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Factors influencing eating a varied diet in old age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To investigate the influences of resources and food-related goals on the variety of food choice among older people. Design: A questionnaire-based survey in eight European countries: Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Italy and Spain. Subjects: Participants (n 3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversity of each of the national populations based on education, income and urbanization of living environment. Results: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that income, health status, access to a car and living arrangement affected the level of dietary variety. The perceived level of different food-related resources impacted the consumption of a varied diet over and above actual resource levels. Food-related goals contributed to variety of food intake that was not accounted for by the amount of material resources possessed or the social and other resources perceived to be possessed. Conclusions: Older people's variety of food intake depended on material resources (e.g. monthly income, access to a car, living arrangement, physical and mental health). However, in addition to these variables, the way older peopleperceived other resources, such as their level of appetite, their food knowledge, their perception of the distance to the shops, access to high-quality products, having better kitchen facilities, access to good service providers and support from friends and neighbours, all contributed to how varied a diet they ate.

Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.

2009-01-01

2

Factores influyentes en el comportamiento alimentario infantil / Factors that influence eating behavior of children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La razón por la que los niños tienen determinadas características en el consumo de alimentos es un tema que preocupa tanto a padres, como a profesionales e investigadores cercanos a esta área de estudio. Aquí se buscó comprender los factores que hoy día son reconocidos como influyentes en el consumo [...] de alimentos por parte de la población infantil. Para ello se revisó literatura científica publicada desde enero de 2002 hasta abril de 2013; la revisión se adelantó en las bases de datos: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost y Redalyc. Se obtuvieron 57 documentos acordes a los criterios de inclusión definidos. Dicho ejercicio llevó a clasificar la información encontrada en condiciones individuales, características del entorno y estrategias frecuentes que pueden influir en el consumo. La revisión realizada permite concluir que hoy en día, más que hablar solo de consumo, la mirada se traslada al comportamiento alimentario. Esto incluye las características de los alimentos consumidos, lugares, experiencias, compañías, entre otros aspectos, que forman parte de un patrón de conducta alrededor de los alimentos. De esta manera, se evidencian campos de intervención e investigación en aspectos tales como conducta alimentaria por género, rasgos genéticos y estado nutricional; también se exploran creencias y experiencias alrededor de los alimentos, grupos sociales influyentes, características organolépticas de las preparaciones y estrategias de promoción que involucran mucho más que trasmitir conocimiento acerca de lo saludable, entre otros. Abstract in english Why children have certain characteristics in food consumption is a matter of concern to both parents, as professionals and researchers in their exercise near this age group. This paper aim is to understand factors and mechanisms influencing in the decision of food intake by children. Scientific lite [...] rature published was revised, from January 2002 to April 2013, in the databases: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost and Redalyc. 57 papers were obtained with the inclusion criteria used. This exercise led to classify the information found in individual conditions, characteristics of the setting and common strategies that may influence food consumption. Today, more than just talk about consumption, the works attends the feeding behavior, which includes the characteristics of the food consumed, places, experiences, companies, among others, as part of a pattern of behavior around food. This led to identify areas of intervention and research such as eating behavior by gender, genetic characteristics and nutritional status. And, the beliefs and experiences around food, influential social groups, organoleptic characteristics of recipes and promotion strategies, involve much more than transmit knowledge about how to be healthy, among others.

Mónica del Pilar, Díaz-Beltrán.

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Factores influyentes en el comportamiento alimentario infantil / Factors that influence eating behavior of children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La razón por la que los niños tienen determinadas características en el consumo de alimentos es un tema que preocupa tanto a padres, como a profesionales e investigadores cercanos a esta área de estudio. Aquí se buscó comprender los factores que hoy día son reconocidos como influyentes en el consumo [...] de alimentos por parte de la población infantil. Para ello se revisó literatura científica publicada desde enero de 2002 hasta abril de 2013; la revisión se adelantó en las bases de datos: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost y Redalyc. Se obtuvieron 57 documentos acordes a los criterios de inclusión definidos. Dicho ejercicio llevó a clasificar la información encontrada en condiciones individuales, características del entorno y estrategias frecuentes que pueden influir en el consumo. La revisión realizada permite concluir que hoy en día, más que hablar solo de consumo, la mirada se traslada al comportamiento alimentario. Esto incluye las características de los alimentos consumidos, lugares, experiencias, compañías, entre otros aspectos, que forman parte de un patrón de conducta alrededor de los alimentos. De esta manera, se evidencian campos de intervención e investigación en aspectos tales como conducta alimentaria por género, rasgos genéticos y estado nutricional; también se exploran creencias y experiencias alrededor de los alimentos, grupos sociales influyentes, características organolépticas de las preparaciones y estrategias de promoción que involucran mucho más que trasmitir conocimiento acerca de lo saludable, entre otros. Abstract in english Why children have certain characteristics in food consumption is a matter of concern to both parents, as professionals and researchers in their exercise near this age group. This paper aim is to understand factors and mechanisms influencing in the decision of food intake by children. Scientific lite [...] rature published was revised, from January 2002 to April 2013, in the databases: Scopus, Science Direct, Ebscohost and Redalyc. 57 papers were obtained with the inclusion criteria used. This exercise led to classify the information found in individual conditions, characteristics of the setting and common strategies that may influence food consumption. Today, more than just talk about consumption, the works attends the feeding behavior, which includes the characteristics of the food consumed, places, experiences, companies, among others, as part of a pattern of behavior around food. This led to identify areas of intervention and research such as eating behavior by gender, genetic characteristics and nutritional status. And, the beliefs and experiences around food, influential social groups, organoleptic characteristics of recipes and promotion strategies, involve much more than transmit knowledge about how to be healthy, among others.

Mónica del Pilar, Díaz-Beltrán.

2014-04-01

4

Influence of biological, social and psychological factors on abnormal eating attitudes among female university students in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florian6polis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6-12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7-25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions. PMID:20411681

Costa, Larrissa Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco Assis Guedes; Peres, Karen Glazer

2010-04-01

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Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

2014-01-01

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Personality disorders as risk factors for eating disorders: clinical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personality disorders are oftentimes comorbid with eating disorders. According to a review of the literature, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most common Axis II disorder in eating-disordered individuals with restrictive eating behavior, whereas borderline personality disorder is the most common Axis II disorder in those with impulsive eating pathology. Because personality disorders developmentally precede eating disorders and the characteristics of the personality disorder oftentimes mirror the style of eating pathology (eg, highly controlled personality styles and highly controlled eating patterns; impulsive personality styles and impulsive eating pathology), it is reasonable to assume that personality disorders influence subsequent eating pathology. Therefore, it is likely that personality disorders function, to some degree, as risk factors for the development of specific types of eating disorders. The authors discuss the clinical implications of these relationships. PMID:20413692

Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

2010-04-01

7

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

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Influência de fatores afetivos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre o comportamento alimentar em jovens atletas / Influence of affective, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on eating behavior in young athletes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a influência de diversos fatores sobre o comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI) em jovens atletas femininas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 116 esportistas. Avaliou-se o CAI mediante aplicação do Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). A insatisfação corporal e o comprom [...] etimento psicológico ao exercício foram avaliados pelo Body Shape Questionnaire e pelo Commitment Exercise Scale, respectivamente. O nível econômico foi obtido pelo "Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil". Aferiram-se peso e estatura para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e dobras cutâneas para estimar o percentual de gordura. Conduziu-se regressão linear múltipla utilizando o software SPSS 17.0 e adotando nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADO: A insatisfação corporal, seguida do percentual de gordura, foram as únicas variáveis que modularam as pontuações do EAT-26. Contudo, o modelo de regressão linear múltipla explicou um terço da variância do CAI nessas esportistas. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o CAI de atletas femininas foi influenciado basicamente pela insatisfação corporal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of various factors on the inadequate eating behavior (IEB) in young female athletes. METHODS: Participants 116 athletes. The IEB was evaluated by applying IEB of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The body dissatisfaction and psychologic [...] al commitment to exercise were assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale, respectively. The economic level was obtained by the "Classification Criteria Economic Brazil". Body weight and height to calculate the index of mass (BMI) and skinfold thickness to estimate the percentage of fat. We carried out multiple linear regression using the SPSS 17.0 software and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULT: The body dissatisfaction, followed by the percentage of fat were the only variables that modulate the EAT-26 scores. However, the multiple linear regression model explained 1/3 of the variance of these IEB sportsmen. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the IEB was influenced female athletes primarily by body dissatisfaction.

Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Flávio Garcia de, Oliveira; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.

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Influência de fatores afetivos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre o comportamento alimentar em jovens atletas Influence of affective, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on eating behavior in young athletes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a influência de diversos fatores sobre o comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI em jovens atletas femininas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 116 esportistas. Avaliou-se o CAI mediante aplicação do Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. A insatisfação corporal e o comprometimento psicológico ao exercício foram avaliados pelo Body Shape Questionnaire e pelo Commitment Exercise Scale, respectivamente. O nível econômico foi obtido pelo "Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil". Aferiram-se peso e estatura para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC e dobras cutâneas para estimar o percentual de gordura. Conduziu-se regressão linear múltipla utilizando o software SPSS 17.0 e adotando nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADO: A insatisfação corporal, seguida do percentual de gordura, foram as únicas variáveis que modularam as pontuações do EAT-26. Contudo, o modelo de regressão linear múltipla explicou um terço da variância do CAI nessas esportistas. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o CAI de atletas femininas foi influenciado basicamente pela insatisfação corporal.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of various factors on the inadequate eating behavior (IEB in young female athletes. METHODS: Participants 116 athletes. The IEB was evaluated by applying IEB of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. The body dissatisfaction and psychological commitment to exercise were assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale, respectively. The economic level was obtained by the "Classification Criteria Economic Brazil". Body weight and height to calculate the index of mass (BMI and skinfold thickness to estimate the percentage of fat. We carried out multiple linear regression using the SPSS 17.0 software and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULT: The body dissatisfaction, followed by the percentage of fat were the only variables that modulate the EAT-26 scores. However, the multiple linear regression model explained 1/3 of the variance of these IEB sportsmen. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the IEB was influenced female athletes primarily by body dissatisfaction.

Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

2012-01-01

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Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

2012-01-01

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Factors influencing the food choices and eating habits of restaurant chefs in northern New Jersey: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to understand the factors influencing the food habits of restaurant chefs in northern New Jersey. Data was collected from participants (N = 12) using dietary recalls, and semi-structured interviews based on the socio-ecological model. Dietary recall analysis revealed multiple nutritional intake hazards including skipping meals, and substitution of foods rich in fats and sugar for fruits and vegetables, and increased consumption of alcohol. Qualitative data analysis revealed that their food habits were influenced by a repertoire of individual, organizational, and interpersonal factors. The relevance of these findings to nutrition intervention programs for this population is discussed. PMID:21888589

Mahadevan, Meena; Feldman, Charles

2011-01-01

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Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

2010-01-01

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Perfectionism and learning experiences in dance class as risk factors for eating disorders in dancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is strong evidence that perfectionism is a risk factor for eating disorders. Women who engage in dance training have been reported to be at risk for eating disorders, and it has been hypothesised that expectancies about thinness and restricting food intake are formed partly as a result of exposure to thinness related learning (TRL) experiences in this environment, which may increase their risk. To clarify the relative contribution of perfectionism and learning in accounting for eating disorder symptoms in this group, 142 female ballet dancers completed an online survey. Through structural equation modelling it was found that the association between perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms was partially mediated by learning about thinness and restriction. The results suggest that eating disorder symptoms in dancers are significantly influenced by the interaction of perfectionism and learning, and future research should investigate the efficacy of prevention programs to target these risk factors in female dancers. PMID:21275007

Penniment, Kylie J; Egan, Sarah J

2012-01-01

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Risk factors for eating disturbances: A meta analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between antecedent risk factors and later disturbed eating outcomes. In order to accomplish this, 203 effect sizes from 36 independent studies were pooled for analysis. These effect sizes represented data for 19 predictors constructs and 5 disturbed eating outcomes. Preliminary findings suggest that eating disturbances can be predicted by antecedent behavior, characteristics or experience. However, estimates of the magnitude of the rel...

Zody, Zanita B.

2004-01-01

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Interpersonal Influences on Late Adolescent Girls’ and Boys’ Disordered Eating  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys’ and girls’ symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16–19 years of age (N = 199; 49...

Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol

2009-01-01

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Influence of eating behaviors on short-term weight loss by orlistat and anorectic agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little data exists concerning whether eating behaviors determine the response to orlistat treatment, especially with added anorectic agents. This study was a sub-investigation of a 12-week randomized controlled trial for the additive effect of orlistat on sibutramine treatment. The analysis presented here was restricted to 98 women who had fulfilled the protocol. The Dutch eating behavior questionnaire and three-factor eating questionnaire were used to assess eating behaviors. Scores of emotional eating, external eating, disinhibition and hunger are significantly interrelated. Using multiple logistic analysis with adjustment for potential confounders, such as age, initial BMI and the other 2 eating behavior scores, traits of emotional eating (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13-0.74) and disinhibition (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40-0.82) have a significant influence on prediction for additional 5% weight loss in the treatment with orlistat and sibutramine. Subjects with less vulnerability to emotional cues had significantly more weight loss with orlistat treatment and anorectic agents. PMID:24411757

Kim, Kyoung Kon; Suh, Heuy Sun; Hwang, In Cheol; Ko, Ki Dong

2014-01-01

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Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes / Influencia de los Factores Psicológicos, Antropométricos y Sociodemográficos Sobre los Síntomas de los Trastornos Alimentarios en Jóvenes Deportistas / Influência de Fatores Psicológicos, Antropométricos e Sociodemográficos Sobre os Sintomas de Transtornos Alimentares em Jovens Atletas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência de fatores psicológicos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares (TAs) em jovens atletas. Participaram 580 adolescentes de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), o [...] Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale para avaliar o comportamento de risco para TAs, a insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC) e o grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos. Os achados da regressão múltipla evidenciaram que somente a IC e o percentual de gordura modularam significativamente ( p Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue analizar la influencia de factores psicológicos, antropométricos y sociodemográficos en los comportamientos de riesgo para TA en atletas jóvenes. Participantes fueron 580 adolescentes de ambos sexos. Se utilizó el Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire y Commitment [...] Exercise Scale para evaluar los comportamientos de riesgo para los TA, la insatisfacción con el imagen corporal (IC) y el grado de compromiso psicológico para ejercer (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, talla y pliegues cutáneos se midieron. Los resultados de regresión múltiple mostraron que sólo el IC y el porcentaje de grasa modula de manera significativa ( p Abstract in english The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED) in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Body Shape Ques [...] tionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD) and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE), respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p

Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião de Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.

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Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes / Influencia de los Factores Psicológicos, Antropométricos y Sociodemográficos Sobre los Síntomas de los Trastornos Alimentarios en Jóvenes Deportistas / Influência de Fatores Psicológicos, Antropométricos e Sociodemográficos Sobre os Sintomas de Transtornos Alimentares em Jovens Atletas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência de fatores psicológicos, antropométricos e sociodemográficos sobre os comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares (TAs) em jovens atletas. Participaram 580 adolescentes de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), o [...] Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale para avaliar o comportamento de risco para TAs, a insatisfação com a imagem corporal (IC) e o grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos. Os achados da regressão múltipla evidenciaram que somente a IC e o percentual de gordura modularam significativamente ( p Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue analizar la influencia de factores psicológicos, antropométricos y sociodemográficos en los comportamientos de riesgo para TA en atletas jóvenes. Participantes fueron 580 adolescentes de ambos sexos. Se utilizó el Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire y Commitment [...] Exercise Scale para evaluar los comportamientos de riesgo para los TA, la insatisfacción con el imagen corporal (IC) y el grado de compromiso psicológico para ejercer (GCPE), respectivamente. Peso, talla y pliegues cutáneos se midieron. Los resultados de regresión múltiple mostraron que sólo el IC y el porcentaje de grasa modula de manera significativa ( p Abstract in english The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED) in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Body Shape Ques [...] tionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD) and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE), respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p

Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Sebastião de Sousa, Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.

2014-04-01

19

Is the relationship between binge eating episodes and personality attributable to genetic factors?  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspects of disordered eating and personality traits, such as neuroticism, are correlated and individually heritable. We examined the phenotypic correlation between binge eating episodes and indices of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and control/impulsivity). For correlations ?|0.20|, we estimated the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contributed to this correlation. Participants included 3,446 European American same-sex female twins from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (median age = 22 years). Binge eating episode was assessed via interview questions. Personality traits were assessed by self-report questionnaires. There was a significant moderate phenotypic correlation between binge eating episode and neuroticism (r = 0.33) as well as conscientiousness (r = -0.21), while other correlations were significant but smaller (r ranging from -0.14 to 0.14). Individual differences in binge eating episodes, neuroticism, and conscientiousness were attributed to additive genetic influences (38% [95% CI: 21-53%], 45% [95% CI: 38-52%], and 44% [95% CI: 0.33-0.55%] respectively), with the remaining variance attributed to individual-specific environmental influences. Covariance was attributable to genetic (neuroticism r g = 0.37; conscientiousness r g = -0.22) and individual-specific environmental (neuroticism r e = 0.28; conscientiousness r e = -0.19) influences. Personality traits may be an early indicator of genetic vulnerability to a variety of pathological behaviors, including binge eating episode. Furthermore, prior research documenting phenotypic correlations between eating disorder diagnoses and personality may have stemmed from etiological overlap between these personality traits and aspects of disordered eating, such as binge eating episode. PMID:24423627

Koren, Rachel; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Duncan, Alexis E; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Agrawal, Arpana

2014-04-01

20

Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Secondary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether behavioral differences (exercise, dieting, changing eating habits, taking pills, or vomiting/taking laxatives to lose weight) exist when identifying the major influencing factors (media, family, friends, teacher/coach, and doctor/nurse) among Black and White men's and women's self-perceptions of body weight. Respondents…

Thatcher, William; Rhea, Deborah

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Weighing in on the Issue: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of Selected Individual Factors and the Sports Context on the Developmental Trajectories of Eating Pathology among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain…

Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.

2013-01-01

22

Interpersonal difficulties as a risk factor for athletes' eating psychopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study sought to determine the predictive role of interpersonal difficulties on eating psychopathology among competitive British athletes (ranging from university to international competition level). A total of 122 athletes (36 males and 86 females) with a mean age of 21.22 years (SD = 4.02), completed a multisection questionnaire that measured eating psychopathology, attachment styles, and quality of relationships with parents, coaches and teammate over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, only the quality of the relationship with coach and closest teammate were related to athletes' eating psychopathology 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that athletes' eating psychopathology was only predicted by perceived levels of interpersonal conflict with the coach. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that conflict within the coach-athlete relationship is a potential risk factor for eating disorders among athletes and thus it would seem appropriate to raise awareness for its potentially toxic role in athletes' eating psychopathology. PMID:23992547

Shanmugam, V; Jowett, S; Meyer, C

2014-04-01

23

Characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory for children at risk and protective factors for disordered eating in adolescent girls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sanna Aila Gustafsson1, Birgitta Edlund2, Lars Kjellin3, Claes Norring41Psychiatric Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Örebro; 2Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala; 3Psychiatric Research Centre, University of Örebro; 4Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-Child version (EDI-C to find early predictors that might constitute risk and protective factors in the development of disordered eating.Method: Participants were divided into three groups based on eating attitudes at T2: disordered eating (n = 49, intermediate eating concern (n = 260, and healthy eating attitudes (n = 120. EDI-C from T1 (four to five years earlier was then analyzed to find predictors of group classification at T2.Results: Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction emerged as risk factors at T1, while drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and interoceptive awareness emerged as protective factors after controlling for initial eating concerns and body mass index.Discussion: Eating disorders should not be seen as a result of a premorbid personality type. Rather we should take a more social-psychological perspective to explain how individual and sociocultural factors work together in the development of these conditions. Keywords: eating disorders, EDI-C, risk factors, protective factors

Sanna Aila Gustafsson

2010-10-01

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Eating concerns and media influences in an Irish adolescent context.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

OBJECTIVE: EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes. METHOD: Students were screened using the EAT-26, EDI-III and a study-specific questionnaire. A sub-sample of parents\\' views was included. RESULTS: Three thousand and thirty-one students (mean age 14.74) and 56 parents enrolled. The majority (71.4%) of adolescents felt adversely affected by media portrayal of body weight and shape, with more than a quarter (25.6%) believing it to be \\'far too thin\\'. A significant correlation between media impact and high EAT scores (chi2 = 450.78, df = 2, p < 0.05) and EDI-III scores (chi2 = 387.51, df = 4, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Parents also view media portrayal as too thin (94.7%), less than half are adversely affected by it (49.2%) but the majority (71.9%) believe their children to be. CONCLUSION: Media portrayal of body weight and shape is correlated with eating psychopathology and may affect adolescents more than adults. School psycho-educational programmes and media policies are urgently needed to minimise any detrimental effect.

McNicholas, Fiona

2012-02-01

25

Optimising women's diets. An examination of factors that promote healthy eating and reduce the likelihood of unhealthy eating.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of nutrition promotion research that has examined the determinants of unhealthy or healthy dietary behaviours has focused on factors that promote consumption of these foods, rather than factors that may both promote healthy eating and buffer or protect consumption of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that both promote healthy eating and also reduce the likelihood of eating unhealthily amongst women. A community sample of 1013 Australian women participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey that assessed factors associated with diet and obesity. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between a range of individual, social and environmental factors and aspects of both healthy and unhealthy eating, whilst controlling for key covariates. Results indicated that women with high self efficacy for healthy eating, taste preferences for fruit and vegetables, family support for healthy eating and the absence of perceived barriers to healthy eating (time and cost) were more likely to consume components of a healthy diet and less likely to consume components of a unhealthy diet. Optimal benefits in overall diet quality amongst women may be achieved by targeting factors associated with both healthy and unhealthy eating in nutrition promotion efforts. PMID:22446723

Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David

2012-08-01

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Risk and protective factors for disturbed eating in adolescent girls - aspects of perfectionism and attitudes to eating and weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the role of personal standards, self-evaluation, perceived benefits of thinness and attitudes to eating and weight in the development of healthy versus disturbed eating in adolescent girls. In a longitudinal study, girls who participated in two assessments, four to five years apart, were divided into three groups according to the attitudes to eating that they manifested at the second evaluation: those with disturbed eating patterns (DE-group, n = 49), those with intermediate concerns about eating (IE-group, n = 260) and those with healthy eating attitudes (HE-group, n = 120). Variables concerning attitudes to eating and weight and physical self-evaluation emerged as risk factors, whereas personal standards or self-evaluation in general did not. Protective factors were a low BMI, healthy eating attitudes, an accepting attitude towards body size and a positive self-evaluation, particularly with regard to physical and psychological characteristics. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of early risk and protective factors for eating disturbances in girls. PMID:19378349

Aila Gustafsson, Sanna; Edlund, Birgitta; Kjellin, Lars; Norring, Claes

2009-01-01

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Association of Eating Behaviors and Obesity with Psychosocial and Familial Influences  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Overeating is often attributed to emotions and has been linked to psychological challenges and obesity. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of emotional and external cue eating on obesity and the correlation of emotional and external cue eating with positive and negative psychological factors, as well as early familial eating

Brown, Stephen L.; Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Wrobleski, Peggy P.

2009-01-01

28

Environmental and genetic risk factors for eating disorders: what the clinician needs to know.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients and families often are aware of research on genetic factors influencing eating disorders. Accurate interpretations of research on environmental and genetic risk factors can be empowering to patients and families; however, misinterpretations could prove detrimental. Clinicians who are not versed in genetic research may believe they are ill prepared to discuss the nuances of genetic research with patients and families. In this article the authors discuss what is known about genetic and environmental risk factors with an emphasis on gene-environment interplay to improve clinicians' comfort level in discussing these complex issues with their patients. PMID:19014858

Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Bulik, Cynthia M

2009-01-01

29

Prevention of Obesity and Eating Disorders: A Consideration of Shared Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among youth, researchers in both the obesity and eating disorders fields have proposed using an integrated approach to prevention that addresses the spectrum of weight-related disorders within interventions. The identification of risk factors that are…

Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2006-01-01

30

An exploration of the tripartite influence model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among Australian and French college women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to compare levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating and risk factors, and to examine the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance among French and Australian young adult females. Participants were 188 Australian (mean age=19.6 years, SD=1.0) and 190 French (mean age=20.7 years, SD=2.6) students. Media, peer and family influences, internalisation of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimia and self-esteem were assessed. Australian participants reported perceiving more peer and media influence, and higher levels of appearance comparison, internalisation of media ideals and bulimic symptoms than French participants (pcultural specificities, and developing a global framework of body image and eating disturbance with a view to prevention. PMID:21664887

Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri; Paxton, Susan J

2011-06-01

31

Candidate genes in eating disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental influences, as well as biological and genetic factors influence risk for eating disorders. Family and twin studies have shown that eating disorders are familial and suggest the influence of genetic factors on their etiology. Positive associations have been observed for some candidate genes that have been studied (such as 5HT2A receptor gene); however, the field has been plagued by nonreplications. In this paper we review the extant association studies of eating disorders. PMID:12769810

Tozzi, Federica; Bulik, Cynthia M

2003-02-01

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Predicitive factors of dropout in inpatients admitted for eating disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SummaryBackground: Treatment for inpatients presenting an eating disorder usually implies a therapeutic contract. However,treatment dropout is frequent, costky and leads to poor prognosis.Aim: To identify predictive factors of dropout in inpatients admitted for an eating disorder.Methods: In all, 916 consecutive female inpatients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and atypical bulimia nervosa were assessed at admission between 1988 and 2004 accordingly to ICD-10 classification. Clinical, sociodemographic, and psychological data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. Descriptive, univariate analyses and two logisticmodels were performed: onefor patients with anorexia or bulimia and the other for patientswith atypical bulimia.Results: Dropout rates were 49.6 % for anorexia, 55.6 % for bulimia and 69.3 % for atypical bulimia. For the anorexia/ bulimiamodel, predictive factors were the following:educational status, age at admission, subtype of eating disorder,minimumBMI and “ideal BMI” (calculated on the basis of the question “According to you, what should be your weight after treatment?”, requested upon admission, and without any medical advice. The atypical bulimia model is the first published on female inpatients to date.Psychological scores were not significant factors in both models.Conclusion: the inpatients’ characteristics seem close to those described in the literature. The results of the multivariate analysis were discussed, especially the fact that the psychometric scales had no predictive value.An innovative variable, the ideal BMI signifies that the more a thin patient declares herself ready to gain weight upon admission, the more likely she is to keep to the contract. This study highlights the importance of pre-hospitalisation preparation,particularly in terms of the patients recognising their illness.Prat Organ Soins 2008;39(1:23-32

Huas C

2008-03-01

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Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.

Forrester-Knauss Christine

2012-09-01

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Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: The influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N=790) in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands from 2009–2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality...

Lucea, Marguerite B.; Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Campbell, Doris W.

2012-01-01

35

Risk factors for disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: prospective evidence from mainland Chinese boys and girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite evidence that sociocultural and psychological factors contribute to disordered eating, researchers have yet to examine the extent to which putative risk factors influence vulnerability for girls versus boys within and across phases of adolescence, particularly in non-Western cultures. In this study, early and middle adolescent samples from China (N = 2,909) completed measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and were reassessed 12 months later. Among both younger and older girls, elevations in appearance-focused interactions with friends, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction predicted increases in symptomatology at follow-up. In contrast, there was more discontinuity in risk factors relevant to samples of boys. Although media and friendship influences contributed to later disturbances among early adolescent boys, psychological factors, including body dissatisfaction and negative affect, had stronger effects in the multivariate model for older boys. Implications of finding are discussed in relation to adolescent development and a Chinese cultural context. PMID:21319924

Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

2011-05-01

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Factors associated with weight concerns and unhealthy eating patterns among young Korean females  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Risk factors for weight concerns, unhealthy eating patterns, and clinical eating disorders have been examined primarily among western countries. Thus it would be inappropriate to use them as a basis for interventions in minority and nonwestern cultures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with weight concerns and unhealthy eating patterns among young Korean females. Korean female students (N = 267 college and 266 high school students) completed the previous...

Ryu, Hee Seung Roh

1999-01-01

37

Socio-Cultural Influences in Eating Disorders: Focus on Sports/Fitness Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report notes that eating disorders are frequently described as a diet and fitness program gone wild. It outlines and describes five sociocultural influences which have been identified for eating disorders: (1) emphasis on thinness; (2) glorification of youth; (3) changing roles of women; (4) emphasis on fitness and sport programs; and (5) the…

Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

38

Eating disordered behaviours in portuguese athletes : the influence of personal, sport, and psychological variables  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: This study describes eating disordered behaviours in a sample of Portuguese elite athletes and analyses the impact of personal and sports factors on those eating disordered behaviours. Method: Two hundred and ninety athletes (51.7% males) practicing collective (64.8%) and individual sports have been included. The evaluation protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; the Sport Condition Questionnaire; the Sport Anxiety Scale; the Task and Ego Orientation in ...

Gomes, Anto?nio Rui; Martins, Carla; Silva, Luiz

2011-01-01

39

Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. PMID:20739233

Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

2010-09-01

40

Factors Predicting Staying in School to Eat Lunch  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…

Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Eating psychopathology as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in a sample of British athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Within the clinical literature it is accepted that there is a strong connection between eating disorders and depression; however the nature of the casual relationship is somewhat unclear. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the prospective relationship between eating psychopathology and depressive symptoms among competitive British athletes. A total of 122 athletes completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90R over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, athletes' baseline depressive symptoms was not related to their eating psychopathology 6 months later. However, when controlling for baseline depressive symptoms, athletes' initial eating psychopathology was positively and significantly related to depressive symptoms 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed athletes' initial levels of eating psychopathology significantly predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later. The current findings support the assertion that elevated eating psychopathology serves as a potential risk factor for the development of depression in athletes. Thus, National Governing Bodies, athletic clubs, sport organisations and universities need to recognise and be aware that exposure to the factors that increase the risk of eating disorders inadvertently serves to increase athletes' vulnerability for depression. PMID:24839992

Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline

2014-09-01

42

A study of factors influencing advanced puberty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

Yong Jun Park

2010-02-01

43

Eating Disorders and Their Associated Risk Factors among Iranian Population – A Community Based Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Backgrounds: Many socio cultural variables could be affect eating disorders in Asian countries. In Iran, there are few researches regarding eating disorders and their contributing factors. The aim of this study is to explore frequency of eating disorders and their risk factors in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: About 1204 participants were selected aged between fourteen to 55 years. Frequency of eating disorders and effects of variables such as demographic characteristics, Body Mass Index (BMI, use of media, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, social comparison and social pressure for thinness in individuals with and without eating disorders, were assessed. Findings: The prevalence of eating disorders was 11.5% that included 0.8% anorexia nervosa, 6.2% full threshold bulimia nervosa, 1.4% sub threshold anorexia nervosa and 30% sub threshold binge eating disorder. Symptoms of bulimic syndrome were greater in males. Conclusion: In Iran, eating disorders and related problems are new issue that could be mentioned seriously The identification of these disorders and their related contributing factors are necessity of management and preventive programs planning.

Behshid Garrusi

2012-10-01

44

The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier) to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. PMID:24728136

Mitchison, Deborah; Hay, Phillipa J

2014-01-01

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The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs in adults. Method: A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion: More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. Keywords: demographic, environment, abuse, prevalence, socioeconomic status, heritability

Mitchison D

2014-02-01

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Influence of Peers and Friends on Children’s and Adolescents’ Eating and Activity Behaviors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the “Big Two” contributors to the obesity epidemic, unhealthy eating and physical inactivity [1]. In this article, we synthesize the empirical literature on the influence of peers and friends on youth’s eating and physical activity. L...

Salvy, Sarah-jeanne; La Haye, Kayla; Bowker, Julie C.; Hermans, Roel C. J.

2012-01-01

47

Relationship between Socio-Demographic Factors and Eating Practices in a Multicultural Society  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is currently a dearth of information pertaining to socio-demographic factors and eating practices in a multicultural country like Mauritius. This study was therefore undertaken to probe the different eating practices among an adult sample population in Mauritius in an endeavor to establish significant relationships, if any, with common socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. A self-designed questionnaire, (randomly distributed to n = 387 adults), pertaining to socio-demographic va...

Deerajen Ramasawmy; Subratty, Anwar H.; Mahomoodally, Fawzi M.; Krige, Stephanie M.

2012-01-01

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The assessment of dietary habits in obese women: influence of eating behavior patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to compare the dietary history and the 7-day record method to assess dietary habits in obese women. The second goal was to investigate whether eating behavior characteristics influence self-reported dietary intake. The study took place at the Obesity Outpatient Clinic, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. Subjects were 137 obese women with a mean age of 40 +/- 12 years and a mean body mass index of 38.2 +/- 6.0 kg/m2. Dietary intake was assessed both by the dietary history and by the 7-day record method. Resting energy expenditure was measured by continuous indirect calorimetry. Physical activity level was estimated using the Baecke questionnaire. To study different aspects of eating behaviour, the "Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire" was used. Absolute energy intake, as assessed by the 7-day record, was consistently lower than with the dietary history method. Sixteen percent of the obese women were overreporters while 66% clearly underreported energy intake, using dietary history as standard method. Restrained eating was associated with underreporting, while all aspects of emotional and external eating behavior were significantly higher in the group of overreporters. No relationship could be observed between the degree of underreporting and age, body weight or body mass index. Energy intake, as assessed by the dietary history method, correlated better with measured energy expenditure in obese subjects than the 7-day record. Eating behavior characteristics influence the accuracy of self-reported dietary intake in obese women. PMID:16777809

Vansant, Greet; Hulens, Mieke

2006-01-01

49

Risk and trigger factors for the development of eating disorders in female elite athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined risk factors and triggers for eating disorders in female athletes. Subjects included were all of the elite female athletes in Norway (N = 603), ages 12-35 yr, representing six groups of sports: technical, endurance, aesthetic, weight dependent, ball games, and power sports. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used to classify individuals at risk for eating disorders. Of the 117 athletes defined at risk, 103 were administered a structured clinical interview for eating disorders. A comparison group was also interviewed, consisting of 30 athletes chosen at random from a pool not at risk and matched to the at-risk subjects on age, community of residence, and sport. Ninety-two of the at-risk athletes met criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia athletica. The prevalence of eating disorders was higher in sports emphasizing leanness or a specific weight than in sports where these are less important. Compared with controls, eating disordered athletes began both sports-specific training and dieting earlier, and felt that puberty occurred too early for optimal performance. Trigger factors associated with the onset of eating disorders were prolonged periods of dieting, frequent weight fluctuations, a sudden increase in training volume, and traumatic events such as injury or loss of a coach. PMID:8201895

Sundgot-Borgen, J

1994-04-01

50

Personality Pathology and Its Influence on Eating Disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Personality disorders appear to be present in a significant minority of individuals with eating disorders. For example, in contrast to reported rates in the general population of eight percent, obsessive compulsive personality is present in approximately 22 percent of individuals with anorexia, restricting type. Likewise, in contrast to rates in the general population of six percent, borderline personality is present in approximately 25 percent of individuals with anorexia nervosa, binge-eati...

Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

2011-01-01

51

Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

2007-01-01

52

A longitudinal investigation of perceived friend influence on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although major etiological models highlight the importance of friends in the development of adolescent body image and eating problems, longitudinal research that comprehensively investigates possible direct and mediational relationships between these variables is lacking. Thus, this study aimed to examine prospective interrelationships between perceived friend influence, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in early adolescent girls, and whether these relationships differed across levels of body mass. A large Australian community sample of female high school students (N = 1,094; Time 1 M age = 12.3 years) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived friend influence, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating at 3 yearly intervals. Height and weight were also measured at each time point. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate two separate models, in which Time 2 body dissatisfaction was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between Time 1 perceived friend influence and Time 3 dieting and bulimic behaviors. No significant direct or indirect pathways were found between friend influence and disordered eating. Unexpectedly, however, body dissatisfaction was found to prospectively predict girls' perception of friend influence. These findings were remarkably similar in both healthy and overweight girls. The findings suggest that friends may be more influential for those adolescents who have higher levels of body image concern, rather than contributing directly to the development of body dissatisfaction. The peer environment represents an important consideration in adolescent prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23215623

Rayner, Kathryn E; Schniering, Carolyn A; Rapee, Ronald M; Hutchinson, Delyse M

2013-01-01

53

Associated factors of unhealthy eating patterns among Spanish university students by gender.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has examined bio-socio-demographic and psychopathological factors probably associated with unhealthy eating patterns among university students and to estimate a multifactorial model following the associated factors by gender. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to describe associations on basis of Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) stratified by gender in a representative sample of Spanish university students (n = 2551). The high EDI scorers for both sexes presented higher prevalence of dieting, body dissatisfaction, levels of psychopathology and lower self-esteem than the low EDI scorers. The results suggest that older students and higher self-esteem scores present lower scores in the EDI. In the female population, depression, paranoid dimension, dieting and body dissatisfaction were associated with population with unhealthy eating patterns. In the male sample, dieting, body dissatisfaction and interpersonal sensibility were also associated with unhealthy eating patterns. The results corroborate that abnormal eating patterns tend to affect specific vulnerable groups. We do not know the precise mechanisms through which these risk behaviors and attitudes, such as dieting or body dissatisfaction, may facilitate the later development of an eating disorder. PMID:20480703

Sepulveda, Ana; Carrobles, José Antonio; Gandarillas, Ana M

2010-05-01

54

Genetic and environmental influences on eating behaviors in 2.5- and 9-year-old children: a longitudinal twin study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Eating behaviors during childhood are related both to children’s diet quality and to their weight status. A better understanding of the determinants of eating behavior during childhood is essential for carrying out effective dietary interventions. Methods We assessed the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to variations in selected eating behaviors in early and late childhood. Information on eating behaviors came from questionnaires administered to parents of children participating in the Quebec Newborn Twin Study when the twins were 2.5 and 9 years old (n?=?692 children). Dichotomous variables were derived and analyzed using structural equation modeling, as part of a classic twin study design. We performed univariate and bivariate longitudinal analyses to quantify sources of variation and covariation across ages, for several eating behavior traits. Results We found moderate to strong heritability for traits related to appetite such as eating too much, not eating enough and eating too fast. Univariate analysis estimates varied from 0.71 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.87) to 0.89 (0.75, 0.96) in younger children and from 0.44 (0.18, 0.66) to 0.56 (0.28, 0.78) in older children. Bivariate longitudinal analyses indicated modest to moderate genetic correlations across ages (rA varying from 0.34 to 0.58). Common genetic influences explained 17% to 43% of the phenotypic correlation between 2.5 and 9 years for these appetite-related behaviors. In 9-year-old children, food acceptance traits, such as refusing to eat and being fussy about food, had high heritability estimates, 0.84 (0.63, 0.94) and 0.85 (0.59, 0.96) respectively, while in younger children, the shared environment (i.e., common to both twins) contributed most to phenotypic variance. Variances in meal-pattern-related behaviors were mostly explained by shared environmental influences. Conclusions Genetic predispositions explain a large part of the variations in traits related to appetite during childhood, though our results suggest that as children get older, appetite-related behaviors become more sensitive to environmental influences outside the home. Still, for several traits environmental influences shared by twins appear to have the largest relative importance. This finding supports the notion that familial context has considerable potential to influence the development of healthy eating habits throughout childhood. PMID:24313977

2013-01-01

55

Individual and relational risk factors for the development of eating disorders in adolescent aesthetic athletes and general adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared potential risk and protective factors, levels of disordered eating (DE), and their relationship among young aesthetic athletes (elite and non-elite) and controls (N = 725; 62.5 % females; mean age = 15.3, SD = 2.1). The participants completed self-report measures (McKnight Risk Factor Survey-IV, Contour Drawing Rating Scale and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire). Female elite athletes showed a greater risk of developing eating disorders than non-elite athletes and controls, with no difference between the three groups of males. Multiple group analyses revealed important differences in DE predictors. Although social pressure is the strongest DE predictor in non-elite athletes and controls, in elite athletes, the strongest DE predictor is body image dissatisfaction. Parental influences, rather than self-esteem, are predictors of DE in elite athletes, unlike the other two groups. These results show that the risk and protective factors involved in the development of DE are not universally valid. The results highlight the importance of studying specific characteristics associated with DE in aesthetic athletes. Some implications for ED risk assessment and prevention are discussed. PMID:23943379

Francisco, Rita; Narciso, Isabel; Alarcão, Madalena

2013-12-01

56

Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

2013-01-01

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Factores familiares asociados a los Trastornos Alimentarios: una revisión / Family factors associated to Eating Disorders: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde una perspectiva multifactorial el presente trabajo es una revisión sobre los factores familiares asociados a los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA), considerando las aportaciones teóricas y empíricas propuestas en artículos nacionales e internacionales. Los resultados de la búsqueda s [...] obre TCA y familia, indican que los principales tópicos investigados son: funcionamiento familiar, relaciones hija-padres, experiencias estresantes, psicopatología familiar, actitudes y conductas hacia el peso, alimentación e imagen corporal en las familias afectadas. Se concluye reconociendo la heterogeneidad de las familias con TCA y la compleja combinación de factores familiares asociados a la psicopatología alimentaria. Se sugiere mayor investigación sobre: funcionamiento familiar de las personas con TCANE, el papel del padre, factores de protección, afrontamiento al estrés, imagen corporal y alimentación familiar. Abstract in english From a multifactorial perspective this study present a review about the family factors associated to eating disorders, considering theoretical and empirical contributions in national and international journals articles . The find of the research about the Eating Disorders and Family, indicate that t [...] he principal topics investigated are: family functioning, daughters and fathers relationships, stressful experiences, family psychopathology, attitudes and behaviors about weigh, eating and body image in the affected families. We conclude recognizing the heterogeneity of the families with Eating Disorders and the complex combination of family factors associated to eating psychopathology. More research is suggested about: family functioning in EDNOS patients, the father's role, protective factors, coping stress, body image and family food.

Ana Olivia, Ruíz Martínez; Rosalía, Vázquez Arévalo; Juan Manuel, Mancilla Díaz; Carme, Viladrich i Segués; María Elizabeth, Halley Castillo.

2013-06-01

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Factores familiares asociados a los Trastornos Alimentarios: una revisión / Family factors associated to Eating Disorders: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde una perspectiva multifactorial el presente trabajo es una revisión sobre los factores familiares asociados a los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA), considerando las aportaciones teóricas y empíricas propuestas en artículos nacionales e internacionales. Los resultados de la búsqueda s [...] obre TCA y familia, indican que los principales tópicos investigados son: funcionamiento familiar, relaciones hija-padres, experiencias estresantes, psicopatología familiar, actitudes y conductas hacia el peso, alimentación e imagen corporal en las familias afectadas. Se concluye reconociendo la heterogeneidad de las familias con TCA y la compleja combinación de factores familiares asociados a la psicopatología alimentaria. Se sugiere mayor investigación sobre: funcionamiento familiar de las personas con TCANE, el papel del padre, factores de protección, afrontamiento al estrés, imagen corporal y alimentación familiar. Abstract in english From a multifactorial perspective this study present a review about the family factors associated to eating disorders, considering theoretical and empirical contributions in national and international journals articles . The find of the research about the Eating Disorders and Family, indicate that t [...] he principal topics investigated are: family functioning, daughters and fathers relationships, stressful experiences, family psychopathology, attitudes and behaviors about weigh, eating and body image in the affected families. We conclude recognizing the heterogeneity of the families with Eating Disorders and the complex combination of family factors associated to eating psychopathology. More research is suggested about: family functioning in EDNOS patients, the father's role, protective factors, coping stress, body image and family food.

Ana Olivia, Ruíz Martínez; Rosalía, Vázquez Arévalo; Juan Manuel, Mancilla Díaz; Carme, Viladrich i Segués; María Elizabeth, Halley Castillo.

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Propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Tres Factores de la Alimentación (TFEQ) / Psychometric properties of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar la consistencia interna, el análisis de factores y la validez de criterio de tipo concurrente y discriminante del Cuestionario de Tres Factores de la Alimentación (TFEQ). Participaron 604 mujeres (x? = 20.28, DE = 5.70), quienes completaron una batería [...] de cuestionarios: TFEQ, Cuestionario de Actitudes ante la Alimentación (EAT-40) y Cuestionario de Bulimia (BULIT). Los resultados señalan un coeficiente de consistencia interna adecuada (? =.87) y una estructura factorial de dos factores (restricción alimentaria y desinhibición), los cuales explican el 30 % de la varianza total. Los análisis de la validez concurrente y discriminante, muestran datos satisfactorios. Por tanto, el TFEQ es un instrumento adecuado para evaluar la patología alimentaria. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the internal consistency, the factor analysis and the concurrent and discriminate validity of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). 604 women (x? = 20.28, SD = 5.70), completed TFEQ, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and Bulimia Test (BULIT). Re [...] sults showed an appropriate internal consistency coefficient (? = .87) and a structure of two factors (dietary restraint and disinhibition), which explain 30% of the total variance. The analysis of concurrent and discriminant validity showing satisfactory data. Therefore, the TFEQ is an appropriate instrument for assessing eating pathology.

Xochitl, López-Aguilar; Juan Manuel, Mancilla-Díaz; Rosalia, Vázquez-Arévalo; Karina, Franco-Paredes; Georgina Leticia, Alvarez-Rayón; Ma. Trinidad, Ocampo Téllez-Girón.

2011-06-01

60

Propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Tres Factores de la Alimentación (TFEQ) / Psychometric properties of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar la consistencia interna, el análisis de factores y la validez de criterio de tipo concurrente y discriminante del Cuestionario de Tres Factores de la Alimentación (TFEQ). Participaron 604 mujeres (x? = 20.28, DE = 5.70), quienes completaron una batería [...] de cuestionarios: TFEQ, Cuestionario de Actitudes ante la Alimentación (EAT-40) y Cuestionario de Bulimia (BULIT). Los resultados señalan un coeficiente de consistencia interna adecuada (? =.87) y una estructura factorial de dos factores (restricción alimentaria y desinhibición), los cuales explican el 30 % de la varianza total. Los análisis de la validez concurrente y discriminante, muestran datos satisfactorios. Por tanto, el TFEQ es un instrumento adecuado para evaluar la patología alimentaria. Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the internal consistency, the factor analysis and the concurrent and discriminate validity of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). 604 women (x? = 20.28, SD = 5.70), completed TFEQ, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and Bulimia Test (BULIT). Re [...] sults showed an appropriate internal consistency coefficient (? = .87) and a structure of two factors (dietary restraint and disinhibition), which explain 30% of the total variance. The analysis of concurrent and discriminant validity showing satisfactory data. Therefore, the TFEQ is an appropriate instrument for assessing eating pathology.

Xochitl, López-Aguilar; Juan Manuel, Mancilla-Díaz; Rosalia, Vázquez-Arévalo; Karina, Franco-Paredes; Georgina Leticia, Alvarez-Rayón; Ma. Trinidad, Ocampo Téllez-Girón.

 
 
 
 
61

The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

2009-01-01

62

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

Science.gov (United States)

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

63

What influences appetite more: eating approaches or cooking methods?  

Science.gov (United States)

In general, vegetables are abundantly consumed in a calorie-restricted diet to achieve sufficient satiety through fresh food or various cooking methods. In this study, we examined the effects of different cooking methods on appetite and specific perceptions of the food after consumption; eating approaches were also analyzed by meal duration. A total of 153 individuals aged 20-59 years were assigned to 2 groups: raw vegetable or boiled vegetable meals, including packed meals that were served as test meals with the same energy and vegetable amount. Subjective levels of sensory properties and meal duration were assessed over time using visual analog scales, including questionnaires. Results showed that meal duration was significantly longer for raw vegetable meals than boiled vegetable meals, and there were significantly stronger correlations between meal duration and fullness. A higher degree of fullness was provided by a raw vegetable meal than a boiled vegetable meal, especially in men. However, an excess of raw vegetables led to overall insufficient satisfaction. Taken together, these findings suggest that cooking methods should be altered for different situations with an adequate amount of vegetables, and the meal duration should be recommended to be given as much attention as cooking methods. PMID:24705757

Zhou, Bei; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Seki, Sayaka; Tatano, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chisaki; Takeda, Eiji

2014-01-01

64

Confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of the distress tolerance scale (DTS) in a clinical sample of eating disorder patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

A confirmatory factor analysis of the factor structure of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) created by Corstorphine et al. [Corstorphine, E., Mountford, V., Tomlinson, S., Waller, G., & Meyer, C. (2007). Distress tolerance in the eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 8, 91-97.] was conducted to assess whether the scale's purported three factors emerged in a clinical sample of patients with a DSM-IV diagnosed eating disorder. The original three-factor model was generally considered to be a poor fit for the data. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a better fit emerged using a four-factor structure. Significant associations were observed between behavioral avoidance of positive affect and eating disorder psychopathology. Implications for use of the DTS with eating disorder patients are discussed. PMID:19778750

Raykos, Bronwyn C; Byrne, Susan M; Watson, Hunna

2009-12-01

65

Relationship between Socio-Demographic Factors and Eating Practices in a Multicultural Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is currently a dearth of information pertaining to socio-demographic factors and eating practices in a multicultural country like Mauritius. This study was therefore undertaken to probe the different eating practices among an adult sample population in Mauritius in an endeavor to establish significant relationships, if any, with common socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. A self-designed questionnaire, (randomly distributed to n = 387 adults, pertaining to socio-demographic variables, vegetarianism, breakfast patterns, eating out of home meals (OHMs, food frequency questions and dieting practices were asked. Males (21 - 40 yrs had a significantly (p < 0.05 higher consumption of OHM at lunch. Higher mean frequencies of consuming OHMs were found amid specific groups (e.g. amongst professionals as compared to each of manual workers, unemployed, retired and self-employed which also depicted significantly lower percentages of adhesion to the WHO recommended daily intake of vegetables. Oily foods were frequently consumed by males (41 - 60 yrs whereas none of the socio-demographic factors assessed revealed a significant relationship (p > 0.05 to adherence to the recommendations for the consumption of fish. The socio-demographic factors most influential towards eating practices were gender, age and socio-economic status represented by education and occupation. In conclusion, relationships recorded in the present study were comparable to Western eating practices and the availability of certain foods has compelled Mauritians to develop its own and unique eating patterns which can be of relevance in providing accurate health targets for future nutrition interventions in Mauritius.

Deerajen Ramasawmy

2012-03-01

66

Factors influencing twins and zygosity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zygosity is influenced by many factors. Monozygotic twins occur spontaneously in approximately 1 in 250 births and are felt to increase twofold with ovulation induction techniques. Monozygotic twinning also increases in proportion to the number of blastocysts transferred during in vitro fertilisation. In contrast, dizygotic twinning appears to be influenced by race, genetic factors, maternal age, fertility enhancing drugs, folic acid supplementation, and maternal nutritional status. PMID:15670115

Hankins, Gary V D; Saade, George R

2005-01-01

67

Predisposing, Precipitating, Perpetuating, Professional Help, and Prevention Factors of Eating Disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes an eating disorder as a multi-dimensional physiological, psychological, social, and cultural illness. A chart describing the typical anorexic and bulimic is included which has on its horizontal axis the predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, professional help, and prevention factors of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. On its…

Moriarty, Dick; Chanko, Cathy

68

Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targete...

Karagas, Margaret R.; Marie?n, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Oken, Emily; Choi, Anna Lai; Korrick, Susan Abigail; Sunderland, Elsie

2012-01-01

69

Influencia familiar sobre la conducta alimentaria y su relación con la obesidad infantil / Eating behavior and childhood obesity: family influences  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La conducta alimentaria es el conjunto de acciones que establecen la relación del ser humano con los alimentos. Se acepta generalmente que los comportamientos frente a la alimentación se adquieren a través de la experiencia directa con la comida, por la imitación de modelos, la disponibilidad de ali [...] mentos, el estatus social, los simbolismos afectivos y las tradiciones culturales. Además de las influencias sociales, se ha señalado que las influencias genéticas y de ambiente familiar compartido, tienen un impacto relevante sobre el patrón de ingesta, la conducta alimentaria y la obesidad infantil. Los estudios sobre ingesta de alimentos en obesidad se han centrado principalmente en determinar la cantidad y tipo de alimentos de la dieta habitual, presentando resultados controversiales. También existe un interés creciente por explorar la relación entre la obesidad y la conducta de alimentación, medida a través de herramientas psicométricas que analizan diferentes dimensiones tales como la alimentación emocional, la alimentación sin control o la restricción cognitiva. Esta revisión aborda la influencia de la familia sobre la conducta alimentaria infantil en relación con la obesidad, tanto desde la perspectiva del ambiente familiar compartido como desde la herencia genética. Abstract in english Eating behavior involves all actions that define the relation between human beings and food. It is accepted that feeding habits are acquired through eating experiences and practices learned from the familiar and social context in early childhood. Besides the role of the social context, it is also as [...] sumed that familiar factors, both common family environment and genetic inheritance, have an important influence on food intake and eating behavior linked with childhood obesity. Research on food intake and childhood obesity has been traditionally focused on the amount and type of foods in the usual diet. However, it is an increasing interest to understand the link between eating behavior and obesity using questionnaires. There are several psychometric tools that have been developed specifically to deal with human eating behavior. This review summarizes the family influences, both genetic and non-genetic, on childhood feeding behavior and their relation to childhood obesity.

P, Domínguez-Vásquez; S, Olivares; JL, Santos.

70

Influencia familiar sobre la conducta alimentaria y su relación con la obesidad infantil / Eating behavior and childhood obesity: family influences  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La conducta alimentaria es el conjunto de acciones que establecen la relación del ser humano con los alimentos. Se acepta generalmente que los comportamientos frente a la alimentación se adquieren a través de la experiencia directa con la comida, por la imitación de modelos, la disponibilidad de ali [...] mentos, el estatus social, los simbolismos afectivos y las tradiciones culturales. Además de las influencias sociales, se ha señalado que las influencias genéticas y de ambiente familiar compartido, tienen un impacto relevante sobre el patrón de ingesta, la conducta alimentaria y la obesidad infantil. Los estudios sobre ingesta de alimentos en obesidad se han centrado principalmente en determinar la cantidad y tipo de alimentos de la dieta habitual, presentando resultados controversiales. También existe un interés creciente por explorar la relación entre la obesidad y la conducta de alimentación, medida a través de herramientas psicométricas que analizan diferentes dimensiones tales como la alimentación emocional, la alimentación sin control o la restricción cognitiva. Esta revisión aborda la influencia de la familia sobre la conducta alimentaria infantil en relación con la obesidad, tanto desde la perspectiva del ambiente familiar compartido como desde la herencia genética. Abstract in english Eating behavior involves all actions that define the relation between human beings and food. It is accepted that feeding habits are acquired through eating experiences and practices learned from the familiar and social context in early childhood. Besides the role of the social context, it is also as [...] sumed that familiar factors, both common family environment and genetic inheritance, have an important influence on food intake and eating behavior linked with childhood obesity. Research on food intake and childhood obesity has been traditionally focused on the amount and type of foods in the usual diet. However, it is an increasing interest to understand the link between eating behavior and obesity using questionnaires. There are several psychometric tools that have been developed specifically to deal with human eating behavior. This review summarizes the family influences, both genetic and non-genetic, on childhood feeding behavior and their relation to childhood obesity.

P, Domínguez-Vásquez; S, Olivares; JL, Santos.

2008-09-01

71

Ramadan Bazaar and Ramadan Buffets: The Possible Influence on Eating Behavior and Health among Malaysian Muslims  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able?bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.

Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed

2013-11-01

72

Influence of negative affect on choice behavior in individuals with binge eating pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that individuals with binge eating pathology (e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED)) have decision making impairments and particularly act impulsively in response to negative affect. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of negative affect on choice behavior in women with BN and BED. Ninety women (59 with BN or BED and 31 healthy controls) watched a sad or control film fragment and were subsequently asked to complete a choice behavior task (as measured by a variation of the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT)). Results showed that negative affect influenced choice behavior differently in healthy controls and in women with BN and BED after punishment (but not after reward). In the context of increased negative affect, punishment was associated with more disadvantageous choice behavior in both BN and BED women but not in healthy controls, while the effect was the exact opposite in both groups after a decrease in negative affect. Levels of sadness were not found to influence choice behavior after reward in either groups. These findings suggest that emotional states may have a direct impact on choice behavior of individuals with binge eating pathology and are not only related to pathological behavior itself. PMID:23167986

Danner, Unna N; Evers, Catharine; Sternheim, Lot; van Meer, Floor; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Geerets, Tiny A M; Breteler, Leonie M T; de Ridder, Denise T D

2013-05-15

73

Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

2012-03-01

74

Sexual orientation and gender as factors in socioculturally acquired vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and eating disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of a shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness that is based on a desire to attract and please men. Although men place priority on physical attractiveness in evaluating potential partners, women place greater emphasis on other factors, such as personality, status, power, and income. Therefore, lesbians and heterosexual men are less concerned with their own physical attractiveness and, consequently, less dissatisfied with their bodies and less vulnerable to eating disorders. Several instruments measuring body satisfaction, the importance of physical attractiveness, and symptoms of eating disorders were administered to 250 college students. The sample included 53 lesbians, 59 gay men, 62 heterosexual women, and 63 heterosexual men. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance were used to examine the differences among the scores of lesbians, gay men, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men on these various constructs. The results generally confirmed the research hypothesis. The implications and ramifications these findings have for the understanding of both the psychology of lesbians and gay men and the prevention and treatment of eating disorders are discussed. PMID:8201061

Siever, M D

1994-04-01

75

Genetics in eating disorders: state of the science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating disorders have been viewed as psychiatric illnesses that are strongly influenced by societal pressures towards thinness and attractiveness. Although the environmental context of these disorders must not be neglected, recent research in the area of genetic epidemiology suggests a substantial influence of genetic factors on liability to eating disorders. This review presents a synthesis of current knowledge about genetic factors implicated in the etiology of eating disorders. PMID:15208510

Bulik, Cynthia M; Tozzi, Federica

2004-07-01

76

Genetics of Eating Behavior: Established and Emerging Concepts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding why we eat and the motivational factors driving food choices is important to addressing the epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Eating behavior is a complex interplay of physiologic, psychological, social, and genetic factors that influence meal timing, quantity of food intake, and food preference. Here we review the current and emerging knowledge of the genetic influences of eating behavior and how these relate to obesity with particular emphasis on the g...

Grimm, Eleanor R.; Steinle, Nanette I.

2011-01-01

77

Factors influencing bone scan quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

78

The dimensionality of the 12-item version of the Eating Attitudes Test. Confirmatory factor analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The assumed three-dimensional structure of the 12-item version of the Eating Attitudes Test was examined by confirmatory factor analysis in a non-clinical sample of 224 female and 261 male adolescents in grade 8 aged 14-15 years. Alternative models were examined. Data did neither support a three-dimensional structure, nor a one-dimensional structure using twelve items. Three dimensions were supported when one and three items were omitted from the girls' and boys' analyses, respectively. A second order factor structure was supported in both genders. Conceptual and psychometric issues are discussed. A discussion of the measurement domain of the eating problem construct in non-clinicals is warranted. PMID:10658513

Engelsen, B K; Hagtvet, K A

1999-12-01

79

Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.

Ritson Christopher

2006-09-01

80

A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of excess

CarolineDavis

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Influence of Family Modelling on Children’s Healthy Eating Behaviour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of eating behaviours is a dynamic process that begins in infancy and continues throughout life, being strongly influenced by the family models. Our study aimed to evaluate the food behaviour in children aged 11, 13 and 15 years old in relation to the family models. We did a cross-sectional study in 206 school children from Sibiu county (rural and urban areas) using the Romanian version of HBSC questionnaire. We analysed the frequency of breakfast and dinner with the family, th...

Domnariu, Carmen Daniela; Ilies, Andreea; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

2013-01-01

82

Structure validity of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 in Greek population  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the TFEQ-R18. The project was conducted in Greek population; thus, the questionnaire was translated in Greek language. 495 males and females aged between 12-45 years old participated in the present study. There were used a series of CFA techniques for structure analysis. Confirmatory and exploratory analyses were conducted. Several criteria were used to test the hypotheses factor structures of the AIMS. The results of CFA’s showed that the R-18 item instrument had adequate psychometric properties for measuring three dimensions of eating behavior of the Greek population However these results evealed that an R-16 item instrument was better adapted to the Greek population. The present study provided encouraging preliminary evidence supporting selected psychometric properties of the TFEQ-R18. This instrument seems to be a valid measure of the tendencies of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating of Greek population.

MILTIADIS PROIOS

2012-03-01

83

Spreading factors of Mycoplasma alligatoris, a flesh-eating mycoplasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycoplasma alligatoris causes lethal invasive disease of alligators and caimans. A homolog of the nagH gene, encoding a hyaluronidase secreted by Clostridium perfringens, and a C. perfringens hyaluronidase nagI or nagK pseudogene were discovered in the M. alligatoris genome. The nagH gene was detected by PCR in the closest relative of M. alligatoris, Mycoplasma crocodyli, but not in 40 other species representing the Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Spiroplasma phylogenetic clusters. The hyaluronidase activity in the cellular fraction of M. alligatoris and M. crocodyli SP4 broth cultures was equivalent to 10(-16) U of Streptomyces hyalurolyticus hyaluronidase CFU(-1). Negligible activity was present in the cell-free supernatant fraction. No chondroitinase activity was detected. There is also a novel homolog of the nanI gene, which encodes a sialidase secreted by C. perfringens, in the M. alligatoris genome. The signature YRIP and SXDXGXTW motifs and catalytic residues of the clostridial sialidase are conserved in the mycoplasmal gene, but the leader sequence necessary for its secretion by C. perfringens is absent. The gene was not detected by PCR in any other mycoplasma. Potent cell-associated sialidase activity was present in M. alligatoris colonies on agar but not in the cell-free supernatants of broth cultures or in M. crocodyli. The presence of hyaluronidase and sialidase in M. alligatoris is consistent with the rapid invasiveness and necrotizing effects of this organism, and the lack of sialidase in M. crocodyli is consistent with its comparatively attenuated virulence. This genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that the spreading factors hyaluronidase and sialidase, a combination unprecedented in mycoplasmas, are the basis of the virulence of M. alligatoris. PMID:15175306

Brown, D R; Zacher, L A; Farmerie, W G

2004-06-01

84

Factors influencing children's food choice.  

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Although food habits are not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits. PMID:10342497

Koivisto Hursti, U K

1999-04-01

85

Characterization of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores of a young French cohort.  

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The aims of our study were to characterize the psychological dimensions of eating behaviour of young French adults as measured by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and to analyze the association between the 3 TFEQ mean scores (main scales and subscales) and gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and socio-demographic data in this population. An online TFEQ questionnaire was used with a nationally representative sample of 1000 young French people (aged 20-39yrs). The average scores were 6.3±0.1 (sem) for dietary restraint, 6.0±0.1 for disinhibition and 5.0±0.1 for hunger. Compared to the limit commonly used in human food studies, young French adults were characterized by low restraint and low disinhibition levels. There was a significant gender effect on both restraint and disinhibition scores, with women showing significantly higher scores than men. Concerning the link between TFEQ scores and BMI, there was a significant effect of the BMI category on cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Disinhibition was the factor most strongly associated to BMI, independently of gender. Our results highlight both the importance of taking into account not only disinhibition but also cognitive restraint and the usefulness of subscales when studying eating behaviour and its link to body weight. We characterize the eating behaviour of a French cohort with criteria often chosen for healthy volunteers in human food studies. Consequently, we suggest new TFEQ limits (6 for cognitive restraint and disinhibition, 5 for hunger) lower than those traditionally used for this category of the population in clinical food studies. PMID:22664302

Aurélie, Lesdéma; Gilles, Fromentin; Jean-Jacques, Daudin; Agathe, Arlotti; Sophie, Vinoy; Daniel, Tome; Agnès, Marsset-Baglieri

2012-10-01

86

Parental influences on adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior: longitudinal findings from Project EAT-II  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term role that parental encouragement and attitudes about fitness and exercise play in adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits remains unclear. This paper aims to longitudinally examine how parental encouragement to be physically active and parental concern about staying fit are associated with adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits five years later. Methods Project EAT-II adolescent and young adult participants (1130 male, 1386 female completed surveys while in middle school or high school (1998–1999, and again 5 years later. Participants were asked whether their mother and father encourage them to be physically active and care about staying fit and exercising. Adolescent moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA and TV/video watching (hours/week were assessed. Linear regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline behavior were used to examine the association of Time 1 parental factors with behavioral outcomes among adolescents and young adults five years later (Time 2. Results After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline MVPA, adolescent-reported maternal and paternal encouragement to be active, and paternal care for fitness, were positively associated with weekly hours of MVPA after five years in young adult males (p for trend ? .01. The positive relationship between maternal encouragement and MVPA approached significance among high-school aged females (p for trend = .06, and paternal encouragement was positively related to MVPA among high-school aged males (p for trend = .02. While maternal encouragement to be active was associated with decreased TV/video time among younger females (p for trend = .02, other parental factors were not associated with lower TV/video time among the other groups. Conclusion Parental encouragement to be active was associated with increased physical activity among males and younger females 5 years later. Younger adolescents appear to be especially influenced by their same-sex parent. These findings suggest that encouragement may be more influential than parental concern for fitness on adolescents' physical activity habits. Further research is needed to determine how parents can help adolescents decrease sedentary behavior time.

Bauer Katherine W

2008-02-01

87

The influence of heritability, neuroticism, maternal warmth and media use on disordered eating behaviors: a prospective analysis of twins.  

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The relative impact of genetic and social influences on disordered eating behaviors (DEB) including binging, purging, excessive dieting and negative self-evaluations about weight remain an issue of debate. The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and social influences on DEB. A 7-year prospective analysis of 580 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins was conducted. Estimates of heritability of DEB were obtained using the DF Analysis Model. Regression equations revealed the relative predictive value of sibling's DEB, neurotic personality, maternal warmth and television and video game exposure on DEB. Heritability estimates for DEB were 0.40 for females and 0.48 for males. Among MZ and DZ twin pairs, female sex, neurotic personality and a genetic variable component, but not maternal warmth or school related problems, predicted DEB. Contrary to the expectations of media effects theory, greater media use was associated with lower DEB among DZ twins and had no influence on MZ twins. These results indicate that DEB is highly heritable and that personality variables may play an important role in the formation of DEB. This suggests that it is important to control for genetic variables when analyzing risk factors for DEB. PMID:22278805

Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Monica E; Winegard, Ben; Winegard, Bo

2012-09-01

88

Turning eating psychopathology risk factors into action. The pervasive effect of body image-related cognitive fusion.  

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Body image dissatisfaction and unfavourable social comparisons are significant risk factors to eating psychopathology. Nevertheless, the impact of these negative experiences depends on the cognitive and emotional processes involved. Previous research has shown that cognitive fusion is a nuclear process linked to psychological inflexibility, but its role on body image and eating difficulties remains unclear. This study aims to explore a model of the mediational role of body image-related cognitive fusion (CF-BI) on the relationship between body dissatisfaction, unfavourable social comparisons, and eating psychopathology in a sample of 345 female students. Results from path analyses show that the impact of unfavourable social comparisons on eating psychopathology is fully mediated by CF-BI. Moreover, CF-BI also revealed a mediational effect on the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and the severity of eating symptoms, in spite of the fact that a direct effect of body dissatisfaction still exists. The tested model highlights the crucial role that cognitive fusion, in the specific domain of body image, plays in the relationship between risk factors and the severity of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Furthermore, these findings present empirical support for the relevance of addressing acceptance and cognitive defusion techniques to prevent and treat eating disorders. PMID:24858833

Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A

2014-09-01

89

Associated Factors for Self-Reported Binge Eating among Male and Female Adolescents.  

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Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…

Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others

1993-01-01

90

Evaluación de factores de riesgo de TCA en estudiantes de nutrición / Evaluation of risk factors for eating disorders in students of nutrition  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los medios de comunicación, el ambiente social y los factores personales desempeñan un papel importante como factores de riesgo de los TCA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación entre las influencias socioculturales del modelo estético corporal con las cogniciones que son caracter [...] ísticas de los TCA, en estudiantes de licenciatura en nutrición. Se contó con 112 participantes (88 mujeres y 24 hombres) estudiantes de la licenciatura en nutrición. 15.9% de las mujeres y el 20.8% de los hombres presentaron insatisfacción corporal. Los hombres presentaron significativamente mayor malestar patológico, influencia de la publicidad y perfeccionismo que las mujeres. Tanto en hombres y mujeres se muestra una correlación significativa entre la interiorización de un cuerpo delgado y la insatisfacción corporal. Casi la mitad de los participantes (48%) presenta una interiorización del modelo estético de delgadez. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre la interiorización de un modelo estético delgado y la insatisfacción corporal, lo cual indica que dicha insatisfacción está mediada por aquellos estándares provenientes de los medios de comunicación. Abstract in english The media, the social environment and personal factors play an important role as risk factors for eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociocultural influences body shape model with cognitions that are characteristic of eating disorders in undergraduate n [...] utrition. Participated 112 students (88 women and 24 men) undergraduate students in nutrition. 15.9% of women and 20.8% of the men had body dissatisfaction. Men showed significantly greater pathological distress advertising influence and perfectionism than women. Both men and women shows a significant correlation between the internalization of a thin body and body dissatisfaction. Almost half of the participants (48%) had an internalization body thin model. Significant correlations were found between the internalization of a thin aesthetic model and body dissatisfaction, which indicates that this dissatisfaction is mediated by those standards from the media.

Reyna María, Cruz Bojórquez; María Luisa, Ávila Escalante; Héctor Julián, Velázquez López; Damaris Francis, Estrella Castillo.

91

Evaluación de factores de riesgo de TCA en estudiantes de nutrición / Evaluation of risk factors for eating disorders in students of nutrition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los medios de comunicación, el ambiente social y los factores personales desempeñan un papel importante como factores de riesgo de los TCA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación entre las influencias socioculturales del modelo estético corporal con las cogniciones que son caracter [...] ísticas de los TCA, en estudiantes de licenciatura en nutrición. Se contó con 112 participantes (88 mujeres y 24 hombres) estudiantes de la licenciatura en nutrición. 15.9% de las mujeres y el 20.8% de los hombres presentaron insatisfacción corporal. Los hombres presentaron significativamente mayor malestar patológico, influencia de la publicidad y perfeccionismo que las mujeres. Tanto en hombres y mujeres se muestra una correlación significativa entre la interiorización de un cuerpo delgado y la insatisfacción corporal. Casi la mitad de los participantes (48%) presenta una interiorización del modelo estético de delgadez. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre la interiorización de un modelo estético delgado y la insatisfacción corporal, lo cual indica que dicha insatisfacción está mediada por aquellos estándares provenientes de los medios de comunicación. Abstract in english The media, the social environment and personal factors play an important role as risk factors for eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociocultural influences body shape model with cognitions that are characteristic of eating disorders in undergraduate n [...] utrition. Participated 112 students (88 women and 24 men) undergraduate students in nutrition. 15.9% of women and 20.8% of the men had body dissatisfaction. Men showed significantly greater pathological distress advertising influence and perfectionism than women. Both men and women shows a significant correlation between the internalization of a thin body and body dissatisfaction. Almost half of the participants (48%) had an internalization body thin model. Significant correlations were found between the internalization of a thin aesthetic model and body dissatisfaction, which indicates that this dissatisfaction is mediated by those standards from the media.

Reyna María, Cruz Bojórquez; María Luisa, Ávila Escalante; Héctor Julián, Velázquez López; Damaris Francis, Estrella Castillo.

2013-06-01

92

Factors influencing healthcare service quality  

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Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

2014-01-01

93

Social and psychological factors affecting eating habits among university students in a Malaysian medical school: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating habits have been a major concern among university students as a determinant of health status. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its associated social and psychological factors among medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 132 medical students of pre-clinical phase at a Malaysian university. A self-administered questionnaire was used which included questions on socio-demography, anthropometry, eating habits and psychosocial factors. Results Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 22.7 (±2.4 years and (the age ranged from 18 to 30?years. More than half had regular meals and breakfast (57.6% &, 56.1% respectively. Majority (73.5% consumed fruits less than three times per week, 51.5% had fried food twice or more a week and 59.8% drank water less than 2 liters daily. Eating habits score was significantly low among younger students (18–22?years, smokers, alcohol drinkers and those who did not exercise. (ppp Conclusion Most of the students in this study had healthy eating habits. Social and psychological factors were important determinants of eating habits among medical students.

Ganasegeran Kurubaran

2012-07-01

94

Factors influencing pacing in triathlon  

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Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

Wu SSX

2014-09-01

95

Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: Distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?  

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Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S.

2013-01-01

96

Disordered eating links to body-relevant and body-irrelevant influences on self-evaluation.  

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We investigated eating- and weight-related correlates of self-evaluation influences (SEIs) and examined the extent to which such SEIs can be both over- and undervalued and the extent to which measurement strategy affects SEIs. A female undergraduate sample (n = 549) completed 3 measures of SEI importance and questionnaires assessing disordered eating (DE), body mass index (BMI), and depression. SEI measures included Likert scale, rank ordering, and pairwise forced choice; a subset (n = 62) also completed the Shape- and Weight-Based Self-Esteem Scale (SAWBS). Only rank ordering, forced choice, and SAWBS constrain choices among SEIs, such that prioritizing one SEI necessarily deprioritizes another, which reflects real-world restrictions on individuals' allotment of time and energy (e.g., spending hours exercising daily necessarily reduces time available for other activities). By any measure, women with DE overvalue body shape and weight. The constraining measures reveal systematic undervaluation of intelligence and achievement among women with DE and an enhanced effect of DE on the overvaluation of weight and on the undervaluation of being a good person among those with higher BMI. Depressed women's self-evaluations overemphasize appearance and underemphasize interpersonal relationships. Self-evaluations of women with DE are marked by both over- and undervaluation of relevant SEIs; the overvaluation of shape and weight in DE may be associated with costs. Future use of constraining measures, such as forced choice or rank ordering, may enhance our understanding of both over- and underemphasized SEIs among women with DE. PMID:24854805

Woodward, Halley E; Rizk, Marianne T; Wang, Shirley S; Treat, Teresa A

2014-04-01

97

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL  

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Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

Student Claudia MOIS?

2010-01-01

98

The genetics of eating disorders.  

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Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in understanding genetic influences on eating pathology. Eating disorders aggregate in families, and twin studies reveal that additive genetic factors account for approximately 40% to 60% of liability to anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Molecular genetics studies have been undertaken to identify alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid sequence and/or gene expression that may be involved in the pathogenesis of disordered eating behaviors, symptoms, and related disorders and to uncover potential genetic variants that may contribute to variability of treatment response. This article provides an in-depth review of the scientific literature on the genetics of AN, BN, and BED including extant studies, emerging hypotheses, future directions, and clinical implications. PMID:23537489

Trace, Sara E; Baker, Jessica H; Peñas-Lledó, Eva; Bulik, Cynthia M

2013-01-01

99

Evaluation of abiotic factors on the activity period of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous – Carnivora: Canidae  

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Full Text Available The activity period of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous was studied in the Itajaí valley, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, through camera traps during a 15-month survey. The existence of relationships between this behavior and abiotic factors was also investigated. We found that the crab-eating fox’s activity is basically nocturnal (54% and crepuscular (25%. It has been classified as cathemeral. However, there were no relationships among the abiotic factors estimated (rainfall, temperature and lunar phases.

Fernando Rodrigo Tortato

2009-12-01

100

Relevancia de Factores de Riesgo, Psicopatología Alimentaria, Insatisfacción Corporal y Funcionamiento Psicológico en Pacientes con TCA / Relevant Risk Factors, Current Eating Psychopathology, Body Shape Concern and Psychological Functioning in Eating Disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El primer objetivo del estudio es evaluar restrospectivamente, la relevancia de factores de riesgo en pacientes con Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA) en función de la categoría diagnóstica. El segundo objetivo, es evaluar la psicopatología alimentaria, la insatisfacción corporal y [...] el funcionamiento psicológico en cada grupo diagnóstico. Método: Se evalúa en el momento previo al tratamiento de TCA, un total de 73 pacientes con diferentes criterios diagnósticos: Bulimia Nerviosa Purgativa (BN-P; n=29), la provisional forma diagnóstica del Trastorno por Atracón (TA; n=6), el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Purgativo (TCANE-P; n=17) y el Trastorno de la Conducta Alimentaria No Especificado tipo Restrictivo (TCANE-R; n=21). Resultados: Se hallan como factores de riesgo de consistencia el antecedente de obesidad y el inicio del TCA en la adolescencia. El inicio de la menarquia en la edad temprana no resulta ser un factor de riesgo. El Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) refleja la sintomatología alimentaria de cada cuadro diagnóstico. El grupo BN-P, se caracteriza por presentar mayor severidad en la sintomatología alimentaria. La mayoría de grupos presenta larga duración de la enfermedad, dificultades en la imagen corporal, el funcionamiento psicosocial y características de personalidad. El sentimiento de ineficacia no fue una característica clínica en casos de TA. Conclusiones: El que los antecedentes de obesidad se hayan mostrado como un factor de riesgo de consistencia en los TCA es un argumento más a favor de la necesidad de su prevención. Las dificultades en el funcionamiento psicosocial encontradas en casos clínicos con TA, avalarían la necesidad de líneas de intervención de tipo más interpersonal en este tipo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective: The first aim of this study is a retrospective assessment of relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (ED). The second aim is to study eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning assessment in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evalua [...] tion before intervention of 73 patients with Bulimia Nervosa Purging type (BN-P; n=29), Binge Eating Disorder (BED; n=6), Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Purging type (EDNOS-P; n=17) and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Restrictive type (EDNOS-R; n=21). Findings: Consistent risk factors in the precedent of obesity and the beginning of the ED in adolescence. The young age at which menarche occurred was not a risk factor. The eating symptomatology of each diagnostic category reflected the nutritional state. The BN-P group presented a more severe eating symptomatology. The majority of the groups had long duration illness and had difficulties with body shape, social performance, and personality problems. The feeling of ineffectiveness was not a clinical characteristic in Binge eating cases. Conclusion: The precedent of obesity showed up as a consolidated risk factor in eating disorders, supporting the necessity of prevention. Difficulties found in social performance in binge eating support the necessity of interpersonal intervention.

Anna, Carretero García; Luís, Sánchez Planell; Jordi, Rusiñol Estragués; Rosa M.ª, Raich Escursell; David, Sánchez Carracedo.

 
 
 
 
101

Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females  

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Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.

Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian

2008-12-01

102

Fasting during ramadan: A religious factor as a possible trigger or exacerbator for eating disorders in adolescents.  

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Culture-based contributors play a role in eating disorders (EDs). Here, we present one such factor that may play a role in triggering ED's in adolescents: Fasting during the holy period of Ramadan. Ramadan is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, and smoking, which starts from dawn lasting until sunset. For the past 2 years, we have noticed an increase in patients with disordered eating patterns that have applied to Hacettepe University, Division of Adolescent Medicine during or shortly after Ramadan. We document six of these patients, three of which were diagnosed with an ED and three that did not meet full criteria. We argue that the possible effects of a drastic change in ones diet such as that which occurs during Ramadan, play an important role in triggering ED's in adolescents with a predisposition or may exacerbate an eating pathology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014; 47:905-910). PMID:24474707

Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray Ö

2014-12-01

103

Home Food Availability, Parental Dietary Intake, and Familial Eating Habits Influence the Diet Quality of Urban Hispanic Children  

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Abstract Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Methods: Hispanic children, 10–14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. Results: The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had “good” scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that “need improvement” (HEI, 51–80), and 14% had “poor” scores (HEI, <50). Children with lower HEI scores had sugar-sweetened beverages available at home and participated in family meals while watching television more frequently, when compared with children with higher HEI scores. Conclusions: Home food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health. PMID:25259675

Adams, Alexandra K.; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

2014-01-01

104

Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in spanish Publicidad de los alimentos y la exposición a la televisión: Influencia sobre la conducta alimentaria y el estado nutricional de los niños y adolescentes. El estudio objetivó evaluar la influencia de la publicidad de alimentos y la exposición a la televisión en la conducta alimentaria y estado nutri [...] cional de niños y adolescentes. El estudio es transversal con 116 estudiantes de una escuela privada en Brasil. Información sociodemográfica y de la condición de salud fueron evaluadas. Antropometria, el consumo de alimentos, practica de actividad física, hábitos de ver la televisión y el comportamiento en relación con la publicidad de alimentos también fueron investigados. Entre los resultados, una relación de 1:2 fue identificada entre el número de televisores por hogar y los residentes. El exceso de peso estaba presente en 25,8% de los sujetos y 66,4% de ellos veían la televisión mientras comían las refecciones. Los niños fueron expuestos a la televisión por un promedio de 3,0 horas al día (95% IC: 2,9-3,6). Se observó una asociación directa entre la atracción de los alimentos anunciados y la compra del producto (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were eva [...] luated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p

Suzane Mota Marques, Costa; Paula Martins, Horta; Luana Caroline, dos Santos.

105

Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in spanish Publicidad de los alimentos y la exposición a la televisión: Influencia sobre la conducta alimentaria y el estado nutricional de los niños y adolescentes. El estudio objetivó evaluar la influencia de la publicidad de alimentos y la exposición a la televisión en la conducta alimentaria y estado nutri [...] cional de niños y adolescentes. El estudio es transversal con 116 estudiantes de una escuela privada en Brasil. Información sociodemográfica y de la condición de salud fueron evaluadas. Antropometria, el consumo de alimentos, practica de actividad física, hábitos de ver la televisión y el comportamiento en relación con la publicidad de alimentos también fueron investigados. Entre los resultados, una relación de 1:2 fue identificada entre el número de televisores por hogar y los residentes. El exceso de peso estaba presente en 25,8% de los sujetos y 66,4% de ellos veían la televisión mientras comían las refecciones. Los niños fueron expuestos a la televisión por un promedio de 3,0 horas al día (95% IC: 2,9-3,6). Se observó una asociación directa entre la atracción de los alimentos anunciados y la compra del producto (p Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were eva [...] luated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p

Suzane Mota Marques, Costa; Paula Martins, Horta; Luana Caroline, dos Santos.

2012-03-01

106

Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria como factor de riesgo para osteoporosis Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgico de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños.Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.

Ma Teresa Rivera-Gallardo

2005-07-01

107

Genetic variation at the TPH2 gene influences impulsivity in addition to eating disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genes are involved in eating disorders (EDs) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom of different types of EDs. Perfectionism and impulsivity are potential risk factors for EDs. TPH2 (tryptophan hydroxylase 2) SNP rs1473473 was previously associated with anorexia nervosa and EDs characterized by SV. Could perfectionism or impulsivity be underlying the association between rs1473473 and EDs? Genetic association between TPH2 SNP rs1473473 and perfectionism or impulsivity was first evaluated in a random control group (N = 512). The associations obtained in this control group were subsequently tested in a group of patients with an ED (N = 267). The minor allele of rs1473473 (OR = 1.49) was more frequent in impulsive controls, but also in impulsive patients with an ED (OR = 1.83). The largest effect was found in the patients with an ED characterized by SV (OR = 2.51, p = 0.02). Genetic variation at the TPH2 gene appeared to affect impulsivity which, in turn, might predispose to the SV phenotype. PMID:23239044

Slof-Op't Landt, Margarita C T; Bartels, Meike; Middeldorp, Christel M; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Furth, Eric F; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

2013-01-01

108

Physical Activity Behaviours of Female Pupils and Possible Influences of Urban Environments on Eating  

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Full Text Available Relationships among children`s physical activity behaviors and factors that might indicate increasing health risks have not yet been firmly established in developing nations. Eating and activity behaviours, is an area in research, particularly in developing communities, like Nigeria, where changes in lifestyle have had profound effects on the population – densely populated urban area and risk of heart diseases. The main thrust of this study was to examine specific aspects of lifestyles of school children who lived in an extremely dense urban area of the troubled Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. The participants were 25 males and 25 females school children in five schools in Warri metropolis (oil-city of Nigeria, recruited by the school principals. A purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the subjects, with the consent of their parents. The BEACHES` instrument, developed by Mckenzie was adopted. For this study, every target child was visited in his/her home for 1 hour session, along with six (20 minutes observation sessions at the child`s school during recess periods. Number and lengths of observations were based on optimum suggested by Mckenzie et al. (1991. Findings revealed low participation rate, school children involved in sedentary activity during their recess time passivity and low occurrence patterns at home based activities. All may be attributed to the unfriendly environment of the area under study. The need to make a friendly area was therefore suggested

L.O. Eboh

2005-01-01

109

Cultural Factors Influencing Children's Pain  

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Purpose: To describe the cultural factors that are related to children's pain based on research findings reported inscientific articles 1995-2009. These factors are important to identify to conduct culturally sensitive care for childrensuffering from pain.Methods: In this literature analysis, altogether 14 studies were analysed by using content analysis with Leininger'sCulture Care Theory (technological, religious and philosophical, kinship and social, cultural values and lifeways,political a...

Anna-Maija Pietilä; Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen; Päivi Kankkunen; Merja Nikkonen

2009-01-01

110

The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: tradução para o português e aplicação em mulheres brasileiras / The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: translation and administration to Brazilian women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar e discutir a relação dos comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar entre si e com os parâmetros antropométricos: índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. MÉTODOS: Tradução para o português e aplicação do The Three Factor Eatin [...] g Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens, com subsequente comparação aos parâmetros antropométricos de 125 mulheres trabalhadoras do Instituto Central do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, escolhidas casualmente em um grupo de 800 interessados em orientação nutricional. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se associações entre a alimentação emocional e o descontrole alimentar, além de associações entre alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: O The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens mostrou-se um instrumento adequado para identificar os comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, padrões de comportamentos cuja análise pode servir como ponto de partida para a adoção de estratégias de abordagem de orientação nutricional em programas de controle de peso. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed and discussed how cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors interrelate and relate with the anthropometric parameters BMI and waist circumference. METHODS: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire consisting of 21 items was translat [...] ed into Portuguese, administered to 125 female employees from the Central Unit of the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine Clinics Hospital and compared with the anthropometric data of these women who had been casually selected from a group of 800 individuals interested in nutrition counseling. RESULTS: Emotional eating was found to be associated with bingeing, body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire with 21 items proved to effectively identify cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors. Analysis of these behavior patterns can be the starting point for the implementation of strategies for approaching nutrition counseling in weight-control programs.

Lara Cristiane, Natacci; Mario, Ferreira Júnior.

111

The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

Villella, Edward F.

1986-01-01

112

Eating as an Automatic Behavior  

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Full Text Available The continued growth of the obesity epidemic at a time when obesity is highly stigmatizing should make us question the assumption that, given the right information and motivation, people can successfully reduce their food intake over the long term. An alternative view is that eating is an automatic behavior over which the environment has more control than do individuals. Automatic behaviors are those that occur without awareness, are initiated without intention, tend to continue without control, and operate efficiently or with little effort. The concept that eating is an automatic behavior is supported by studies that demonstrate the impact of the environmental context and food presentation on eating. The amount of food eaten is strongly influenced by factors such as portion size, food visibility and salience, and the ease of obtaining food. Moreover, people are often unaware of the amount of food they have eaten or of the environmental influences on their eating. A revised view of eating as an automatic behavior, as opposed to one that humans can self-regulate, has profound implications for our response to the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the focus should be less on nutrition education and more on shaping the food environment.

Deborah A. Cohen, MD, MPH

2008-01-01

113

Factors influencing bone loss in paraplegia  

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Background and aim: Significant bone loss develops in the first months and continues years after spinal cord injury. A cross – sectional comparative study was performed to evaluate factors influencing bone loss in spinal cord injured men with paraplegia.

Dionyssiotis, Y.; Lyritis, G. P.; Mavrogenis, A. F.; Papagelopoulos, P. J.

2011-01-01

114

ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS  

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Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

Zizi GOSCHIN

2006-12-01

115

Unsupportive social interactions influence emotional eating behaviors. The role of coping styles as mediators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychopathologies, such as depression, are frequently accompanied by poor coping strategies, including impaired social support resources. As well, unsupportive social interactions have been related to adverse health outcomes beyond any contribution of limited social support resources. There is reason to believe that increased eating associated with stressors represents a method of coping, albeit one that has negative consequences. The present investigation examined the relation between both unsupportive and supportive social interactions and emotional eating, and assessed whether this relationship was mediated by individual coping styles. Study 1 (N=221) indicated that unsupportive social interactions were associated with emotional eating, and with emotion- and avoidant-focused coping. Furthermore, multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion-focused coping mediated the relation between unsupportive social interactions and emotional eating. Study 2 (N=169) replicated these findings, and also indicated that these effects were above and beyond those of social support and depressive symptomatology. Thus unsupportive social interactions may have implications for health outcomes and behaviors, beyond mood disorder symptomatology. The observed relations can be explained by theories of affect-regulation such as negative urgency and expectancy theory as well as on the basis of biological processes associated with eating and stress responses. PMID:23228905

Raspopow, Kate; Matheson, Kimberly; Abizaid, Alfonso; Anisman, Hymie

2013-03-01

116

Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors : a study with Portuguese athletes  

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This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith...

Silva, Luiz; Gomes, Anto?nio Rui; Martins, Carla

2011-01-01

117

[Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status].  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP). The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet. PMID:23175415

Silva, Janiara David; Silva, Amanda Bertolini de Jesus; de Oliveira, Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff; Nemer, Aline Silva de Aguiar

2012-12-01

118

Factors influencing perceived angular velocity  

Science.gov (United States)

Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

1991-01-01

119

Research on Factors Influencing National Budget Balance  

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Full Text Available The article analyses factors influencing balance, explores importanceand significance of national budget. Firstly, to achieve thegoal, the conception of national budget is presented and mainfunctions are excluded. Thereinafter, the article examines nationalbudget revenues, their sources and national budget expensesand their classification. The correlation is accomplished, aimingto establish whether exists dependence of Lithuanian nationalbudget balance on the other factors. The analysis revealed that2 examined factors – level of unemployment and state debt –have hold over national budget balance.

Aivaras Senda

2014-04-01

120

Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria como factor de riesgo para osteoporosis / Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgic [...] o de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños. Abstract in english Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cor [...] tical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.

Ma Teresa, Rivera-Gallardo; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Jorge Armando, Barriguete-Meléndez.

 
 
 
 
121

Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria como factor de riesgo para osteoporosis / Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria son comunes en mujeres jóvenes con una prevalencia estimada de entre 4-5%. La pérdida de masa ósea es una complicación física de la anorexia nervosa y trastorno alimentario no especificado que afecta tanto a hueso cortical como trabecular. El efecto sinérgic [...] o de la desnutrición y la deficiencia de estrógenos produce una pérdida de masa ósea a través del desacoplamiento entre resorción osteoclástica y formación osteoblástica. La severidad varía dependiendo de la duración de la enfermedad, el peso menor alcanzado y la actividad física. La repercusión a largo plazo es evidente pues existe un incremento en el riesgo de fractura en las pacientes que han padecido anorexia nervosa. La primera línea de tratamiento para recuperar la masa ósea es la rehabilitación nutricia y un incremento de peso. La terapia de reemplazo hormonal podría ser efectiva si se combina con métodos anabólicos. Los términos osteopenia y osteoporosis fueron adoptados para definir la deficiencia de masa ósea en adultos. Los autores de las publicaciones que fueron revisadas utilizaron dichos términos para definir datos densitométricos en sujetos jóvenes que no han alcanzado la masa ósea pico. Sugerimos el término "hipo-osteogenesia" para definir el desarrollo deficiente de masa ósea en adolescentes o niños. Abstract in english Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cor [...] tical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.

Ma Teresa, Rivera-Gallardo; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Jorge Armando, Barriguete-Meléndez.

122

Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399

Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

2011-01-01

123

Behavioral risk factors for overweight in early childhood; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifestyle-related behaviors having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, playing outside and watching TV have been indicated to have an association with childhood overweight, but research among young children (below 6?years old is limited. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between these four behaviors and overweight among young children. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data on 5-year-old children (n?=?7505 collected for the study ‘Be active, eat right’. Age and sex-specific cut-off points for body mass index of the International Obesity Task Force were used to assess overweight/obesity. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results For children whom had breakfast 2 hours/day, the odds ratio (OR for having overweight (obesity included was, respectively, 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.13-1.95, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51. There was a positive association between the number of risk behaviors present and the risk for having overweight. For children with 3 or all of the risk behaviors having breakfast 2 glasses/day, playing outside 2 hs/day, the OR for overweight was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11-2.71 (all models adjusted for children’s sex and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion Given the positive association between the number of behavioral risk factors and overweight, further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral counseling of parents of toddlers in preventing childhood overweight. In the meantime we recommend physicians to target all four behaviors for counseling during well-child visits.

Veldhuis Lydian

2012-06-01

124

Behavior genetics and eating disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavior genetics is concerned with the genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in the vulnerability to eating disorders. We should be skeptical about simple genetic explanations for disorders whose development, maintenance, and possible remission involve the interaction of individual behaviors and environmental circumstances. Twin, family, and adoption studies can help to delineate which phenotypes are most heritable, and which are most responsive to family circumstances or individual environments. Subsequent searches for individual genetic and environmental risk factors can be guided by these results. Although there is consistent evidence of genetic factors influencing vulnerability to eating disorders, the details are far from clear, and additional studies will be useful. The further development of dimensional indices of vulnerability will improve population-based and developmental genetic research, as well as facilitating the search for individual genes. PMID:9550878

Hewitt, J K

1997-01-01

125

SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors  

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Full Text Available Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components’ number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population, patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessiveness–compulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. Keywords: psychiatric comorbidity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, SAFA test

Emilo Franzoni

2009-03-01

126

Radon in dwellings and influencing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some factors that have influence upon the radon concentration in dwellings are discussed in this paper. Measurements of the exhalation rates from different building materials are presented together with calculations of indoor radon concentrations. The influence of wind and temperature upon the ventilation rate and radon concentration in a test-house have been measured, and the effect of airing and artificial ventilation upon the radon concentration is discussed. (author)

127

Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward...

Sri Astuti Pratminingsih; Christina Lipuringtyas; Tetty Rimenta

2013-01-01

128

Factors potentially influencing aminoglycoside use and expenditure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.

DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.

1982-07-01

129

Overview of factors influencing the secondary market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated

130

Factors influencing recall of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selective literatures providing perspective on recall of childhood sexual abuse memories are reviewed. These include known patterns of autobiographical memories in adulthood, metacognitive mechanisms, interpersonal influences, and automatic cognitive processing which can influence judgments and reports of memory recall in children and adults. Some factors in adult experience such as mood state, presence of emotional disorders, past and current relationships, and participation in psychotherapy which can influence autobiographical memory and recall of childhood events are delineated. Available studies directly exploring recovered memories of childhood abuse are considered in light of these studies. Finally, some applications to clinical work and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:8564279

Rogers, M L

1995-10-01

131

Eating Disorders among Adolescents with a History of Obesity  

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Full Text Available Eating disorders are conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits and behaviors which may involve excessive or insufficient intake along with the individual’s mental and physical health. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa as well as binge eating are the major type of eating disorders. Parental influence has been shown to be a fundamental component in the development process of eating behaviors of children and adolescents, this effect is shaped by a variety of diverse factors including familial genetic predisposition, dietary choices which is dictated by ethnic preferences or cultural, the parents’ eating habits and their body shape. Social isolation has been noted to have a deleterious effect on individuals’ emotional and physical well-being. Eating disorders have been shown a higher rate of mortality among socially isolated individuals compared to those with well-established social relationships. Social isolation can be stressful, anxiety-provoking and depressing. These disorders must be treated as soon as possible to prevent more deteriorations, the treatment plan usually include the medial part along with dietary and psychiatry care. Diet is the most essential factor to work on in patients diagnosed with eating disorder, Initial meal plans may be low in calories, in order to build comfort in eating and then food amount can gradually be increased, food variety is important as well when establishing meal plans and foods that are higher in energy density, all these dietary management are needed with supplying different supplements to fulfill the requirements and replenish the decreased stores.

Lubna Mahmood

2014-01-01

132

Hábitos y Trastornos Alimenticios asociados a factores Socio-demográficos, Físicos y Conductuales en Universitarios de Cartagena, Colombia / Eating habits and disorders associated to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors in university students, Cartagena Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir la prevalencia de hábitos y desórdenes alimenticios en universitarios y relacionarlos con factores socio-demográficos, físicos y conductuales. Diseño. Estudio de corte transversal. Emplazamiento. Municipio de Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participantes. Un total de 1.040 estudia [...] ntes de los programas diurnos y nocturnos de la Universidad de Cartagena. Mediciones principales. Se utilizó una encuesta estructurada para evaluar hábitos alimenticios y aspectos socio-demográficos, EAT-26 y SCOFF para trastornos alimenticios y escala de Holmes and Rahe para la susceptibilidad de enfermar. Se estimó la ocurrencia a través de prevalencias, las relaciones entre variables a través de razones de disparidad y el análisis multivariable mediante regresión logística nominal. Resultados. El motivo más frecuente para no alimentarse bien fue la falta de costumbre y tiempo. La susceptibilidad de enfermar fue del 23,1% y el riesgo de anorexia y bulimia del 14,2%. En el análisis multivariable el mejor modelo con el SCOFF mostró significación estadística con edad (OR: 1,86), susceptibilidad de enfermar (OR: 1,77), dieta (OR: 2,81), problemas de colon (OR: 1,8) y no realizar actividad física (OR: 3,04). Conclusiones. Los hábitos y trastornos de alimentación en estudiantes universitarios están influidos por factores relacionados con el quehacer universitario, siendo necesario considerar este comportamiento alimentario como un problema relevante que interactúa con el buen desarrollo de las actividades académicas. Abstract in english Objective. To describe the prevalence of eating habits and disorders in university students and their relationship with socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors. Design. Cross-sectional study Setting. Municipality of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participants. 1040 students in day and ev [...] ening programmes at the University of Cartagena. Main measurements. A structured questionnaire was used to assess eating habits and socio-demographic factors; EAT-26 and SCOFF for eating disorders and the Holmes and Rahe scale for the susceptibility to disease. Occurrence was estimated by prevalence, assuming confidence 95% intervals. Relationships between variables were evaluated using odds ratios and multivariate analysis using nominal logistic regression. Results. The most common reason for not eating well was the lack of habit and time. Susceptibility to disease was 23.1% and the risk of anorexia and bulimia 14.2%. The best model for logistic regression with SCOFF showed statistical significance with age (OR: 1.86), susceptibility to disease (OR: 1.77), diet (OR: 2.81), colon problems (OR: 1.8), and lack of physical activity (OR: 3.04). Conclusions. Eating habits and disorders in university students are influenced by factors related to university life. This behavior should be considered as a serious problem that one that interferes with the smooth running of academic activities.

Shirly, Sáenz Duran; Farith, González Martínez; Shyrley, Díaz Cárdenas.

2011-10-01

133

Hábitos y Trastornos Alimenticios asociados a factores Socio-demográficos, Físicos y Conductuales en Universitarios de Cartagena, Colombia / Eating habits and disorders associated to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors in university students, Cartagena Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir la prevalencia de hábitos y desórdenes alimenticios en universitarios y relacionarlos con factores socio-demográficos, físicos y conductuales. Diseño. Estudio de corte transversal. Emplazamiento. Municipio de Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participantes. Un total de 1.040 estudia [...] ntes de los programas diurnos y nocturnos de la Universidad de Cartagena. Mediciones principales. Se utilizó una encuesta estructurada para evaluar hábitos alimenticios y aspectos socio-demográficos, EAT-26 y SCOFF para trastornos alimenticios y escala de Holmes and Rahe para la susceptibilidad de enfermar. Se estimó la ocurrencia a través de prevalencias, las relaciones entre variables a través de razones de disparidad y el análisis multivariable mediante regresión logística nominal. Resultados. El motivo más frecuente para no alimentarse bien fue la falta de costumbre y tiempo. La susceptibilidad de enfermar fue del 23,1% y el riesgo de anorexia y bulimia del 14,2%. En el análisis multivariable el mejor modelo con el SCOFF mostró significación estadística con edad (OR: 1,86), susceptibilidad de enfermar (OR: 1,77), dieta (OR: 2,81), problemas de colon (OR: 1,8) y no realizar actividad física (OR: 3,04). Conclusiones. Los hábitos y trastornos de alimentación en estudiantes universitarios están influidos por factores relacionados con el quehacer universitario, siendo necesario considerar este comportamiento alimentario como un problema relevante que interactúa con el buen desarrollo de las actividades académicas. Abstract in english Objective. To describe the prevalence of eating habits and disorders in university students and their relationship with socio-demographic, physical and behavioural factors. Design. Cross-sectional study Setting. Municipality of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Participants. 1040 students in day and ev [...] ening programmes at the University of Cartagena. Main measurements. A structured questionnaire was used to assess eating habits and socio-demographic factors; EAT-26 and SCOFF for eating disorders and the Holmes and Rahe scale for the susceptibility to disease. Occurrence was estimated by prevalence, assuming confidence 95% intervals. Relationships between variables were evaluated using odds ratios and multivariate analysis using nominal logistic regression. Results. The most common reason for not eating well was the lack of habit and time. Susceptibility to disease was 23.1% and the risk of anorexia and bulimia 14.2%. The best model for logistic regression with SCOFF showed statistical significance with age (OR: 1.86), susceptibility to disease (OR: 1.77), diet (OR: 2.81), colon problems (OR: 1.8), and lack of physical activity (OR: 3.04). Conclusions. Eating habits and disorders in university students are influenced by factors related to university life. This behavior should be considered as a serious problem that one that interferes with the smooth running of academic activities.

Shirly, Sáenz Duran; Farith, González Martínez; Shyrley, Díaz Cárdenas.

134

The influence of cognitive-perceptual variables on patterns of change over time in rural midlife and older women's healthy eating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although studies demonstrate that dietary interventions for healthy adults can result in beneficial dietary changes, few studies examine when and how people change in response to these interventions, particularly in rural populations. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change over time in healthy eating behaviors in midlife and older women in response to a one-year health-promoting intervention, and to examine what predictors (perceived benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, and family support for healthy eating) influence the changes during the intervention and follow-up. Data for this secondary analysis were from the Wellness for Women community-based trial. Women (N = 225) between the ages of 50-69 in rural Nebraska, U.S.A., were recruited. A repeated-measures experimental design was used with randomization of two rural counties to intervention (tailored newsletter) or comparison (standard newsletter) groups. Eating behavior was measured by the Healthy Eating Index. The predictor variables were assessed using standard measures. Data analysis was done using latent growth curve modeling. The tailored newsletter group was successful in improving their healthy eating behavior compared to the standard newsletter group during the one-year intervention, at the end of the intervention, and during the follow-up phase. Family support at the end of the intervention was positively associated with healthy eating at the end of the intervention. Perceived barriers had the strongest impact on healthy eating behavior at all time points. Compared to participants in the standard newsletter group, those in the tailored newsletter group perceived more family support and fewer barriers for healthy eating at the end of the intervention (mediation effects). Based on these findings, both family support and perceived barriers should be central components of interventions focused on healthy eating behavior in rural midlife and older women. PMID:22365936

Yates, Bernice C; Pullen, Carol H; Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Boeckner, Linda; Hageman, Patricia A; Dizona, Paul J; Walker, Susan Noble

2012-08-01

135

Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H; Foulds Mathes, Wendy; Bulik, Cynthia M

2009-04-01

136

A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand  

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Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

Naser Azad

137

[Feeling like a snack. The influence of taste on our eating habits].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the physiological, social and emotional aspects of food. Human physiology determines 'the need' for food, society 'the possibilities' and our emotions 'the choice'. Grazing is becoming a common phenomenon in modern society: the frequent eating of snacks between meals, or even instead of meals. One of the consequences is an increasing dental risk, due to repeated acid attacks on the enamel. For a better understanding of these changing eating habits and the emotional values of food, the Dutch centre for the research of taste (CSO) has developed the so-called 'Taste-Cube'. This cube attaches human values to different types of food. The value of a product is created by the consumer, according to his 'internal logic'. In this article these concepts are explained. PMID:11837084

Cramwinckel, B

1995-11-01

138

Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

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Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.

Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto

2013-11-01

139

Weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, dieting and some psychological variables as risk factors for eating disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. PMID:24232917

Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Ezquerra-Cabrera, Mercedes; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

2013-11-01

140

Sexual Orientation and Gender as Factors in Socioculturally Acquired Vulnerability to Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness based on desire to please men. Findings from 53 lesbian, 59 gay, 62 heterosexual female, and 63 heterosexual male college students generally confirmed…

Siever, Michael D.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The Relation of Sociocultural Factors to Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Middle School Girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated young girls' eating behavior, body satisfaction, weight management, and the cues taken from family, peers, and magazines. Found that a majority received a message from fashion magazines and peers or family that being slender is important and attainable through dieting, indicating that some young girls live under intense weight and…

Levine, Michael P.; And Others

1994-01-01

142

Body Image Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances among Children and Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…

Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.

2006-01-01

143

Factors influencing applicant ranking of orthodontic programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orthodontic programs spend considerable amounts of effort to attract, recruit, and interview the best and brightest applicants. Applicants and programs submit ranked preferences, and resident positions are filled by a computerized matching system (Match). The specific aims of this study were to determine the relative importance of certain factors in applicants' Match ranking of orthodontic programs and differences between orthodontic program directors' perceptions and actual factors cited by applicants influencing their ranking of orthodontic programs. Surveys were mailed to 55 orthodontic program directors and 478 applicants participating in the 2002 orthodontic Match. Forty-nine program director (89%) and 224 applicant (47%) surveys were returned. Rankings and importance of factors cited by applicants in their decision-making process and perceptions of those factors cited by program directors were compared. Applicants' top three factors were: "satisfied current residents," "multiple techniques taught," and "good quality of clinical facility." Program directors' perceived top three factors were: satisfied current residents, "good program reputation," and "good impression of current residents at interview." Comparing program directors' perceptions vs applicants' factors overall, the two groups were statistically different (P good location" (P < .0008). Despite these differences, there was generally a high level of overall agreement between program directors' perceptions and factors actually influencing applicants' ranking of orthodontic programs. PMID:16448274

Lindauer, Steven; Payne, Michael D; Shroff, Bhavna; Tüfekçi, Eser

2006-01-01

144

An exploration of the influence of thinness expectancies and eating pathology on compensatory exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compensatory exercise (exercise performed in an effort to control weight/shape or in response to caloric intake) and thinness expectancies (beliefs that thinness will improve the overall quality of life) are strongly linked to the development, maintenance, severity, and outcome of eating disorders. There is little literature, however, examining the relationship between compensatory exercise and thinness expectancies. The goal of the current study was to examine whether thinness expectancies contribute significant variance in the endorsement of excessive exercise over and above binge eating, restraint, and shape and weight concerns. A total of 677 undergraduate women (mean age=18.73) completed self-report measures of thinness expectancies and eating disorder symptoms (TREI and EDE-Q). There was a significant association between thinness expectancies and frequency of compensatory exercise behavior. Restraint and subjective binge episodes accounted for significant variance in compensatory exercise. Frequency of objective binge episodes did not, nor did endorsement of thinness expectancies. These findings suggest a potential profile of individuals engaging in compensatory exercise as individuals who actively restrict their diets, feel as if they have binged when they violate those restrictions, and feel the need to excessively exercise to compensate for the subjective binges. PMID:25064277

Garner, Ashton; Davis-Becker, Kendra; Fischer, Sarah

2014-08-01

145

Factors that influence retirement self-actualisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on an investigation of factors that influence self-actualisation during retirement. Opsomming In hierdie artikel word verslag gedoen oor ‘n ondersoek na faktore wat self-aktualisering gedurende aftrede beïnvloed. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Kerr, Pam P.; Salomé Schulze

2004-01-01

146

Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Publications En Español Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content It is currently ... June 11, 2012, from https://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq100.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20120723T1306335157 ... Infertility » ?? Last Updated Date: 11/30/ ...

147

Factors Influencing School Connectedness: Chinese Adolescents' Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the concept of school connectedness and the factors that may influence its development with a sample of Chinese adolescents. Six focus groups involving 52 high school students were conducted using a set of predetermined discussion topics. Results indicated that the students fully understood the notion of school connectedness…

Yuen, Mantak; Lau, Patrick S. Y.; Lee, Queenie A. Y.; Gysbers, Norman C.; Chan, Raymond M. C.; Fong, Ricci W.; Chung, Y. B.; Shea, Peter M. K.

2012-01-01

148

Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

2008-01-01

149

Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

2008-01-01

150

Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

Bedriye Oncu

2013-03-01

151

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)  

Science.gov (United States)

... after eating small amounts of food (e.g., self-induced vomiting after the consumption of two cookies). This variant is often called ... on the role and extent such factors as self esteem, resilience, family ... touched by media influence. Steroid abuse and body image to create the ...

152

Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context. Practical advice for parents includes how to foster children's preferences for healthy foods and how to promote acceptance of new foods by children. Parents need to understand the costs of coercive feeding practices and be given alternatives to restricting food and pressuring children to eat. Providing parents with easy-to-use information regarding appropriate portion sizes for children is also essential as are suggestions on the timing and frequency of meals and snacks. Especially during early and middle childhood, family environments are the key contents for the development of food preferences, patterns of food intake, eating styles, and the development of activity preferences and patterns that shape children's developing weight status. Designing effective prevention programs will, however, require more complete knowledge than currently available regarding behavioral intermediaries that foster overweight, including the family factors that shape activity patterns, meals taken away from home, the impact of stress on family members' eating styles, food intake, activity patterns, and weight gain. The research presented here provides an example of how ideas regarding the effects of environmental factors and behavioral mediators on childhood overweight can be investigated. Such research requires the development of reliable and valid measures of environmental variables and behaviors. Because childhood overweight is a multifactorial problem, additional research is needed to develop and test theoretic models describing how a wide range of environmental factors and behavioral intermediaries can work in concert with genetic predispositions to promote the development of childhood overweight. The crucial test of these theoretic models will be in preventive interventions. PMID:11494642

Birch, L L; Davison, K K

2001-08-01

153

Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

?ilda Pe?ari?

2010-06-01

154

Eating Well While Eating Out  

Science.gov (United States)

... a friend. Here's another tip for eating while shopping: Don't put off eating until you're so hungry ... for eating in a restaurant and at the mall apply to cafeteria food as well. Add vegetables ...

155

Chewing thoroughly reduces eating rate and postprandial food palatability but does not influence meal size in older adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have shown that increasing the number of chews before swallowing reduces meal size in young adults. However, whether this ingestive behavior influences meal size in older adults is unknown. Eighteen older adults (4 males and 14 females, age 72±1years, body mass index 25.9±1.2kg/m(2)) participated in this randomized cross-over trial. A preliminary session was conducted to assess their habitual number of chews (HNC) using pizza rolls as the test food. Participants then attended three test sessions at their habitual lunch time. In each test session, participants were asked to eat pizza rolls until comfortably full, by chewing each pizza roll for 100%, 150% and 200% of HNC before swallowing. Subjective appetite was measured at regular time points for 60min after meal initiation. There was no difference in meal duration and meal induced change in appetite at meal termination between test sessions. However, eating rate at the 150% and 200% of HNC sessions (16.4±1.0g/s and 13.7±0.8g/s, respectively) was significantly reduced, compared with eating rate at the 100% of HNC condition (22.5±1.8g/s). Moreover, thorough chewing significantly reduced postprandial ratings on palatability of the test food. There was no significant difference in food intake between test sessions (177.8±43.0g, 164.0±41.7g, and 166.6±33.0g for 100%, 150% and 200% of HNC, respectively). These results suggest that increasing the number of chews does not affect meal size in older adults. Aging-related appetite dysregulation may partly account for the difference in results from studies in young and older adults. PMID:24139860

Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

2014-01-17

156

Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

Naser Azad

2012-04-01

157

La epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia: una revisión Epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorder in adolescence: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones.Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.

M. L. Portela de Santana

2012-04-01

158

Factors influencing colorectal cancer screening participation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income) and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening). Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system) have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake. PMID:22190913

Gimeno García, Antonio Z

2012-01-01

159

Influence of organizational factors on safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

160

Factors influencing patients' dignity: A qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside. PMID:24077096

Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

The factors influencing on city ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In article due to scientific methods is given the information about role of greenery in prevention of facts of nature, in regulation of oxygen balance in biosphere, reduction of quantity of harmful waste thrown out in an environment, ecological cleanliness pollution of the conservation of surroundings about selection of plants on stability to the ecological factors and decorative qualities, positive influence on health of the people with aesthetic and with the spiritual party use in various branches of the national economy. Except for that in clause it is considered measures of protection from harmful influence of high value of the acoustic tone created by various kinds of vehicles and flying devices

162

Ranking different factors influencing flight delay  

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Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

Meysam Kazemi Asfe

2014-07-01

163

Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction  

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Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

Jawahar Nesan

2012-11-01

164

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD  

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Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...

Arman, S.; Soltani, M.

2003-01-01

165

Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes  

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The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i) investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence); and ii) investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective) and competiti...

Marcos Gimenes Fernandes; Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes; José Vasconcelos Raposo; Helder Miguel Fernandes

2013-01-01

166

Eating behaviour, insulin resistance and cluster of metabolic risk factors in European adolescents. The HELENA study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors. PMID:22524997

Sesé, Maria A; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Gilbert, Chantal C; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; de Henauw, Stefaan; Breidenassel, Christina; Wärnberg, Julia; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Manios, Yannis; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A

2012-08-01

167

Environmental Factors Influence on Mobile Learning Business  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, there has been growing interest in m-learning consequently emerging m-learning technology is promising technological and educational business. Nevertheless, m-learning is a new business and the different actors are still trialing by ways of a diversity of business models to overcome in able to achieve a sustainable and profitable place in this market. Numbers of m-learning products providers do not succeed in supplying m-learning products. In this situation not only a suitable business model is vital but also environmental and external factors have impact on mobile learning business model. Overall objective of this study was to survey the business model framework of m-learning with effect of external and environmental factors. Approach: Methodical approach was based on a classification of m-learning actors and its environmental factors. Based on this, we analyzed case studies description and developed main environmental factors that constitute the m-learning environment. Factors were summarized in morphological boxes and then through out its three steps result came up. Results: The results indicated technology, market and regulation are three major environmental factors which were forcing m-learning business model and business model should react to changes of these three factors to keep sustainable business. The research further argued the external factors of m-learning environment in order to understanding and developing the m-learning business and the ways these factors influence the business model of m-learning as well. Conclusion/Recommendations: M-learning business is based on many factors such as technology, changes in society, educational drivers, demand for flexible learning and the new learning paradigm but only three major drivers(technology, market and regulation had considerable effect on m-learning business model and should be taken into account as a result if they change business model should be changed.

Alireza Nasiri

2009-01-01

168

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and associations with infant weight, gender and feeding mode in an Australian sample.  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ) in an Australian community sample of mother-infant dyads. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between the BEBQ subscales and infant gender, weight and current feeding mode. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) utilising structural equation modelling examined the hypothesised four-factor model of the BEBQ. Only mothers (N?=?467) who completed all items on the BEBQ (infant age: M?=?17 weeks, SD?=3 weeks) were included in the analysis. The original four-factor model did not provide an acceptable fit to the data due to poor performance of the Satiety responsiveness factor. Removal of this factor (three items) resulted in a well-fitting three-factor model. Cronbach's ? was acceptable for the Enjoyment of food (??=?0.73), Food responsiveness (??=?0.78) and Slowness in eating (??=?0.68) subscales but low for the Satiety responsiveness (??=?0.56) subscale. Enjoyment of food was associated with higher infant weight whereas Slowness in eating and Satiety responsiveness were both associated with lower infant weight. Differences on all four subscales as a function of feeding mode were observed. This study is the first to use CFA to evaluate the hypothesised factor structure of the BEBQ. Findings support further development work on the Satiety responsiveness subscale in particular, but confirm the utility of the Enjoyment of food, Food responsiveness and Slowness in eating subscales. PMID:25009080

Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; de Jersey, Susan J

2014-11-01

169

Eating psychopathology and personality in eating disorders  

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OBJECTIVE: The question of how many psychopathologic factors are involved in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) has no definite answer. The combination of psychopathology and personality research may shed a light upon the determinants of eating pathology. METHODS: The study consists in the administration of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2) to 95 outpatient anorectic women (50 restrictive and 45 binge-purging) and to 92 bulim...

Fassino, Secondo; Abbate Daga, Giovanni

2003-01-01

170

Influence of Microwaved Food Eating on Blood Iron and Transferrin in Rat  

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Full Text Available The health consideration of microwave radiation has been the subject of scientific investigations particularly in the last decades. But there is a few information about the health effect of micro waved food consuming for a long time. The aim of this trial is to evaluate blood iron and also plasma transferrin as a protein transporter of iron in rat after eating microwaved food for a period of 1 year. For this study 64 young Sprague Dawley rats in 4 groups, each 16 (8 males and 8 females, 2 treated and 2 controls, were used under the standard conditions with free access to tap water and standard food. The 2 treated groups were consuming standard rat food pellets heated by 2450 MHz microwave radiation in 30 min for group (A and 5 min for group (B. One of the control group (C were consuming same pellets heated by electric oven at 200°C for 30 min and another control group (H were eating the food pellets without any heating by microwave or electric oven. Animals were observed daily and the body weight and food and water consumption were assessed weekly too. In the end of the study the blood samples were taken from the heart of animals after 12 h fasting under ether anesthesia and the serum iron and transferrin analysis was performed on the blood samples. According to the statistical analysis, the level of iron was significantly decreased in all treated groups in comparison with control group of (C and significant decreasing of iron, in female groups of B and male groups of A, in comparison with control (H. But transferrin level was significantly increased in female groups of A and B and male group of A in comparison with control (C and only male group of A in comparison with control (H.

2008-01-01

171

The Level of Competition as a Factor for the Development of Eating Disorders in Female Collegiate Athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined eating attitudes among 39 female college athletes from National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I schools, 40 from NCAA Division II schools, and 31 nonathletes. Athletes at higher levels of competition showed more signs of pathological eating and were at increased risk of eating disorders. (SLD)

Picard, Christy L.

1999-01-01

172

Influence of psychiatric disorder on the controlling behaviour of mothers with 1-year-old infants. A study of women with maternal eating disorder, postnatal depression and a healthy comparison group.  

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BACKGROUND: Certain styles of parental controlling behaviour influence child development. Work with mothers with eating disorders suggests that they may be particularly controlling of their infants. AIMS: To examine the nature and specificity of maternal controlling behaviour in mothers with eating disorders compared with mothers who had experienced postnatal depression and a healthy comparison group. METHOD: Mothers with eating disorders (n=34), postnatal depression (n=39) and a healthy comp...

Stein, A.; Woolley, H.; Murray, L.; Cooper, P.; Cooper, S.; Noble, F.; Affonso, N.; Fairburn, Cg

2001-01-01

173

Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

174

Toward an understanding of risk factors for binge-eating disorder in black and white women: a community-based case-control study.  

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BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify in white women risk factors specific to binge-eating disorder (BED) and for psychiatric disorders in general, and to compare black and white women on risk factors for BED. METHOD: A case-control design was used. Participants were recruited from the community and included 162 women who met DSM-IV criteria for BED and two comparison groups of women with no history of clinically significant eating disorder symptoms. The comparison women were matched to B...

Striegel-moore, Rh; Fairburn, Cg; Wilfley, DE; Pike, Km; Dohm, Fa; Kraemer, Hc

2005-01-01

175

Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty Toward Online Shopping  

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Full Text Available The significant growth of online shopping makes the competition in this industry become more intense. Maintaining customer loyalty has been recognized as one of the essential factor for business survival and growth. The purpose of this study is to examine empirically the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty in online shopping. This paper describes a theoretical model for investigating the influence of satisfaction, trust and commitment on customer loyalty toward online shopping. Based on the theoretical model, hypotheses were formulated. The primary data were collected from the respondents which consists of 300 students. Multiple regression and qualitative analysis were used to test the study hypotheses. The empirical study results revealed that satisfaction, trust and commitment have significant impact on student loyalty toward online shopping.

Sri Astuti Pratminingsih

2013-06-01

176

Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis  

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Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

Jovanovi? Snežana T.

2004-01-01

177

The Influence Factors Study of Aerosol Particles  

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Full Text Available The marine and coastal intake filtration device is mainly used to filter out the salt spray aerosol particles. So, the laboratory studies of the intake filtration device need to simulate the salt spray aerosols state of the ocean environment. But the distribution of ocean salt spray aerosol particle of diameter is very wide, so the simulation device of salt spray aersol should produce a variety of salt spray aerosol particles. The paper is to mainly study the influencing factors of salt spray aerosol device to produce different particles diameter. And the investigation and study mainly include two aspects: numerical simulation and experimental study.

Wu Wei

2013-05-01

178

Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study is to identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. A follow-up study was performed on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated form 1984-1998. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. The conclusion is that biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatis carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatment splits in radiation therapy. (R.P.)

179

A survey on factors influencing city branding  

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Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

2014-10-01

180

Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

 
 
 
 
181

The bHLH142 Transcription Factor Coordinates with TDR1 to Modulate the Expression of EAT1 and Regulate Pollen Development in Rice[C][W][OPEN  

Science.gov (United States)

Male sterility plays an important role in F1 hybrid seed production. We identified a male-sterile rice (Oryza sativa) mutant with impaired pollen development and a single T-DNA insertion in the transcription factor gene bHLH142. Knockout mutants of bHLH142 exhibited retarded meiosis and defects in tapetal programmed cell death. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses showed that bHLH142 is specifically expressed in the anther, in the tapetum, and in meiocytes during early meiosis. Three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, UDT1 (bHLH164), TDR1 (bHLH5), and EAT1/DTD1 (bHLH141) are known to function in rice pollen development. bHLH142 acts downstream of UDT1 and GAMYB but upstream of TDR1 and EAT1 in pollen development. In vivo and in vitro assays demonstrated that bHLH142 and TDR1 proteins interact. Transient promoter assays demonstrated that regulation of the EAT1 promoter requires bHLH142 and TDR1. Consistent with these results, 3D protein structure modeling predicted that bHLH142 and TDR1 form a heterodimer to bind to the EAT1 promoter. EAT1 positively regulates the expression of AP37 and AP25, which induce tapetal programmed cell death. Thus, in this study, we identified bHLH142 as having a pivotal role in tapetal programmed cell death and pollen development. PMID:24894043

Ko, Swee-Suak; Li, Min-Jeng; Sun-Ben Ku, Maurice; Ho, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Chuang, Ming-Hsing; Hsing, Hong-Xian; Lien, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Hung-Chia; Chan, Ming-Tsair

2014-01-01

182

Fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbios alimentares: um estudo em universitárias Risk factors in the development of eating disorders: study in a group of college women  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou identificar, em mulheres universitárias, aquelas que apresentavam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbios alimentares. Aplicou-se o questionário Eating Attitudes Test em 221 mulheres (114 estudantes de nutrição e 107 estudantes de outras áreas não relacionadas à saúde. Os resultados indicaram que 22,17% das estudantes apresentaram fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbio alimentar, sendo que no grupo de alunas da nutrição o percentual foi maior (25,43% do que no grupo de estudantes de outros cursos (18,69%. Embora a diferença não tenha sido significativa, as futuras nutricionistas podem estar inseridas em um ambiente mais favorável ao desenvolvimento de distúrbios alimentares.This work studied a group of 221 college women, to identify those who presented risk factors compatible with the development of eating disorders. The Eating Attitudes Test was applied to 221 women (114 nutrition students and 107 students from other areas, unrelated to the health field. Results indicated that 22.17% of the group presented risk factors in the development of an eating disorder. Nutrition students presented a higher percentage (25.43% than the other students (18.69%, but this difference was not significant. However, women who study nutrition may be exposed to an environment more propitious to the development of eating disorders.

Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck FIATES

2001-01-01

183

Factors influencing model use in occupational therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english STUDY AIM: To determine which models are used by occupational therapists who attended a workshop on the Kawa Model, in their practice, the demographic factors related to the use of these models and the reasons why they use various models in their practice. METHOD: A descriptive, single case study me [...] thod was used with embedded units. The research instrument consisted of a survey questionnaire with closed and some semi-structured questions. RESULTS: The characteristics of therapists influenced their use of models. This was determined by their educational background, their level of experience and exposure in the clinical field and their work setting. Time constraints and the nature of the presenting clients also played a role. The clinicians' overall attitude towards new theory and their habituated ways were highlighted as constant factors influencing model use. The use of models provides structure and assists occupational therapists to produce proper, profession-specific, scientifically-based intervention. Models taught during undergraduate studies need to be relevant to address clients' needs in their specific context.

Antonette, Owen; Fasloen, Adams; Denise, Franszen.

2014-01-01

184

Nursing development units: factors influencing their progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing development units (NDUs) have long been advocated as 'test-beds' for pioneering leading-edge practice development. This article reports on the findings of a study examining factors influencing the development of NDUs, and, more recently, established multidisciplinary practice development units (PDUs). Individual and focus group interviews were undertaken with key stakeholders involved in six NDUs/PDUs accredited by the University of Leeds. The findings from the study highlight a number of internal and external factors that have impacted upon the progress made by these units. Importantly, the role of the clinical leader, the staffing establishment, organizational infrastructures to facilitate dissemination and the nature of the support from managers and medical staff have all influenced the success of the NDUs/PDUs. In order to ensure the long-term viability of an NDU/PDU it is essential that practice development is planned and managed in a systematic and coordinated way with a full appraisal undertaken of the human, physical and financial resources necessary to implement and disseminate change and that the work of the NDU/PDU is incorporated in the trust's strategic plans in order to ensure organizational support. PMID:11235272

Gerrish, K; Ferguson, A

185

Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... food-related disorders, like binge eating, body image disorders, and food phobias, are becoming more and more common. Anorexia ... from social activities, especially meals and celebrations involving food Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? No one is really sure what causes eating ...

186

La epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia: una revisión / Epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorder in adolescence: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes [...] acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and ris [...] k factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.

M. L., Portela de Santana; H., da Costa Ribeiro Junior; M., Mora Giral; R. M.ª, Raich.

187

La epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia: una revisión / Epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorder in adolescence: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes [...] acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and ris [...] k factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence. Methods: Search the databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS for studies published on the epidemiology and risk factors for eating disorders in adolescence. Results: The highest incidence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among girls in the middle and final phase of adolescence. Factors that increase the risk for the onset of eating disorders in adolescents are: genetics, body changes during puberty, the vulnerability of adolescents to the ideals of thinness, social pressures to be thin, body image dissatisfaction, restrictive diet, depression and low self-esteem. However, it is suggested that in different cultures, eating disorders may come from a number of conditions unrelated to compensatory behaviors or weight, but the shape of the body. Conclusions: Several factors determine the occurrence of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in adolescence, however, there is no consensus how these factors interact in this complex process, which indicates the need for further investigations.

M. L., Portela de Santana; H., da Costa Ribeiro Junior; M., Mora Giral; R. M.ª, Raich.

2012-04-01

188

Body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise and eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate eating behavior is high in athletes. However, little is known about the factors that affect this phenomenon in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction and level of psychological commitment to exercise (LPCE with inadequate eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports. Forty-seven female athletes practicing aesthetic sports (artistic gymnastics, synchronized swimming and high diving, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years, participated in the study. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to evaluate the risk behavior for eating disorders, body dissatisfaction and LPCE, respectively. Skinfold thickness was measured to calculate body fat percentage of the athletes. The results revealed a significant association between body dissatisfaction and eating behavior and between LPCE and risk behavior for eating disorders. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all variables, except for fat percentage, influenced the eating behavior of young athletes. This analysis also indicated an influence of body fat percentage and body dissatisfaction on CES scores. It was concluded that body dissatisfaction and LPCE are factors that predispose to risky eating behaviors in athletes from aesthetic sports.

Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

2013-09-01

189

Body weight, body image, and eating behaviours: relationships with ethnicity and acculturation in a community sample of young Australian women.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18-23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours. Results showed that risk factors for eating disorders were present across a range of ethnic groups. Further, a strong acculturation effect was observed, such that the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported weight-related values and behaviours similar to those of Australian-born women. Results challenge claims that risk factors for disordered eating are restricted to Caucasian females in Western societies. Implications for understanding ethnic and sociocultural influences on body weight, dieting, and disordered eating are considered. PMID:15000999

Ball, Kylie; Kenardy, Justin

2002-01-01

190

Issues in mapping genes for eating disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent twin studies show that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of eating disorders. As in many other fields, there is much enthusiasm regarding the possibility of locating the specific genes that influence the risk of eating disorders. Advances in molecular and statistical technology have made this task more feasible than it was in the past, and continued enhancements in new technology are expected in the future. Despite these advances, the resources required to map a gene for traits as complex as eating disorders are likely to be enormous. Researchers considering such an undertaking may wish to look for ways to reduce this demand, such as (1) using multivariate analyses, (2) studying intermediate quantitative phenotypes, (3) using large sibships, (4) analytic enhancements (e.g., multipoint analyses), (5) reconceptualizing power, (6) data pooling, and (7) disequilibrium mapping. PMID:9550879

Allison, D B; Faith, M S

1997-01-01

191

Mitochondrial myopathy complicated by eating disorder: a case report highlighting the potential interaction of genetic, metabolic, and psychodynamic factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case is presented of a 56-year-old woman with a history of an eating disorder that preceded recognition of a mitochondrial myopathy. The possibility exists that her eating disorder was causally related to a more fundamental defect in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. This case report highlights the phenotypic variability of mitochondrial myopathies. An increased risk of eating disorder may be associated with drugs that interfere with mitochondrial oxidative respiration. PMID:17426666

Deutsch, Stephen I; Rosse, Richard B; Yaseen, Mohammad; Schulman, Howard M; Abraham, Samathanam

2007-04-01

192

Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.As florestas tropicais secas representam cerca da metade das florestas tropicais do mundo e são ecossistemas que estão sofrendo uma grande deterioração pelas atividades humanas. Neste artigo realizamos uma revisão de literatura sobre a dinâmica da regeneração das florestas tropicais secas enfocando principalmente nos fatores abióticos que influenciam esta regeneração, tais como, o clima estacional, a fertilidade e umidade do solo e as perturbações naturais e antrópicas. O principal objetivo é compreender um aspecto muito importante da dinâmica sucessional das florestas tropicais secas.

Eliane Ceccon

2006-03-01

193

Factors influencing the creep of dental amalgam.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of relevant microstructural and compositional factors on the creep of 12 representative dental amalgams by means of stepwise multiple linear regression. The independent variables accepted by the regression were volume percent of the eta' (Cu6Sn5) phase, grain size of the gamma 1 (Ag2Hg3) phase, volume percent of the gamma (Ag3Sn) plus epsilon (Cu3Sn) phases, number of very small eta' crystals (less than 1.5 microns) per mm, and weight percent of Hg. The results of this regression showed an adjusted R2 of 0.949, significant at p = 0.002. PMID:1960248

Mahler, D B; Adey, J D

1991-11-01

194

Stress as an influencing factor in psoriasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotional stress may influence the development and exacerbation of psoriasis. The proportion of psoriasis patients who believe stress affects their skin condition (i.e., "stress responders") is considerably high, ranging from 37% to 78%. Stress may worsen psoriasis severity and may even lengthen the time to disease clearance. Although a pathogenic association appears likely, additional well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm such a causal relationship. Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenomedullary systems has been proposed as one possible underlying cause of stress-induced flares of psoriasis. While stress may be an exacerbating factor, psoriasis itself may contribute to significant adverse psychological sequelae. Breaking this stress cycle may be an important part of any therapeutic approach. Thus, stress reduction through psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy may be useful in treating psoriatic patients who are stress responders. PMID:21611682

Heller, M M; Lee, E S; Koo, J Y

2011-05-01

195

"Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

2002-01-01

196

Concurrent and prospective analyses of peer, television and social media influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in adolescent girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure. PMID:23344652

Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Mónica E; Garza, Adolfo; Galindo, Mariza

2014-01-01

197

A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants\\' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people\\'s ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174

Casey, Dympna

2011-08-30

198

Exploring the gene-environment nexus in eating disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early theories of eating disorders focused on aversive family and sociocultural factors as fundamental to the development of these problems. A progression of family, twin and molecular genetic studies has demonstrated a substantial role for genetic factors in the development of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related traits. Paradoxically, genetic studies hold promise for refining and enriching our approach to understanding the impact of adverse environmental forces. The development of new and more sophisticated approaches for understanding the complex interplay of genetic and environmental effects will allow enhanced understanding of both risk and protective environmental factors and how they may influence expressions of underlying genetic vulnerabilities to eating disorders. PMID:16151538

Bulik, Cynthia M

2005-09-01

199

Factores asociados con los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en estudiantes universitarios en Cali, Colombia / Factors associated with eating disorders in university students in Cali, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Existen pocos estudios de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes en América Latina. Las características sociodemográficas de los estudiantes universitarios permiten suponer que existen casos de trastornos del comportamiento alimentario (TCA) en un porcentaje mayor al [...] de la población general. Objetivo: Determinar la cifra relativa de estudiantes con alta probabilidad de padecer algún tipo de TCA, y a partir de los datos, estimar la prevalencia en la población universitaria. Además, evaluar los factores asociados con el resultado positivo en una nueva prueba de filtro para los TCA. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio transversal en un grupo de 174 estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Valle (Cali, Colombia), a quienes se aplicó un cuestionario auto-diligenciado con la encuesta de evaluación del comportamiento alimentario (ECA). Resultados: Hubo 39.7% de estudiantes con puntajes positivos en la prueba (puntaje >24), cifra que indica una alta probabilidad de desarrollar algún TCA; con una relación mujer:hombre de 2:1; y una prevalencia estimada de 44.1% en mujeres y 9.6% en hombres. Los factores asociados con un resultado positivo en la ECA fueron el género femenino (OR: 2.74 IC95%: 1.29. 5.85), el querer disminuir más de 10% del peso corporal (OR: 24.65 IC95%: 1.92-316.91) y la interacción entre este factor y el porcentaje deseado de disminución de peso (OR: 0.81 IC95%: 0.66-0.98). Existe una interacción cualitativa entre la dirección del deseo de cambio de peso y otras variables del modelo. La ECA identifica diferentes tipos de TCA. Discusión y conclusiones: La ECA identifica diferentes tipos de TCA que se deben diferenciar con preguntas adicionales. La prevalencia estimada indica que los TCA son un problema importante en la comunidad universitaria, que se debe intervenir mediante diferentes estrategias de prevención, detección temprana y tratamiento. Abstract in english Introduction: There are few studies about eating disorders (ED) in adolescents and young adults in Latin America. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics of university students suggest they may experience cases of ED in a percentage greater than general population’s one. Objective: To determine [...] the percentage of students with high risk of developing altered eating behaviours, and to estimate the prevalence of ED in that population. Additionally, to examine factors associated with a positive outcome in a screening test for ED. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 174 students of first and second year of Medicine at Universidad del Valle (Cali, Colombia), who completed a self-reported questionnaire with the test for Evaluation of Eating Behaviour (EEV). Results: The 39.7% of students had positive scores in the EEV (>24), which is indicative of high risk of suffering an Eating Disorder (ED); with a 2/1 woman/man ratio and an estimated prevalence of ED of 44.1% in women and of 9.6% in men. The associated factors for positive outcomes in the EEV are female gender (OR: 2.74 CI95%: 1.29-5.85), desire for losing more than 10% of body weight (OR: 24.65 CI95%: 1.92-316.91), and interaction between the last factor and the desired percentage of weight loss (OR: 0.81 CI95%: 0.66-0.98). There is a qualitative interaction between the direction of desired weight loss and other variables in the model. Discussion and conclusions: The EEV identifies different kinds of ED which should be differentiated by additional questions. The estimated prevalence of ED shows that it is an important problem in the university community, which should be tackled by means of different prevention, early detection and treatment strategies.

Andrés, Fandiño; Sandra C., Giraldo; Carolina, Martínez; Claudia Paola, Aux; Rafael, Espinosa.

200

Associations between depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, eating styles, exercise and body mass index in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in women working in schools in the Greater New Orleans area. Self-efficacy for eating and exercise, eating styles, and exercise are examined as potential pathways. This is a secondary data analysis of 743 women who were participating in a workplace wellness randomized controlled trial to address environmental factors influencing eating and exercise behaviors using baseline data prior to the intervention. BMI was the primary outcome examined. Path analysis suggested that increased depressive symptoms were associated with increased BMI in women. Indirect effects of depressive symptoms on BMI were found for increased healthy eating self-efficacy, increased emotional eating, and decreased exercise self-efficacy. The association between greater healthy eating self efficacy and BMI was unexpected, and may indicate a suppressor effect of eating self-efficacy in the relationship between depressive symptoms and BMI in women. The findings suggest the importance of depressive symptoms to BMI in women. Targets for interventions to reduce BMI include targeting depressive symptoms and related sequelae including self-efficacy for exercise, and emotional eating. Further investigation of eating self-efficacy and BMI are recommended with particular attention to both efficacy for health eating and avoidance of unhealthy foods. PMID:23934179

Clum, Gretchen A; Rice, Janet C; Broussard, Marsha; Johnson, Carolyn C; Webber, Larry S

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Factores de éxito en campañas de alimentación saludable: un estudio de casos Success factors in public healthy eating campaigns: a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Rara vez se ha evaluado la efectividad de las campañas e intervenciones de información pública. Por ello, el estudio de actividades exitosas podría contribuir al desarrollo y puesta en práctica en el futuro de campañas e intervenciones a favor de una alimentación saludable Objetivos: El objetivo del presente estudio de campañas de información sobre alimentación saludable fue primeramente la identificación de los factores de éxito de las mismas, y seguidamente la descripción de sus inter-relaciones. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 11 representantes de industrias alimentarias cuyas campañas fueron identificadas como exitosas en una etapa previa del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron luego analizadas con respecto a los factores de éxito potenciales. Estos últimos fueron posteriormente utilizados para desarrollar un modelo de factores de éxito y sus interrelaciones. Resultados: El éxito de los casos estudiados fue atribuido primeramente a las características del ambiente macro, o a una colaboración entre los sectores público y privado. Segundo, se identificó al compromiso de las comunidades, elementos de empoderamiento del grupo objetivo y a la ejecución de medidas de marketing social. Tercero, el éxito puede atribuirse a la adopción por parte de la ciudadanía de las campañas y los cambios estructurales consecuentes. Conclusiones: El modelo y los factores de éxito identificados resaltan que el éxito puede originarse en tres fases cruciales, el diseño y montaje de la campaña, su ejecución y finalmente, su interacción con la ciudadanía. El modelo puede servir como guía para el desarrollo de campañas en el futuro.Introduction: Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. Objectives: The study of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. Results: It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. Conclusions: The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.

J. Aschemann-Witzel

2012-10-01

202

Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack

Norbert Dahmen

2008-03-01

203

Organisation of the Influence Factors System for Foodstuffs Lyophilization  

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Full Text Available Optimization of the utilization of the system of foodstuffs lyophilization (freeze drying presupposes a total analysis of the influence factors systemic model. All the factors that have some direct influence on the lyophilization process and the factors that have indirect influence and are in relation with the optimization criteria were considered. Using the competent opinions of nine experts and after the identification of all the influence factors and their restrictions a method through which an organized system was formed was applied. Finally, the values of entropy system and of the organization level of the factors system were determined.

Gabriela-Victoria Anghel

2007-12-01

204

What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

Dannetta, Vincent

2002-01-01

205

FACTORS INFLUENCING PAYMENT OF IRRIGATION SERVICE FEES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article attempts to identify factors affecting participation in payment of irrigation service fees. There are five variables comprising demographic and economic of land variables were tested to find the variables that influenced the participation significantly. The five variables tested consisted of age and formal education as demographic variables; land productivity, land size, and land tenure as the economic of land variables. The results showed that formal education (demographic variable had positive relationship and land size (economic of land variable had negative relationship with the participation. Positive relationship between formal education and participation in payment of irrigation service fees meant that the participation increased as farmers’ education increased. Meanwhile, negative relationship between land size and the participation in payment of irrigation service fees showed that the farmers’ participation wouldincrease as the land size owned by farmers decreased. In other words, participation in payment of irrigation service fees was higher among farmers with small lands rather than that among farmers with large lands.

Gelar Satya Budhi

2006-06-01

206

Factors influencing serum aluminum in CAPD patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to find out the relationship between body iron stores and serum aluminum levels among 82 stable CAPD patients. The influence of other factors such as time on CAPD and residual renal function was also considered. Thirty-three patients received aluminum hydroxide as a phosphate binder, and they had significantly higher aluminum levels (36.45 microg/l) than the patients who were not taking aluminum preparations (17.2 microg/l, p = 0.001). A statistically-significant correlation between serum aluminum levels and residual renal function and time on CAPD was also observed (p 0.05). In previous reports, low serum iron levels were associated with high serum aluminum concentration among hemodialysis patients. However, this effect was not observed in the CAPD population under study. The highest risk of hyperaluminemia was found in the patients who were taking aluminum hydroxide, had worse residual renal function and had been longer on CAPD. PMID:9725777

Montenegro, J; Aguirre, R; Saracho, R; Moina, I; Martínez, I

1998-08-01

207

Factors influencing codon usage bias in genomes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O código genético é degenerado, isto é, o mesmo amino ácido pode ser codificado por vários codons. Apesar de codificarem o mesmo amino ácido, estes codons sinônimos não são utilizados da mesma forma em genomas diferentes, e mesmo em um único genoma o padrão de uso dos codons sinônimos pode variar mu [...] ito entre os genes, ou ainda ao longo de um único gene. Com a recente introdução de seqüências genômicas completas as razões destes desvios no uso de codons estão começando a ser entendidas. Neste artigo nós vamos apresentar alguns dos fatores propostos para as variações no uso de codons sinônimos e as forças seletivas que podem influenciar tais variações. Abstract in english The genetic code is degenerate, i.e. some amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. Although coding for the same amino acid, synonymous codons are not equally used in different genomes, and even in a single genome the synonymous codon usage can vary widely among genes, or even along the gene [...] sequences. With the recent advent of full genome sequences we are starting to unravel the reasons for these deviations. In this review we will cover some of the proposed factors that might cause different codon usage bias and the selective forces influencing it.

Hannah M. W., Salim; Andre R. O., Cavalcanti.

208

Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

2013-09-01

209

Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

Miyoshi,Ko

2011-10-01

210

Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups – macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ...

Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

2013-01-01

211

Eating routines: Embedded, value based, modifiable, and reflective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eating routines are a compelling issue because recurring eating behaviors influence nutrition and health. As non-traditional and individualized eating patterns have become more common, new ways of thinking about routine eating practices are needed. This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of working adults' eating routines. Forty-two purposively sampled US adults reported food intake and contextual details about eating episodes in qualitative 24-hour dietary recalls conducted over 7...

Jastran, Margaret; Bisogni, Carole A.; Blake, Christine; Devine, Carol M.

2009-01-01

212

Factors across home, work, and school domains influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional college students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nontraditional college students (older, part-time, and/or working) have less healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors compared to traditional students, yet few health promotion efforts focus on nontraditional students. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore factors affecting nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional students. Fourteen semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nontraditional undergraduate students attending a large university. The sample had a median age of 25 (range, 21-64), 57% were men, 43% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 57% were employed (mean 22 hours/week). Data were coded using a systematic team-based approach. Consistent themes (mentioned by 4+ students) were identified and categorized into three domains: home, work, and school. Home (themes: neighborhood characteristics, family, partners), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: cafeteria, vending machines) factors consistently influenced positive nutrition behaviors. Similarly, home (themes: neighborhood including safety, friends from home, partner,), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: not having a car, campus structure, campus gym, friends at school) factors consistently influenced positive physical activity. Financial resources and perceptions of autonomy had influence across domains. Results indicate consistent influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors across home, work, and school domains for nontraditional college students. Study findings suggest possible, and sometimes unconventional, intervention strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity. For example, when cafeteria meal plans are not offered and financial constraints limit eating at the cafeteria, encouraging healthful choices from vending machines could be preferable to not eating at all. PMID:23146772

Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bishop, Hillary L; Greaney, Mary L; Whiteley, Jessica A

2012-10-01

213

O papel dos factores socioculturais no desenvolvimento das perturbações do comportamento alimentar: Uma revisão da literatura / The role of social and cultural factors in the development of eating disorders: A literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As perturbações do comportamento alimentar são perturbações graves que se caracterizam por alterações significativas ao nível do comportamento alimentar associadas a uma preocupação extrema com o peso e forma corporais. Estas perturbações são mais frequentes em sociedades ocidentais, que enfatizam u [...] ma imagem corporal feminina magra. Talvez por esta razão, os factores socioculturais têm sido, muitas vezes, apontados, como os factores responsáveis pelo aumento da incidência das perturbações do comportamento alimentar. No entanto, a discrepância entre os valores de prevalência das perturbações do comportamento alimentar e o número total de pessoas expostas à pressão social para um corpo magro e tubular, questiona a importância desta exposição no desenvolvimento das patologias alimentares. O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão de estudos que procuram mostrar o papel etiológico dos factores socioculturais no desenvolvimento das perturbações do comportamento alimentar e a razão destas patologias, serem denominadas de culture-bound syndromes, bem como algumas perspectivas alternativas a estes modelos conceptuais que procuram revelar a fragilidade dos modelos etiológicos que enfatizam a importância destes factores na complexa etiologia das perturbações do comportamento alimentar. Abstract in english Eating disorders are serious disorders characterized by major changes in eating behaviour associated with extreme preoccupations with weight and physical shape. The aetiology of these disorders is, like other psychopathologies, considered to be complex and multifactorial. Eating disorders are more c [...] ommon in western societies that value a female thin body image as beauty ideal. Perhaps for that reason, sociocultural factors are often seen as responsible for the increase of the incidence of eating disorders. However, the discrepancy between the values of the prevalence of eating disorders and the total number of people submitted to the social pressure to thinness related to personal and interpersonal success, questioned the importance of that exposure in the development of eating disorders. The present paper presents a review of studies that shows the role of sociocultural factors in the development of eating disorders and the reason why these disorders are called culture-bound syndromes, as well some alternative perspectives that show the fragility of aetiologic models that emphasize the importance of these factors in the complex etiology of eating disorders.

Sónia F., Gonçalves; Bárbara C., Machado; Paulo P.P., Machado.

214

Socio-cultural and cognitive predictors of eating disorder symptoms in young girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is some evidence for a relationship between socio-cultural variables and the development of disordered eating or concerns. However, the role of individual cognition in adding to this relationship has not yet been investigated. The current study therefore had two main questions. Firstly, which of the socio-cultural factors investigated (parental, peers and the media) predict girls' eating disorder related symptoms? Secondly, do individuals' cognitions add to this prediction? Thirty-eight girls participated in the study. They completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Eating Disorder Belief Questionnaire (EDBQ), measures of parental, peer and media influence, and a measure of their awareness and internalisation of societal standards of attractiveness. The results indicated that several of the socio-cultural factors were related to girls' EAT score. The belief that being thinner would make boys like them more was the most significant predictor in the whole sample (and in younger girls). Individual cognitions added significantly to this prediction in the whole sample but not in the younger girls. For older girls, the importance of magazines as a source of information about beauty and ideals was the strongest predictor of EAT score, and their cognitions added significantly to this prediction. It is concluded that peer and media influences are important determinants of girls' eating disorder related symptoms. However, individual cognitions add to this relationship, particularly in older girls. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:16682869

Bell, C; Cooper, M J

2005-12-01

215

El papel del perfeccionismo en la insatisfacción corporal, la influencia sociocultural del modelo de delgadez y los síntomas de trastorno del comportamiento alimentario / Perfectionism in body dissatisfaction, sociocultural influence of the thinness model and symptoms of eating disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este estudio fue analizar si los componentes de la conducta perfeccionista explican la insatisfacción corporal (IC), la influencia socio-cultural del modelo de delgadez (ISMD) y los síntomas de Trastorno del Comportamiento Alimentario (TCA). Participaron 30 mujeres con Bulimia Nervio [...] sa (BN), 35 con Trastorno Alimentario no Especificado (TANE) y 63 sin TCA. El análisis de regresión mostró que la Preocupación por los Errores (PE) y la Indecisión de Acción explicaron la IC y la ISMD en BN; mientras que PE solo explicó la ISMD en TANE. Se concluye que solo dos componentes del perfeccionismo explican significativamente la interiorización del ideal de delgadez y la IC, las cuales son consideradas factores de riesgo importantes para los TCA. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD), sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM) and symptoms of eating disorders (ED). The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Spec [...] ified (EDNOS) and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM) and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.

KARINA, FRANCO PAREDES; JUAN MANUEL, MANCILLA DÍAZ; ROSALÍA, VÁZQUEZ ARÉVALO; GEORGINA, ÁLVAREZ RAYÓN; XÓCHITL, LÓPEZ AGUILAR.

2011-09-01

216

Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Female College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…

Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.

2011-01-01

217

Eating Healthy Ethnic Food  

Science.gov (United States)

... for a Healthy Weight » Eat Right » Tips for Healthy Eating On the Go or At Home » Tipsheet: Eating ... and Health Risk Control Your Weight Eat Right Healthy Eating Plan Menu Plans Food Exchange Lists Shopping Tips ...

218

Risk factors for disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: a two year longitudinal study of mainland Chinese boys and girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Even though reliable eating disorder risk factors have been identified among adolescent girls, little is known about predictors of increased vulnerability within specific phases of adolescence or among adolescent boys, particularly in highly populated non-Western contexts. In this study, early and middle adolescent boys (n?=?1,271) and girls (n?=?1,415) from Chongqing, China completed validated measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and 2 years follow-up. Multivariate models for boys of each age group indicated increases in disordered eating at follow-up were predicted by higher initial body mass index, negative affect and body dissatisfaction levels as well as attendant increases in perceived appearance pressure from mass media, body dissatisfaction, negative affect between assessments. High baseline levels of reported appearance pressure from parents and dating partners contributed, respectively, to prediction models of younger and older boys. More distinct constellations of significant predictors emerged in multivariate models of early versus middle adolescent girls. Together, findings indicated body dissatisfaction and negative affect were fairly robust risk factors for exacerbations in disturbances across samples while risk factors such as perceived pressure from desired/prospective dating partners were salient only during particular phases of adolescence. PMID:24221725

Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

2014-07-01

219

Predictors of Interpersonal Psychotherapy in patients with bulimic eating disorders / Factores predictores del tratamiento de la bulimia nerviosa con Terapia Interpersonal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar los factores de pronóstico del tratamiento de la bulimia nerviosa con terapia interpersonal. Diseño: 80 pacientes con el diagnostico de Bulimia Nerviosa (BN) o trastornos del comportamiento alimentario no especificados con características de BN (TCANE) fueron tratados con 16 ses [...] iones de terapia interpersonal. Los pacientes fueron evaluados utilizando una entrevista semi-estructural (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC). También completaron una batería de cuestionarios para evaluar los niveles de estima personal (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale -RSE), la psicopatología de los trastornos de la alimentación (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), la función interpersonal (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning-IIP-32) y los niveles de depresión (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Método: El pronóstico de interés fue definido por la variable de remisión y recuperación. Para el análisis del estudio se realizaron una serie de regresiones logísticas. Resultado: Baja estima personal, y una menor patología en la función interpersonal fueron los factores de peor pronóstico. Conclusión: Aunque la terapia interpersonal es un tratamiento efectivo para las personas que sufren de bulimia nerviosa, los pacientes con estas patologías con baja estima personal y menos problemas interpersonales deberían de ser tratados con otro tipo de terapia. Abstract in english Objective: To determine predictors of treatment outcomes in patients with Bulimic Eating Disorders treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). Design: Following initial assessment, 80 patients with diagnoses of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), entered treatmen [...] t in the form of 16 sessions of IPT. Patients were assessed using a validated semi-structure interview (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC) and completed measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale-RSE), eating psychopathology (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning- IIP-32), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Method: Remission and recovery after 16 sessions of IPT were the two outcomes of interest. Univariate analysis and a series of backwards stepping logistic regressions were performed to determine the variables associated with remission and recovery. Result: Low self-esteem and less interpersonal problems were the main predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: As patients with Bulimic Disorders with low levels of interpersonal problems and high levels of low self-esteem are likely to do less well with IPT, different type of treatment should be offered to them. A randomized controlled trial could explore this hypothesis in more detail.

Jon, Arcelus; Jonathan, Baggott; Debbie, Whight; Lesley, McGrain; Lesley, Meadows; Christopher, Langham.

2011-12-01

220

Predictors of Interpersonal Psychotherapy in patients with bulimic eating disorders / Factores predictores del tratamiento de la bulimia nerviosa con Terapia Interpersonal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar los factores de pronóstico del tratamiento de la bulimia nerviosa con terapia interpersonal. Diseño: 80 pacientes con el diagnostico de Bulimia Nerviosa (BN) o trastornos del comportamiento alimentario no especificados con características de BN (TCANE) fueron tratados con 16 ses [...] iones de terapia interpersonal. Los pacientes fueron evaluados utilizando una entrevista semi-estructural (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC). También completaron una batería de cuestionarios para evaluar los niveles de estima personal (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale -RSE), la psicopatología de los trastornos de la alimentación (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), la función interpersonal (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning-IIP-32) y los niveles de depresión (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Método: El pronóstico de interés fue definido por la variable de remisión y recuperación. Para el análisis del estudio se realizaron una serie de regresiones logísticas. Resultado: Baja estima personal, y una menor patología en la función interpersonal fueron los factores de peor pronóstico. Conclusión: Aunque la terapia interpersonal es un tratamiento efectivo para las personas que sufren de bulimia nerviosa, los pacientes con estas patologías con baja estima personal y menos problemas interpersonales deberían de ser tratados con otro tipo de terapia. Abstract in english Objective: To determine predictors of treatment outcomes in patients with Bulimic Eating Disorders treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). Design: Following initial assessment, 80 patients with diagnoses of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), entered treatmen [...] t in the form of 16 sessions of IPT. Patients were assessed using a validated semi-structure interview (Clinical Eating Disorders Rating Instrument-CEDRIC) and completed measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale-RSE), eating psychopathology (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire-EDE-Q), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Functioning- IIP-32), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI). Method: Remission and recovery after 16 sessions of IPT were the two outcomes of interest. Univariate analysis and a series of backwards stepping logistic regressions were performed to determine the variables associated with remission and recovery. Result: Low self-esteem and less interpersonal problems were the main predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: As patients with Bulimic Disorders with low levels of interpersonal problems and high levels of low self-esteem are likely to do less well with IPT, different type of treatment should be offered to them. A randomized controlled trial could explore this hypothesis in more detail.

Jon, Arcelus; Jonathan, Baggott; Debbie, Whight; Lesley, McGrain; Lesley, Meadows; Christopher, Langham.

 
 
 
 
221

THE FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF MANAGING SUBJECTS ???????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article the author's approach to consideration of the factors influencing innovative activity of managing subjects is presented. Innovations, as one of the major factors, are presented.

Sobchenko N. V.

2011-09-01

222

Adolescent rats are more prone to binge eating behavior: a study of age and obesity as risk factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models. PMID:24815316

Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron

2014-08-15

223

Factors influencing informal care-giving.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: As downsizing of institutional care continues, patients discharged are likely to have more severe mental illnesses, and to have experienced longer tenures within institutions than patients who have been discharged in the past. As greater numbers of patients are removed from mental hospitals, the objective burden experienced by informal care-givers may increase, particularly if formal care levels are inadequate. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This paper documents who assumes informal care-giver roles, and the form such care-giving takes for patients discharged from a state hospital. Specifically, this paper identifies (i) what factors affect a person's decision to assume a care-giver role, including the participation of other network members in care-giving, (ii) what factors influence whether care-giving is provided in time or in direct purchase of care and (iii) how the patient's treatment location affects the decision of the network member to assume any care-giving role. DATA AND ANALYTICAL METHODS: Data for this paper are taken from a longitudinal study of the closure of a state mental hospital in central Indiana. Seventy-seven patients were asked to identify their community networks. Ninety-eight network members were surveyed about the informal care, both in time or through direct expenditures, they provided to these patients one year after discharge. Care-giving relationships were estimated using a multivariate probit model. Such a model estimates the extent to which the decision to provide care in either form depends on the care-giving activities assumed by other network members associated with a given patient, as well as the characteristics of individual patients and network members. RESULTS: Forty-one per cent of network members provided some level of informal care, with 13.3% providing some care in time, and 35.7% providing some care through direct expenditures. A positive relationship was found between participation in informal care-giving and the perception by the network member that patient needs were not being met by professionals. The decision to provide informal care was also found to be sensitive to the level of informal and formal care received by the patient. Care-giving in expense was found to be positively related to the care-giving decisions of other informal care-givers, but care-giving in time was not. Network members were more likely to provide care in time for patients who had been recently discharged to the community than for patients who remained in institutional settings. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the transfer of persons with severe mental illnesses from state hospitals to the community may shift the care burden between formal and informal providers. If this is the case, discharge criteria should include such factors as the community resources available to the patient. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: The responsiveness of network members to perceived unmet need bespeaks the importance of informal care when the continuity of formal care cannot be assured. Findings also suggest there may be some substitution of formal and informal care when patients are discharged from institutions. Further analysis is required to determine whether network members' perceptions of unmet need are accurate, and means by which network members can be made better attuned to unmet needs actually experienced by patients. PMID:11964494

Holmes, Ann M.; Deb, Partha

1998-07-01

224

Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 ?g, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 ?g Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 ?g Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability

225

Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 s...

Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto; Mercedes Ezquerra-Cabrera; Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera; Rocío Carbonero-Carreño

2013-01-01

226

Relationship between attitudes towards healthy eating and dietary behaviour, lifestyle and demographic factors in a representative sample of Irish adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes towards healthy eating were explored according to dietary, lifestyle and socio-demographic correlates in a random sample of 1256 Irish adults. Data were obtained from an Irish cross-sectional survey (1997-1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain attitudinal information. Food consumption was estimated using a 7-d food diary. A majority of the sample had a positive attitude or motivation towards their healthy eating behaviour. Those who perceived their own eating habits to be healthy were more likely to comply with current dietary guidelines than those who did not. Females, increasing age, higher social class, tertiary education, non-smokers, lower body-weights and increased recreational activity were associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) for having a negative attitude towards their healthy eating behaviour. An increased intake (g/d) of breakfast cereals, vegetables, fruit and poultry dishes were associated with decreased OR for negative attitudes towards their healthy eating behaviour, while an increased intake of high-calorie beverages (g/d) was associated with an increased OR. It can be concluded that attitudes or motivation towards eating healthily was related to measured dietary and lifestyle behaviour in this sample. Future research is warranted to devise appropriate methods of instituting attitude change towards dietary behaviour in certain subgroups of the population. PMID:17049407

Hearty, A P; McCarthy, S N; Kearney, J M; Gibney, M J

2007-01-01

227

Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

Masud, E. [ed.

1977-01-01

228

Factors Influencing Selection of Major by College Females.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined factors influencing the selection of a major area of study by undergraduate female students (N=437). Subjects were asked to indicate how important were 16 factors identified as potentially influential. Results were reported in terms of three distinct groupings of items: academic, social, and economic/pragmatic influences. (JAC)

Peterson, Karen L.; Roscoe, Bruce

1983-01-01

229

Algebraic Generalisation Strategies: Factors Influencing Student Strategy Selection  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the algebraic generalisation strategies used by two fifth grade students along with the factors that appeared to influence these strategies. These students were examined over 18 instructional sessions using a teaching experiment methodology. The results highlighted the complex factors that appeared to influence student…

Lannin, John; Barker, David; Townsend, Brian

2006-01-01

230

A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lyophilization (or freeze drying process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relation to some adjustment factors of the lyophilization system. These research results were necessary for reconsideration and re-design of agro-foods lyophilization systems.

Dumitru Mnerie

2007-12-01

231

Factors influencing dynamic absorption of noble gases by activated carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence factors of dynamic adsorption of noble gases in activated carbon is discussed in this paper. The influence of flow rate in a certain range and of CO2 concentration in normal environment may be ignored. Dynamic absorption coefficient increases with the increase in system pressure and decreases with the increase in temperature and relative humidity. Water content in activated carbon is practically used as an influence factor instead of relative humidity in the condition of unbalanced adsorption. (authors)

232

Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.

K. R. Sowmya

2011-01-01

233

VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN PÚBERES MEXICANOS VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para púberes mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que evalúe factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y método: El cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra no probabilística, de púberes estudiantes de la ciudad de México (504 hombres y 511 mujeres, con edades de 11 a 15 años de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realizó un análisis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach y un análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación oblimin por el método de máxima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada. Conclusión: El instrumento resultó válido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal.Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female students in México City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %, and females 0,83 (57,6% of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.

Teresita de Jesús Saucedo-Molina

2010-03-01

234

Factores de éxito en campañas de alimentación saludable: un estudio de casos / Success factors in public healthy eating campaigns: a case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Rara vez se ha evaluado la efectividad de las campañas e intervenciones de información pública. Por ello, el estudio de actividades exitosas podría contribuir al desarrollo y puesta en práctica en el futuro de campañas e intervenciones a favor de una alimentación saludable Objetivos: E [...] l objetivo del presente estudio de campañas de información sobre alimentación saludable fue primeramente la identificación de los factores de éxito de las mismas, y seguidamente la descripción de sus inter-relaciones. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 11 representantes de industrias alimentarias cuyas campañas fueron identificadas como exitosas en una etapa previa del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron luego analizadas con respecto a los factores de éxito potenciales. Estos últimos fueron posteriormente utilizados para desarrollar un modelo de factores de éxito y sus interrelaciones. Resultados: El éxito de los casos estudiados fue atribuido primeramente a las características del ambiente macro, o a una colaboración entre los sectores público y privado. Segundo, se identificó al compromiso de las comunidades, elementos de empoderamiento del grupo objetivo y a la ejecución de medidas de marketing social. Tercero, el éxito puede atribuirse a la adopción por parte de la ciudadanía de las campañas y los cambios estructurales consecuentes. Conclusiones: El modelo y los factores de éxito identificados resaltan que el éxito puede originarse en tres fases cruciales, el diseño y montaje de la campaña, su ejecución y finalmente, su interacción con la ciudadanía. El modelo puede servir como guía para el desarrollo de campañas en el futuro. Abstract in english Introduction: Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. Objectives: The study of public campaigns and in [...] terventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. Results: It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. Conclusions: The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.

J., Aschemann-Witzel; F.J.A., Pérez-Cueto; M., Strand; W., Verbeke; T., Bech-Larsen.

235

Factores de éxito en campañas de alimentación saludable: un estudio de casos / Success factors in public healthy eating campaigns: a case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Rara vez se ha evaluado la efectividad de las campañas e intervenciones de información pública. Por ello, el estudio de actividades exitosas podría contribuir al desarrollo y puesta en práctica en el futuro de campañas e intervenciones a favor de una alimentación saludable Objetivos: E [...] l objetivo del presente estudio de campañas de información sobre alimentación saludable fue primeramente la identificación de los factores de éxito de las mismas, y seguidamente la descripción de sus inter-relaciones. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 11 representantes de industrias alimentarias cuyas campañas fueron identificadas como exitosas en una etapa previa del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron luego analizadas con respecto a los factores de éxito potenciales. Estos últimos fueron posteriormente utilizados para desarrollar un modelo de factores de éxito y sus interrelaciones. Resultados: El éxito de los casos estudiados fue atribuido primeramente a las características del ambiente macro, o a una colaboración entre los sectores público y privado. Segundo, se identificó al compromiso de las comunidades, elementos de empoderamiento del grupo objetivo y a la ejecución de medidas de marketing social. Tercero, el éxito puede atribuirse a la adopción por parte de la ciudadanía de las campañas y los cambios estructurales consecuentes. Conclusiones: El modelo y los factores de éxito identificados resaltan que el éxito puede originarse en tres fases cruciales, el diseño y montaje de la campaña, su ejecución y finalmente, su interacción con la ciudadanía. El modelo puede servir como guía para el desarrollo de campañas en el futuro. Abstract in english Introduction: Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. Objectives: The study of public campaigns and in [...] terventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. Results: It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. Conclusions: The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.

J., Aschemann-Witzel; F.J.A., Pérez-Cueto; M., Strand; W., Verbeke; T., Bech-Larsen.

1536-15-01

236

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

Gupta, N.; Fischer, A. R. H.; Lans, I. A.; Frewer, L. J.

2012-01-01

237

Compulsão alimentar e fatores associados em adolescentes de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil Binge eating and associated factors among teenagers in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O episódio de compulsão alimentar é caracterizado pela ingestão de grande quantidade de alimentos em tempo delimitado acompanhada de perda de controle sobre o que/quanto se come. O estudo objetivou estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos episódios de compulsão alimentar. Estudo transversal com 1.209 adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos. Para o diagnóstico dos episódios de compulsão alimentar utilizou-se o Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso - Revisado (QEWP-R. Foi realizada análise através da regressão de Poisson com abordagem hierárquica. A prevalência de episódios de compulsão alimentar foi 24,6% (IC95%: 22,3-27,2 e os fatores que permaneceram associados foram: sexo feminino (RP = 1,93; IC95%: 1,47-2,53, idade de 15 a 18 anos (RP = 1,54; IC95%: 1,01-2,37 e 19 anos (RP = 2,60; IC95%: 1,15-5,86, uso de bebidas alcoólicas mais de três vezes por mês (RP = 1,54; IC95%: 1,03-2,33 e flutuações de peso (RP = 1,76; IC95%: 1,33-2,31. Conclui-se que a prevalência de episódios de compulsão alimentar foi alta e associada ao sexo feminino, idade, uso de bebidas alcoólicas e flutuação de peso.Binge eating means ingesting a large amount of food during a certain period of time, followed by a sensation of lack of control over what and how much has been eaten. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of binge eating episodes and associated factors in teenagers. The cross-sectional study included 1,209 teenagers (14 to 19 years old. Diagnosis of binge eating was based on the revised Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. The analysis used Poisson regression with a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of binge eating episodes was 24.6% (95%CI: 22.3-27.2, and factors that remained associated were: female gender (HR = 1.93; 95%CI: 1.47-2.53; age 15 to 18 (HR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.01-2.37 and age 19 (HR = 2.60; 95%CI: 1.15-5.86; alcohol consumption more than 3 times a month (HR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.03-2.33; and current weight oscillation (HR = 1.76; 95%CI: 1.33-2.31. In conclusion, prevalence of binge eating episodes was high and associated with female gender, age, alcohol consumption, and weight oscillation.

Loreni Augusta Pivetta

2010-02-01

238

Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

2008-01-01

239

The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

2007-01-01

240

Transtornos alimentares na infância e na adolescência Trastornos alimentares en la infancia y adolescencia y factores de riesgo Eating disorders in childhood and adolescence  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crianças e adolescentes quanto às suas características e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combinação dos termos 'crianças', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'transtorno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas português e inglês. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisaram o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares não especificados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os não especificados, mostraram-se comuns na infância e na adolescência. Sua presença foi atribuída principalmente ao ambiente familiar e à exposição aos meios de comunicação. As comorbidades psicológicas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagnóstico do transtorno. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a mídia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influência da mídia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto à magreza. Já no âmbito familiar, o momento das refeições mostrou-se fundamental na determinação do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (déficit no crescimento e ganho de peso, à saúde bucal (queilose, erosão dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das glândulas salivares e aos prejuízos sociais.OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en niños y adolescentes respecto a sus características y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinación de los términos "niños", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alimentar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Se consideraron los artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccionados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposición a los medios de comunicación. Las comorbilidades psicológicas muchas veces acompañan el diagnóstico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el ámbito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostró fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (déficit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso, a la salud oral (queilosis, erosión dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las glándulas salivares y a los perjuicios sociales.OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia', both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to the media. Eating disorders were frequently followed by psychological comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Among the risk factors for eat

Juliana de Abreu Gonçalves

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Eating Disorders and Family Structure: A Review  

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The frequency of eating disorders has been increased over the course of last 50 years. Its history reveals that different forms of eating disorders have actually been existed for a long period of time but the most recognized eating disorders like Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa have only recently been included to the official classification systems. It is being argued that biological genetic load and hypothalamic neuromediator factors are the main causes for the etiology of eating disord...

Dilek Ertu? Toker; Çiçek Hocao?lu

2009-01-01

242

Healthy Eating  

Science.gov (United States)

Using websites and interactive games students will discover how eating healthy effects their bodies. Healthy eating is important in helping our bodies function at their best! Follow the links below and then answer the questions in our Healthy Foods project folder on our class wiki! VisitDining Decisionsand play a fun game where you will load your lunch tray with healthy choices. How do your current lunch choices ...

Smith, Mrs.

2011-12-12

243

Influence of dietary macronutrient composition on eating behaviour and self-perception in young women undergoing weight management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The control of eating behaviours such as hunger and disinhibition is problematic for women during weight management. Higher-protein (HP) diets have been shown to promote greater weight reduction than higher-carbohydrate (HC) diets, but their impact on eating behaviours is relatively unexplored. This study compared two iso-energetically restricted (5,600 kJ/day) diets differing in protein (HP: 32%, HC: 20%) and carbohydrate (HP: 41%, HC: 58%) on appetite ratings, restraint, disinhibition, perceived hunger and binge eating in 36 (HP: n = 21, HC: n = 15) young (18-25 years), healthy women with BMI ?27.5 kg/m(2) who completed a 12-month clinical weight management trial. Dietary compliance and self-worth were also assessed. Results showed that both diets induced improvements in restraint and disinhibition from baseline (p < 0.01), with HP participants losing a non-significantly greater amount of weight than HC participants (HP: 9.6 ± 2.6, HC: 4.1 ± 1.4 kg, p = 0.07). Despite reasonable compliance, no significant appetite and eating behaviour differences were observed between the diets. Reduction in disinhibition (regardless of diet) significantly predicted weight loss (? = 0.574, p < 0.001) and self-worth improvement (? = -0.463, p = 0.002), while HP intake predicted greater self-worth change (? = -0.371, p = 0.011). This study demonstrates that young women can improve restraint and disinhibition on a weight management programme, with the reduction in disinhibition shown to be a key predictor of weight loss. HP intake may offer some advantage for increasing self-worth but not eating behaviours. As HP diets are popular, these findings warrant confirmation in a larger sample. PMID:24609724

Cheng, Hoi Lun; Griffin, Hayley; Claes, Bri-Ellen; Petocz, Peter; Steinbeck, Katharine; Rooney, Kieron; O'Connor, Helen

2014-06-01

244

Associations of ghrelin with eating behaviors, stress, metabolic factors, and telomere length among overweight and obese women: preliminary evidence of attenuated ghrelin effects in obesity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Ghrelin regulates homeostatic food intake, hedonic eating, and is a mediator in the stress response. In addition, ghrelin has metabolic, cardiovascular, and anti-aging effects. This cross-sectional study examined associations between total plasma ghrelin, caloric intake based on 3day diet diaries, hedonic eating attitudes, stress-related and metabolic factors, and leukocyte telomere length in overweight (n=25) and obese women (n=22). We hypothesized associations between total plasma ghrelin and eating behaviors, stress, metabolic, cardiovascular, and cell aging factors among overweight women, but not among obese women due to lower circulating ghrelin levels and/or central resistance to ghrelin. Confirming previous studies demonstrating lowered plasma ghrelin in obesity, ghrelin levels were lower in the obese compared with overweight women. Among the overweight, ghrelin was positively correlated with caloric intake, giving in to cravings for highly palatable foods, and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope across 3days. These relationships were non-significant among the obese group. Among overweight women, ghrelin was negatively correlated with insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and positively correlated with telomere length. Among the obese subjects, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with insulin resistance, but were not significantly correlated with blood pressure, heart rate or telomere length. Total plasma ghrelin and its associations with food intake, hedonic eating, and stress are decreased in obesity, providing evidence consistent with the theory that central resistance to ghrelin develops in obesity and ghrelin's function in appetite regulation may have evolved to prevent starvation in food scarcity rather than cope with modern food excess. Furthermore, ghrelin is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular health, and may have anti-aging effects, but these effects may be attenuated in obesity. PMID:24462487

Buss, Julia; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Daubenmier, Jennifer

2014-05-01

245

Factors influencing patient dose in diagnostic radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic radiography is leading cause of manmade radiation exposure to the populace. The various types of examinations vary considerably with respect to patient dose. Surveys have shown that further to the variation due to technical advancements over time, the applied doses depend rather significantly on the standard of radiological practice in a specific setting and on the individual radiographer. Factors which affect patient in a standard radiological practice can be grouped into three; technical factors, patient characteristics and frequency of examination. The technical factors are as determined by the individual radiographer. If optimal performance is to be achieved, it is necessary to understand how these factors affect radiation dose and option available for reducing it.

246

Eating disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

Konti? Olga

2012-01-01

247

Preventive screening. What factors influence testing?  

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OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with having preventive screening tests in a population-based sample of Ontario women. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey linked to data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to ascertain whether women aged 20 or older had Pap smears, mammography, bone densitometry, or cholesterol testing. Factors associated with having testing were subjected to logistic regression analysis. SETTING: Ontario....

Mm, Finkelstein

2002-01-01

248

Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.  

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Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, ma...

Delemarre-van Waal, H. A.

1993-01-01

249

Perfeccionismo y factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros / Perfectionism and risk factors for the development of eating disorders in Spanish adolescents of both genders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las dimensiones del perfeccionismo que estaban relacionadas con conductas alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros, así como analizar si existían diferencias significativas en estas dimensiones entre los adolescentes con mayor y menor [...] riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria. Método: se administró la adaptación española de The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) y el EAT- 40 a una muestra representativa de 2142 adolescentes de la provincia de Alicante(1130 chicas y 1012 chicos), con una media de edad de 13.96 años (DT = 1.34). Resultados: el perfeccionismo auto-orientado y el prescrito socialmente estaban relacionados de forma positiva con la puntuación total en el EAT-40 y los diferentes factores que lo componen, en ambos géneros. Los adolescentes con mayor riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno alimentario presentaban un mayor perfeccionismo auto-orientado y prescrito socialmente que los adolescentes con menor riesgo de desarrollar el problema. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de identificar estas tendencias perfeccionistas en los adolescentes antes de que se conviertan en conductas patológicas, como un medio para prevenir el desarrollo de un trastorno alimentario. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the dimensions of perfectionism that are linked to risk eating behaviors in a representative sample of Spanish adolescents of both genders, and analyze the differences in these dimensions between adolescents with high and low eating disorder risk. Method: 2142 ado [...] lescents from Alicante (1130 girls and 1012 boys), mean age 13.96 years (SD = 1.34), completed the Spanish version of the The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) and the EAT-40.Results: Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism were positively associated with EAT-40 total score, and with the different factors that comprise it, in both genders. Adolescents with high risk of developing an eating disorder showed higher Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism than adolescents with low risk of developing the disorder. Conclusion: These results suggest that it is necessary to identify these perfectionist tendencies in adolescents before they become pathological behaviors, in order to prevent the development of an eating disorder.

Lidia, Pamies; Yolanda, Quiles.

2014-05-01

250

Perfeccionismo y factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros / Perfectionism and risk factors for the development of eating disorders in Spanish adolescents of both genders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las dimensiones del perfeccionismo que estaban relacionadas con conductas alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros, así como analizar si existían diferencias significativas en estas dimensiones entre los adolescentes con mayor y menor [...] riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria. Método: se administró la adaptación española de The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) y el EAT- 40 a una muestra representativa de 2142 adolescentes de la provincia de Alicante(1130 chicas y 1012 chicos), con una media de edad de 13.96 años (DT = 1.34). Resultados: el perfeccionismo auto-orientado y el prescrito socialmente estaban relacionados de forma positiva con la puntuación total en el EAT-40 y los diferentes factores que lo componen, en ambos géneros. Los adolescentes con mayor riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno alimentario presentaban un mayor perfeccionismo auto-orientado y prescrito socialmente que los adolescentes con menor riesgo de desarrollar el problema. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de identificar estas tendencias perfeccionistas en los adolescentes antes de que se conviertan en conductas patológicas, como un medio para prevenir el desarrollo de un trastorno alimentario. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the dimensions of perfectionism that are linked to risk eating behaviors in a representative sample of Spanish adolescents of both genders, and analyze the differences in these dimensions between adolescents with high and low eating disorder risk. Method: 2142 ado [...] lescents from Alicante (1130 girls and 1012 boys), mean age 13.96 years (SD = 1.34), completed the Spanish version of the The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) and the EAT-40.Results: Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism were positively associated with EAT-40 total score, and with the different factors that comprise it, in both genders. Adolescents with high risk of developing an eating disorder showed higher Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism than adolescents with low risk of developing the disorder. Conclusion: These results suggest that it is necessary to identify these perfectionist tendencies in adolescents before they become pathological behaviors, in order to prevent the development of an eating disorder.

Lidia, Pamies; Yolanda, Quiles.

251

Influencing Factors of Collaboration with Industry of Chinese Universities  

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Full Text Available From the view of university character, this study discussed the influencing factors of University-Industry collaboration. Using negative binomial regression and quantile regression model, the study empirically analyzed the U-I collaboration of 431 Universities in China. The results showed that: There are differences of influencing factors between high-quality and medium-quality universities and under the control of area and university type, the research quality and commercialization tendency are main influencing factors for university to collaborate with industry.

Caihong Chen

2013-01-01

252

FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATION IN SMES IN ROMANIA  

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Full Text Available Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to organize resources and competence in novel patterns. Enterprises extend their ability to develop new business concepts, their dynamic capability, by accessing external resources. This study proposes to investigate how the use of external resources varies in the course of SMEs innovation processes, and how deployment of external resources is influenced by the nature of the innovation as well as by the context of the innovation process.

ONCIOIU FLORIN RAZVAN

2010-12-01

253

FACTORS INFLUENCING INNOVATION IN SMES IN ROMANIA  

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Innovation is a broad concept and it is not in contradiction with tradition. Any entrepreneur, even when working in a traditional sector or businesses with strong traditions such as a family business can be innovative. Innovation is not only pushed by the entrepreneur but is increasingly market pulled. Through an innovation entrepreneur it is wanted to influence his market structure or to develop new markets. Radical innovations introduce new business concepts, which require an ability to org...

ONCIOIU FLORIN RAZVAN; HOLBAN ONCIOIU IONICA

2010-01-01

254

Factors influencing the implementation of electronic data interchange (EDI  

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Full Text Available Electronic Data Interchange (EDI implementation is viewed as an important tool for transmission of business data. Yet, its implementation has not reached the predicted level whereby the implementation is often stalled at infancy stage. Many factors were pinpointed as inhibitors or barriers for success of EDI implementation. This study examines key EDI influencing factors and their relationship with implementation level, firm size and type of users. Mail surveys on 108 manufacturers were the main data collection method. Findings indicate that implementation level differs based on influencing factors, while these factors differ based on type of users and do not differ based on firm size. Relatively, internal factors were found to be more significant than external factors. This study also recommends future research to further examine influences of users’ type with different EDI aspects.

Gengeswari K.

2008-06-01

255

Influencing Factors of Science Olympiad Students’ Success  

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Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and student’s self efficacy.

M. Kür?ad Özlen

2013-01-01

256

Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology  

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This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

Frederickson, Norah

2003-01-01

257

Factors Influencing Selection of Treatment for Colorectal Cancer Patients  

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In Sweden and elsewhere there is evidence of poorer cancer survival for patients of low socioeconomic status (SES), and in some settings differences in treatment by SES have been shown. The aim of this thesis was to explore factors which influence cancer treatment decisions, such as knowledge reaped from clinical trials, patient-related factors, and physician-related factors. In a register study of colorectal cancer, all stages, patients were stratified for SES-factors. Differences were seen ...

Cavalli-bjo?rkman, Nina

2012-01-01

258

Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa  

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Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in th...

Saayman, Melville; Du Plessis, Engelina

2011-01-01

259

FACTORS INFLUENCING BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION TO ADOPT NET BANKING  

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Full Text Available This research paper will investigate factors influencing behavioral intention to adopt internet banking. The research setting was in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour. Using data from 25 respondents from various backgrounds who are active Internet banking users, the research unveils that Relative advantage of Internet banking was rated the strongest factor affecting behavioral intention to adopt Internet Banking while Primary and Secondary Influence was rated the least impacting factor. Both Utilitarian Outcomes and Availability of Internet were rated as second most impacting factor followed by Availability, Cost, Ease of Use, Security, Trust and Self Confidence.

SRINIVASA RAO BEHARA

2013-01-01

260

Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer  

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Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

Ioan Pastor

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Investigating Factors that Influence Weathering of Monuments in a Cemetery  

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In this field activity students will discover some of the factors that influence weathering of rock by making observations, asking questions and completing an investigation of their own design in a local cemetery.

262

Parent-child feeding interactions:The Influence of Child Cognitions and Parental Feeding Behaviors on Child Healthy Eating  

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With the increasing prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in mind, the main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of preadolescent children’s eating behavior in the context of parent-child food-related interactions. A more long-term objective is to obtain knowledge that might have the potential to inform future family-oriented nutrition interventions. This thesis consists of three empirical studies and an overview presenting the theoretical found...

Melbye, Elisabeth Lind

2012-01-01

263

Intussusception: Clinical and radiographic factors influencing reducibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.)

264

Intussusception: Clinical and radiographic factors influencing reducibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception by barium or air enema has been widely accepted. The five-year experience with this procedure at two children's hospitals is reviewed and the results compared to previous studies. Various clinical and radiographic factors are evaluated in relation to the reduction rate. The findings show that the more distal the intussusception is encountered, the lower the rate of reduction. However, 25% are reduced within the rectum with no evidence of increased complications. Small bowel obstruction and prolonged durations of signs and symptoms decreased the rate of reduction statistically but there is no significant increase in complication rate in those attempted, contrary to a previous report. The crescent sign (dissection sign) and age of the patient are not significant factors in reduction as reported by other studies. (orig.).

Stephenson, C.A.; Seibert, J.J.; Glasier, C.M.; Leithiser, R.E. Jr.; Iqbal, V. (Arkansas Univ. for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (USA). Dept. of Pediatrics; Arkansas Univ. for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (USA)); Strain, J.D. (Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (USA))

1989-11-01

265

Maternal clinical factors influencing HIV-1 transmission.  

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The complex puzzle of maternal factors involved in mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is being put together. The risk of perinatal infection increases with mother's disease progression, but it remains stable in women seroconverting to HIV-1 during pregnancy and in consecutive pregnancies. Thus, transmission correlates with the HIV-1 progression rather than the duration of infection in the mother. Nutritional alterations such as vitamin A deficiency may al...

Tovo, Pier Angelo

1997-01-01

266

Influencing Factors of Science Olympiad Students’ Success  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students ...

Ku?rs?ad O?zlen, M.; Mehmet Özgün

2013-01-01

267

Developmental factors that influence sow longevity.  

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The length of adult sow life is now recognized as both an economic and a welfare concern. However, there are no consistent definitions to measure sow longevity. This study assessed 6 different descriptions of longevity and determined their relationship with developmental performance factors. Longevity definitions included stayability (probability of a sow producing 40 pigs or probability of her reaching 4 parities), lifespan (number of parities a female has accumulated before culling), lifetime prolificacy (number of pigs born alive during the productive lifetime of a female), herd life (time from first farrowing to culling), and pigs produced per day of life. Data consisted of 14,262 records of Yorkshire females from both nucleus and multiplication herds across 21 farms from 4 seedstock systems. Within a subset of the data, information was available on the litter birth record of the female and her growth and composition data. Therefore, data were subdivided into 2 data sets, consisting of 1) data A, data from the farrowing records of a female, and 2) data B, data A and information from the litter birth record of a female and the growth and backfat data from a female. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the relationship of developmental factors and first farrowing record with longevity. Those factors that were significantly (P growth. Within a contemporary group, fatter, slower growing gilts had a decreased risk of being culled. Additionally, sows that had more pigs born alive, fewer stillborn pigs, and heavier litters at 21 d of lactation in their first litter had a decreased risk of being culled. Furthermore, sows from nucleus herds experienced a greater risk of being culled. Many factors affected longevity, regardless of definition. Pork producers can implement management protocols that can extend the productive life of breeding females, resulting in improved profitability and animal welfare. PMID:21183709

Hoge, M D; Bates, R O

2011-04-01

268

Factors that Influence Customers’ Buying Intention on Shopping Online  

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On-line commerce through Internet is gaining attention from students today. The aim of this research is to studythe factors influencing student’s buying intention through internet shopping in an institution of higher learning inMalaysia. Several factors such as usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, privacy, security, normative-beliefs andattitude that influence student’s buying intention were analyzed. Respondents who were selected are studying ina public...

Yulihasri Eri; Md. Aminul Islam; Ku Amir Ku Daud

2011-01-01

269

Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

Fratu, D.

2011-01-01

270

Influence of hereditary factors in psychogenic disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a research project, a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of nonidentical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins, n = 100 test persons) was examined between 1963 and 1969 and recently, 20 years later, followed up. The index twins were drawn from among the patients making use of the services of an outpatient clinic; they had been diagnosed as having psychoneurotic, character-neurotic of psychosomatic disorders. The question again looked into was that of nature versus nurture: identical twins displayed significantly higher similarity with regard to both severity of their neuroses and manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did nonidentical twins. The hereditary factor proved to be of greater import for the continuing childhood neuroses than for the subsiding childhood neuroses. Yet a certain hereditary factor effect was observed for the neuroses which first manifest themselves in adulthood. Our findings indicate that the hereditary factor is not more pronounced in childhood than in adulthood; it is equally effective in adults. PMID:7480573

Muhs, A; Schepank, H

1995-01-01

271

Factors Influencing Strategic Decision-Making Processes  

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Full Text Available Decision-making is one of the most important functions of managers in any kind of organization. Among different manager's decisions strategic decision-making is a complex process that must be understood completely before it can be practiced effectively. Those responsible for strategic decision-making face a task of extreme complexity and ambiguity. For these reasons, over the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to the construction of models to aid managers and executives in making better decisions concerning the complex and highly uncertain business environment. In spite of much work that has been conducted in the area of strategic decision-making especially during the 1990's, we still know little about strategic decision-making process and factors affecting it.This paper builds on previous theoretical and empirical studies to determine the extent to which contextual factors impact the strategic decision-making processes. Results showed that researches on contextual factors effecting strategic decision-making process are either limited or have produced contradictory results, especially studies relating decision’s familiarity, magnitude of impact, organizational size, firm’s performance, dynamism, hostility, heterogeneity, industry, cognitive diversity, cognitive conflict, and manager’s need for achievement to strategic decision-making processes. Thus, the study of strategic decision-making process remains very important and much more empirical research is required before any definitive conclusion can be reached.

Mahmood Nooraie

2012-07-01

272

Factors Influencing the Disabled's Employment in the Competitive Labour Market.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)

Mannila, Simo

1995-01-01

273

Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes  

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Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

Unsia HABIB

2014-01-01

274

Factors Influencing Individual Investor Behaviour in Karachi  

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Full Text Available Previous studies have examined motivation from economic perspectives or studied relationships between economic, behavioral, demographic & lifestyle variables but examination of various utility maximization and behavioral variables taken together provides a complete understanding of the investment decision process. This study incorporated this concept by taking 30 variables from diverse decision criteria including contemporary concerns. Results revealed seven homogenous groups among these 30 variables which were grouped into seven factors that address major investor considerations. The findings suggest that individual’s base their stock purchase decisions on wealth-maximization criteria combined with past and present stock performance along with other diverse variables; they do not rely on a single approach.

Sania Usmani

2012-07-01

275

Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of th

276

Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population. PMID:22565801

Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

2013-06-01

277

Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care. PMID:25068881

Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

2014-01-01

278

Factors influencing outcome after blunt duodenal injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-six patients with blunt duodenal injury have been treated at Detroit General Hospital since 1960. The majority of the patients were driving an automobile under the influence of alcohol and none were wearing seat restraints. Diagnosis was often delayed due to a failure to recognize the significant, but subtle, physical and roentgenographic findings of retro-peritoneal injury. Morbidity and mortality were related to a delay in operative intervention, the severity of duodenal injury, the presence and degree of associated pancreatic injury, and the choice of operative therapy. Patients with intramural hematoma or complete duodenal perforation without pancreatic injury did well with simple closure or evacuation of the hematoma. Patients with duodenal perforation and minor pancreatic injury did best after primary closure and pancreatic drainage if operation was performed within 24 hours; delay beyond 24 hours resulted in a high incidence of duodenal fistula after simple closure, and therefore is an indication for a bypass procedure, such as a distal gastrectomy, vagotomy, tube duodenostomy, and gastrojejunostomy. Patients with combined duodenal and major pancreatic disruption did best after a bypass procedure when the main pancreatic ductal system was intact, whereas pancreaticoduodenectomy was the best procedure when the main pancreatic duct was disrupted. PMID:1177329

Lucas, C E; Ledgerwood, A M

1975-10-01

279

Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

280

Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma  

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Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Psychological Factors Influencing World-Wide Web Navigation.  

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This experimental study investigated internal (psychological characteristics) and external (World Wide Web site features) factors influencing learning and disorientation in Web navigation. The research design was a two-factors ANOVA (ANalysis Of VAriance) with mode of navigation (linear, nonlinear) and distracters (i.e., the presence of…

Baylor, Amy L.

282

Factors Influencing the Use of DISCOVER and SIGI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on a study designed to identify factors that influence national use of two popular computer-assisted career guidance systems, DISCOVER and the System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI). Suggests that several institutionally based factors determine DISCOVER and SIGI use, including staff competence, organizational dynamics,…

Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

1988-01-01

283

Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

2005-01-01

284

Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects. PMID:19875838

Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

2009-11-01

285

NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE  

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Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

Michael Wall

2003-03-01

286

Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.  

Science.gov (United States)

In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

2014-01-01

287

An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change  

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Full Text Available This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. Using simple regression analysis, the study has detected that all mentioned factors influence organizational change, positively. In addition, Freedman test indicates that partnership maintains the highest impact followed by believe in change, communication, organizational commitment and training.

Abbas Saleh Ardestani

2014-06-01

288

Factors Influencing Lesion Detection in Medical Imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

An important goal in medical imaging is the assessment of image quality in a way that relates to clinical efficacy. An objective approach is to evaluate the performance of diagnosis for specific tasks, using ROC analysis. We shall concentrate here on classification tasks. While many factors may confine the performance achieved for these tasks, we shall investigate two main limiting factors: image blurring and object variability. Psychophysical studies followed by ROC analysis are widely used for system assessment, but it is of great practical interest to be able to predict the outcome of psychophysical studies, especially for system design and optimization. The ideal observer is often chosen as a standard of comparison for the human observer since, at least for simple tasks, its performance can be readily calculated using statistical decision theory. We already know, however, of cases reported in the literature where the human observer performs far below ideal, and one of the purposes of this dissertation is to determine whether there are other practical circumstances where human and ideal performances diverge. Moreover, when the complexity of the task increases, the ideal observer becomes quickly intractable, and other observers such as the Hotelling and the nonprewhitening (npw) ideal observers may be considered instead. A practical problem where our intuition tells us that the ideal observer may fail to predict human performance occurs with imaging devices that are characterized by a PSF having long spatial tails. The investigation of the impact of long-tailed PSFs on detection is of great interest since they are commonly encountered in medical imaging and even more generally in image science. We shall show that the ideal observer is a poor predictor of human performance for a simple two-hypothesis detection task and that linear filtering of the images does indeed help the human observer. Another practical problem of considerable interest is the effect of background nonuniformity on detectability since, it is one more step towards assessing image quality for real clinical images. When the background is known exactly (BKE), the Hotelling and the npw ideal observers predict that detection is optimal for an infinite aperture; a spatially varying background (SVB) results in an optimum aperture size. Moreover, given a fixed aperture size and a BKE, an increase in exposure time is highly beneficial for both observers. For SVB, on the other hand, the Hotelling observer benefits from an increases in exposure time, while the npw ideal observer quickly saturates. In terms of human performance, results show a good agreement with the Hotelling-observer predictions, while the performance disagrees strongly with the npw ideal observer.

Rolland, Jannick Paule Yvette

289

Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students / Comportamentos de risco para transtorno alimentar: fatores associados em adolescentes escolares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência de comportamentos de risco para condutas de alimentação inapropriada (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Tem sido proposto que a insatisfação corporal, a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômi [...] co e a origem étnica podem ser fatores de risco para CAI. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de insatisfação corporal, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), adiposidade corporal, estado nutricional, nível econômico e etnia com CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 562 jovens, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 15 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para avaliar CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) e a Commitment Exercise Scale (CES) foram utilizadas para mensurar insatisfação corporal e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a adiposidade corporal segundo o sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e determinar o estado nutricional. Nível econômico foi avaliado de acordo com o Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário para avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. Conduziu-se regressão logística binária para determinar associações entre as variáveis da pesquisa. RESULTADOS: Houve associação de CAI com insatisfação corporal, GCPE e nível econômico no sexo feminino (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the a [...] ssociation of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES) were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI) and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p

Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Flavia Marcele, Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.

290

Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students / Comportamentos de risco para transtorno alimentar: fatores associados em adolescentes escolares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência de comportamentos de risco para condutas de alimentação inapropriada (CAI) entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Tem sido proposto que a insatisfação corporal, a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômi [...] co e a origem étnica podem ser fatores de risco para CAI. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de insatisfação corporal, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE), adiposidade corporal, estado nutricional, nível econômico e etnia com CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 562 jovens, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 15 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para avaliar CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) e a Commitment Exercise Scale (CES) foram utilizadas para mensurar insatisfação corporal e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a adiposidade corporal segundo o sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e determinar o estado nutricional. Nível econômico foi avaliado de acordo com o Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário para avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. Conduziu-se regressão logística binária para determinar associações entre as variáveis da pesquisa. RESULTADOS: Houve associação de CAI com insatisfação corporal, GCPE e nível econômico no sexo feminino (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the a [...] ssociation of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES) were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI) and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p

Leonardo de Sousa, Fortes; Flavia Marcele, Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo, Ferreira.

2013-12-01

291

Capacidad Discriminante y Clasificación Correcta de la Escala de Factores de riesgo Asociados con Trastornos de la alimentación (EFRATA-II) / Discriminatory power and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disorders (EPHRATA-II)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue establecer la capacidad discriminante y de clasificación correcta de la Escala de Factores de Riesgo Asociados con Trastornos Alimentarios (EFRATA-II), para niños y niñas. La muestra no aleatoria quedó formada por 934 estudiantes de escuelas públicas: 474 niñas y 460 niño [...] s con edad promedio de 10.6 años (DE = .80). El análisis discriminante, con el método D de Mahalanobis, arrojó una clasificación correcta de 100% de los casos en alto y bajo riesgo. La dimensión de sobre ingesta alimentaria por compensación psicológica fue la más relevante, seguida por la de dieta crónica y restringida. La EFRATA-II es un indicador adecuado para la estimación de factores de riesgo en la conducta alimentaria de preadolescentes, y representa una aportación valiosa en el desarrollo de programas preventivos para trastornos de la alimentación. Abstract in english The increased frequency of binge eating behavior, and its relationship to overweight and obesity, expressed a national and international real health problem. The aim of the study was to establish the discriminatory and correct classification of the Scale of Risk Factors Associated with Eating Disord [...] ers (Ephrata-II), for boys and girls. The non random sample was formed by 934 public school students: 474 girls and 460 boys with a mean age of 10.6 years (SD=.80). Discriminant analysis with Mahalanobis D method, yielded a correct classification of 100% of cases at high and low risk. The food overeating dimension of psychological compensation was the most relevant, followed by chronic restricted diet. The Ephrata-II is a suitable indicator for estimation of risk factors in eating behavior of tweens, and represents a valuable contribution in the development of prevention programs for eating disorders.

Romana Silvia, Platas Acevedo; Gilda, Gómez-Peresmitré; Rodrigo, León Hernández; Gisela, Pineda García; Rebeca, Guzmán Saldaña.

2013-12-01

292

Algebraic generalisation strategies: Factors influencing student strategy selection  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the algebraic generalisation strategies used by two fifth grade students along with the factors that appeared to influence these strategies. These students were examined over 18 instructional sessions using a teaching experiment methodology. The results highlighted the complex factors that appeared to influence student strategy use, which included: (a) input value, (b) mathematical structure of the task, (c) prior strategies, (d) visual image of the situation, and (e) social interactions with the teacher and other student. Particular combinations of these factors appeared to increase the predictability of student strategy use. However, the complex nature of the factors influencing these strategies demonstrates the challenges that exist in encouraging students to move toward more sophisticated strategies.

Lannin, John; Barker, David; Townsend, Brian

2006-12-01

293

Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Tunisia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine those factors that influence the adoption of internet banking services inTunisia. A theoretical model is provided that conceptualizes and links different factors influencing the adoptionof internet banking. A total of 253 respondents in Tunisia were sampled for responding: 95 were internet bankusers, 158 were internet bank non users. Factor analyses and regression technique are employed to study therelationship. The results of the model tested clearly that use of internet banking in Tunisia is influenced moststrongly by convenience, risk, security and prior internet knowledge. Only information on online banking did notaffect intention to use internet banking service in Tunisia. The results also propose that demographic factorsimpact significantly internet banking behaviour, specifically, occupation and instruction. Finally, this papersuggests that an understanding the factors affecting intention to use internet banking is very important to thepractitioners who plan and promote new forms of banking in the current competitive market.

Wadie Nasri

2011-08-01

294

Factors influencing the Conception of Rumours in Workplace  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aims to provide understanding on the way people understand rumours at their workplace from the other person’s perspective.  Specifically, this study examines the factors that influence the conception of rumours. Using purposive sampling and the researchers as the instrument, this study found that the conception of rumours in workplace are caused by several factors and these factors are categorised into rumour context and functions reliant and rumour content reliant. Rumour con...

Mohd Mursyiddin Abdul Manaf; Ghani, Erlane K.; Ismie Roha Mohamed Jais

2013-01-01

295

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...

296

THE INFLUENCE OF FOOD CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ON THE EATING HABITS OF BURUNDIAN IMMIGRANTS IN JYVASKYLA, FINLAND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to gather information on the Burundian food culture and nutrition habits for health care professionals to be able to provide the Burundians with holistic care. The purpose of the study was to find out the eating habits of the Burundian immigrants living in Jyvaskyla. Qualitative research method was used to gather the data which included a face to face interview with three Burundians who had lived in Finland for more than 6 months. In December 2013, the intervie...

Niyinzigama, Josepha

2014-01-01

297

Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. Methodology A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. Principal Findings The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (–0.012, 95%CI: –.038?0.006, p?=?0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022?0.044, p<0.001) and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005?0.023, p<0.01), respectively. Conclusions Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population. PMID:23071655

Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

2012-01-01

298

Eating Healthy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Topics Improve Your Health Patient Forms Patients Rights & Responsibilities Social Media Suggestions & Complaints Youth Regional Treatment Centers for ... living a healthy life. Healthy eating is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, society, and families. We all have a role. There ...

299

Eating Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... has shown to be effective in helping someone gain weight to reach a normal level. Different forms of psychotherapy, including individual, group, and family-based, can help address the psychological reasons for the ... helping people gain weight and improve eating habits and moods. Shown to ...

300

Identification of environmental supports for healthy eating in older adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many environmental settings and influences can affect food choices and eating behaviors in the growing population of community-dwelling older adults. Using the Social Ecological model, an expert panel participated in online discussions and an Analytic Hierarchy Process survey to identify the most important and changeable environmental settings and enabling factors that promote healthy eating in older adults. Food stores were rated most important when considering accessibility and affordability. Congregate nutrition sites were important for social support along with supporting access and affordability of healthful foods and living accommodations. Senior housing, health care, and religious settings also contributed to the goal of promoting healthful eating in aging adults. Restaurants were rated of lower importance. Based on these results, it is recommended that community food policies include the nutritional needs of older adults by addressing food accessibility and affordability, social support, and living accommodations, with a focus on congregate nutrition sites, food stores, senior housing, health care, and religious organizations. PMID:23663214

Sylvie, Amanda K; Jiang, Qianzhi; Cohen, Nancy

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Eating pattern of vegetarian diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.

Patricia Couceiro

2008-09-01

302

Transtornos alimentares na infância e na adolescência / Eating disorders in childhood and adolescence / Trastornos alimentares en la infancia y adolescencia y factores de riesgo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crianças e adolescentes quanto às suas características e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combinação dos termos 'crianças', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'trans [...] torno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas português e inglês. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisaram o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares não especificados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os não especificados, mostraram-se comuns na infância e na adolescência. Sua presença foi atribuída principalmente ao ambiente familiar e à exposição aos meios de comunicação. As comorbidades psicológicas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagnóstico do transtorno. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a mídia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influência da mídia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto à magreza. Já no âmbito familiar, o momento das refeições mostrou-se fundamental na determinação do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (déficit no crescimento e ganho de peso), à saúde bucal (queilose, erosão dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das glândulas salivares) e aos prejuízos sociais. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en niños y adolescentes respecto a sus características y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinación de los términos "niños", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alim [...] entar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Se consideraron los artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccionados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposición a los medios de comunicación. Las comorbilidades psicológicas muchas veces acompañan el diagnóstico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el ámbito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostró fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (déficit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso), a la salud oral (queilosis, erosión dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las glándulas salivares) y a los perjuicios sociales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia' [...] , both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to t

Juliana de Abreu, Gonçalves; Emilia Addison M., Moreira; Erasmo Benício S. de M., Trindade; Giovanna Medeiros R., Fiates.

2013-03-01

303

Transtornos alimentares na infância e na adolescência / Eating disorders in childhood and adolescence / Trastornos alimentares en la infancia y adolescencia y factores de riesgo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Discutir os transtornos alimentares em crianças e adolescentes quanto às suas características e fatores de risco. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO pela combinação dos termos 'crianças', 'adolescentes', 'comportamento alimentar', 'trans [...] torno alimentar', 'bulimia' e 'anorexia', nos idiomas português e inglês. Foram considerados os artigos publicados entre 2007 e 2011, sendo selecionados 49 que analisaram o desenvolvimento do comportamento alimentar e de seus transtornos, a anorexia e a bulimia nervosa e os transtornos alimentares não especificados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os transtornos alimentares, em especial os não especificados, mostraram-se comuns na infância e na adolescência. Sua presença foi atribuída principalmente ao ambiente familiar e à exposição aos meios de comunicação. As comorbidades psicológicas muitas vezes acompanhavam o diagnóstico do transtorno. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco para os transtornos alimentares, destacaram-se a mídia e os ambientes social e familiar. A influência da mídia e do ambiente social foi associada, principalmente, ao culto à magreza. Já no âmbito familiar, o momento das refeições mostrou-se fundamental na determinação do comportamento alimentar e no desenvolvimento de seus transtornos. Os transtornos alimentares se associaram a problemas nutricionais (déficit no crescimento e ganho de peso), à saúde bucal (queilose, erosão dental, periodontites e hipertrofia das glândulas salivares) e aos prejuízos sociais. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Discutir los trastornos alimentares en niños y adolescentes respecto a sus características y factores de riesgo. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación de artículos se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO por la combinación de los términos "niños", "adolescentes", "comportamiento alim [...] entar", "trastorno alimentar", "bulimia" y "anorexia", en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Se consideraron los artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2011, siendo seleccionados 49 que analizaron el desarrollo del comportamiento alimentar y de sus trastornos, la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosa y los trastornos alimentares no especificados. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Los trastornos alimentares, en especial los no especificados, se mostraron comunes en la infancia y en la adolescencia. Su presencia fue asignada principalmente al ambiente familiar y a la exposición a los medios de comunicación. Las comorbilidades psicológicas muchas veces acompañan el diagnóstico del trastorno. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores de riesgo para los trastornos alimentares, se destacan los medios y los ambientes social y familiar. La influencia de los medios y del ambiente social fue asociada, principalmente, al culto a la delgadez. En el ámbito familiar, a su vez, el momento de la comida se mostró fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento alimentar y en el desarrollo de sus trastornos. Los trastornos alimentares se asociaron a problemas nutricionales (déficit en el crecimiento y ganancia de peso), a la salud oral (queilosis, erosión dental, periodontitis e hipertrofia de las glándulas salivares) y a los perjuicios sociales. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss eating disorders in children and adolescents regarding their characteristics and risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Articles were searched in the PubMed and ScieLO databases, combining the terms 'children', 'adolescents', 'eating behavior', 'eating disorder', 'bulimia', and 'anorexia' [...] , both in Portuguese and in English. Studies published between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved and 49 articles that assessed eating behavior and disorders, nervous anorexia and bulimia, and non-specific eating disorders were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eating disorders, especially non-specific ones, were common during childhood and adolescence. The presence of such disorders was attributed mainly to family environment and exposure to t

Juliana de Abreu, Gonçalves; Emilia Addison M., Moreira; Erasmo Benício S. de M., Trindade; Giovanna Medeiros R., Fiates.

304

A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

Hamidreza Kheirkhah

2014-04-01

305

Factors Influencing Corporate Online Identity: A New Paradigm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.

Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.

306

Factors Influencing Corporate Online Identity: A New Paradigm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Electronic commerce research has shown that a very wide variety of factors such as website quality and vendor reputation influence consumer behaviors and outcomes. These behaviors and outcomes include: trust, intention to transact, and return visits. However, these factors are typically studied in i [...] solation and often show conflicting results. This paper proposes a unifying model of online identity (or e-image) that combines the various factors that influence user perceptions of an e-business. Survey results support the importance of a wide variety of e-image factors when forming impressions online and show that while information content is the foremost concern for most users, the importance of other factors varies depending on the role of the user in establishing a relationship with the owner of the online identity.

Steven, Walczak; Dawn G, Gregg.

2009-12-01

307

A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

Ali Valipour

2013-01-01

308

Factors Influencing Nursing-Sensitive Outcomes in Taiwanese Nursing Homes.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Outcomes research needs to be conducted in countries beyond the USA if nursing classification is to move into visibility and acceptance in health care delivery around the world. Clinical outcomes that reflect nursing interventions have not been well documented. Recent socioeconomic changes in Taiwan have provided a unique opportunity to measure nursing-sensitive outcomes in nurse-managed nursing homes. The purpose of recently completed research conducted in eight selected nursing homes in Taiwan was to explore factors influencing two nursing-sensitive outcomes, namely, biopsychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. Nursing-sensitive outcomes are defined as changes in health status upon which nursing care has had a direct influence. The researchers considered the impact of both individual patient factors and organizational factors on the care outcomes. Individual patient factors were found to be significantly more important than organizational factors in determining biopsychosocial function.

Yang, Ke-Ping A., Simms, Lillian M., Yin, Jeo-Chen T

1999-08-01

309

Influência do estado nutricional no risco para transtornos alimentares em estudantes de nutrição Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliar a relação entre a alteração do comportamento alimentar, associado à insatisfação com a imagem corporal, e o estado nutricional de universitárias de Nutrição. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 175 universitárias do Curso de Nutrição (ENUT/UFOP. Foram aplicados os questionários Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 e o Body Shape Questionare (BSQ e realizadas medidas antropométricas. 21,7% das estudantes apresentaram alto risco para transtornos alimentares e 13,7% apresentaram insatisfação com a imagem corporal. A maioria das estudantes com BSQ e EAT-26 positivos estava eutrófica. As estudantes com excesso de peso, aumento do percentual de gordura corporal (% GC e do perímetro da cintura (PC apresentaram risco 5 a 9 vezes maiores de alteração do comportamento alimentar. Houve associação positiva entre os parâmetros antropométricos com a pontuação dos questionários EAT-26 e BSQ. Futuras nutricionistas com excesso de peso apresentaram maior risco de estarem insatisfeitas com a sua imagem corporal e de desenvolverem transtornos alimentares. A utilização de outros parâmetros antropométricos, além do IMC, pode ser útil na triagem de indivíduos suscetíveis ao surgimento de preocupações excessivas com o peso corporal e a alimentação.The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF and waist circumference (WC had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.

Janiara David Silva

2012-12-01

310

Influência do estado nutricional no risco para transtornos alimentares em estudantes de nutrição / Influence of the nutritional status in the risk of eating disorders among female university students of nutrition: eating patterns and nutritional status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliar a relação entre a alteração do comportamento alimentar, associado à insatisfação com a imagem corporal, e o estado nutricional de universitárias de Nutrição. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 175 universitárias do Curso de Nutrição (ENUT/UFOP). Foram aplicados os questionários Eating Att [...] itudes Test-26 (EAT-26) e o Body Shape Questionare (BSQ) e realizadas medidas antropométricas. 21,7% das estudantes apresentaram alto risco para transtornos alimentares e 13,7% apresentaram insatisfação com a imagem corporal. A maioria das estudantes com BSQ e EAT-26 positivos estava eutrófica. As estudantes com excesso de peso, aumento do percentual de gordura corporal (% GC) e do perímetro da cintura (PC) apresentaram risco 5 a 9 vezes maiores de alteração do comportamento alimentar. Houve associação positiva entre os parâmetros antropométricos com a pontuação dos questionários EAT-26 e BSQ. Futuras nutricionistas com excesso de peso apresentaram maior risco de estarem insatisfeitas com a sua imagem corporal e de desenvolverem transtornos alimentares. A utilização de outros parâmetros antropométricos, além do IMC, pode ser útil na triagem de indivíduos suscetíveis ao surgimento de preocupações excessivas com o peso corporal e a alimentação. Abstract in english The scope of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between changes in eating behavior associated with dissatisfaction with body image, and the nutritional status of female university students of nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female students of nutrition (ENUT/UFOP) [...] . The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were applied and anthropometric measurements were taken. 21.7% of the students were found to be high risk in terms of eating disorders, and 13.7% declared dissatisfaction with their body image. The majority of students with positive results in the BSQ and EAT-26 tests were eutrophic. The students who were overweight, with elevated body fat percentage (% BF) and waist circumference (WC) had a 5-9 times greater risk of change in eating habits. There was a positive association between the anthropometric parameters with high scores in the EAT-26 and BSQ questionnaires. The future dietitians who are overweight, with increased body fat and waist circumference were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and develop eating disorders. The use of other anthropometric parameters, in addition to BMI, may prove useful in screening individuals susceptible to the emergence of excessive concerns with weight and diet.

Janiara David, Silva; Amanda Bertolini de Jesus, Silva; Aihancreson Vaz Kirchoff de, Oliveira; Aline Silva de Aguiar, Nemer.

311

VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN PÚBERES MEXICANOS / VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para púberes mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que evalúe factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y método: El cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra no probabilística, de púberes estudiantes de la [...] ciudad de México (504 hombres y 511 mujeres), con edades de 11 a 15 años de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realizó un análisis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y un análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación oblimin por el método de máxima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada) y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada). Conclusión: El instrumento resultó válido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal. Abstract in english Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female student [...] s in México City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha) and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %), and females 0,83 (57,6%) of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.

Teresita de Jesús, Saucedo-Molina; Claudia, Unikel-Santoncini.

312

VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN PÚBERES MEXICANOS / VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para púberes mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que evalúe factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y método: El cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra no probabilística, de púberes estudiantes de la [...] ciudad de México (504 hombres y 511 mujeres), con edades de 11 a 15 años de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realizó un análisis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y un análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación oblimin por el método de máxima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada) y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada). Conclusión: El instrumento resultó válido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal. Abstract in english Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female student [...] s in México City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha) and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %), and females 0,83 (57,6%) of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.

Teresita de Jesús, Saucedo-Molina; Claudia, Unikel-Santoncini.

2010-03-01

313

Factors that influence the behavioral pain responses of premature infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The responses of preterm neonates to acute tissue-damaging stimuli have been described. However, factors which influence these responses have received little attention. In this study, we observed 124 premature infants before, during and after a routine heel lance and determined how two contextual variables (severity of illness and behavioral state) influenced their behavioral responses. Significant changes in facial actions occurred between baseline and the most invasive phase of the heel lance procedure, stick. The fundamental frequency, harmonic structure and peak spectral energy of the infant's cry were also significantly increased during the stick phase. Behavioral state was found to influence the facial action variables and severity of illness modified the acoustic cry variables. Accurate identification of pain in premature infants requires consideration of factors that influence their response. PMID:7854790

Stevens, B J; Johnston, C C; Horton, L

1994-10-01

314

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS IN CANADA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the factors that influence the working capital requirements (wcr in canada. a sample of 166 canadian firms listed on toronto stock exchange for a period of 3 years from 2008-2010 was selected. this study applied co-relational and non-experimental research design. overall results indicate that operating cycle (oc, return on assets (roa, internationalization of firm, firm’s growth, and firm size influence the wcr in canada. the study also found that oc, roa, leverage, internationalization of the firm, tobin's q, and firm size influence the working capital requirements in the canadian manufacturing industry. in addition, findings show that oc, roa, sales growth, and firm size affect the wcr in the canadian service industry. this study contributes to the literature on the factors that influence working capital requirements. the findings may be useful for the financial managers, investors, and financial management consultants.

Amarjit Gill

2011-10-01

315

Factors that influence the patient centredness of a consultation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND. Research suggests that patients are more satisfied with patient-centred consultations than with doctor-centred consultations and that some health measures are positively influenced by this type of consultation. Research on the factors that influence the patient centredness of the consultation is sparse but suggests that women doctors are more patient centred than men doctors. AIM. A study was designed, first, to confirm or reject the suggestion that women general practitioners are...

Law, S. A.; Britten, N.

1995-01-01

316

Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

317

Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

Fratu, D.

2011-01-01

318

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE E-LOYALTY OF INTERNET BANKING USERS  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence customer e-loyalty. In this respect, we identified three factors that may influence customer e-loyalty, namely trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging. We used Internet banking as the target technology and college students as subjects for this study. One hundred and nineteen questionnaires were used for the data analysis and multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Trust, customer satisfaction, and sense of belonging were found to have a significant impact on customer e-loyalty in Internet banking.

Ameen M Al-Agaga

2012-12-01

319

Organizational Structure: Influencing Factors and Impact on a Firm  

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Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on organizational structure has been in researchers’ focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Many of these factors are from the environment where traditional view commonly divided into internal and external factors. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate the influencing factors and impact on organizational structure of a sample of firms located in Hanoi, Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were administered with respect to these factors. The variables studied were identified from among the factors considered in contingency theory and by incorporating elements of the strategic choice approach. After grouping the variables into two factors (related to external and internal respectively, the results revealed three groups of firms according to how they regarded the impact of these factors on organizational structures. In those groups that consider the variables of internal factors to be modifiers of structure the organizational structures are of the “complex classical” type, whereas simple forms predominate in the group that believes these variables do not modify their structure.

Quangyen Tran

2013-04-01

320

Health behaviour among adolescents in Denmark: influence of school class and individual risk factors.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes. Data were collected through questionnaires completed by the students and by their class teacher and information from the school physician. Multilevel analysis was used to indicate the relative significance of individual and school class characteristics. RESULTS: We find no consistent pattern between the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all other adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, and use of hashish and other euphoriants. Circumstances in the school class more profoundly influenced risk behaviour among adolescents (smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of hashish or other euphoriants) than their dietary habits (eating breakfast, frequent intake of fruit and vegetables, and frequent intake of soft drinks). CONCLUSIONS: The school class had the relatively strongest influence on adolescents' risk behaviour (smoking, alcohol intake, and use of hashish or other euphoriants), whereas family circumstances comprised the strongest influence on dietary habits. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-null

Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, SØren

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Ranking different factors influencing on development of tourism industry  

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Full Text Available Tourism industry plays an essential role on development of economy and it is considered as one of green industries. Many countries try to promote investment on tourism to create various job opportunities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on tourism industry in city of Yazd, Iran. The proposed study uses three multiple criteria decision making techniques namely, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW and Taxonomy to rank 40 factors. The results indicate that factors such as Being located in the center axis of communication, Strengths in transportation, The ease of access to tourism destinations and Sufficient knowledge of some historical attractions are among important factors influencing tourism industry.

Mojtaba Khalesi Ardakani

2014-05-01

322

Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia rítmica, patinaje artístico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifestándose con frecuencia una baja autoestima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de pérdida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejercido a través de la manipulación de la comida y la utilización de métodos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducción de la densidad mineral ósea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tríada de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y pérdidas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparición se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendación del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas pérdidas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupación excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participación de médicos, psicólogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas.Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food manipulation and the use of inadequate methods of control weight. Frequently, they are associated in female athletes to irregularities of the menstrual cycle, reduction of the bone mineral density and osteoporosis, giving rise to so-called female athlete triad. Cardiovascular problems, a greater incidence of fractures, and muscular power and resistance losses which impair performance, can also develop. Between the risk for their appearance are attempts to lose weight, often by recommendation of the coach, increases of training loads associated to weight losses, characteristics of the personality that take to excessive preoccupation by body image, or injuries and traumatisms. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with participation of physicians, psychologists/psychiatrists, nutricionists, coaches and family, being specially important the emphasis on preventive measures.

S. Márquez

2008-06-01

323

Body image, eating disorders, and the drive for muscularity in gay and heterosexual men: the influence of media images.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Internet research project examined the relationship between consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and/or various indices of pornography and body satisfaction in gay and heterosexual men. Participants (N = 101) were asked to complete body satisfaction questionnaires that addressed maladaptive eating attitudes, the drive for muscularity, and social physique anxiety. Participants also completed scales measuring self-esteem, depression, and socially desirable responding. Finally, respondents were asked about their consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and pornography. Results indicated that viewing and purchasing of muscle and fitness magazines correlated positively with levels of body dissatisfaction for both gay and heterosexual men. Pornography exposure was positively correlated with social physique anxiety for gay men. The limitations of this study and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:15451703

Duggan, Scott J; McCreary, Donald R

2004-01-01

324

Research of factors influencing the quality of wood briquets  

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Full Text Available In the modern energy carriers producion is very important to know the impacts of several factors which influence the final quality of briquets. In our department we realized opening measurements of some factors’ impact on the briquet quality. I monitored the impact of compacting pressure, fraction largeness and the material humidity. In this contribution, I would like to describe this opening experimental research.

Peter Križan

2007-10-01

325

An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distr...

Mojtaba Esmaeeli; Hamid Bagheri; Sina Nobahari; Naser Azad; Mohammad Rikhtegar

2013-01-01

326

Predictors of eating behaviors in a sample of Mexican women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to develop a model of potential risk factors associated to the development of eating behaviors in Mexican women. A structural equation model was carried out on a sample of 425 women: high school and college students (N=425) with a mean age of 19.1 years (SD=3.8). The variables selected for the model were those that obtained significant correlations with the variable "eating behaviors": criticism by father/mother, depressed mood, body mass index, attitudes and beliefs concerning obesity and dissatisfaction with figure. The model fitted the data well, with a non-significant Chi-square. The proportion of variance explained for eating behavior by the other variables was 59, the direct effects of all the variables were significant, while the total effect of all the variables on eating behavior were also significant, particularly the effects of the "dissatisfaction with figure" and, "attitudes and beliefs concerning obesity". The model yielded similar data to the findings in international literature, since they revealed the influence exerted by social pressure on thinness, the internalization of the socio-cultural ideal of thinness and the role of excess weight in increasing the risk of body dissatisfaction and therefore with the development of eating disorders. PMID:15943170

Unikel, C; Aguilar, J; Gómez-Peresmitré, G

2005-03-01

327

Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

328

Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15

329

Genetics of eating disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disordered eating behavior is the core symptom of the complex disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Twin and family studies derive high heritability estimates. Hence, substantial genetic influences on the etiology can be assumed for both. Initially, candidate gene studies pertaining to the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems and to body weight regulation comprised the core of the genetic analyses. Unfortunately, confirmed, solid findings substantiated in meta-analyses are rare, so that eventually none of these associations is unequivocal. Thus, systematic, genome-wide approaches emerged to identify genes with no a priori evidence for their involvement in eating disorders. Genome-wide association studies have hinted to formerly unknown genetic regions. However, significant genome-wide findings have not yet been reported. PMID:24202964

Hinney, Anke; Volckmar, Anna-Lena

2013-12-01

330

External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes  

Science.gov (United States)

When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

2009-01-01

331

The factors that influence CAD/CAM/CAE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)

332

Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

2011-01-01

333

The Remarriage Market: Factors Influencing the Selection of Second Husbands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the influence of factors associated with the remarriage market on two outcome areas: (1) the probability of remarriage and the interval between marital events; and (2) the selectivity of spouse characteristics. Findings are consistent with a remarriage market perspective. (Author)

Gurak, Douglas T.; Dean, Gillian

1979-01-01

334

Factors Influencing First-Year Students' Success in Mathematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifies factors that were perceived as making the most important contributions to students' academic success or failure in first-year mathematics courses. Indicates areas of similarities and areas of differences in lecturers' and students' perceptions about influences on student success and failure. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/ASK)

Anthony, Glenda

2000-01-01

335

Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

McHugh, Seamus

2011-03-01

336

Fusel oils formation during alcoholic fermentation and its influencing factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fusel oils are synthesized in saccharomyces cerevisiae at the beginning, by a catabolic way which utilizes the degradation of the amino acids present in the worts, next, by an anabolic way which utilizes carbon sources after glycolysis. However, several factors influence these biosynthesis: amount of nitrogenous substances in the worts, temperature, pH, aeration, initial sugars concentration and worts turbidity.

Letourneau, F.; Duverlie, C.; Villa, P. (U.E.R. des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, 80 - Amiens (France))

337

Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement  

Science.gov (United States)

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

2013-01-01

338

Factors influencing indoor concentrations of radon and daughter products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The correlation between indoor concentrations of 222Rn and its daughters and some influencing factors is discussed and expressions of concentrations are derived with relation to radon exhalation rate from indoor surfaces, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities on indoor surfaces. Experimental methods for determining radon exhalation rate, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities are also mentioned

339

Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

2011-01-01

340

The application of radiolysis and analysis of influencing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a branch of radiation technology, radiolysis technology has been developing in recent years. The update research and application of radiolysis is briefly reviewed. The radiolysis in reducing veterinary drug residues in food, processing plant sources products and environmental management are summaried. The influencing factors or the mechanism and radiolysis products are reviewed. (authors)

 
 
 
 
341

Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

Agarwala, Tanuja

2008-01-01

342

Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

Woodall, James

2012-01-01

343

Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

Mona Yaghoubi

2014-07-01

344

Adapting the mealtime environment: setting the stage for eating.  

Science.gov (United States)

In long-term care facilities, mealtime should be an important and exciting event that residents and staff look forward to three times a day. Providing residents with a homelike, pleasant dining atmosphere should promote socialization, enhance awareness, and increase appetites, thereby improving the residents' quality of life. This paper discusses the subtle but strong influence that the environment has in preparing residents for eating. Environmental factors that promote a positive mealtime experience are discussed. PMID:2119947

Hotaling, D L

1990-01-01

345

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

DANA-CODRU?A DUD?-D?IANU

2012-05-01

346

Factors that influence the test day milk yield and composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to study the factors that influence the test day milk yield (TDMY) and percentages of protein, fat, lactose, and total dry extract obtained on test day. We evaluated 110,732 weekly milk production records from 1496 goats and 19,271 monthly milk constituent records from 1245 Alpine and Saanen goats, which were collected from 1997 to 2010 in the goat sector at Universidade Federal de Viçosa. To ensure greater record reliability, only lactation data with kidding order between 1 to 6, type of kidding data including 0 to 3 kids, milk control years after 1997, and genetic groupings other than types 7 or 9 were considered, due to the relative lack of information recorded for some classes of these factors. Data in which the reported milk days were less than 7 or greater than 315 were also eliminated. Goats aged greater than 300 days at calving and those aged less than 6 years at control were considered in this study. Milk production was higher in the dry season in comparison to the rainy season. Genetic grouping did not influence all traits in both breedings. The TDMY tended to increase along with increasing age of the goats at kidding, while the opposite trend was observed relative to kidding order. Factors that significantly influenced all of the studied traits varied, and the factors that significantly influenced each trait were altered between the relationship of Alpine and Saanen breeds. Thus, the analysis of factors that influence traits to be evaluated in the herd under study is critical for defining the best evaluation model. PMID:23765958

Silva, F G; Brito, L F; Torres, R A; Ribeiro Júnior, J I; Oliveira, H R; Caetano, G C; Rodrigues, M T

2013-01-01

347

Leptina e sua influência na patofisiologia de distúrbios alimentares / Leptin and its influence in the pathophysiology of eating disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leptina é uma proteína secretada pelos adipócitos com papel regulador em vários sistemas do organismo, como sistema imune, respiratório e reprodutivo, bem como no balanço energético via ação hipotalâmica. Sua ação primária ocorre no núcleo hipotalâmico arqueado, no qual inicia uma cascata de event [...] os para inibição da ingestão energética e aumento do gasto energético. As concentrações de leptina são influenciadas pela adiposidade, fatores hormonais e nutricionais. A restrição e os episódios de compulsão alimentar, presentes na anorexia nervosa e bulimia, respectivamente, são considerados, na literatura científica, fatores determinantes na leptinemia. Seus níveis também alterados no tratamento desses distúrbios alimentares sugerem uma relação entre as alterações neuroendócrinas e conseqüentes modificações nos sinais de fome e saciedade, com a patogenia ou manutenção dos quadros clínicos. Trabalhos têm encontrado impacto dessas alterações na saúde dos pacientes, em curto e longo prazos. Esta revisão tem como objetivo esclarecer quais são as funções da leptina nos tecidos nervoso e periférico, quais os mecanismos que interferem na sua concentração nos distúrbios alimentares e como isso reflete na saúde do paciente anoréxico ou bulímico. Abstract in english Leptin, a protein secreted by adipocytes, has a regulatory function in several organism systems such as the immune, respiratory, and reproductive systems and in the energy balance via hypothalamic action. Its primary action occurs in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, where it begins a cascade of eve [...] nts that inhibits energy intake and enhances energy consumption. The concentration of leptin is influenced by adiposity and hormonal and nutritional factors. The scientific literature considers food restriction and binge episodes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia, respectively, as determining factors of leptin circulation. Leptin levels are also altered during the treatment of these food disturbances, which indicates a relation between neuroendocrine alterations and eventual modifications in hunger and satiety signals and pathogenesis or clinical state of patients. Studies have reported on the short and long-term impact of these alterations on health. Therefore, this review aims to explain the function of leptin in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the mechanisms that interfere with its concentrations in food disturbances, and how this reflects on the health of anorectic and bulimic patients.

Helen Hermana Miranda, Hermsdorff; Maria Aparecida de Queiroga Milagres, Vieira; Josefina Bressan Resende, Monteiro.

348

Un estudio preliminar de los factores predictores de la conducta de atracón en tres culturas: México, Argentina y España / A preliminary study of the predictive factors of binge eating behavior in three cultures: Mexico, Spain and Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La conducta de atracón, el incremento en su frecuencia que incide en el riesgo asociado a trastorno alimentario, así como su relación con sobrepeso y obesidad constituyen un problema de salud vigente a nivel nacional e internacional. El objetivo de la investigación fue explorar, identificar y descri [...] bir los factores de riesgo que se interrelacionan y explican la Conducta de Atracón, poniendo especial interés en las similitudes y diferencias inherentes a muestras de tres diferentes países de habla hispana (México, España y Argentina). La muestra agrupó N = 258 mujeres: mexicanas (n = 85, Medad = 16.18, DE = 0.99); argentinas (n = 75, Medad = 17.00, DE = 1.24) y españolas (n = 98, Medad = 17.00, DE = 1.36). Se utilizaron instrumentos psicométricamente adecuados. Entre los resultados de mayor interés se encontró que el factor comer por compensación psicológica obtiene el peso ? más alto en cada grupo y el análisis de senderos confirma su importancia intercultural. El carácter emocional de dicho factor, su aportación a la prevención y su poder predictivo forman parte de la discusión. Abstract in english The increased frequency of binge eating behavior, and its relationship to overweight and obesity, expressed a national and international real health problem. The objective of this study was to explore, identify and describe the risk factors that interrelate and explain Binge Eating Behavior, paying [...] special attention to the similarities and differences inherent to samples from three different Spanish-speaking countries (Mexico, Spain and Argentina). The total sample consisted of N = 258 women: Mexican (n = 85, Mage = 16.18, SD = 0.99); Argentine (n = 75, Mage = 17.00, SD = 1.24) and Spanish (n = 98, Mage = 17.00, SD = 1.36). The instruments used showed a good psychometrical properties. The eating for psychological compensation factor gets the highest ? weight in the three groups and its intercultural relevance is confirmed by the Path Analysis. It is discussed the emotional nature of the eating for psychological compensation factor, its contribution to prevention, and its predictive power.

Gilda, Gómez-Peresmitré; Victoria, Acosta García; Roberta, Gorischnik; Corina, Cuevas Renaud; Gisela, Pineda García; Romana Silvia, Platas Acevedo; Rebeca, Guzmán Saldaña; Rodrigo, León Hernández.

349

Un estudio preliminar de los factores predictores de la conducta de atracón en tres culturas: México, Argentina y España / A preliminary study of the predictive factors of binge eating behavior in three cultures: Mexico, Spain and Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La conducta de atracón, el incremento en su frecuencia que incide en el riesgo asociado a trastorno alimentario, así como su relación con sobrepeso y obesidad constituyen un problema de salud vigente a nivel nacional e internacional. El objetivo de la investigación fue explorar, identificar y descri [...] bir los factores de riesgo que se interrelacionan y explican la Conducta de Atracón, poniendo especial interés en las similitudes y diferencias inherentes a muestras de tres diferentes países de habla hispana (México, España y Argentina). La muestra agrupó N = 258 mujeres: mexicanas (n = 85, Medad = 16.18, DE = 0.99); argentinas (n = 75, Medad = 17.00, DE = 1.24) y españolas (n = 98, Medad = 17.00, DE = 1.36). Se utilizaron instrumentos psicométricamente adecuados. Entre los resultados de mayor interés se encontró que el factor comer por compensación psicológica obtiene el peso ? más alto en cada grupo y el análisis de senderos confirma su importancia intercultural. El carácter emocional de dicho factor, su aportación a la prevención y su poder predictivo forman parte de la discusión. Abstract in english The increased frequency of binge eating behavior, and its relationship to overweight and obesity, expressed a national and international real health problem. The objective of this study was to explore, identify and describe the risk factors that interrelate and explain Binge Eating Behavior, paying [...] special attention to the similarities and differences inherent to samples from three different Spanish-speaking countries (Mexico, Spain and Argentina). The total sample consisted of N = 258 women: Mexican (n = 85, Mage = 16.18, SD = 0.99); Argentine (n = 75, Mage = 17.00, SD = 1.24) and Spanish (n = 98, Mage = 17.00, SD = 1.36). The instruments used showed a good psychometrical properties. The eating for psychological compensation factor gets the highest ? weight in the three groups and its intercultural relevance is confirmed by the Path Analysis. It is discussed the emotional nature of the eating for psychological compensation factor, its contribution to prevention, and its predictive power.

Gilda, Gómez-Peresmitré; Victoria, Acosta García; Roberta, Gorischnik; Corina, Cuevas Renaud; Gisela, Pineda García; Romana Silvia, Platas Acevedo; Rebeca, Guzmán Saldaña; Rodrigo, León Hernández.

2013-12-01

350

Binge Eating Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

... PDF files require the free Adobe Acrobat Reader Binge Eating Disorder How common is binge eating disorder? How do ... and how to get help. How common is binge eating disorder? What is obesity? Obesity is usually defined ...

351

Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

352

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers’ experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers’ tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

Naser Azad

2013-07-01

353

ELUSIVE FACTORS INFLUENCING SHARE VALUES: AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examined the elusive factors influencing share value in the Nigeria oil and gas industry with the aim of determining their effect and the extent to which they influenced share value. A simple random technique was used to select three of the six listed oil and gas companies on the Nigeria stock exchange. A stratified random technique was then used to select respondent in the functional department across the selected oil and gas industry. Both secondary and primary data were involved in the study. Stepwise regression analysis was used to capture the relative contribution and effect of the factors on share value. The results exhibit a strong relationship between the oil and gas industry market value and the elusive factors -Innovation, human capital, and supply chain management. Innovation was indentified to be the major driving force adding value to the Nigerian oil and gas industry, followed by human capital development and supply chain management.

OYEDOKUN, Akintunde, Jonathan

2011-09-01

354

A biopsychosocial model of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body image and eating concerns are prevalent among early adolescent girls, and associated with biological, psychological and sociocultural risk factors. To date, explorations of biopsychosocial models of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls are lacking. A sample of 488 early adolescent girls, mean age = 12.35 years (SD = 0.53), completed a questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), sociocultural appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, body image concerns and disordered eating. Structural equation modelling was conducted to test a hypothetical model in which internalization and comparison were mediators of the effect of both negative affect and sociocultural influences on body image concerns and disordered eating. In addition, the model proposed that BMI would impact body image concerns. Although the initial model was a poor fit to the data, the fit was improved after the addition of a direct pathway between negative affect and bulimic symptoms. The final model explained a large to moderate proportion of the variance in body image and eating concerns. This study supports the role of negative affect in biopsychosocial models of the development of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Interventions including strategies to address negative affect as well as sociocultural appearance pressures may help decrease the risk for body image concerns and disordered eating among this age group. PMID:24014348

Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A

2014-05-01

355

Eating Disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La competencia del terapeuta es fundamental para el éxito en el tratamiento de los Trastornos Psicológicos. Sin embargo, las habilidades que se requieren para tratar eficazmente los Trastornos del Comportamiento Alimentarios pueden ser más demandantes que para otros problemas, porque la competencia [...] requiere del dominio de considerable información educativa acerca de las complicaciones físicas asociadas con los síntomas de los Trastornos Alimentarios y la supresión crónica de peso. El modelo de tratamiento cognitivo-conductual se ha convertido en el mejor definido en recientes años, sin embargo, el marco de la competencia del terapeuta continúa aumentando, dado que, la base de conocimientos se ha ampliado con el alto nivel de interés en la investigación clínica y en los trastornos alimentarios. Las directrices que proporciona este artículo tiene objetivo servir de trampolín para la formación y supervisión para mejorar la atención al paciente. Abstract in english Therapist competency is fundamental to the success in treating most psychological disorders. However, the skills required to effectively treat eating disorders may be more demanding than many other problems, because competency requires mastery of considerable educational information about physical c [...] omplications associated with eating-disorder symptoms and chronic weight suppression. The cognitive-behavioral model of treatment has become well-defined in recent years; however, the mark for therapist competency continues to rise as the knowledge base has expanded with the high level of clinical and research interest in eating disorders. The guidelines provided in this paper are intended to provide a springboard for the training and supervision to improve patient care.

David M., Garner; Christopher D., Keiper.

356

Association between olfactory receptor genes, eating behavior traits and adiposity: results from the Quebec Family Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a major health problem that can be influenced by eating behaviors. Evidence suggests that the sensory properties of food influence eating behaviors and lead to overeating and overweight. A previous genome-wide linkage scan for eating behavior traits assessed with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (cognitive dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger) performed in the Quebec Family Study (QFS) revealed a quantitative trait locus for disinhibition on chromosome 19p13. This region encodes a cluster of seven olfactory receptor (OR) genes, including OR7D4, previously associated with odor perceptions. Direct sequencing of the OR7D4 gene revealed 16 sequence variants. Nine OR7D4 sequence variants with minor allele frequency (MAF)>1% as well as 100 SNPs spanning the cluster of OR genes on 19p13 were tested for association with age- and sex-adjusted eating behaviors as well as adiposity traits in 890 subjects. One OR7D4 sequence variant (rs2878329 G>A) showed evidence of association with reduced levels of adiposity (p=0.03), cognitive dietary restraint (p=0.05) and susceptibility to hunger (p=0.008). None of the OR7D4 SNPs was associated with disinhibition, but a SNP (rs2240927) in another OR gene (OR7E24) showed evidence of association (p=0.03). Another SNP in the OR7G3 gene (rs10414255) was also found to be associated with adiposity and eating behaviors. These results are the first to suggest that variations in human olfactory receptor genes can influence eating behaviors and adiposity. The associations reported in the present study should be interpreted with caution considering the number of tests performed and considered as potential new hypotheses about the effects OR polymorphisms on eating behaviors and obesity that need to be further explored in other populations. PMID:22044667

Choquette, Anne C; Bouchard, Luigi; Drapeau, Vicky; Lemieux, Simone; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Pérusse, Louis

2012-02-01

357

Research in Review. Children's Eating: The Development of Food-Acceptance Patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews what is known about the factors that influence child's food-acceptance patterns, including children's sensory responsiveness, innate preferences, and ability to learn about food; the consequences of eating; and the effect of child-feeding practices on children's food-acceptance patterns. Suggests that early experience contributes to the…

Birch, Leann L.; And Others

1995-01-01

358

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

359

Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

Juana Robledo Martín

2008-01-01

360

Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

2012-05-15

 
 
 
 
361

THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

2013-07-01

362

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS IN CANADA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to find the factors that influence the working capital requirements (wcr) in canada. a sample of 166 canadian firms listed on toronto stock exchange for a period of 3 years from 2008-2010 was selected. this study applied co-relational and non-experimental research design. overall results indicate that operating cycle (oc), return on assets (roa), internationalization of firm, firm’s growth, and firm size influence the wcr in canada. the study also found that oc,...

Amarjit Gill

2011-01-01

363

Ethnic identity and maladaptive eating: expectancies about eating and thinness in African American women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigated cultural factors and expectancies about eating and thinness among 93 African American women. Participants completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), Eating Expectancy Inventory and Thinness and Restricting Expectancy Inventory (EEI, TREI), and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). The MEIM assessed affective and developmental aspects of one's own cultural identity, along with attitudes toward other groups. Further, expectancies that eating manages negative affect and thinness leads to life improvement were examined using the EEI and TREI. As hypothesized, those with strong expectancies about eating and thinness showed a significant negative relationship between ethnic identity and maladaptive eating patterns, whereas those with strong expectancies regarding thinness showed a significant positive relationship between other group orientation and maladaptive eating patterns. The results suggest one's identification with their own culture versus another culture is important to developing maladaptive eating patterns, if they feel that eating and thinness play a role in their affect management and life improvement. These factors may help understand who is more vulnerable to the development of disordered eating patterns, and therefore direct treatment among African American women. PMID:20099968

Henrickson, Heather C; Crowther, Janis H; Harrington, Ellen F

2010-01-01

364

Comportamentos de risco para transtornos do comportamento alimentar e fatores associados entre estudantes de nutrição do município do Rio de Janeiro / Risk behavior for eating disorders and related factors among nutrition students in the city of Rio de Janeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Caracterizar práticas alimentares e fatores de risco associados a transtornos do comportamento alimentar entre estudantes de nutrição do município do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Estudo seccional junto a um segmento populacional apontado na literatura como de risco para o surgimento de transto [...] rnos alimentares. Utilizaram-se o Teste de Investigação Bulímica de Edimburgo (BITE), o Teste de Atitudes Alimentares (EAT-26) e uma variável que considera os dois instrumentos associados (Nunes et al., 2001). RESULTADOS: Analisaram-se 193 estudantes do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 20,9 anos ± 2 anos. Detectou-se resultado positivo em 14% (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 9,4%-20%) no EAT-26. No BITE, para sintomas elevados e gravidade intensa, foram encontradas prevalências de 5,7% (IC 95%: 2,9%-10%) e 3,2% (IC 95%: 1,2%-6,9%), respectivamente. Quando combinados EAT-26 positivo e BITE com gravidade intensa e sintomas elevados, constataram-se correlações positivas com prevalências de 64,7% (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To characterize risky eating habits and factors related to eating disorders among nutrition students in the city of Rio de Janeiro METHODS: Sectional study with a segment of the population pointed out in literature as being at risk of developing eating disorders. The Bulimic Investigatory [...] Test Edinburgh (BITE) questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) questionnaire and a variable which considers the two related tools (Nunes et al, 2001) were used. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-three female students were studied, being 20.9 years old on the average ± 2 years. A positive result of 14% (IC 95%: 9.4%-20%) in the EAT-26 was observed. In the BITE advanced symptoms and scores in the serious range were found in 5.7% (IC 95%: 2.9%-10%) and 3.2% (IC 95%: 1.2%-6.9%), respectively. When positive EAT-26 results were combined with serious range BITE scores and advanced symptoms, positive correlations were found in 64.7% (p

Maria Lucia Magalhães, Bosi; Ronir Raggio, Luiz; Caroline Maia da Costa, Morgado; Mara Lucia dos Santos, Costa; Rosemary Jane de, Carvalho.

365

Adolescence and Eating Pathologies  

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Full Text Available Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007. The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002, cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schilder, 2002, nutrition and weight (Halmi, 2003.These factors can be divided into four main categories: ‘the cultural pressure to acquire a thin body; the change in the woman’s social role; the mythical character granted to eating disorders; the prejudice against obesity’ (Dalle Grave, 2007. So far, the literature on this subject, however wide, has provided no conclusive data with reference to related issues, such as psychiatric comorbidities(Blinder et al, 2007. In particular, this study focused on the aspectof control, a significant feature of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder too, (Couturier, 2004 and on body-image disperception, peculiar to eating disorders (Neumark-Sztainer, 2000. To investigate co-morbidity between eating disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a questionnaire including items of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Dalle Grave, Ghisi, Calugi, 2006 was administered to a sample of adolescent students. The results provide significant correlations between Calculation Compulsions and the BSQ Behaviours variable, between Current MiscellaneousCompulsions and Body Image, between Current Miscellaneous Compulsionsand Body Shape/Self Esteem. Therefore the study provides further evidence in support of co-morbidity.

Valeria Caggiano

2010-01-01

366

An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms  

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Full Text Available The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as 0.873 and 12744 with (Sig. =0.000, respectively. The study has detected four important factors including quality of service casualties, sales improvement and advertisement, quality of issuance of insurance policies and quality of work force.

Farzaneh Soleimani

2013-11-01

367

An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing  

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Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.

Mojtaba Esmaeeli

2013-05-01

368

From shared care to disease management: key-influencing factors  

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Full Text Available Background: In order to improve the quality of care of chronically ill patients the traditional boundaries between primary and secondary care are questioned. To demolish these boundaries so-called ‘shared care’ projects have been initiated in which different ways of substitution of care are applied. When these projects end, disease management may offer a solution to expand the achieved co-operation between primary and secondary care. Objective: Answering the question: What key factors influence the development and implementation of shared care projects from a management perspective and how are they linked? Theory: The theoretical framework is based on the concept of the learning organisation. Design: Reference point is a multiple case study that finally becomes a single case study. Data are collected by means of triangulation. The studied cases concern two interrelated Dutch shared care projects for type 2 diabetic patients, that in the end proceed as one disease management project. Results: In these cases the predominant key-influencing factors appear to be the project management, commitment and local context, respectively. The factor project management directly links the latter two, albeit managing both appear prerequisites to its success. In practice this implies managing the factors' interdependency by the application of change strategies and tactics in a committed and skilful way. Conclusion: Project management, as the most important and active key factor, is advised to cope with the interrelationships of the influencing factors in a gradually more fundamental way by using strategies and tactics that enable learning processes. Then small-scale shared care projects may change into a disease management network at a large scale, which may yield the future blueprint to proceed.

Irmgard M.J.G. Eijkelberg

2001-03-01

369

Regression tree approach to studying factors influencing acoustic voice analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple factors influence voice quality measurements (VQM) obtained during an acoustic voice assessment including: gender, intrasubject variability, microphone, environmental noise (type and level), data acquisition (DA) system, and analysis software. This study used regression trees to investigate the order and relative importance of these factors on VQM including interaction effects of the factors and how the outcome differs when the acoustic environment is controlled for noise. Twenty normophonic participants provided 20 voice samples each, which were recorded synchronously on five DA systems combined with six different microphones. The samples were mixed with five noise types at eight signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. The resulting 80,000 audio samples were analyzed for fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter and shimmer using three software analysis systems: MDVP, PRAAT, and TF32 (CSpeech). Fifteen regression trees and their Variable Importance Measures were utilized to analyze the data. The analyses confirmed that all of the factors listed above were influential. The results suggest that gender, intrasubject variability, and microphone were significant influences on F(0). Software systems and gender were highly influential on measurements of jitter and shimmer. Environmental noise was shown to be the prominent factor that affects VQM when SNR levels are below 30 dB. PMID:16825780

Deliyski, Dimitar D; Shaw, Heather S; Evans, Maegan K; Vesselinov, Roumen

2006-01-01

370

FACTORS INFLUENCING ON BUYER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS LAPTOP IN DINDIGUL DISTRICT  

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Full Text Available Buyer behavior is the study of individuals, group, or select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these process have on the consumer and society. Buyer behavior is widely understood as a problem solving and decision making sequence, the outcome of which is determined by the buyer goal directed processing of information. The aim of this paper is to show that to identify reasons for buying laptop, factors influencing for buying laptop, and decision making for product attributes factors in this factors motivated based on Buyer behaviour in Dindigul district general people. The sample included 150 of general people based on laptop buyers. The collected data were coded, calculated and analyzed with the help of statistical tools like t-test, ANOVA, Regression analysis. The result shows that there is no significant difference between products attributes with gender and Occupation, and Buyer behaviour factors contributed in reasons for buying laptop, Influencing factors, and product attributes.