova Z.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. Aim: To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. Subjects and methods: An structured clinical interview [...] , the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female students without eating problems. Results: Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and its factors (p
Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B
Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete's response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key pointsEffective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment.A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff.A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301
Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A
Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. PMID:22850369
Full Text Available The contribution deals with the process monitoring based on www technologies. It also researches the influence of clients? number and the network transfer rate on the process monitoring quality. The process monitoring is realized by the distributed application. The server part of application (written in Delphi acquires actually measured data and sends them through the socket communication channel to the client. The client part of application is realized as applet (written in Java, which receives data from the server and executes their processing. There are some factors influencing the quality of the client?server communication on the server and client side, such as the number of running tasks, exploitation of system recourses, number of connected clients and network rate. Their influences are presented in graphical form. The first course represents a monitored signal, the second the accuracy of server?s time sending, the third the accuracy of client?s receiving and the fourth the duration of the packet transfer between the client and server. The computer working as a server is marked as S, the client is marked as K. The influence of client quality showed that the usable sample period is about 0.1s. By the study of quality of server S1 the applicable sample period 0.17s was specified. For shorter sample periods, the client isn?t capable to process received data and so occurs data buffering, which causes the time shift concerning to signal on server side. In this area monitoring is not desirable. The influence of client number showed that in the same time can correctly operate 19 to 33 clients at sample periods 0.085s to 0.33s. The influence of transfer rate showed applicability of monitoring so for local as for remote distances of clients.
Choudhury Habibur Rasul
Full Text Available Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To estimate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors. Methods Five hundred children aged 5-16 years from a boys’ school and a girls’ school in Khulna City, Bangladesh, were randomly selected for the study conducted from July to December 2011. The survey was done in two steps: self-administered questionnaire and clinical interviews of affected students and their parents. Apart from demographic features, questionnaires included details of perinatal and personal factors as well as familial and socioeconomic factors. The diagnoses of variants of parasomnias was based on the criteria for category-based classification by the American Academy of Sleep Mmedicine. Results Seven hundred thirteen filled questionnaires revealed parasomnia in 187 (26.2% children. Most parasomnias were accompanied by other sleep disorders, in which 23 (12.3% having primary dyssomnias including 18 (9.3% obstructive sleep apnea, and 10 (5.3% parasomnias with hypersomnias. Nightmares (7.4% were highest among the parasomnias followed by nocturnal enuresis (4.1% and sleep terrors (3.4%. More girls experienced parasomnias than boys (107/360 vs. 80/353, respectively; P=0.039. Perinatal factors such as problems during pregnancy (17.1% or eventful delivery (25.7%, and socioeconomic factors such as familial disharmony (11.8% and low socioeconomic level (31.6% had positive associations with parasomnia. Conclusion One-quarter of school children experience parasomnia. We found perinatal factors particularly problem during pregnancy, and socioeconomic factors particularly familial disharmony have significant influences on this condition. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:339-45.].
Full Text Available On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing student’s buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence student’s buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public institution of higher learning in Penang, Malaysia. Based on theory of reasoned action (TRA, thetechnology acceptance model (TAM concluded that there are two salient beliefs which are ease of use andusefulness. This theory has been applied on the study to adopt technology user different and has been emerged asa model in investigation to increase predictive power. Such theory was used in this study to explain students’buying intention on-line. Besides the ease of use and usefulness, others factors such as: compatibility, privacy,security, normative beliefs and self-efficacy are utilized at this TAM. The results support seven hypotheses fromnine. Compatibility, usefulness, ease of use and security has been found to be important predictors towardattitude in on-line shopping.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary research results. With respect to the subject matter, research goals as well as previous findings and primary research results, corresponding hypotheses were set and mainly confirmed. The results showed that demographic factors, such as the age and working status, are related to most impulse buying indicators and to the impulsivity collective indicator. However, household income produced opposite results. Household income proved to have no major influence on the majority of impulse buying indicators but to be related noticeably to the collective impulsivity indicator, indicating that this result should be regarded with caution. Research results also pointed to the fact that the majority of individual indicators (innovativeness, tendency to the fashionable and shopping enjoyment are positively and negatively related to the impulse buying behavior and that individual difference factors have a greater influence on impulse buying than do demographic characteristics. The paper also summarizes research limitations as well as the work contribution and future research guidelines.
Ronald V Romero
Full Text Available Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients’ compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised.
Full Text Available CONTEXT: The natural history of pancreatic pseudocysts has become well known in recent years, but the choice of a proper treatment still remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at establishing whether predictive factors influencing therapeutic outcomes exist. SETTING: Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts following an episode of acute pancreatitis treated from January 1980 to December 2001 at the Department of General Surgery and Organ Transplantation of the University of Parma, Italy. PATIENTS: Seventy-four patients were studied: 12 had a spontaneous resolution, 37 patients were treated surgically, 15 were treated endoscopically and in 10, percutaneous drainage was used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with pancreatic pseudocysts were related to morbidity, recurrence rates and hospital stay. RESULTS: At univariate logistic regression, our data reveal a significant increase in morbidity related to age (P=0.013, etiology (alcoholic vs. biliary, P=0.024, Ranson score of previous pancreatitis (P=0.006, nutritional assessment (P=0.001, residual necrosis (P<0.001 and modality of treatment (P=0.009, whereas none of these parameters has been shown to be significantly correlated to recurrence. At multivariate logistic regression, only residual necrosis was significantly related to morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Some factors, such as epidemiological (age, etiology, clinical (severity of previous pancreatitis, malnourishment, pathological (residual necrosis, and therapeutical factors (emergency/urgency treatment are predictive of worse outcomes for invasive treatment of pseudocysts. In particular residual necrosis appeared to be the most important factor influencing invasive treatment outcomes, confirming that this pathological aspect deserves particular attention from surgeons. No risk factors predicting pancreatic pseudocyst recurrence emerged.
For the purpose of researching the enriching pattern and influencing factors of uranium in Ordos basin, the distribution features of oil, gas and coal are analyzed comprehensively, the enriching pattern of uranium in middle and superficial part of the basin is compared with that in deep part, based on the predecessor research, the rich geologic information, and log and core testing data. Then, the influence of faulted zone system on uranium enriching and distribution is investigated according to the effect of basin tectonization on the sedimentary environment. And then, the accelerating effect of oil, gas and coal on uranium enriching is studied in the light of the evidence and being feature of faulted zone in the basin. At last, the relations between the four minerals are researched. (authors)
Full Text Available As one of the most widely accepted theoretical perspectives in organizational behavior, employees’ emotions play an important in the team-work spirit and staff loyalty. However, little of the extant work in this area discusses how employees’ emotions generation and it’s influence path to staff loyalty. This study seeks to give an analysis of path generation of employees’ emotions and influence on the loyalty behavior by the structural equation model and raise possible factors and assumptions for effect the mood of employees from a different perspective by clearing up the existing view and general cognition of emotion management of the staff, then verify it by numerous surveys and two dimensional model of Russell. The result shows that evaluation of result is positively correlated with emotional experience; fairness evaluation is positively correlated with emotional experience; employees’ emotion is positively correlated with staff loyalty.
Full Text Available With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development.
Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea
With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development.
Eating is necessary for survival, gives great pleasure and can be perturbed leading to undernutrition, overnutrition and eating disorders. The development of feeding in humans relies on complex interplay between homeostatic mechanisms; neural reward systems; and child motor, sensory and socio-emotional capability. Furthermore, parenting, social influences and the food environment influence the development of eating behavior. The rapid expansion of new knowledge in this field, from basic scien...
The present review concentrates on environmental factors which influence the outcome of peptic ulcer disease by acting from the outside. Endogenous risk factors, such as acid output, pepsin secretion and serum pepsinogen, gastritis and mucosal defense, blood group, and secretor status, are only dealt with when they help to explain the mechanism by which exogenous risk factors affect the upper gastrointestinal mucosa. After outlining the wax and wane of peptic ulcer, it is concluded that these changes resulted from similar temporal patterns of occupational workload in the general population. Cross sectional studies also support the contention of occupational workload being a risk factor in peptic ulcer, explaining several characteristic features of peptic ulcer, such as its sex, race, and social class distribution, increased incidence in immigrant workers, seasonal variation, healing by bed rest, and urban versus rural distribution. Susceptible subjects may react to a rise in occupational workload and acute exposure to stressful life events by increased gastric secretion which, in turn, leads to ulceration and symptoms. Cigarette smoking, intake of aspirin and related drugs, dietary salt, and alcohol abuse represent additional environmental risk factors, which form the etiologic link of the association of peptic ulcer with chronic lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertensive disease, and liver cirrhosis, respectively. PMID:3072662
INTRODUCTION: Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career. METHODS: Candidates commencing BST training during a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008 were included in a quantitative study. In addition a total of 2,536 candidates, representing all those who commenced surgical training in Ireland since 1960 were identified through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) database and invited to complete an online survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: During the 5-year quantitative study period there were 381 BST trainees. Gender was a significant predictor of career choice with women more likely to ultimately choose a nonsurgical career after initial surgical training (p = 0.049). Passing surgical membership examinations (MRCS) also was predictive of remaining in surgery (p = 0.005). Training region was not a significant predictor of ultimate career choice. There were 418 survey respondents. The influence of role models was most commonly cited as influencing candidates in choosing to commence surgical training. Candidates who rated "academic opportunity" (p = 0.023) and "intellectual challenge" (p = 0.047) as factors that influenced their decision to commence surgical training were more likely to ultimately continue their careers in a surgical speciality. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the career pathway of surgical trainees and confirms the importance of academic achievement in discriminating between candidates applying for surgical training schemes.
E., Vara Robles; R., Pons Grau; F., Lajara Latorre; S., Mónica Molina; L., Parrón Lagunas; R., Porras Benjumea.
Full Text Available Objetivo: valorar el entorno familiar y los hábitos de la población adolescente de nuestra área para detectar posibles factores asociados con alteraciones de la autoimagen o un mayor riesgo de presentar un trastorno de la alimentación. Material y métodos: 158 entrevistas a adolescentes que cursaban [...] 1.º y 2.º de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria, recogiendo sexo, edad, entorno familiar y social, horas de pantallas y contenidos, horas de deporte, horas de lectura y contenidos, autoimagen, test de actitud ante la alimentación (EAT-26) y somatometría. Resultados: el análisis de regresión logística mostró una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la autoimagen correcta y las horas de deporte practicado (B = 0,11; p = 0,047), el hecho de tener hermanos (B = -1,4; p = 0,019), la puntuación total en el EAT-26 (B = -0,06; p = 0,005) y el índice de masa corporal (B = -0,1; p = 0,031). Conclusiones: el fomento del ejercicio físico y la difusión de ideas correctas sobre la imagen corporal pueden influir positivamente en una mejor autoimagen de la población adolescente y, del mismo modo, ayudar a prevenir posibles trastornos de la alimentación. Abstract in english Objetive: To evaluate familiar environment and habits of teenager population from our area to detect factors associated with alterations of self-image or an increased risk of presenting an eating disorder. Methods: One hundred and fifty-eight teenagers from first to second course of ESO (Obligatory [...] Secondary Education) were interviewed collecting information about gender, age, family and social environment, time of screens viewing and contents, time of sport practicing, time of reading and contents, self-image, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and anthropometry. Results: The logistic regression showed a statistically significant association between self-image and time of sport practicing (B = 0.11; p = 0.047), having brothers (B =-1.4; p = 0.019), total punctuation on EAT-26 (B =-0.06; p = 0.005) and Body Mass Index (B =-0.1; p = 0.031). Conclusions: Promotion of sport practicing and healthy ideas about body image could improve teenager self-image and help to prevent the development of eating disorders.
Olusegun Ayodeji Fadare
Full Text Available The needs to develop improved varieties of maize have been in the heart of various researchers and institutions in Nigeria because of its strategic role in tackling food insecurity and poverty. Despite substantial efforts to improve maize varieties, the level of adoption of improved maize varieties (IMV in Nigeria in still very low. Although previous adoption studies have indicated a number of socioeconomic and institutional/organizational variables as important factors influencing adoption of improved maize (crop varieties in the country, whether these factors are the main issues of concern, and whether the inclusion of regional/agro-ecological variables in adoption model are also important in explaining what could drive farmers’ adoption behaviour requires investigation. This study therefore examined factors influencing adoption of IMV among farmers in Nigeria using a selected portion of the Nigeria Living Standard Measurement Survey data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank for 2010/2011 cropping season with descriptive statistics and probit model as tools for data analysis. The results suggest, in line with some previous studies, that farm size, education level of farmers and access to extension services would significantly influence adoption of IMV. The results also indicate that farmers across the entire agro-ecological regions of country share some negative sentiments regarding adoption of IMV. Renewed emphasis on interventions that would enable farmers gain more access to farmland, and promote formal education and extension service are advocated. An attempt to incorporate variables that capture farmers’ perception/experience on agroclimatic/ ecologically related concerns in adoption study could aid better understand of what drives farmers’ adoption decisions across the country especially in the light of the emerging climate change issues and its implication on food production.
Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul
Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652
Based on theoretical studies of domestic and foreign scholars on influencing factors of online consumer purchasing behaviors, in this paper the author analyzes factors influencing consumers’ online purchasing behaviors. By means of questionnaire survey and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), the author performs an empirical analysis of the hierarchy model of influencing factors of online shopping which is built by domestic scholars, and gets the relative importance of these influencing factor...
Ngapo, T.M.; J.F. Martin; Dransfield, E.
The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least almost always good and either had not changed or had decreased their pork consumption recently. Pork was liked for a variety of reasons of which taste was cited most by consumers from all countries, ex...
Kimi van der Byl
Full Text Available Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective beliefs and perceived importance. Interestingly, no gender influence was found. The paper concludes with practical suggestions for South African educational, government and business institutions to reduce digital piracy based on our findings.
Full Text Available A multivariate analysis was done on 96 eyes to evaluate the effect of various risk factors on the final visual outcome after laser photocoagulation for clinically significant macular oedema (CSME in diabetic retinopathy. Advanced age of the patient, large size of CSME and poor baseline visual acuity were found to be significantly associated with poorer outcome (p<0.05. The association of nephropathy and hypertension with poorer visual outcome was of boderline significance (p = 0.054 and 0.07, respectively. Wavelength of the laser (argon or krypton used for treatment did not significantly influence the outcome.
Baird, Lisa M Garland; Miller, Tess
Factors influencing the development of evidence-based nursing practice (EBNP) were examined in Prince Edward Island, Canada. An adapted electronic questionnaire was distributed to practicing registered nurses and nurse practitioners (n=68). An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between nurses' clinical practice setting and the EBNP scale. Significant differences were also found between age and education level when compared with the EBNP subscales where novice nurses were less likely to rely on experience and intuition, and expert nurses with a higher level of education reported being more skilful at synthesising and applying information from research findings into their nursing practice. PMID:25993372
Uyeturk, Ugur; Gucuk, Adnan; Kemahli, Eray; Dagistan, Emine; Yildiz, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Burak; Metin, Ahmet
Purpose. The duration of urine leakage following the removal of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) shows significant variations depending on the techniques used. We aimed to assess the factors likely to influence the duration of urine leakage. Material and Methods. In total, 103 patients who underwent PCNL were reviewed retrospectively. DUL was evaluated regarding patient characteristics, thickness of the access line, presence of hydronephrosis, and residual stones. Results. DUL was significantly prolonged in accordance with a decrease in the thickness of parenchyma tissue (R = ?0.716, P PCNL, respectively. PMID:24648837
Factores de riesgo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en jóvenes escolarizados en Cundinamarca (Colombia Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among School-Aged Young People in Cundinamarca (Colombia
Sandra Piñeros Ortíz
Full Text Available Introducción: El diagnóstico precoz de un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA es determinante para evitar complicaciones graves a lo largo de la vida. Pocos estudios en Colombia han examinado sus características clínicas y comorbilidad en la población escolar. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de TCA, sus factores de inicio y mantenimiento, así como sus subtipos clínicos y comorbilidad en una población escolarizada. Método: Estudio de base comunitaria y corte transversal con 937 estudiantes entre 12 y 20 años de edad, de Bogotá y la sabana centro de Cundinamarca, que respondieron la EAT-26, encuesta de factores de inicio y mantenimiento de TCA, y la Zung de ansiedad y depresión. Los casos probables fueron contactados para entrevista clínica psiquiátrica. Resultados: Se detectaron 141 casos probables de TCA, la mayoría en mujeres (pIntroduction: The early diagnosis of Eating Disorders (ED is decisive in order to prevent serious complications during lifetime. In Colombia, few studies have assessed the clinical characteristics and comorbidity of ED in students. Objective: To determine the frecuency of ED, its onset and maintenance factors, as well as its clinical subtypes and comorbidity in student population. Method: Cross sectional and community based study with 937 students, ages 10 to 12, from Bogotá and Sabana Centro-Cundinamarca, who answered the EAT- 26, a survey on onset and maintenance factors for ED, and the Zung depression and anxiety scales. Results: 141 probable cases of ED were detected, predominantly among women (p<0.01. 38.3% of them accepted clinical psychiatric evaluation. ED was clinically diagnosed in 53.7% of the cases, without significant differences regarding socioeconomic level or age groups; subtype not otherwise specified in 93%. Comorbidity with depression and anxiety disorders was also found; similarly, suicidal behaviors were more frequent in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of ED than in those without psychiatric diagnosis or in those with other psychiatric disorders (p=0.019. Conclusions: ED occurs since early ages. Comorbidity with affective disorders and suicidality is high.
Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.
This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee
... NDEP Home > Resources > Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way ... can be difficult. Learn about small steps for healthy eating to help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating ...
Full Text Available "Water Carnival " debut in Chengdu and Jiangyin in 2010 after it has operated successfully many years in Korea, which was named" waterpark" and "summer of Korea" respectively. Although using the same facilities and the same operation mode, for the similar tourist market, it obtained the strikingly different economic benefit eventually. The reasons not only need inyestors to summarize, also is worthy of acadermia to analyze. This paper focuses on comparing the different location of "waterpark" and "summer of Korea", which indicates the influencing factors on the location choice of the "water carnival" including:climate meteorological factors, economic factors, competitive factors in the market, accessibility, cost-effective in land price, policy support, labors and so on. "Water Carnival" should be located in: 1 the place where the summer is hot, dry and little rain, low wind speed and more sunny days;2 the place that is high in per capita GDP, low in Engel's coefficient, high in per capita disposable income of urban residents, high in recreational consumption tendency; 3 the place that has large population base in short-range tourist market and relatively weak competition in peer; 4 the place that is easy accessible, convenient in traffic, near the main raod and the landmark; 5 the place that is highly costeffective in land price; 6 the place with great govement supports, with abundant, low cost and high-quality labor forces.
Biological factors influencing the concentration of radionuclides were studied from the points of uptake through digestive tract, food as pathways, and metabolic activities. The uptake of radionuclides by marine fishes through digestive tract was determined by whole body counter. 137Cs, 65Zn, 131I, 54Mn, 60Co, 85Sr, and 144Ce were used as tracers and was given with solid feed. The feed given was excreated 24 to 48 hours later in small of middle sized fishes, and 20 to 48 hours later in large sized fishes. The uptake rate of 137Cs and 65Zn was high absorption of 20 to 80 per cent, that of 131I, 60Co and 54Mn was not remarkable, and that of 85Sr and 144Ce was low absorption. The biological concentration of 137Cs through pathways of food. In fishes taking up radionuclides through contaminated food, concentration factor increased in accordance with contamination level. In addition, radionuclides with small uptake but delayed excretion and those with high concentration rate could be the factors to decide the concentration factors of marine organisms. In order to study the relationship between metabolic activities and concentration, the uptake of one-year old fishes and adult fishes, and fishes fed and those non-fed were compared. One-year fishes took up large amount of 85Sr during short period, however, concentration by metabolism in adult fishes was slow. Comparing feeding group and non-feeding group, the former showed 85Sr concentration factor of 1.5 to 2 times that of the later, and the later showed 137Cs concentration factor of 2 to 4 times that of the former. However, both uptake and excretion were rapid suggesting that taking food activated the metabolism of substances. (Kanao, N.)
Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Glanz, Karen
Food and eating environments likely contribute to the increasing epidemic of obesity and chronic diseases, over and above individual factors such as knowledge, skills, and motivation. Environmental and policy interventions may be among the most effective strategies for creating population-wide improvements in eating. This review describes an ecological framework for conceptualizing the many food environments and conditions that influence food choices, with an emphasis on current knowledge regarding the home, child care, school, work site, retail store, and restaurant settings. Important issues of disparities in food access for low-income and minority groups and macrolevel issues are also reviewed. The status of measurement and evaluation of nutrition environments and the need for action to improve health are highlighted. PMID:18031223
Zhao, Bin; Wu, Jun
In this paper, several factors influencing particle deposition in indoor environments are analyzed with an analytical model and a three-dimensional drift flux model combined with the particle deposition boundary conditions for wall surfaces. The influences of flow conditions near the wall surfaces, surface roughness and particle concentration distribution on particle deposition indoors are studied. By modeling particle deposition onto surfaces with the analytical model, it is found that larger friction velocity near the wall surfaces and rougher surface may lead to larger particle deposition velocity when the particle size is small, but when particle size is large enough (the range is up to the actual friction velocity and in this study it is about 1-5 microm), the influence of the friction velocity and roughness could be neglected. Furthermore, the three-dimensional numerical simulations indicate that particle concentration distribution may be very different even for the same particle source and air change rate, which cause a different deposited particle flux. As the particle concentration distribution may not be uniform in most cases, especially for the ventilated rooms, it is important to incorporate particle concentration distribution when analyzing particle deposition in indoor environments. Some suggestions or rules for particle deposition controlling are also presented based on the analysis. PMID:17280778
Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke
Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh
Particle pollution has been identified to be a major indoor air pollution problem as many epidemiologic evidences have indicated that the particle exposure affects the occupant health. In common practice, mechanical ventilation is introduced to maintain a satisfactory indoor air quality for the occupant, which includes the area of particle control within the space. In order to have an effective control to the indoor particle pollution, it is important to understand the major factors influencing the indoor particle concentration in the breathing zone. This study employs a previously proposed approach to study the particle pollution in a typical ventilation system. The model simultaneously takes into account the interactions between particle transport in ventilation ducts and rooms and particle spatial distribution. It has been proven that an entire ventilation system, including filters, ducts and rooms, can be regarded as a serial of filters in steady-state cases, hence the name 'particle filter group model'. The particle concentration in the breathing zone is calculated under different conditions, and the result is then validated by experimental data. Based on the results, four main factors that affect the particle concentration in the breathing zone are identified, they are fresh air rate, particle filter efficiency, the type of the ventilation duct (roughness) and ventilation modes. Their degrees of influence are analyzed and then the possible measures to improve/cod then the possible measures to improve/control the indoor particle pollution are suggested
Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela
Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871) and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812). A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614) were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.
Full Text Available Context: The total time spent in nursing care depends on the type of patient and the patient?s condition. We analysed factors that influenced the time spent in nursing a patient. Aims : To analyse the factors in a patient?s condition that influenced time spent in nursing a patient. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary referral centre, over a period of one month. The total time spent on a patient in nursing care for the first 24 hours of admission, was recorded. This time was divided into time for routine nursing care, time for interventions, time for monitoring and time for administering medications. Statistical analysis used: A backward stepwise linear regression analysis using the age, sex, diagnosis, type of admission and ventilatory status as variables, was done. Results: Patients admitted after elective surgery required less time (852.4 ± 234.1 minutes, than those admitted after either emergency surgery (1069.5 ± 187.3 minutes, or directly from the ward or the emergency room (1253.7 ± 42.1 minutes. Patients who were ventilated required more time (1111.5 ± 132.5 minutes, than those brought on a T-piece (732.2 ± 134.8 minutes or extubated (639.5 ± 155.6 minutes. The regression analysis showed that only the type of admission and the ventilatory status significantly affected the time. Conclusions : This study showed that the type of admission and ventilatory status significantly influenced the time spent in nursing care. This will help optimal utilization of nursing resources.
Rotella, J A; Yu, W; Ferguson, J; Jones, D
Patients can acutely deteriorate unexpectedly. Junior medical officers (JMOs) are often first to review patients who become unwell. Opportunities to escalate care to a senior colleague may exist prior to the need for a rapid response team review. Little is known about the factors that influence JMO decisions to escalate care. In this study, our objective was to investigate the self-reported factors that influence escalation of care by JMOs in a university-affiliated, tertiary level hospital. We designed a face-to-face questionnaire of JMOs using standardised introduction to minimise interviewer bias. Fifty JMOs participated in the study (a 100% response rate). Most (63.3%) felt that they would be able to identify a clinically deteriorating patient. They would be more likely to escalate care if they were not familiar with the patient's clinical problem. If handover plans were seen to be adequate, JMOs felt it was less necessary to escalate care. Few JMOs (12%) agreed that they limited escalation due to fear of criticism or fear of conflict with senior medical staff. Although 36% agreed that they were concerned about waking seniors overnight, only 6% feared that escalating care overnight would affect their future career prospects. Escalation of care appears to be mostly influenced by the confidence and familiarity of the JMO with the cause of deterioration. JMOs identified clear handover with documented goals of treatment and suggested actions in event of clinical deterioration as the best means by which to improve the process of escalation of care for clinically deteriorating patients. PMID:25342404
Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.
Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…
Maz?c?o?lu, M., M.
Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was detecting the dietary habits and some influencing factors in Erciyes University students at 3rd and 4th grades. Materials and method: Nine departments were chosen among 27 departments of ten faculties and higher education institutes of Erciyes University by 1/3 randomization. Face-to-face conversation was made with '599 out of 650 students- studying at 3rd and 4th grades. An interviewing form consisting of 30 questions about dietary habits and attitudes was applied to these students. Results: A total of 394 female (65,8%, and 205 male (34,2% students were recruited. There was a significant difference regarding smoking between, female and male students. Mean body mass index in females was 20,77+2,06 kg/m2 and 22,70+2,33 kg/m1 in males. While the number of students having three meals per day regularly was 293 (48,9%, the number of students having breakfast was 206 (34,4%. However 251 (41,9% of the students stated that they had lunch and, 450 (75,1% stated that they had dinner regularly. It was apparent that students living with their f amilies or friends and the ones participated voluntarily to conferences about diet had lunch and dinner regularly. Male students had lunch more regularly compared to female students. Conclusion: Our data revealed that students often miss meals, have breakfast regularly if they live with their families/friends and dinner is the meal they miss as the least. The evaluation of this data suggested .that students often miss meals, have regular breakfast if they live at home and dinner is the most regular meal among them. On the other hand activities like conferences with participation on a voluntary basis appeared to be more effective than previous obligatory lectures on the eating habits of the studenst.
... Campaigns Let's Talk about Bowel Control Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign Bladder Control for Women We Can! Ways to Enhance Children’s Activity & Nutrition Home : Eating and Bowel Control Eating and Bowel ...
Full Text Available ... Can the foods you eat actually affect your health as you get older? Gloria thinks so. Gloria: ... that eating well can help him maintain his health as he gets older. Richard: I know that ...
De Young, Kyle P; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel
The purpose of this study was to test the impact of two variables on post-binge eating negative emotion in a combined sample of women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 47) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 121). Participants completed two weeks of an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they provided multiple daily ratings of overall negative affect and guilt and reported eating disorder behaviors including binge eating and self-induced vomiting. The results indicate that both overall negative affect and guilt exhibited a statistically significantly decrease in the hour immediately following binge eating episodes. The decrease in guilt, but not overall negative affect, was moderated by eating disorder diagnosis and the tendency to engage in self-induced vomiting. Specifically, individuals with BN reported a greater reduction in guilt than those with AN, and individuals who did not typically engage in self-induced vomiting reported more decreases in guilt than those who typically engaged in self-induced vomiting. This study extends the existing literature on the relationship between negative affect and eating disorder behaviors, suggesting guilt as a potentially relevant facet of negative affect in the maintenance of binge eating. In addition, the findings indicate that two individual differences, eating disorder diagnosis and self-induced vomiting, may influence the trajectory of guilt following binge eating episodes. PMID:23245289
S. M. Barber-Meyer
Full Text Available Juvenile ungulates are generally more vulnerable to predation than are adult ungulates other than senescent individuals, not only because of their relative youth, fragility, and inexperience, but also because of congenital factors. Linnell et al.’s (Wildl. Biol. 1: 209-223 extensive review of predation on juvenile ungulates concluded that research was needed to determine the predisposition of these juveniles to predation. Since then, various characteristics that potentially predispose juvenile ungulates have emerged including blood characteristics, morphometric and other condition factors, and other factors such as birth period, the mother’s experience, and spatial and habitat aspects. To the extent that any of the physical or behavioral traits possessed by juvenile ungulates have a genetic or heritable and partly independent epigenetic component that predisposes them to predation, predators may play an important role in their natural selection. We review the possible influence of these characteristics on predisposing juvenile ungulates to predation and discuss natural selection implications and potential selection mechanisms. Although juvenile ungulates as a class are likely more vulnerable to predation than all but senescent adults, our review presents studies indicating that juveniles with certain tendencies or traits are killed more often than others. This finding suggests that successful predation on juveniles is more selective than is often assumed. Because we are unable to control for (or in some cases even measure the myriad of other possible vulnerabilities such as differences in sensory abilities, intelligence, hiding abilities, tendency to travel, etc., finding selective predation based on the relatively few differences we can measure is noteworthy and points to the significant role that predation on juveniles has in the natural selection of ungulates. Future research should compare characteristics, especially those known to influence survival, between animals killed by predators versus those killed by other sources as well as survivors versus non-survivors to better understand predation’s role in natural selection.
Full Text Available The authors present results of researches whose aim was to determine the factors that may substantially influence population reproduction in the Republic of Serbia, taking into consideration all specific factors, like cultural background, economic situation, health education, health service organization, religious and historical factors, etc. The research was based on the population census from 1981. Seventeen regions of the inner part of the Republic of Serbia, Vojvodina and Kosovo were included in this research. Stratification was made according to the place of living (village, town age, occupation (farmer, housewife, non and half-qualified, qualified and highly qualified workers and education (without education, with unfinished or finished primary school, with secondary school, with college or university degree. In this way 2,141 women were questioned with 101 questions by the method of interview. Interviews were conducted exclusively by doctors - gynaecologists. We determined the frequency of the use of contraceptives, intentional abortions, spontaneous abortions, pre-term deliveries, marriage infertility and term deliveries. Thus, 57.4% of women had basic knowledge of contraception, but only 15.9% of them used it; 58.9% of women had intentional abortions; 16.2% of women had spontaneous abortions, 5.1% of them had pre-term deliveries, and 67% of women had term deliveries. Marriage infertility was found in 8.6% of women. When evaluating population health and behavior, we obtained some information and data concerning addicted diseases (alcohol, smoking, drugs, tranquilizers homosexuality and ways of sexual intercourse. It was concluded that enormous differences existed among certain regions in the Republic of Serbia, which were conditioned by the diversity of the above mentioned influences. Proposals for the measures to be undertaken in the Republic of Serbia in order to regulate population policy, are given.
Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter
Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...
Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle
Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods. PMID:24010703
The extent and timing of cost-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse-gas emissions. Models that assess the costs of climate change mitigation policy, and energy policy in general, rely heavily on learning curves to include technology dynamics. Historically, no energy technology has changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of which has declined by a factor of nearly 100 since the 1950s. Which changes were most important in accounting for the cost reductions that have occurred over the past three decades? Are these results consistent with the notion that learning from experience drove technical change? In this paper, empirical data are assembled to populate a simple model identifying the most important factors affecting the cost of PV. The results indicate that learning from experience, the theoretical mechanism used to explain learning curves, only weakly explains change in the most important factors-plant size, module efficiency, and the cost of silicon. Ways in which the consideration of a broader set of influences, such as technical barriers, industry structure, and characteristics of demand, might be used to inform energy technology policy are discussed
Ryder, Alex B.; Zimring, James C.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.
Summary Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization may occur following transfusion or pregnancy/delivery. Although observational human studies have described the immunogenicity of RBC antigens and the clinical significance of RBC alloantibodies, studies of factors influencing RBC alloimmunization in humans are inherently limited by the large number of independent variables involved. This manuscript reviews data generated in murine models that utilize transgenic donor mice, which express RBC-specific model or authentic human blood group antigens. Transfusion of RBCs from such donors into nontransgenic but otherwise genetically identical recipient mice allows for the investigation of individual donor or recipient-specific variables that may impact RBC alloimmunization. Potential donor-related variables include methods of blood product collection, processing and storage, donor-specific characteristics, RBC antigen-specific factors, and others. Potential recipient-related variables include genetic factors (MHC/HLA type and polymorphisms of immunoregulatory genes), immune activation status, phenotype of regulatory immune cell subsets, immune cell functional characteristics, prior antigen exposures, and others. Although murine models are not perfect surrogates for human biology, these models generate phenomenological and mechanistic hypotheses of RBC alloimmunization and lay the groundwork for follow-up human studies. Long-term goals include improving transfusion safety and minimizing the morbidity/mortality associated with RBC alloimmunization. PMID:25670928
Ryder, Alex B; Zimring, James C; Hendrickson, Jeanne E
Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization may occur following transfusion or pregnancy/delivery. Although observational human studies have described the immunogenicity of RBC antigens and the clinical significance of RBC alloantibodies, studies of factors influencing RBC alloimmunization in humans are inherently limited by the large number of independent variables involved. This manuscript reviews data generated in murine models that utilize transgenic donor mice, which express RBC-specific model or authentic human blood group antigens. Transfusion of RBCs from such donors into nontransgenic but otherwise genetically identical recipient mice allows for the investigation of individual donor or recipient-specific variables that may impact RBC alloimmunization. Potential donor-related variables include methods of blood product collection, processing and storage, donor-specific characteristics, RBC antigen-specific factors, and others. Potential recipient-related variables include genetic factors (MHC/HLA type and polymorphisms of immunoregulatory genes), immune activation status, phenotype of regulatory immune cell subsets, immune cell functional characteristics, prior antigen exposures, and others. Although murine models are not perfect surrogates for human biology, these models generate phenomenological and mechanistic hypotheses of RBC alloimmunization and lay the groundwork for follow-up human studies. Long-term goals include improving transfusion safety and minimizing the morbidity/mortality associated with RBC alloimmunization. PMID:25670928
Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Womack, Catherine A; Oddo, Vanessa M
Understanding the relationship between obesity and fast food consumption encompasses a broad range of individual level and environmental factors. One theoretical approach, the health capability framework, focuses on the complex set of conditions allowing individuals to be healthy. This qualitative study aimed to identify factors that influence individual level health agency with respect to healthy eating choices in uniformly constrained environments (e.g., fast food restaurants). We used an inductive qualitative research design to develop an interview guide, conduct open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of 14 student fast food workers (aged 18-25), and analyze the data. Data analysis was conducted iteratively during the study with multiple coders to identify themes. Emergent themes included environmental influences on eating behaviors (time, cost, restaurant policies, social networks) and internal psychological factors (feelings associated with hunger, food knowledge versus food preparation know-how, reaction to physical experiences, perceptions of food options, delayed gratification, and radical subjectivity). A localized, embedded approach to analyzing the factors driving the obesity epidemic is needed. Addressing contextual interactions between internal psychological and external environmental factors responds to social justice and public health concerns, and may yield more relevant and effective interventions for vulnerable communities. PMID:22634194